The purpose of this paper is to present a persuasive argument against the practice of animal cruelty:
Animal cruelty activists state that when an individual is a witness to animal cruelty that the offense should be reported to the agency in the area in which they live. There are laws against cruelty to animals and the laws differ from state to state inside the United States. Many organizations have been formed for assisting the government in stopping the practice of animal cruelty by both individuals as well as that committed by businesses and larger corporate organizations.
Animal Cruelty Reported by News:
Recently reported is the fact that animals used by companies such as "Menu Foods" regularly treat animals with cruelty in regards to the research done by the companies in testing of dog and cat food before marketing it. According to one report an investigator from…… [Read More]
Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Sarah who lived in a small house with her parents. Close to her hut was a deep thick forest that was home to many animals including Sheeba, the deer, Reno, the hippopotamus, Tania the sheep and Bounty, the Lion. Sarah knew all of them since they were her only friends in the neighborhood. Everyone else was much older than herself. Sarah would wake up early each day to feed her friends some breadcrumbs, biscuits and water. Sheeba and Tania would spend the whole day with her. Life was merrier on this side of the forest. Everyone lived happily and people were kind and compassionate. They always treated animals benevolently and not even a single soul in the animal world had ever been hurt by humans. Their rights were respected wholeheartedly in fact animals took them for granted since…… [Read More]
Once upon a time in the great island kingdom of Anatole, a beautiful princess named Lisle enjoyed her leisurely life spent mostly in the natural surroundings of her family's castle. Set in a valley adorned with a friendly river and bountiful fruit trees, the Kettering Castle was by far the grandest in the world. The massive structure gleamed like gold in the sunlight and spread out over several acres of land. Moreover, because Anatole was located on a large but remote island in the center of what is now called the Atlantic Ocean, the kingdom bore a home for many exotic creatures, most of which the rest of the world had never before seen, even in pictures.
Princess Lisle loved the creatures of Anatole and kept many as pets. In fact, between her and her two brothers and one sister, the Anatole royal family had a true menagerie…… [Read More]
How would the ethical issues surrounding Harlow's experiment be changed if it were conducted on lesser species, such as rats
If Harlow conducted his experiments on lesser species that results would have varied dramatically. lthough Harlow proved that animals can learn and think at a complex level, the cognitive attributes of those animals must be taken into account. In addition, rats particularly the popular experimental white rat, have differing habits as it relates to child rearing. Rats do not typically nurture their young as to monkeys. In addition, rats do not have the cognitive capacity as many more mature monkeys have.
In regards to ethics, popular opinion would therefore be swayed towards the diffence of monkeys rather than rats. Rats, in many instances are considered dispensible, and inconvieniences of life. Monkeys, as it relates to public perception are often considered close relatives to the human specices. It is…… [Read More]
Animal Cruelty and Human Violence
Animal cruelty includes an assortment of different behaviors harmful to animals, from neglect to more serious malicious action, and even various forms of brutal killing. Studies indicate that animal cruelty may also be followed by more serious forms of crime, such as drug use, inappropriate violent outbursts, and even in some cases homicide. Many studies in psychology, sociology, and criminology have addressed the issues involving animal cruelty and human violence and have demonstrated that violent offenders frequently have childhood and adolescent histories of serious and repeated incidents of animal cruelty (Henderson, Hensley and Tallichet). Violence directed at animals by young people is a sign that something is erroneous in their behavioral patterns, and often acts as a predictor of future violence, even homicides against other humans.
One way to prevent such occurrences is through regulation and enforcement. Since the early 1960s, Congress has enacted over…… [Read More]
If anything else, most animals on this planet have evolved thousands or millions of years before human beings. They are the inheritors of this planet as much as any human being. The principle of Ethology and anthropology have shown us that animals act in many ways just like humans, they protect their young, operate within groups and show the structure and the formalities just as complex as human society. Therefore, it is wrong for philosophers to assert their inhumaneness as a qualifier for their abuse. It is evident from modern understanding that animals are just as sophisticated and entitled to their existence as humanity.
Animals not only are sophisticated creatures within their own right, they also play a fundamental role within our environment and our world. Ecology and the study of the environment have revealed that the ecosystem is not only very fragile, but that every animal as a unique…… [Read More]
Animal Advocacy Organizations
There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.
PETA & ASPCA
The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).
PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]
Cruelty and Kindness in Halfbreed
Halfbreed by Maria Campbell is an autobiography where Campbell describes the struggles of her life. Campbell's struggles center around her being a halfbreed, a half-Indian and half-white person, rejected by both the Indian and the white people. Cruelty and kindness are important themes of Campbell's story. Firstly, there is the human cruelty of discrimination, represented by the acts of the people. Secondly, there is the cruelty of society, where society oppresses people. Finally, it is a belief in human kindness that allows Campbell to overcome the struggles, with the writing of the autobiography an act of reaching out to the people who have discriminated against her and offering them the opportunity to understand the cruelty of their ways and choose to change these ways.
The first cruelty is that of the people, the people who discriminate against Campbell and treat her as an outcast. It…… [Read More]
Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty
Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.
Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]
Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.
Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…… [Read More]
icca Animal Use
Shelley Rabinovitch has asserted that modern iccans see themselves as part of a world that includes all living beings in Nature (69), which generally prevents exploitative 'use.' This is not universal, but animal abuse would probably exclude a practitioner from the group "iccans." This has not been the case throughout history, and some modern Neo-Pagans include use of animals in ritual they claim falls within the harmonious balance of a non-dualistic participation in Nature (below). The result is a change in modern iccan relationship to animals compared to historical relationships as far as the available evidence shows. This requires defining the group "iccans," and also 'use' and 'animals,' because some groups typically classified alongside icca under the class "Neo-Pagans" are beginning to differentiate themselves through ritual animal use in ways iccans may perhaps want to dissociate themselves from.
"The language of self-identification to outsiders differs from that…… [Read More]
Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily Wrong
Over time, vegetarians have presented a wide range of reasons as to why eating meat and/or any other product derived from animals is wrong. In seeking to support their position, most vegetarians cite the need to uphold animal rights. In the recent past, the number of people turning to vegetarian diet has been increasing steadily. However, regardless of this, it is important to note that a careful review of literature clearly demonstrates that the consumption of meat and/or other products derived from animals is not necessarily a bad thing.
In Zacharia's (2012) opinion, "the market for vegan food is booming." This effectively means that the number of those joining the vegetarian bandwagon is steadily increasing. However, a vast majority of the population still believes that there is nothing wrong with eating meat or any animal produce. It could be right.
To begin…… [Read More]
No animal understands what experimentation is. Therefore, how does one decide whether it is ethical to conduct experiments on them, experiments that involve blatant cruelty and assault?
It must be remembered that those people who voice their objections to using animals in experimentation fall under two broad categories: animal welfare activists, and animal rights activists. hile those who belong to animal welfare groups do agree that animal experimentation must carry on, but that they must be minimized, so that the pain and suffering of the poor creatures is also minimized, those that belong to the animal rights group are more radical with their opinions. These people have often stated that animals too have their rights, in much the same way as human beings do, and that animals must therefore never be used for the purposes of experimentation, as this is extremely cruel, unkind, brutal and unethical. (Bridgstock, 69)
Going back…… [Read More]
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]
Wanton Loss of Life
A careful reading of David Livingston Smith's seminal treatise on the science of dehumanization, Less Than Human, reveals there is a fundamental relationship between the phenomena of dehumanization and that of genocide. There are countless examples which underpin this reality. Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is that on a basic level, dehumanization is almost a prerequisite for genocide -- and certainly is a causal agent in the carrying out of attempts to completely eradicate a certain group of people. Livingston argues dehumanization is a pivotal part of most attempts at genocide.
It is not difficult to…… [Read More]
Furthermore, animals are given much more respect within entertainment than otherwise. Animals are viewed with both awe and joy by those who are watching them. They raise the level of awareness we feel for animals and make the audience care more. They would receive no better treatment were they "in the wild" or domesticated. Having animals in entertainment can be equivalent to having a pet at home, both of which is not demeaning as a rule.
Using Animals within entertainment does not hurt animals, on the contrary it helps improve their overall image within audiences, and at the same time they receive special and respectful treatment from their caretakers. It is a win-win situation for both sides.
Anderson, Kay. 1998. Animals, Science and Spectacle in the City, in Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-Culture orderlands. 27-50. New York: Verso.
eardsworth, Alan…… [Read More]
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]
Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Testing for Medical Research or Commercial Products?
The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. – Genesis 9:2 (c. 1450 BCE)
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2019)
As the epigraphs above clearly show that humankind’s views about using animals for their own purposes have changed significantly over the past several millennia, but despite increasing condemnation by animal rights advocates, animal testing for medical research or commercial products continues around the…… [Read More]
Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals
It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.
Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty
"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]
Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis
Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).
In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…… [Read More]
In surveying the player's responses to Vick's situation, the journalists were bringing about public reaction to be evaluated to determine what direction to take their stories in. It demonstrated that,.".. survey respondents who experience difficulty answering questions respond differently to related subsequent questions than do those who do not experience such difficulty (JA, Effects of urvey)."
The story of animal abuse in dog fighting was one that caused polls to be taken to measure public opinion. That public opinion was in strong support of the animals that Vick had abused and used in an abusive manner. The journalistic tactic was one wherein the journalists used the opportunity for the public to speak out, to be heard, to participate in the outcome of Vick's legal proceedings as an incentive to be surveyed publicly. "In an effort to counter mounting problems of non-cooperation, survey organizations are increasingly offering incentives to respondents, sometimes…… [Read More]
Capturing Cruelty in the Opening Scene of John Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men
The English author and historian Edward Gibbon once wrote that, "The works of man are impotent to the assaults of nature." Nowhere is this philosophical perspective better captured than in the John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men. The novel tells the story of two migrant agricultural workers, George Milton and Lennie Small, during the Great Depression in 1930's California. A central theme in the novel is man's cruelty to one another and how it drives them to hurt other human beings as in the case of Curley's viscous attack on the mentally-handicapped Lennie. In the opening scene of John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, the author establishes a contrast between innocence and cruelty through the use of expansive descriptions of nature, symbolism and characterization. This opening dichotomy is vital to an understanding of the theme of cruelty…… [Read More]
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]
One of the humans working with her used sign language to ask her what she should do for an upset stomach. Koko signed back "stomach you there drink orange," "there" being the refrigerator, which Koko pointed at. Amazingly, ten days later Koko apparently remembered this and used sign language to find out if the woman was feeling better (p. 159). In another remarkable story, a chimpanzee learned to draw and sought the activity out although she was never rewarded for doing so (p. 203). The authors note that the animal may have started drawing to relieve the boredom of being in captivity, but point out that the animal still showed the desire to be creative artistically.
Ultimately the authors plainly state what they have been leading the readers to: "In the end, when we wonder whether to ascribe an emotion to an animal, the question to ask is not, 'Can…… [Read More]
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. "ASPCA Equine Program."
Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://www.aspca.org.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Neglected horsed die, more in danger." Retrieved April 6, 2007 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1887025.htm.
Crawfurd, John. "On the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization." Transactions
Of the Ethnological Society of London Vol. 2 (1863): 387-468.
Flynn, Clifton P. "hy Family Professionals Can No Longer Ignore Violence toward Animals."
Family Relations 49.1 (2000): 87-95.
Hortness, Darci. "Neglected Horses Rescued by DoubleHP." Argus Leader Media. Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.argusleader.com.
United States Equine Rescue League, Inc. "Abuse & Neglect." Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.ncerl.com/abuse/abuse.html.… [Read More]
Many also subscribe to religious beliefs according to which various gods created other animal species for human consumption and which fundamentally distinguish human life and animal life predicated on the religious belief that we are different in kind rather than merely in degree.
Contrary to the beliefs of the radical fringe of the animal rights movement, that moral burden does not require that we all become vegetarians to avoid eating other animals. It simply means that we have an objective ethical obligation to take reasonable steps to avoid causing the species we choose to consume any more trauma and physical pain than absolutely necessary. This principle actually predates modern society as it is evident in the laws practiced by Jews, for one example, since before the Common Era.
While certain elements of Jewish dietary laws pertain to distinguishing by species which animals are permissible to eat, other elements of the…… [Read More]
U.S.C. § 48 is not aimed at specific instances of animal cruelty, but specifically at the creation and distribution of depictions of such abuse for the purposes of interstate and/or foreign commerce. This is the act that the appellant was unarguably engaging in when apprehended by law enforcement, and the fact that the law is not aimed at those participating directly in acts of animal cruelty does not in and of itself create a constitutional objection.
The statutes specific mention of interstate commerce renders the appellant's claim that the constitutionality of the statute is in question due to a dependence on state definitions also moot. Not only were the acts depicted in the videos the appellant old to law enforcement agencies unquestionably illegal in all fifty states, but the federal government has a duty to regulate interstate commerce specifically because state definitions and regulations differ. Failing to regulate the interstate…… [Read More]
orkshops are arranged for their further training in recognizing such behavior but over time the officers have also found direct relationships with other crime such drug dealing and grand theft auto. Other such animal cruelty like cock and dog fighting are also on the rise for the Midwest Region (Getz, par. 2). Laura McCloskey also found a direct relationship, weak in theory but however present between firesetters and people who are cruel to animals. She states, "youths who are both firesetters and cruel to animals are especially at risk of delinquency. Firesetting and animal cruelty have been linked conceptually because of their covert nature and empirical evidence indicating an overlap between these two behaviors" (page 6). She further elaborates that the tendency toward such behavior will over time lead to other delinquencies. It is believed such behavior is learned and can be found in paternal influence but also is a…… [Read More]
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
This…… [Read More]
The racehorse industry has been faced with accusations of promoting the breeding of fragile animals that are unable to withstand the rigors of training, because of a lust for promoting speedy animals at all costs. And the recent publicity of the slaughter of retired racehorses who have outlived their usefulness has further damaged the reputation of the sport. Unlike other forms of betting, horseracing must try to preserve its family-friendly image to some extent, given that many parents take their children to the track. Poor sportsmanship and a lack of sensitivity to the suffering of animals will turn the next generation of fans away.
Churchill Downs must honor the legacy of its treasured past, and promote prominent ethical spokespersons for the sport, like the multiple Kentucky Derby winner jockey Calvin Borel. More stringent standards must be imposed industry-wide regarding the treatment of both horses and jockeys, but until then,…… [Read More]
There are many different perceptions that people have towards their food. On one end of the spectrum "people live to eat" and they place a high value on the quality, taste, presentation, and the environmental factors that enhance or detract from their experience of their favorite meals. However, people on the other side of the spectrum, take more of an "eat to live" approach to their personal nutrition. People in this camp are focused more on the quantity, convenience, and potentially some of the health consequences of their meals. In my opinion, these two perspectives represent the poles of the spectrum in which there may be a variety of points that exist in between these two extremes. One article written by David Sedaris, "Tasteless," exemplifies something I believe is close to one end of the spectrum while another article written by Anthony Bourdain, "Food is Good," is in…… [Read More]
The article specifically listed school shootings as one connection! One thing I noticed as I read through results was that animal abuse before the age of ten seems to be a very definite indicator of adult violence. I did not find anything on Los Angeles laws, but I was ready to look at the various cases of random violence.
I searched on this term in all the same places and came up with nothing useful until I added the word "schools." Even then, the results showed far too much. In fact, random violence is far more prevalent than I thought, so my topic narrows again to random school violence. However, these results were very difficult to find. So I tried searching on Columbine and Dawson College in hopes to get more. There is lots written on these, though Dawson is so recent that these are mostly news articles. Most of…… [Read More]
Good vs. ad
How Does eautiful Joe Depict the "Cruel" Vs the "Humane"? Does it Seem a Matter of Choice?
eautiful Joe: An Autobiography (1893) encircles human-creature connections inside the defensive circle of middle class family life and depicts childrearing and pet-care as commonly constitutive. Saunders' canine life account relates the experiences of its eponymous creator, a manhandled puppy who is protected from a brutal milkman and embraced by the cherishing Morris family of Fairport, Maine (Walker). The Morrises' style of parenting epitomizes the coercive nurturance encapsulated in Richard rodhead's understood idea of disciplinary closeness. Strongly reproachful of beating, Mrs. Morris controls the ethical still, small voices of her kids through a relentless eating regimen of "good nursing, great sustenance, and kind words" (Saunders 34). Pet-keeping coordinates flawlessly into Mrs. Morris' logic of childrearing, which she alludes to as "heart training." In a discussion with a family companion, Mrs. Morris…… [Read More]
Baby Seal Slaughter in Canada:
Canadian fishermen usually club hundreds of thousands of baby harp seals to death in front of their mothers every year. This event has developed into a yearly spectacle with the media and animal protection groups trying to cover the slaughter from helicopters or ships. These attempts are due to the fact that both the Canadian government and the sealers try to prevent access to the baby seal slaughter area in order to evade publicity. This event continues to receive green light from the Canadian government which set the quota with an example being the 275,000 seals that was set in 2008. The Canadian government permits hunters to bludgeon thousands of baby harp seals through shooting or repeated clubbing using metal-hook-tipped clubs that are also known as hakapiks. After clubbing the baby harp seals, these sealers then drag the unconscious seals across the ice floes with…… [Read More]
Organisational Development Plan
Implementation of the Development Plan
Evaluation of the Development Plan
Organisational Development at SPCA
Of all Queensland's societies and organisations dedicated to the prevention of animal cruelty and bettering the lives of animals, the oyal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (SPCA Qld) is the oldest. The organisation needs approximately $42 million in funding every year to help build and maintain the various programs and services it offers. Since SPCA Qld is a community-based non-government charity, most of its funding comes from donations, sponsorships and bequests from the local community. Government funding accounts for less than 1% of the money it receives (SPCA Queensland, 2016).
The organisation boasts a rich and interesting history that spans 130 years. It started with just a single supporter and has now grown into a sizeable organisation with 270 remunerated employees and 3,000 dedicated…… [Read More]
Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.
However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…… [Read More]
With this being understood the cockfight blend has an influence on the societies in which they are carried out (Turner, 2001).
As it relates specifically to Latin America, there are 20 countries that compose the region. In the Latin American country of Mexico cock fights are very common ("Cock fights in Mexico"). In fact cockfighting shares the same amount of popularity as charreadas and bull-riding rodeo activities ("Cock fights in Mexico"). In addition the prevalence of cockfights is as common as the late-night entertainment that occurs during village fairs ("Cock fights in Mexico"). In Mexico, cockfights tend to draw both male and female onlookers; these individuals place bets on which gamecock will win the fight ("Cock fights in Mexico").
In many regions around the world the sport of cockfighting is illegal ("Cock fights in Mexico"). However, within the country of Mexico, cockfights are legal and a central body in the…… [Read More]
aseball on "My" Life
aseball is considered to be the great American past-time, a part of our nation's culture and heritage. aseball is as much a part of being patriotic as eating apple pie and voting for the president. As an American child, baseball was invariably a part of my childhood experience. From the baseball cap and baseball glove that my father posed me in for my first birthday photo shoot, to the block-baseball team that used my suburban home back-yard as the outfield, to the interrupted regularly-scheduled programming of lengthy televised games in our Not-Fighting living room, to the good and evil dichotomy of coaches that would shape my Middle-School and High-School teams, baseball has been an omnipresent force in my life. It has been there to highlight the great times, as well as emphasize the bad ones, and occasionally, when fate thought kindly of my situation, even brought…… [Read More]
Psychology Discussion: Psychopathology
Read the introduction to Reading 1: Beaver, Rowland, Schwartz & Nedelec (2011). The genetic origins of psychopathic personality traits in adult males and females: Results from an adoption-based study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 426-432.
Characterise psychopathy: What are the defining features?
Psychopathy is a disorder of the personality that based on three prongs of traits: affective, behavioral, and interpersonal. Perhaps because they are so striking, are observed early in a person's life, or are reliably exhibited across people with psychopathy, the affective trait domain is key to identifying and measuring the incidence of psychopathy in a population. In particular, psychiatrists and psychologists look for callousness, absence of empathy, lack of feelings of guilt or remorse, reactive short-tempers, and indifference to punishment -- other than an association with revenge seeking.
State two findings from the reading that indicate that psychopathic personality traits are inherited.
Beaver, et al.…… [Read More]
As part of the 1977 National Academy of Sciences Energy and Climate Panel, he discovered "forty percent of the anthropogenic [human-generated] carbon dioxide has remained in the atmosphere, two-thirds of that from fossil fuel, and one-third from the clearing of forests." (oger evelle, 2010, p.2). evelle's presence on the panel would demonstrate the long-standing nature of global warming. evelle could also discuss why taking action on global warming has been so difficult politically, despite mounting scientific evidence that the phenomenon exists for so many years. evelle began his work in oceanography but gradually expanded his focus to population studies, enabling him to bring his expertise in both fields to the panel (oger evelle, 2010, p.3).
Michael Pollan, the author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Food ules, has devoted his career to exposing the harms of commercial agriculture on the environment and upon human health. Pollan details simple ways…… [Read More]
2011, the state of California has been in a drought condition. ecently, the media has been abuzz due to the governor's legislation to curtail domestic water use. The effort to curtail water use is a noble one. However, the governor needs to focus more on the real culprit: agribusiness. Because the state is the nation's largest agriculture producer by far, the governor of California has not imposed any restrictions on agriculture. Yet something needs to be done to change the methods by which the United States supplies itself with food. Because meat is linked to serious health problems, ethical issues, and environmental problems, a new policy should curtail factory farming.
Agro-Business Causes Drought
The drought in California highlights some of the problems related to food production and processing. Agriculture uses more than 80% of the state's total water (Sherman, 2015). Even if the current drought situation can be managed without…… [Read More]
In this film, we are introduced to a very unlikely cadre of friends and acquaintances who represent, again, caricatures of particular parts of ourselves. There is a juxtaposition of complex and surreal events, kidnappings, death threats, drugged drinks and hallucinatory dreams, porn-stars and pedophiles, the rich and poor, the violent and the meek, and it all combines to make a truly engaging mosaic -- just as all of the other films here have done. As Dude interacts with his world, just as Marge, H.I. And Everett do, he does so with a purpose that is reflective of his personal nature -- he is a semi-competent actor in his own life but is highly successful at surviving whatever is thrown at or to him.
In all of these movies, we see people who are struggling to survive when they do the wrong thing and find peace when they do the right…… [Read More]
"Some Enemies of Science" J.B.S. Haldane
The vivisection debate: J.B.S. Haldane's "Some enemies of science"
The vivisection debate is an old one. As early as 1928, the scientist J.B.S. Haldane rigorously defended the practice of vivisection against its earliest detractors, arguing that even moderate government regulation of scientific behavior to protect animal rights was hypocritical, given the way that animals were treated in other spheres of human life. In contrast, David Suzuki's 1989 essay "The pain of animals" highlights the central paradox of animal experimentation. On one hand, animal experiments are only useful because of our biological similarities to animals. On the other hand, we assert our right to exploit animals based upon our inherent differences from them. The intelligence of animals such as the chimpanzee is analogous to a two-year-old child and yet through logical sleight of hand we justify using chimps in the laboratory by calling them…… [Read More]
Fur From China
Against fur buying in China
Almost 80% origin of the world's fur is from farms. The world's largest exporter of fur clothing is China, and is as well considered as the largest fur trade production and processing base within the globe. Some of the wild species that are bred for fur are ex abbits, mink, raccoon dogs, red and arctic foxes. Based on the fur industry sources of China, as a result of increase in international fur traders, fashion designers and processors, the business have shifted to China, leading to availability of cheap labor in addition to enjoying unrestrictive regulations making life easier and broaden the profit margins.
Whether to buy fur that originate from China or not has been an issue discussed widely. However, indeed fur from China does not deserve to be bought, and there are various indications to back this. For example, the manner…… [Read More]
"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.
It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]
Animal attractions such as zoological parks have long been a favorite amongst tourist. However there is a great deal of debate concerning the ethical responsibilities of placing animals on display. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ethic and pros and cons wildlife attractions. More specifically the research will address four main arguments as it pertains to wildlife attraction ethics. The arguments include scientific research, conservation, educating the public and entertainment. We will also discuss the deaths of animals at wildlife attractions. Let us begin by discussing the history of wildlife attractions.
History of Wildlife Attractions
According to Flippen (2004) the collection of animals has long been a form of colonial commerce. The ability of merchants to sell large animals was dependent upon factors such as the popularity of circus animals and the abilities of professional collectors who supplied them. The article explains that initially zoos…… [Read More]
Funny" and "I Am a Cat" should be considered together, birds and cats being as they are to each other. Still, one doesn't have to go too far to understand why Kamienska used a bird to ask what it's like to be human; Kamienska must have felt much like a caged bird herself throughout much of her life, living in a country where one must have spent a lot of time "filling up on hunger."
Funny," of course, is anything but funny, another embedded irony. The bird flew effortlessly up into the air upon hearing the distress of the human, not the least of which was distress at the time-bound nature of human life.
More than that, however, the human knows she only has a limited time to be human, something the bird doesn't think about. The bird is merely curious, not particularly thoughtful. The bird's cavalier attitude makes it…… [Read More]
This issue was put in front of the public with the story of Keiko, a killer whale that was badly abused in a Mexican facility. Eventually, Keiko was moved to a better aquarium in Oregon, but activists insisted that Keiko should be released to live in the wild (Staff writers, 1997). In fact, people have worked for animal rights since the 1860's when the first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was established in the 1860's (Unti & Rowan, 2001), but until recently, most people did not consider holding captive animals in well-designed and well-maintained zoos as inhumane or cruel. ecause of the attention Keiko received, including the animal being represented as the lead character in two "Free Willy" films, Keiko was eventually released. This action demonstrated the difficulty of returning captive animals to the wild. Although Keiko had begun life as a wild animal, he did not…… [Read More]
Sharks Are Dangerous to People:
Finally, with respect to the argument that sharks constitute a genuine danger because they often attack and eat human beings, that point is both inaccurate and simplistic. Sharks actually avoid human beings except where drawn to us, either by the scent of blood in the water or perceptible signs of physical stress, both of which they evolved over many millions of years to detect (Perrine 1995). The evidence actually suggests that many fatal attacks on humans are the result of sharks' mistaking us for their usual prey; that accounts for the relative frequency with which sharks initiate only one test bite without pursuing the attack further (Stevens 1999). In fact, the vast majority of shark attacks on human are attributable to the ridiculous practice of feeding sharks in the open ocean, such as in conjunction with tourist cruises and diving expeditions. These practices condition sharks…… [Read More]
Interestingly, doggie day care has become so common in some areas, that it has become "socially unacceptable" for people to leave their dogs home alone all day ("Pet Statistics"). This is true in large urban centers such as New York City and Los Angeles, which has led to a proliferation of doggie day care centers in these areas. As more pet owners become involved in every aspect of their pets' lives, it seems clear that services such as doggie day care will continue to grow and thrive. However, just about any business concerning pets seems to be on the rise today, and getting involved in the pet industry seems to be a good investment for an entrepreneur in the future, because the industry is still growing, rather than leveling out. Many other business opportunities exist.
OTHE PET BusinessES
Doggy day care may be one of the fastest growing pet businesses…… [Read More]
The spider's patient web spinning during the winter shows how it is necessary for Dillard to become dependant on the natural world, rather than upon humans alone or upon chemicals and tools that tamper with nature in a human fashion. To survive the winter physically and psychologically, she must trust her instinctual place in the larger animal firmament. As she observes the spiders that keep her own home insect-free, their work becomes a metaphor for Dillard. They lead her to her spiritual musings about the perfect symmetries that exist in nature. "Because the light just happened to be such that I couldn't see the web at all. I had read that spiders lay their major straight lines with fluid that isn't sticky, and then lays a non-sticky spiral. Then they walk along" the thread, weaving until the major lines are complete, then moving on to the minor lines of their…… [Read More]
Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."
Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.
Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael
T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]
production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.
The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).
This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…… [Read More]
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…… [Read More]
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…… [Read More]
There are a number of stakeholders in this situation. Procter & Gamble, Iams, their employees and their shareholders represent one set of stakeholders, oriented primarily towards defusing or deflecting the criticism in order to protect their market share, profits and shareholder value. The animals are another direct stakeholder, and they have little voice here. PETA's stakes are unclear. They position themselves as speaking for and defending the animals, but they might well have other motives. We know that PETA thrives on publicity, and seeks it out for a number of reasons. Consumers are a further stakeholder, as pet lovers are unlikely to be attracted to a pet food company known for cruelty to cats and dogs. Supply chain partners are stakeholders, and their interest falls somewhere in between the interests of the company and the interests of the consumers. Regulators are a stakeholder because there are laws governing the…… [Read More]
Instead of verbally communicating with a live human being, people would rather press some buttons and receive the answer digitally.
The body ritual of the Nacirema demonstrates the unusual practices of certain cultures. Within this group of people, they are obsessed with keeping their bodies clean and pure of disease. As a result of this infatuation, most of their entire lives revolve around their cleaning rituals. This group of people demonstrates the impact that culture, ritual and mythology play in human sociology.
Social control is an ineffective means to justify tyrannical practices within government and other institutional forces. Propaganda is a tool to help implement this frame of mind from the controllers to the people being controlled. Through intense effort and plotting, certain aspects of the human condition are exploited by masters of human relations to help cultivate a willing and uninformed society.
Fear is the…… [Read More]
'How stupid can you get'" (erman 5).
It's this honest rendering of Cameron's fatal flaw that gives him his shape or his "roundness" as a character. Readers know individuals who are so myopic or self-absorbed that they cannot imagine what it's like to be someone else or they cannot see the error in their own hypocritical behavior. At the end of the day, that's what Cameron is, a hypocrite. And therein lies the message to the reader; the moral of the story, the important stuff, self-reflection and self-criticism are integral to personal growth.
In Noux's story, "Cruelty the Humans Heart," the "round" character isn't the protagonist, (in this case the narrator) rather the "round" character is the delinquent the protagonist arrests and interacts with throughout the story; the problem child, Cristoph Priest.
In a brief but powerful clause, the narrator prefaces an early encounter with Priest: "We met ugly..." he…… [Read More]
Cumberland County Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) faces a great challenge in attempting to increase its visibility in the county. Currently, the SPCA does not have a viable or strong public presence. Linda Catalano, the Executive Director of the Cumberland County SPCA feels that the Society is "invisible," and that many residents are unaware of the work of the SPCA.
This marketing research study will attempt to determine appropriate target markets for any future attempts to increase the visibility of the Society. This study uses the categories of segmentation to help determine this target market. Market segmentation is simply the division of a market into groups that respond differently to marketing, communications initiatives. The segments are created to maximize differences, and minimize differences within the segments. Market segmentation can result in more efficient use of marketing resources, and the ability to find specific niches (DSS Research).…… [Read More]
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]