Animal Experimentation Essays (Examples)

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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.

References

Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
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Evaluating the Health of Animal Species

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078

Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]

references/phspol.htm#Introduction.

Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available:  http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Common Property and Animal Testing

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89483570

Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).

The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.

For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…… [Read More]

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Experimentation a Study Done on

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41076441

However, some of the reasoning behind the results still seems like guesswork. Although much of the research is backed up by previous experiments, many of the results are merely guessed at being the reason for a reaction. Speculating that starvation could be a probable cause for the lower peptidase activity is just one of the many results that are finalized with a guess as a probable cause. Although the information appears to be valid, the authors of the research present their work with assumptions, which gives some doubt to the end results of the experiment.

This sense of doubt, along with the repetition of results from previous studies, leaves the experiment with a sense of waste. Perhaps the importance of this information could help farmers understand the development of their piglets; however, since the changes in the intestines did not affect the piglets in any way of becoming ill, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hedemann, M.S., S. Hojsgaard, and B.B. Jensen. "Small Intestinal Morphology and Activity of Intestinal Peptidases in Piglets around Weaning." Blackwell.de/synergy.com. 4 Sept
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Slaughter of the Innocent

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7929722

Animal Rights

Slaughter of the Innocent

This is a paper on the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent'. There are two references used for this paper.

Ethical and animal rights issues raised by experimentation are important to many people today. It is interesting to look at the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent' and compare it with the principles of Buddhism.

Vivisection

Vivisection is the "term now used to apply to all types of experiments on living animals, whether or not cutting is done. Broadly, it is any form of animal experimentation, especially if considered to cause distress to the subject. The term also applies to experiments done with the administration of noxious substances, burns, electric or traumatic shocks, drawn-out deprivations of food and drink, and psychological tortures leading to mental imbalance (Ruesch)."

Many scientists torture thousands of animals every day under the pretense of medical research. They assert that through this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification." The Buddha.
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Human or Animal Behavior You

Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205

Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
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Enemies of Science Haldane P 225

Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96827417

HALDANE

"Some Enemies of Science" J.B.S. Haldane

The vivisection debate: J.B.S. Haldane's "Some enemies of science"

The vivisection debate is an old one. As early as 1928, the scientist J.B.S. Haldane rigorously defended the practice of vivisection against its earliest detractors, arguing that even moderate government regulation of scientific behavior to protect animal rights was hypocritical, given the way that animals were treated in other spheres of human life. In contrast, David Suzuki's 1989 essay "The pain of animals" highlights the central paradox of animal experimentation. On one hand, animal experiments are only useful because of our biological similarities to animals. On the other hand, we assert our right to exploit animals based upon our inherent differences from them. The intelligence of animals such as the chimpanzee is analogous to a two-year-old child and yet through logical sleight of hand we justify using chimps in the laboratory by calling them…… [Read More]

References

Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Suzuki, David. (2004). The pain of animals. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
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Cruelty and Thereafter Apply the

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73028253

No animal understands what experimentation is. Therefore, how does one decide whether it is ethical to conduct experiments on them, experiments that involve blatant cruelty and assault?

It must be remembered that those people who voice their objections to using animals in experimentation fall under two broad categories: animal welfare activists, and animal rights activists. hile those who belong to animal welfare groups do agree that animal experimentation must carry on, but that they must be minimized, so that the pain and suffering of the poor creatures is also minimized, those that belong to the animal rights group are more radical with their opinions. These people have often stated that animals too have their rights, in much the same way as human beings do, and that animals must therefore never be used for the purposes of experimentation, as this is extremely cruel, unkind, brutal and unethical. (Bridgstock, 69)

Going back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bridgstock, Martin. Science, technology and society.

Cambridge University Press. 1998.

Covino, Joseph. Lab animal abuse, vivisection exposed.

Epic Press. 1990.
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Conciliation for the Sake of

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82514145

"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.

It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001

Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.

Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx 

Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
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Greyhound Racing The Case for

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44572698

Not only does it use animals for mere entertainment at a huge cost to the welfare of those animals, but it also condones countless other modes of abuse and neglect -- from needless or excessive animal experimentation, vivisection, to "animal mills" or excessive breeding facilities based on the "bottom line," to the needless suffering and torture of livestock reared and killed in "factory farms." Yet this nation does have tremendous empathy in some of its ranks -- enough at times to galvanize law makers (like the ones in Pennsylvania) to enact laws against the mistreatment of animals in whatever form. Dog racing is on the decline. One has but to work a bit harder to see it eventually die out altogether.

orks Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2004. Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from http://www.lcanimal.org/cmpgn/cmpgn_011.htm

Nardone, Melani. "The Myth of Neutrality." Greyhound Muses. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from  http://www.greyhoundmuses.com/neutrality.htm . TheMyth of Neutrality. Melani Nardone 2004

Rhodes, Amy. "PETA ASKS GOVERNOR to CLOSE DOG TRACKS in LIGHT of OUTBREAKS." Peta Media Center. 2003. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.peta.org/news/NewsItem.asp?id=2151
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

orks Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
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Ob Mouse and Fa Rat

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68484382

Ob/ob mouse and Fa/Fa rat (what are they, who discovered them, when they were discovered, how was it discovered

The Ob/ob mouse (i.e. obese mouse model) was first discovered in the Jackson laboratory in Bar Harbor, ME and is popular for studying Type 2 diabetes, food intake, and obesity. A recessive mutation on a certain chromosome in the mouse results in premature termination of leptin and therefore a deficiency of leptin in the mouse.

These ob/ob mice are hypherhagic and already obese at 2 weeks old. They also show other signs indicative of diabetes such as marked hyperglycemia, mildly impaired glucose tolerance, severe hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fertility and wound healing. They are also resistant to insulin. With all the signs of diabetes, the mice become severely and fatally diabetic with pancreatic collapse resulting in death.

The Zucker fa / fa (fatty) rat was discovered in 1961 and is a popular…… [Read More]

Source

Poretsky, L. (2010) Principles of Diabetes Mellitus

http://books.google.com/books?id=i0qojvF1SpUC&dq=discovery+of+Ob/ob+mouse+and+Fa/fa+rat&source=gbs_navlinks_s
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Barbas M P Expanding Knowledge From

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68455636

More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.

EFEENCES

Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.

Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf

Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.

Nilsen, D.,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.

Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf

Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.

Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
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Current Ethical Buddhism Issues

Words: 1159 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64183018

uddhist Ethical Concerns

There are numerous ethical issues that have tended to dominate and generate debate in the world during the last decade. Issues such as abortion, ecology, genetic engineering and animal experimentation are ethical problems that deeply concern all religious persuasions. These issues are of particular importance with regard to uddhist views and practices. One of the central areas that have evoked a wide ranger of ethical responses from both Western and Eastern religions is the question of cloning and stem cell research. All of these issues confront the practicing uddhist and all demand a response from the uddhist viewpoint in contemporary life.

Underlying much of the uddhist approach to contemporary ethical problems is the principle of Karma and the fundamental emphasis on actions that are non-harmful to other sentient beings. This foundational precept is based on the belief in the intrinsic value of all living things. This refers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Becker, Carl B. "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia." Philosophy East & West 40.4 (1990): 543-556.

Epstein R. "Ethical and Spiritual Issues in Genetic Engineering." 1998. Retrieved May 25, 2005.

Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. Eds. Peggy Morgan and Clive Lawton. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996.

Findly, Ellison. "The Specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 123.3 (2003): 685+. Questia. 24 May 2005 .
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Helplessness and Depression the Concept of Learned

Words: 2210 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58707196

Helplessness and Depression

The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."

The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…… [Read More]

References

Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans:

Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49 -- 74.

Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Ethics Human Research the Nuremberg

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80577995



Declaration of Helsinki

In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.

The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells Without a Doubt One of

Words: 2215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2707824

Stem Cells

ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?

Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004<[

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washdc/july01/2001-07-27-stemcell.htm. Michael J. Fox Foundation.

Laino, Charlene. "Navel 'seeds' Sprout Brain Tissue." MSNBC. Online. Feb. 2002. 20 Feb 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004 http://www.msnbc.com/news/532672.asp

Rosenberg, Samuel and Civin, Curt. "Scientific Debates Best Left to States." SunSpot.net. Online. April 2002. 09 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004 http://sunspot.net/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.cloning05apr.story.htm
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Culture and Morality In Other

Words: 5560 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92689784

Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).

If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).

The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.

Accessed 1 April 2012.

www.probe.org

"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
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Professional in Psychology

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30124457

Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot

Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.

Sigmund Freud and his contributions

He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…… [Read More]

References

Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: early psycho-analytic publications. Vol. 7, 1901-1905, A case of hysteria, three essays on sexuality and other works. London: Vintage.

Huberman, G., & Charcot, J.M. (2003). Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpe-trie-re. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
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Horse Slaughter Ethical Issues of

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76037399

Many also subscribe to religious beliefs according to which various gods created other animal species for human consumption and which fundamentally distinguish human life and animal life predicated on the religious belief that we are different in kind rather than merely in degree.

Contrary to the beliefs of the radical fringe of the animal rights movement, that moral burden does not require that we all become vegetarians to avoid eating other animals. It simply means that we have an objective ethical obligation to take reasonable steps to avoid causing the species we choose to consume any more trauma and physical pain than absolutely necessary. This principle actually predates modern society as it is evident in the laws practiced by Jews, for one example, since before the Common Era.

While certain elements of Jewish dietary laws pertain to distinguishing by species which animals are permissible to eat, other elements of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bright, M. (1994). Intelligence in Animals: The Earth, Its Wonders, Its Secrets.

Montreal: Reader's Digest Books

Coren, S. (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs: A Guide to the Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
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Evolution and Natural Selection Is the Addition

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75826292

evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.

Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…… [Read More]

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Psychological Factors in Health Traditional

Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946

Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
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Pronounced Differences Between the Habitats in Which

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68961597

pronounced differences between the habitats in which the scientists that wrote, respectively, In the Shadow of Man and the Wolves of Isle oyale: A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Her counterpart, olf Peterson, was in the midlands of the United States near the Great Lakes in Michigan. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole. As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these…… [Read More]

References

Goodall, J. (2000). In the Shadow of Man. New York: Collins.

Peterson, R.O. (2007). The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. Barrington: Willow Creek Press.

Fouts, R. (1996). Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. New York: William Morrow and Company.
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Ethics of Prisoner Experiments Prisoner Experiments Prior

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86668030

Ethics of Prisoner Experiments

Prisoner Experiments

Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…… [Read More]

References

Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.

HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html.

Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.

Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.
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Evidence You Draw From One

Words: 1961 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91859024

As the world grows more affluent, it will want more, rather than less meat.

Additionally, meat raised on farms such as Salatin's will likely cost more money. Pollan dismisses this fact, stating: "For my own part, I've discovered that if you're willing to make the effort, it's entirely possible to limit the meat you eat to nonindustrial animals. I'm tempted to think that we need a new dietary category, to go with the vegan and lactovegetarian and piscatorian." Pollan calls the taking of the life of the animal a sacred, special act that must be done with reverence, much like ancient priests used to, and sees the human slaughterhouse at Salatin's farm to be a model for the future. If only people knew what went on behind closed doors, he says, "Tail-docking and sow crates and beak-clipping would disappear overnight, and the days of slaughtering 400 head of cattle an…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Pollan, Michael. "An animal's place." The New York Times Magazine. 20 Nov 2002.

http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/an-animals-place / [22 Sept 2012]
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Hospital Ethics to Do or

Words: 5897 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97807504



The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.

Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).

From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group

Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.

Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association

Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
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Omnivore's Dilemma Michael Pollan's Award-Winning

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73281505

Moreover, vegetarianism is theoretically possible at McDonalds by eating the token salads on the menu. The token salads might still be in keeping with the tenets of agro-business but they do not contain meat products. Still, Pollan hints at how those salads support the same industries that sustain large-scale animal slaughtering.

In Chapter Seven, Pollan focuses on the ethics and the feasibility of the fast food business model as well as its effects on dietary health and well being. Without droning didactically, Pollan points out the problems with fast food: such as high levels of fat and sodium. The nutritional content of fast food is directly and causally related to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Pollan needs not delve into great detail about that which most Americans should already be aware. What Pollan does point out are the hidden ingredients in McDonald's menu items, especially in the chicken McNuggets. By…… [Read More]

References

Pollan, Michael. Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin, 2006.
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People Learn Edward C Tolman Was a

Words: 1725 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91703419

People Learn

Edward C. Tolman was a man whose research focused on trying to understand how animals acquire knowledge. As a psychologist, he also tried to determine how the mind of the human being paralleled what he saw in lower life forms. What he found was that motivation was a primary factor in how people learn. A rat in a maze would find the hidden pieces of tasty cheese far more quickly if the animal had been left hungry than if he or she had been fed before the test had been administered. Subsequently, the rats learned to equate their examinations with the obtaining of food stuffs (Tolman 1948). Similarly, human beings learn to equate knowledge with acquisition of things that they desire. Students from the youngest of ages are told that good grades will be rewarded, not merely in the abstract but with physical reward such as money or…… [Read More]

References:

Gredler, Margaret. (2009). "Hiding in Plain Sight: The Stages of Mastery / Self-Regulation in Vygotsky's Cultural -- Historical Theory." Educational Psychologist. 44:1. 1-19.

Hofstetter, Rita. (2009). "Knowledge for Teaching and Knowledge to Teach: Two Contrasting

Figures of New Education." Paedagogica Historica. 45:4/5. 605-629.

Kravtsov, G.G. (2010). "Play in L.S. Vygotsky's Nonclassical Psychology." Journal of Russian & East European Psychology. 48:4. 25-41.
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Earthworm Dissection Phylum Annelida Is

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63095956



Earthworms are hermaphrodites since they can generate both sperm and eggs. Mating involves 2 earthworms inseminating each other where sperms are exchanged. The male and female sexual cavities are located near the clitellum. They connect the lower ends of their anteriors with heads positioned in reverse directions. Mucous secreted joins the openings with slime. Sperm is pushed into the longitudinal channels formed by the mucous. They reach the sperm receptacles of their partner, which then break apart. Laying of the eggs and fertilization follows ("Native Australian," 2006)

The circulatory system is constituted of the heart, blood and blood vessels. It is needed to distribute nutrition to different areas in the body and is of two types -- open and closed. An open circulatory system (used by earthworms) is the simpler of the two where the heart drives blood into open spaces. The organs and tissues in the body are soaked…… [Read More]

References

n.a.(n.d.) Earthworm. Retrieved from http://animals.howstuffworks.com/worms/earthworm-info.htm

Sherwood, R. (2010, May 25) How many hearts does an earthworm have?. Retrieved from  http://www.ehow.com/about_4597386_many-hearts-earthworm-have_.html 

n.a.(2006, Feb 19) Native Australian Earthworms. Retrieved from http://www.wormdigest.org/content/view/209/2/

Higgins, J.(2010, June 6) Difference Between a Closed & Open Circulatory System. Retrieved from  http://www.ehow.com/about_6594843_difference-closed-open-circulatory-system.html
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Extinction or Survival Implications for

Words: 3413 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96945138



Early Education Shows No enefit (HSLDA 2007)

This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bethell, T. "Against Sociobiology." First Things. 2001. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2126 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

CER. "Education Programs Constitutional; Growth Steady." EdReform. com. July 26, 2007. http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2691&sectionID=122&NEWSYEAR=2007 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

Crawford, C.B. And Krebs, D.L. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Eribaum, 1998.

Crawford, C.B. And Sheib, J. The Essence of Evolutionary Society: An Introduction. 2004.
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David Gilhooly the Ceramist the Art of

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94564934

David Gilhooly the Ceramist

The art of using ceramics for sculpturing is traced many years back. In the early days ceramics were used in conjunction with the art of pottery. Ancient people used the art to mould their artificial gods. As things and traditional technology advanced, people started using ceramics to mould other relevant objects of use in their day-to-day life. It is under this progressive notion that major artists in the moulding and pottery began rising up.

David's early and artistic life

David James Gilhooly is amongst such artists. He was born around 1943 in California, where he undertook his scholarly work. Throughout his pursuit in education, David developed an interest in making things out of his own designs and materials. He was among the initial students at the Davis Ceramics Department. As early as 1948, he began collecting wares such as telephones, stamps and coins. Around the same…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adelman, Alex. David Gilhooly. Masterworks of Fine Art.

Heath, Terrence, Fafard, Joe and MacKenzie. Joe Fafard. Chicago: Douglas & Mclntyre. 2008.

Kerr, Don. The Garden of Art: Vic Cicansky, Sculptor. New York: University of Calgary Press. 2004.

Landauer, Susan, Gerdts, William, H & Trenton, Patricia. The Not-So-Still Life: A Century of California Painting and Sculpture. California: University of California Press. 2003.
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Science What Are the Steps of Scientific

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12724373

Science

What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?

Steps of scientific method:

Ask a question

Do background research

Construct a hypothesis

Test your hypothesis

Analyze your data

f. Communicate your results

The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.

A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.

A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.

e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.

How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…… [Read More]

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Science Tasks Document 2 Of 2 Moisture-Related

Words: 1633 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19085735

Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)

MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS

PROJECT DESIGN PLAN

Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."

This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.

Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).

But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?

I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Gibb, Timothy J. And Oseto, Christian Y. (2006). Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. San Diego and London: Elsevier Academic Press.

Robinson, William H. (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.
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Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of…… [Read More]

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Eastcompeace Strategic Management Data Presentation

Words: 11516 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21957277



To evaluate weak areas of the current strategy and propose solutions for improvement.

2.0 LITEATUE EVIEW

2.1 Introduction

According to Zou and Cavusgil (1995), the subject of global strategy has attracted a lot of attention in the recent past. Zou and Cavisgil (1995) calim that a major reason behind this has been the increasing progress in the telecommunications and other technological areas that has brought the world closer and transnational existence of organizations

Eastcompeace culture has been building momentum as a congruent culture. Its aspiration to achieve continuous growth in the field of research has ensured the sustainability and viability of its products in the market. Moreover, Eastcompeace ensures highest standards of corporate compliance from the highest C-level management to the employees at lowest level (Teece, Piassano & Shuen, 1997).

The low employee turnover of Eastcompeace is the evidence of Eastcompeace's congruent culture, low employee turnover is very good sign…… [Read More]

References

Eastcompeace. (2011). Doing Business Responsibly. Retrieved from http://www.Eastcompeace.com/responsibility/protecting_environment/waste_and_recycling.jsp

Grant, R. (2005). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. USA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Marshall, S. (1995). The vision, meaning and language of educational transformation. School Administrator. 52(1), 8.

Harrison, A., Wheeler, P. And Whitehead, C. (2003). The distributed workplace: sustainable work environments. New York, Routledge.
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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Gypsies During World War II Treatment of

Words: 3773 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52633815

Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.

Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…… [Read More]

References

Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]

bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at  http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463



The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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Human Society People Have Routinely Used Other

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5313773

human society, people have routinely used other human beings in one form of experimentation or another. "Although sporadic, vivisection was practiced by the ancient Greeks and Romans to augment their knowledge of science and medicine. In the third century B.C., vivisection was performed on condemned criminals." (Gloiszek, xi). In fact, many great leaps forward in medical knowledge have come from research performed upon humans; often, this research has been conducted without the consent of those involved. Obviously, this presents a moral dilemma: is the good supplied by any specific portion of medical knowledge greater than the harm done to the individual test subjects? In ancient Greece and Rome, this question was rather inconsequential because these were civilizations based upon the notion of slave labor -- particularly Rome -- and the exploitation of those who were not rightful citizens to the advantage of those who were. As a result, the rights…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Browlie, Ian. (1995). Basic Documents in International Law. New York: Library of Congress.

2. Feinberg, Joel and Russ Schafer-Landau. (1999). Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.

3. Getz, Kenneth and Deborah Borfitz. (2003). Informed Consent. Boston: Thomson/Centerwatch.

4. Goliszek, Andrew. (2003). In the Name of Science. New York: St. Martin's Press.
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Life Science Current Event Report Current Events

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69136107

Life Science Current Event eport

Current Events on Cloning and Evolution

Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009

Nature

The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?

Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
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Profitable Wonders

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30053194

Profitable Wonders

Washington, H. (2008). Profitable wonders. From Medical Apartheid. New York: Harlem Moon.

Many of the horrors of slavery, such as whipping and beating, are well-known to contemporary readers. However, according to Harriet Washington in her essay "Profitable wonders" from her book Medical Apartheid, there is an equally ugly yet less-publicized side of the American Southern plantation system, namely the use of black slaves in medical experimentation. oday, we think of medical experimentation on persons deemed to be of inferior races as something common in Nazi society, not our own. However, as "Profitable wonders" makes clear, anytime a race is demonized, it is liable to be used in inhumane ways, much in the same way that animals are used in medical experimentation. he disparities today between African-American's state of physical health and whites are often commented upon and the article makes clear that such inequities have its roots far,…… [Read More]

The article makes gripping use of the narrative format, as well as presents historical data to support its contention that there was a consistent program of medical experimentation on African-Americans during the antebellum period. The article opens with an account of one 'John Brown,' a slave who was used by a certain 'Doctor Hamilton' to test cures the quack doctor wished to use on Brown's master. The treatments were more abuse than curative, with dubious medical legitimacy. Not only were slaves used in experimentation, but they were valued so little because of their race that so-called scientists felt little compunction about subjecting them to experiments of almost no medical value.

In the 19th century, there was no standard ethical protocol regarding the ethics of experimentation (Washington 2008: 55). "The experimental abuse of African-Americans was not a cultural anomaly; it simply mirrored…the economic, social and health abuses that the larger society perpetuated against people of color (Washington 2008: 56). Slaves were considered ideal 'test subjects' on which to perform everything from experimental surgeries to test cures for malaria. Although Brown's personal account opens up the piece, accounts of whites who describe matter-of-factly their use of blacks as experimental subjects are also marshaled in support of this contention. In no less than a publication than the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, over half the articles described experiments upon blacks, who were also overrepresented in medical and surgical wards, primarily because of their 'usefulness' in experimentation. Often, procedures were performed without anesthesia. The logic of racism allowed a kind of perverse mental paradox -- on one hand, blacks were 'necessary' to use in experiments because they were human beings and were thus ideal to test out new remedies upon. On the other hand, they were also seen as innately inferior to whites and supposedly less susceptible to pain and thus could be treated cruelly in ways whites could not tolerate (Washington 2008: 58).

Even by the experimenter's own contemporary standards, many of the experiments were unscientific and when unsuccessful, blacks were blamed (such as for the high rates of infant mortality and disease caused by the conditions under which slaves were forced to live). Washington implies, however, that this blame of African-Americans for their medical problems on character flaws, versus social conditions and poor epidemiology and a lack of scientific rigor, is not something confined to the long past but can even be seen in the thinking of many scientists and public health officials today in issues where race and medicine intersect.
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
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Biology There Are Several Possible

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94676250

The blood with the IgG must be effectively removed from the body, or reduced to levels that will not allow the cells to be a danger to the infant. If caught early enough, plasma transfers for the mother can result in enough of a reduction of IgG levels to forestall the effects to the fetus.

8)

Autoimmune diseases occur when, for a variety of reasons, the body responds to its own cells as though they were dangerous foreign cells. In this way they are similar to an allergic response; an unrecognized but harmless entity is viciously attacked by the body in an attempt to destroy the perceived intruder. This is annoying (and possibly deadly) when it comes to allergies, and far more so when the body essentially becomes allergic to itself.

Though the reasons behind the onset of Type I diabetes are still not fully understood, the disease occurs when…… [Read More]

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Faith of Universal Structure Is

Words: 1333 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95563028

This extends to environmental concerns as well, because scientific research has demonstrated that the diversity of an ecosystem is what allows the constituent parts of that ecosystem to thrive, with the diversity of genetics, organisms, and personalities giving any given ecosystem a robustness such that it is not as susceptible to destruction or eradication at the hands of a single negative element. Adherents of the Faith seek harmony with all things, such that one goal is the advancement of technology to the point that humans might be able to genetically and technologically alter themselves such that they may sustain their own lives without causing undue harm to other lives, whether those be the lives of animals or plants. Thus, adherents of the Faith look towards the day when humanity has used the ample intellectual and scientific skill amassed over the years to overcome the current limitations of biology so that…… [Read More]

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Cogito Ergo Sum as Stated

Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51847710

As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
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Intervention & Addiction Therapy Theory

Words: 3133 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96162245

.

The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]

References

1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.

2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.

3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.

4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
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Final Portfolio Project

Words: 3811 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21112707

Ileana Final Portfolio

Bioethics Final

This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.

This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More]

Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S., and Lanza, R. (2006). Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444 (7118), 481 -- 485. Retrieved from: doi:10.1038/nature05142

Parks, J.A., and Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]

References

Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf.

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
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Art the Renaissance Heralded in

Words: 2995 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58827633



French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.

Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]

References

Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.

Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992

Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.

Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
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Henry Thomas Buckle's Original 1858

Words: 12518 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99981281

As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).

In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…… [Read More]

References

American Health Information Management Association. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Health_Information_Management_Association.

Apple, M.W. (2003). The state and the politics of knowledge. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

Are book publishers to blame for gender discrimination? (2012, March 13). The Huffington Post.

Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/13/book-gender_n_1324560.html.