Animal Research Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/.
View Full Essay

Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
View Full Essay

Animal and Plant Domestication One

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3595861

The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.

In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24

Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.

Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
View Full Essay

Animal Senses

Words: 2268 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83801674

Animal Senses

Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.

Dolphins

The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never…… [Read More]

References

Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.

Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.

Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
View Full Essay

Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
View Full Essay

Animal-Drawn Cart the Purpose of

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia. Nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cart

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa  http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/golovancart.pdf 

Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/pubs/tr/animals/tr30.pdf

Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
View Full Essay

Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.

References

Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
View Full Essay

Animal Assisted Therapy Animals When

Words: 2537 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31991308

69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.

Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).

Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).

A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…… [Read More]

References

Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.

Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.

Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/

Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
View Full Essay

Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).

orks Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
View Full Essay

Animal Experience

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658186

Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site: http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html
View Full Essay

Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and

Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17902811



The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
View Full Essay

Psychological Research on Animals Is

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85577964

The purpose is to determine whether the "face-processing system of humans" and in this case, the tamarin, share characteristics.

By finding out if humans' face-processing systems and the face-processing systems of the tamarin are similar, the researchers will be more readily be able to allow "early and quick processing of socially salient stimuli" (Neiworth, et al., 2003). Do humans and primate share sensitivity toward "conspecific faces" (i.e., faces of the same species), and do they share an ability to "generalize changes in the face that do not suggest a new identity" (Neiworth). The researchers presented the subjects (a human and taramin) with "a human face, chimpanzee face, taramin face, or an object as a sample." The faces were either in an upright position, or inverted in the next phase of the research.

Conclusion: The above-mentioned research is an example of a totally ethical, well-managed psychological experiment. The results showed that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychological Association. (2010). Animal Research Advances Animal and Human

Welfare: Research Animals in Psychology. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from  http://www.apa.org/research/responsible/research-animals.pdf .

Neiworth, Julie J., Hassett, Janice M., and Sylvester, Cara J. (2003). Face processing in humans

and new world monkeys: the influence of experiential and ecological factors. Animal Cognition. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/PSYC/monkeys/face.html.
View Full Essay

Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
View Full Essay

Healthcare Research Ethics Briefly Describe

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84510414

3, No, 1; (2005): S30

S37. etrieved from: http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/reprint/3/suppl_1/s30.

QUALITATIVE ESEACH DESIGNS

Identify and describe some of your initial reactions to the article. What jumped out at you? Did this article spark a desire in you to design a similar study? Why or why not?

My immediate reaction to the article was that it demonstrates how easily and thoroughly conceptual flaws in subject recruitment and selection can undermine the relevance and accuracy of conclusions of even an otherwise well-designed and executed study (Williamson, 2009). On one hand, the study seemed to execute the five stages of critical qualitative research outlined by Carspecken (in Hardcastle, Usher, & Holmes, 2006); on the other hand, it seems to have wasted that execution on a fundamentally flawed set of subject inclusion criteria. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the correspondence and to draw logical inferences from any apparent causal relationship between elements of lived…… [Read More]

References

Ekstedt, M. And Fagerberg, I. "Lived experiences of the time preceding burnout."

Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 49, No. 1; (2005): 59 -- 67. Retrieved from:

http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?di rect=true&db=rzh&AN=2005040797&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Hardcastle, M., Usher, K., and Holmes, C. "Carspecken's five-stage critical qualitative research method: An application to nursing research." Qualitative
View Full Essay

Ape Speech Research Has Been

Words: 5500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66875718



Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:

The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.

Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.

Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.

Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html.
View Full Essay

Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Animal Species Studied for This Report Include

Words: 2701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10515392

animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf

Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003. http://www.shout.net/~jhilty/plantx/prickly_pearx.htm

Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prickly_pear

Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_bear
View Full Essay

Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]

References

Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.

Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related

Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
View Full Essay

Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46462731

Agriculture

Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation

Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet. In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide (or not) nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" (1). From this information,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Leng, R.A. "Quantitative Ruminant Nutrition -- A Green Science." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1993. 16 Dec. 2009 .
View Full Essay

Animal Studies Relating to Neurological Disorders and

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82799467

animal studies relating to neurological disorders and how they are often ostensibly biased is the subject of the article covered for this brief report. The article was published earlier in 2013 and appeared in PLOS and on the internet (Tsilidis, 2013).

The article did a study of a series of prior studies that used animal testing and research to look at neurological disorder. In total, a total of nearly 4,500 data sets were looked at. The diseases that were followed the most included Alzheimer disease, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, focal ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries in general. The study focused on the significance bias of these studies. To that end, it found that 919 out of the 4,445 results were expected vs. The 1,719 that were observed. This excess significance was found across all of the disorders mentioned above and were not limited to just one or…… [Read More]

References

Tsilidis, K. (2013). Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases. PLoS Biology, 11(7), 1-10.
View Full Essay

Animal Tissue DNA

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80676560

Chromatin Lab Report

The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.

DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Animal Feeding Operations Cafos for

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11532029

, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of…… [Read More]

References

Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.

Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.

Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.

Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
View Full Essay

Animal Extinction

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23113659

Extinction

Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionists for generations after Darwin imagined a slow and steady process of adaptation, in which daily culling and breeding success very gradually adapted a population from one form into another. Such a process would not be dissimilar to unnatural selection, such as that done with domesticated animals, that gradually worked to change a wolf into a little Cairn Terrier or Shih Tzu. However, some have suggested that there might be a more sudden sort of change involved, in which evolution moves suddenly and with great speed. This theorized form of evolution, called punctuated equilibrium, has been widely debated, but seems to be increasingly accepted by scientists. There appears to be evidence for punctuated equilibrium from laboratory experiments, from field and fossil evidence, from theory and even from Darwin's original work.

It is a common misconception that evolution cannot be experimentally studied in laboratories -- actually, a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broyles, R.C. 1997. Punctuated Equilibrium. http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1366/pe.html

Kerr, R.A. 1995. Did Darwin get it all right? Science, v267 n5203 p1421(2)

Mlot, Christine. 1996. Microbes hint at a mechanism behind punctuated evolution. Science, v272 n5269 p1741(1)

Theobald, D. 2003. All you need to know about Punctuated Equilibrium (almost): Common misconceptions concerning the hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium. University of Colorado at Boulder. http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~theobal/PE.html
View Full Essay

Research on Mayan Calendar

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87250188

Mayan calendar has fascinated not only scholars and archaeologists, but also others interested in its mystical and esoteric dimensions. Because the Mayan calendar and associated hieroglyphic texts refer to an "end date" corresponding to 2012 in the Gregorian system, many people believed that the Mayans had predicted the end of the world (Lorenzi, 2012, p. 1). Yet recent archaeological evidence shows that the Mayan concept of an "end date" did not necessarily imply a "doomsday" scenario (Lorenzi, 2012, p. 1). Although the apocalyptic vision never did come to pass and has been disproven, the Mayan calendar continues to captivate and fascinate because of the mystery surrounding its use and its level of sophistication.

One of the most intriguing aspects of the Mayan calendar is its level of sophistication and accuracy. According to the Canadian Museum of History (n.d.), the Mayan calendar originated in the first century BCE but is actually…… [Read More]

References

Aveni, A.F., Dowd, A.S. & Vining, B. (2003). Maya calendar reform? Latin American Antiquity 14(2): 159-178.

Canadian Museum of History (n.d.). Maya civilization. Retrieved online:  http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc06eng.shtml 

Jenkins, J.M. (1998). Maya Cosmogenesis 2012. Inner Traditions.

Lorenzi, R. (2012). Mayan calendar discovery confirms a 2012 'end date.' Discovery News. Jun 29, 2012. Retrieved online:  http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/maya-long-count-calendar-end-date-120629.htm
View Full Essay

Psychology Animal Learning

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3739790

Animal Learning

Comparative cognition is a psychological approach to learning that studies how animals process information. S.T. Boysen (1998) in his article presents the summary and review of different issues concerning this approach specifically in relation to animal learning. Pervious studies and researches were discussed and their findings were carefully explained to show how cognitive learning approach has evolved over the years and what it tells us about "information-processing, reasoning, memory, and the phylogenetic emergence of mind" in nonhuman species. Imitative behavior and the influence of imitation on learning capabilities of an animal have occupied the most important place in comparative cognitive research. However imitation has been a contentious subject with varying definitions as key researchers have failed to agree on one specific pattern of learning through imitation even though the earliest studies in this connection appeared during late 19th century. For example omanes (1884) found that imitation required "intelligent…… [Read More]

References

S.T. Boysen (1999) CURRENT ISSUES AND EMERGING THEORIES IN ANIMAL COGNITION Annual Review of Psychology Annual

Zentall, Thomas R, (2002) A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior., The Journal of General Psychology
View Full Essay

Are All Non Human Animals Equal

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745

Animal ights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
View Full Essay

Argument for in Favor of Keeping Animals in Zoos

Words: 2974 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41647202

Zoo Animals

Human beings have kept animals in zoos for centuries, but only relatively recently have the ethical considerations of this practice been widely considered. At one extreme are those individuals and organizations that see no problem keeping animals in zoos and other attractions, in keeping with the long history of animal confinement in the service of human entertainment, and at the other extreme are those individuals and groups arguing that animals should not be kept in zoos out of ethical considerations. However, this dichotomy has been complicated in recent years as zoos have increasingly become some of the most important centers of animal conservancy efforts, forcing a reevaluation of the ethical status of zoos in regards to the animals they contain, and the potential benefit they provide. Examining the history of zoos, their potential for harm, and the ways they might better consider animal welfare reveals that not only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bostock, Stephen. Zoos and animal rights: the ethics of keeping animals. London: Routledge,

1993.

Cohn, Jeffrey P. "Do Elephants Belong in Zoos?" Bioscience 56.9 (2006): 714-7.

Cui, Bingbing, and Dezhong Jiang. "The Problems and Countermeasures of Animal Protection in Zoos-Take Shenyang Glacier Zoo for Example." International Journal of Biology 3.1
View Full Essay

Border Wall a Research Investigation

Words: 2853 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23821836

Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.

It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.

Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley

No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
View Full Essay

Striped Bass Morone Saxatilis This Seafood Research

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94760484

Striped Bass

Morone saxatilis

This seafood research paper will outline some basic facts about striped bass, one of the most succulent fish served in the United States. Basic information about striped bass, including market information, use in menus, potential parasites, commercial fishing information and seasonality is included.

Striped bass is also known as striped bass, striper, linesider, bass, rockfish, rock, sewer trout and Fr. bar raye. The scientific name for striped bass is Morone saxatilis, and the fish appears in some early scientific literature as Roccus lineatus. Striped bass is a member of the medium- to large-sized, perch-like fishes, and inhabits coastal marine, brackish, and fresh waters in both temperate and tropical regions. This fish species was successfully introduced in into both a large number of inland lakes and reservoirs, and the Pacific coast. Striped bass now are resident from Ensenada, Mexico to British Columbia.

Along the Atlantic coast, most…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McAllister, K.W., Mann, J.A. And McKenzie, L.C.. Annotated Bibliography of the diseases and parasites of striped bass. Fish Disease Leaflet. Washington, D.C. United

States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Fisheries and Wetlands Research, 1987.

Virginia Seafood: Facts about striped bass. Virginia Marine Products Board. 15 February 2002.

http://www.virginiaseafood.org/foodService/speciesFacts/stripedbass.htm.
View Full Essay

Human Interactions With Nonhuman Animals Should Be

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95238728

Human interactions with nonhuman animals should be guided solely by the impact of these interactions with other human beings, and not upon any perceived impact upon nonhuman animals themselves. This argument is based largely upon Descartes' understanding of the essential difference between humans and nonhuman animals. Descartes' argues that the body is external to the mind, and that non-human animals do not possess the pure, thinking mind of humans. Thus, Descartes argues that nonhuman animals are simply machines, and that human treatment of animals should only be guided by the impact of such interaction upon other humans. In contrast, thinkers like Anthony eston have argued that similarity of human and animal perception and experience means that human should treat animals as feeling beings. Similarly, Abram argues that the human connection with the natural world should govern our interaction with animals. Descartes' arguments for the uniqueness of human thought essentially counter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human

World. Vintage, 1997.

Descartes, Rene. Animals are Machines. In Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, eds S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993,

281-285.
View Full Essay

Warm Blooded vs Cold Blooded Animals

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40806833

Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals

Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.

asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.
View Full Essay

Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29486635

The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.

Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.

The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18piranha.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=repert oire%20of%20fish&st=cse

Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas

(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
View Full Essay

Ethical Standards in Research Has

Words: 3506 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37608945

Moreover, the researcher who falsifies the data is prone to legal action as has been the case in the past when researchers have falsified research results (Normile C, 2006). Therefore, in order to deal with this grave issue, it is important to ensure that the data being incorporated in the research paper has been properly handled and it is being reported correct. Ensuring this would satisfy the ethical standards of scientific research to a very high extent, as there would then be no repercussions for the author of the research paper (CA & GL, 2000).

Mistakes and Negligence

Each research study is susceptible to error. The errors in scientific research are either caused by mistake or negligence. There are various factors that contribute to these mistakes during the research process. The prime reason being that the researchers are basically humans. They are bound by limitations such as limited resources and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, T.D. (2007). Mentoring relationships from the perspective of the mentor. In B.R. Ragins, & K.E. Kram, The handbook of mentoring at work: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 123-147). SAGE Publications, Inc. .

Bird, S.J. (2001). Mentors, advisors and supervisors: Their role in teaching responsible research conduct. Science and Engineering Ethics (7), 455-468.

CA, M., & GL, L. (2000). Research ethics: ethical issues of data reporting and the quest for authenticity. Acad Emerg Med. 7(6), 691-4.

Franklin G. Miller, P. a. (2008). Quality-Improvement Research and Informed Consent. N Engl J. Med (358), 765-767.
View Full Essay

Mekong River Basin Research Review

Words: 1275 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95974589

" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.

There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.

Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1

Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)

III. Cultural Significance of the River

Diversity is important for the following reasons:

Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June

Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.

Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf

Mekong River Basin
View Full Essay

Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48069703

Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily Wrong

Over time, vegetarians have presented a wide range of reasons as to why eating meat and/or any other product derived from animals is wrong. In seeking to support their position, most vegetarians cite the need to uphold animal rights. In the recent past, the number of people turning to vegetarian diet has been increasing steadily. However, regardless of this, it is important to note that a careful review of literature clearly demonstrates that the consumption of meat and/or other products derived from animals is not necessarily a bad thing.

In Zacharia's (2012) opinion, "the market for vegan food is booming." This effectively means that the number of those joining the vegetarian bandwagon is steadily increasing. However, a vast majority of the population still believes that there is nothing wrong with eating meat or any animal produce. It could be right.

To begin…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Abundant Research Conducted on Humans

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14425263

From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).

Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…… [Read More]

Sources

Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.

Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.

Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology

Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
View Full Essay

Recreation Proposed Quantitative Research Outdoor

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2636582

Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.

The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.

This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…… [Read More]

References

Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.

Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .

Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.

Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/.
View Full Essay

Forensic Research The Psychology of

Words: 2415 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30870356

Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).

The Likelihood of eoffending

Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…… [Read More]

References

Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.

Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.

Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
View Full Essay

Health UK This Research Focuses on the

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26933281

health UK

This research focuses on the health impacts of the Industrial evolution on various sectors of the British population, and hypothesizes that working class and poor laborers suffered from poorer health than their wealthier counterparts due to exposure to pollution and to lack of exposure to a varied diet.

Public health and the public health system existing in the 21st century is unrecognizable from what existed just a century before. As Wohl (1983) points out, poverty, ignorance, and poor sanitation plagued British public health throughout the Victorian era. It is important to understand what prompted the changes that led to increased knowledge, awareness, and application of ethical principles in health care. Armed with this knowledge, the bioarchaeologist and health care specialists alike can work together to transform health care outcomes in the future.

In particular, the Industrial evolution impacted individual and public health in significant and measurable ways. Coal…… [Read More]

Reference

Wohl, A.S. (1983). Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain.London: J.M. Dent.
View Full Essay

The Non Native Planst and Animals of Hudson River Valley

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21791181

Non-Indigenous Occupiers of the Hudson iver Valley

There are animals and plants that are often considered to be native to any given region, they are vital to the ecosystem of the regions and need to be kept in balance to perpetuate the ecosystem of the region. When there is an elimination of threat to one of the native occupiers of the region, then there is a potential for risk of decimation of the other members of the ecosystem as well. However, the indigenous occupiers of Hudson Valley have faced threats elimination since the 1930s with the onset of new developments and housing which came along with non-indigenous species some of which were invasive. It is important to know that most of the time, the indigenous species, are considered to be those that are found on the East of Mississippi thriving naturally and can grow well in the prevailing weather in…… [Read More]

References

Defenders of Wildlife, (2016). Invasive Species in New York. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/new_york.pdf

FernCreek Design & Build, (2016). The Role of Native Plants. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://ferncreekdesign.org/whygonative.html

Hudson River Garden Calendar, (2016 ). Seedling Sale. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.hvgardencalendar.com/
View Full Essay

Wild Species Which Includes That of Animals

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95417620

Wild species, which includes that of animals, plants, and of other organisms, constitute the most part of the seafood of the world and of the timber. The Wild species provide a means of earning to the communities apart from providing them with food, medicines, fibers, skins, furs and forage, without which many communities could not have had their living.

Apart from this they also help in the intellectual growth, provide a sense of beauty and also promotes the religious and cultural beliefs of the people. ecause of the importance given to the wild species and of the use made of them by people, many natural and semi-natural ecosystems owe their present existence and even their future would owe to these uses.

Firstly, the use of wild species is that it has direct commercial value in terms of fishing, hunting, harvesting which enables the U.S. economy to earn $200 billion and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albuquerque, NM. (1990) Conserving Endangered Species: A Commitment to the Future. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region.

Costanza, R. et al. (1997, May 15). The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature 387: 253-260.

Hill, H.R. (1994, August 8) Ohio State University Study Finds Genetic Altering of Bacterium Upsets Natural Order, The Oregonian,

Food and Drug Administration 57 Federal Register 22987(1995, December) EPA Approves Bt Corn and Cotton With Conditions, The Gene Exchange,
View Full Essay

Difficulties Empirical Research Is Necessarily Designed to

Words: 1885 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31846627

Difficulties

Empirical research is necessarily designed to provide a workable framework through which a researcher may test a hypothesized explanation for observable phenomena, but the two primary branches of scientific inquiry differ greatly in terms of the analytical scope and style employed throughout an experiment. While quantitative research is capable of recording, sorting and analyzing voluminous amounts of numerical data, from credit card usage rates for various tax brackets to the pace of population acceleration within a given demographic, this methodology is left lacking when researchers seek to explain the trends and configurations they have identified. In order to develop informed explanations of behavioral patterns, emotional capacity, artistic inclination, and any number of similarly intangible phenomena, the use of qualitative research must be employed to ascertain the motivational processes used to determine basic decision making. Although the traditional quantitative method of research is more widely known by laymen, with surveys,…… [Read More]

References

Berg, B.L. & Lune, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (8th ed).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Cegielski, C.G., Jones-Farmer, L.A., Wu, Y., Hazen, B.T. (2012). Adoption of cloud computing technologies in supply chains: An organizational information processing theory approach. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 23(2), 184 -- 211.

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Sage Publications, Incorporated.
View Full Essay

Evaluating the Health of Animal Species

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078

Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]

references/phspol.htm#Introduction.

Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/.

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Methods in Animal Proteomics

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29001699

Animal Proteomics

Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is…… [Read More]

References

Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.

Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
View Full Essay

Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503

ICK HOUSE'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL ESEACH

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Behavioral Research

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68325960

Behavioral Analysis

The main topic being studied in McIlvane's research paper, "Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities" is translational behavioral analysis. It is largely defined as a hybrid of the two conventional methods of behavioral analysis: basic and applied behavioral analysis. Its distinction between these two forms largely involves its hybridization of them, and its identification as "a subfield of behavior analysis" (McIlvane, 2009, p. 273).

There are no research questions in this paper for the simple fact that it does not contain original research and is merely the author's reflection and analysis of this particular subject. The rationale for the paper is that translational behavioral analysis is a relative newcomer to the modes of science that were previously stratified as either basic or applied behavioral analysis. As such, it is worthy of study because it can bridge the gap…… [Read More]

References

Baer, D.M., Wolff, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1, 91-97.

McIlvane, W.J. (2009). Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The Behavior Analyst. 32, 273-280.
View Full Essay

Ethical to Raise Animals for

Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55572059

fosterfacts.net).

Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.

Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…… [Read More]

Works Cited

East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,

From http://www.fosterfacts.net.

Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle

And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from  http://www.sacbee.com .
View Full Essay

Wicca Animal Use Shelley Rabinovitch Has Asserted

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98402505

icca Animal Use

Shelley Rabinovitch has asserted that modern iccans see themselves as part of a world that includes all living beings in Nature (69), which generally prevents exploitative 'use.' This is not universal, but animal abuse would probably exclude a practitioner from the group "iccans." This has not been the case throughout history, and some modern Neo-Pagans include use of animals in ritual they claim falls within the harmonious balance of a non-dualistic participation in Nature (below). The result is a change in modern iccan relationship to animals compared to historical relationships as far as the available evidence shows. This requires defining the group "iccans," and also 'use' and 'animals,' because some groups typically classified alongside icca under the class "Neo-Pagans" are beginning to differentiate themselves through ritual animal use in ways iccans may perhaps want to dissociate themselves from.

"The language of self-identification to outsiders differs from that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc., et al. v. City Of Hialeah No. 91-948. 508 U.S. 520

(1993).United States Supreme Court, 11 June, 1993. < www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/91-948.ZS.html>

Faculty of Oriental Studies, the University of Oxford. "Gilgames and Aga." The Electronic Text

Corpus of Sumerian Literature. n. pag. <  http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.1.1# >
View Full Essay

Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
View Full Essay

Decision to Expand Large Animal

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30412563



SC = X3* 20% + X3* 30% where,

SC - supply capacity

X3 - the number of other veterinary practices

DG = (X2/X1)*X5 + (X2/X1)*X4 - SC where,

DG - demand gap

X2 - population income levels

X1 - Size of andolph County

X2 / X1 = Average income per individual in andolph County

X5 - number of the population that owns food animal

X4 - number of population that owns pets

After determining the demand gap and if this one turns out to be positive, the entrant has to determine the location strategy. Generally, the practice should be close to the client, but if the clients are randomly spread across the territory, there are some location models that could help the company serve an optimal level of clients. Thus, if the competitors are equally spread across the territory, an entrant could choose to locate itself in the middle of…… [Read More]

Reference List

BLS - Bureau of Labour Statistics, Accessed June 2007,  http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics3_541000.htm 

WVBEP - West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs, Accessed June 2006, http://www.wvbep.org/bep/lmi/EW2006/q4/ew06x083.htm
View Full Essay

Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923

CAFO's

The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
View Full Essay

Human Psychology Drives Economy Animal Spirits -

Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41035034

Human Psychology Drives Economy

Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.

The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.

The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.

Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism

Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
View Full Essay

Innate Animal Behavior Is the Internalized Congenital

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17911582

Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.

Simple Behaviors

Reflexes

Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Human Beings Naturally Sociocentric Animals

Words: 802 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6321071

" (2004) the individuals "worldview and moral span are limited and fundamentally relates to how the individual feels, what the individual wants..." (Kerrigan, 2004)

As the individual develops, they move to the sociocentric level "becoming more oriented to the social group (family, peer group, tribe, subculture, professional group, city, nation, co-religionists, etc.) as the reference point..." (Kerrigan, 2004) and the self is viewed as part of the social group. At this point of development the individuals "worldview and moral span expand and fundamentally relate to the value, goals, and norms of the group." (Kerrigan, 2004)

Further development moves the individual into the worldcentric level in which the individual gain orientation into the community of the world as the individual's main point of reference "with the self and all social groups being seen as a part of a vast web of being." (Kerrigan, 2004) at this stage of development the worldview…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sociocentric (2007) Medical Dictionary. Online available at  http://www.answers.com/topic/sociocentric?cat=health 

Derne, Steve (2006) Rethinking Well Being: Lessons from a Sociocentric Society. Paper presented the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 10 August 2006. Online available at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p102940_index.html

Kerrigan, David (2004) an Introduction to Integral Social Service. AQAL: The Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, 1(2). In Press. Online available at http://csisw.cua.edu/AnIntroductionToIntegralSocialService.pdf.

Erikson, E., & Erikson, J. (1997). The life cycle completed. New York W.W. Norton
View Full Essay

Human or Animal Behavior You

Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205

Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
View Full Essay

Ford Mustang Marketing Research I Spoke to

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27789063

Ford Mustang

Marketing Research

I spoke to five male car owners in their 20s. Three of them had purchased a vehicle in the past two years, the other two had their cars for longer. None of them had purchased a Mustang, but one had a Camaro. The four that owned other types of cars indicated that they did not want a pony car for a number of different reasons, from gas prices to the fact that such cars did not suit their personalities. The other one chose the Camaro because it was the one that "felt right" and was unable to elaborate on that. The respondents, when asked to describe the brand's personality used terms like "fast," "muscle," and "cruising up and down the block." The consumers responded unanimously to the proposition that if the Mustang brand was attached to a different product, it would not make sense. The Mustang…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ford.com. (2012). Compare 2012 Ford Mustang to the competition in your area. Ford.com. Retrieved March 1, 2012 from http://www.thinkfordfirst.com/Compare/2012%20Ford%20Mustang

Milkman, K. (2008). Tap consumers desire for "should." Harvard Business Review. Retrieved March 1, 2012 from http://hbr.org/2008/07/tap-consumers-desire-for-shoulds/ar/1

Ohnsman, A. (2011). Toyota, Honda lose market share in September U.S. sales rebound. Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-04/nissan-leads-asian-carmaker-gains-in-u-s-.html

Perner, L. (2010). Information search and decision making. USC Marshall. Retrieved March 1, 2012 from  http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/cb_Decision_Making.html
View Full Essay

Doind a Research Project Pay Green I

Words: 5187 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62337538

doind a research project pay green?

I collected an articles .

In order to be able to comprehend how being green pays off, one must concentrate on the relationship between employing environmental attitudes and economic performance at a company level. Being green is especially important in the present and there is a wide range of domains that people have addressed when concerning the concept. "Some studies have shown that students who go to green schools have higher test scores, get sick less often and are healthier and happier" (Boys' Life 12). This makes it possible for someone to understand that profits associated with being green do not only involve financial aspects, as they are also likely to reflect positively on individuals when regarding matters from a series of other perspectives.

hile this concept is surely important, people should not only focus on profits when trying to devise strategies of being…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Best, C., (2012). UN tourism chief Taleb Rifai gives carbon tax warning. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/travel/news/un-tourism-chief-taleb-rifai-gives-carbon-tax-warning/story-e6frg8ro-1226427265472

Bowers, Simon. M&S promises radical change with £200m environmental action plan. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jan/15/marksspencer.retail

Dagher, Grace K.; Itani, Omar S. "The Influence of Environmental Attitude, Environmental Concern and Social Influence on Green Purchasing Behavior," Review of Business Research, Vol. 12, No. 2

De Giovanni, Pietro, (2012), "Do internal and external environmental management contribute to the triple bottom line?," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 32 Iss: 3 pp. 265-290
View Full Essay

Financial Research Report on Wyeth

Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95349124

The projected growth rates are of 7% for 2009, 7% for 2010, 8% for 2011 and 9% for 2012 (Hoovers). Wyeth is expected to increase at higher rates due to its being taken over by Pfizer.

3. Stock Price Analysis

The Wyeth stock is being currently (September 16th, 2009) traded at $47.70, revealing a 0.23 (0.48%) decrease relative to the previous trading session, which closed at $47.93. The day's high value so far is of $47.94, with a low of $47.64. The highest value for the past twelve months is of $48.30, with the lowest of $28.06 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Company Website). Compared then to the evolution of the past year, it is obvious that the price of the Wyeth stock option increased. The highest price in its trading history was of $69.75 and it was achieved on the 12th of April 1999. The lowest price was registered on the 17th…… [Read More]

References:

2009, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/wyeth-pharmaceuticals/--ID__104566 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml last accessed on September 16, 2009

2009, Wyeth, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/ratios?symbol=WYE.N last accessed on September 16, 2009

2009, Wyeth, Forbes, http://finapps.forbes.com/finapps/jsp/finance/compinfo/CIAtAGlance.jsp?tkr=WYE last accessed on September 16, 2009

2009, WYE, Deep Market, http://www.deepmarket.com/stock/wye last accessed on September 16, 2009
View Full Essay

Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74121630

Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).

So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.

orks Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.

Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.

Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747.

McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
View Full Essay

Ethics Human Research the Nuremberg

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80577995



Declaration of Helsinki

In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.

The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
View Full Essay

Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
View Full Essay

Mock Research Experiment The Generation Effect This

Words: 2784 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4303311

Mock esearch Experiment: The Generation Effect

This research study plans to look at and analyze the generation effect. The generation effect is the finding that self-generated stimuli will be both recalled and recognize with better performance than for read stimuli. This effect has been demonstrated primarily with words, yet this study uses pictorial stimuli within the experiment as opposed to using words. Because so many studies have been done focusing on the use of words, I decided to compose a study This that examines pictures within the generation effect and whether or not this effect influenced subjects memory. Memory was tested through different methods such as recall, recognition and also two different source monitoring tasks. The data obtained seemed to support the notion that the generation effect can and does occur for pictures.

Introduction

The phenomenon of the generation effect is one which I have long found very interesting. The…… [Read More]

Richards, M (2000). What scientists know about the generation effect. Psychology Today; Jan 43-57.

Niles, G (1999). The generation effect: studies and sources. Journal of Psychology, 56, 45067.

Huffman, R (2000). Generation effect and its implications. Journal of Psychology 114, 67-78.
View Full Essay

Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]

References

Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
View Full Essay

Marketing Research There Is One Reference Used

Words: 725 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8204880

marketing research. There is one reference used.

hen marketing a product or service, it's vital to know who you want to reach. There are various factors that go into determining your target audience.

This paper looks into some of the statistics that may aid you in your research.

Cumberland County SPCA

The Cumberland County SPCA has the problem of being, as they put it "invisible." One of their main problems is knowing the groups of individuals they want to reach so they can find homes for their animals.

Age

Age can be a factor for many reasons. Families with young children may be looking for that first puppy to love and help teach the child responsibility.

Young adults just graduating from college may want a kitten for companionship in their first apartment. hen the children all leave home, those who are in their 40's and 50's may fill the void…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cumberland County, New Jersey (accessed 10-26-2002) (http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34/34011.html).
View Full Essay

Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Diseases

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61791118

Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Diseases

Identify the research hypothesis and re-state it

The research hypothesis is that polymicrobial diseases found in animals as well as human beings are instigated by polyviral contaminations, polybacterial contaminations polymicrobial contaminations that involve viruses and bacteria, polymicrobial infections that involve fungi and parasites and polymicrobial infections owing to microbe-induced immunosuppression. These aforementioned illnesses are severe and whose etiologic causes are every now and then challenging to diagnose and treat.

What is the major issue at the heart of this publication?

The key issue at the core of this publication is the discussion of polymicrobial infections, particularly in human beings and animals. It also takes into consideration the etiological causes and the fundamental mechanisms of pathogenesis. It is imperative to note that polymicrobial illness is a fast developing and exceedingly studied field, yet at the same time signifies an ignored concept. Therefore, this article delves…… [Read More]

References

Brogden, K. A. (2002). Polymicrobial diseases of animals and humans.
View Full Essay

Do Non-Human Animals Have Language

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81594404

Noam Chomsky's Language Criteria - Do Animals Have Language?

Philosophers and scientists have long wondered whether animals were capable of communicating with each other in the form of language. However, research regarding both the cranial and cognitive capacity of higher mammals suggests that these animals are capable of many cerebral functions that used to be the purview of humans.

This paper argues that higher mammals like primates, dolphins and whales are capable of and have evolved a complex language of their own. Towards this, the paper looks at the recent research done regarding the "whistling" and other auditory communication among dolphins. In arguing that this "whistling" constitutes and fulfills the functions of language, the paper uses the framework on the syntactic structures and the various aspects of language. Through an application of Chomsky's criteria, this paper argues that dolphins have evolved a communication system made of whistling sounds that serve…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins, and Use. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.

Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability." New York Times, September 5, 2000: F2. Proquest Database.

Humes, Edward. "Navy Researchers see Marine Mammals' Potential to Perform Deep-sea Duty." Orange County Register, August 7, 1988: K01. Proquest Database

Suplee, Curt. "Dolphins May Communicate Individually; Exchange of 'Signature' Whistles in the Wild Suggests a Form of Language." The Washington Post, August 25, 2000: A3. Proquest Database.
View Full Essay

Warming Research CO2 Global Carbon

Words: 1927 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33622009

Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system

1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes

2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding

B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating

1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather

2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems

VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans

A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise

1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents

2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands

B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather

VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals

A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit

1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this

2. Global warming trends…… [Read More]

References

Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html

Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html

JunkScience (2007). "The real 'inconvenient truth'." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/

NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
View Full Essay

Infanticide in the Animal Kingdom

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61949023

After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.

In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Janson, Charles H. And Carel P. Van Schaik. Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.