Animal Rights Essays (Examples)

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Animal Experience

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658186

Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site: http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html
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Are All Non Human Animals Equal

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745

Animal ights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
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Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/.
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Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and

Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17902811



The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
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Circus Without Animals Imagine if

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64660638



Furthermore, animals are given much more respect within entertainment than otherwise. Animals are viewed with both awe and joy by those who are watching them. They raise the level of awareness we feel for animals and make the audience care more. They would receive no better treatment were they "in the wild" or domesticated. Having animals in entertainment can be equivalent to having a pet at home, both of which is not demeaning as a rule.

Using Animals within entertainment does not hurt animals, on the contrary it helps improve their overall image within audiences, and at the same time they receive special and respectful treatment from their caretakers. It is a win-win situation for both sides.

Anderson, Kay. 1998. Animals, Science and Spectacle in the City, in Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-Culture orderlands. 27-50. New York: Verso.

eardsworth, Alan…… [Read More]

Beardsworth, Alan and Alan Bryman. 2001. The wild animal in late modernity: The case of the Disneyization of zoos. Tourist Studies 1(1):83-104.

Bostock, S. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights. London and New York: Routledge.

Croke, Vicki. 1997. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos, Past, Present and Future. New York: Scribner.
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Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
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Evaluating the Health of Animal Species

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078

Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]

references/phspol.htm#Introduction.

Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/.

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Origin of Rights in Today's

Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58213525



In the 19th century, the idea and definition of rights was extended by calls for social and economic rights that came on the tail of rapid industrialization. This new era of rights was based upon the utilitarian idea of obtaining the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This included a discussion of property ownership, both private and common, and the ideas of public of rights and private responsibility (Nuncio).

By the 21st-century, the idea of rights has been transformed into a global political order based on constitutionalism and positive legalism. In a climate that supported the international will to maintain peace, the world's nations largely adopted a single agreement to ensure such rights. This agreement, the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted in December of 1948 (Nuncio). This Declaration included provisions for both rights of nations, and the rights of individuals (Human Rights eb; a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fagan, Andrew. Human Rights. in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, James Fieser, Ph.D., and Bradley Dowden, Ph.D., eds, 2004. 13 October 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hum-rts.htm

Human Rights Web. A Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/legal/undocs.html 

Human Rights Web. Short History of the Human Rights Movement, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/history.html 

Nuncio, Rhod V., Prof. An ESSAY on the POWER DISCOURSE of RIGHTS: The History, Politics and End of Human Rights. Diwatao, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2001. 13 October 2004. http://www.geocities.com/philodept/diwatao/rights_discourse.htm
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Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48069703

Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily Wrong

Over time, vegetarians have presented a wide range of reasons as to why eating meat and/or any other product derived from animals is wrong. In seeking to support their position, most vegetarians cite the need to uphold animal rights. In the recent past, the number of people turning to vegetarian diet has been increasing steadily. However, regardless of this, it is important to note that a careful review of literature clearly demonstrates that the consumption of meat and/or other products derived from animals is not necessarily a bad thing.

In Zacharia's (2012) opinion, "the market for vegan food is booming." This effectively means that the number of those joining the vegetarian bandwagon is steadily increasing. However, a vast majority of the population still believes that there is nothing wrong with eating meat or any animal produce. It could be right.

To begin…… [Read More]

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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Extinction

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23113659

Extinction

Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionists for generations after Darwin imagined a slow and steady process of adaptation, in which daily culling and breeding success very gradually adapted a population from one form into another. Such a process would not be dissimilar to unnatural selection, such as that done with domesticated animals, that gradually worked to change a wolf into a little Cairn Terrier or Shih Tzu. However, some have suggested that there might be a more sudden sort of change involved, in which evolution moves suddenly and with great speed. This theorized form of evolution, called punctuated equilibrium, has been widely debated, but seems to be increasingly accepted by scientists. There appears to be evidence for punctuated equilibrium from laboratory experiments, from field and fossil evidence, from theory and even from Darwin's original work.

It is a common misconception that evolution cannot be experimentally studied in laboratories -- actually, a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broyles, R.C. 1997. Punctuated Equilibrium. http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1366/pe.html

Kerr, R.A. 1995. Did Darwin get it all right? Science, v267 n5203 p1421(2)

Mlot, Christine. 1996. Microbes hint at a mechanism behind punctuated evolution. Science, v272 n5269 p1741(1)

Theobald, D. 2003. All you need to know about Punctuated Equilibrium (almost): Common misconceptions concerning the hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium. University of Colorado at Boulder. http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~theobal/PE.html
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Right to Use the Name

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16649736

There have been several arguments with reference to the social impact of the Intellectual Property, and it has been observed that the Intellectual property law has been responsible for the promotion of the competitive forces in such a manner that 'antitrust law does not address, and may do so based on evidence that would be insufficient in an antitrust context' (Brinson, 1994). It is indeed a difficult practice related to the 'forced sharing to attain optimal competition' (Brinson, 1994), and it appear to be unwarranted 'in most antitrust contexts, and it is clear indication of the absent clear proof of market harm' (Thomas, 2006), although it is expected to 'constitute improved and comprehensive Intellectual Property policy, even in the presence of ambiguous evidence' (Brinson, 1994). The anti-trust law and the intellectual property law is expected to minimize the cost of three different things, which include, false positives, as per which…… [Read More]

References

Inigo Igartua Arregui. Refusals to Deal Involving Intellectual Property Rights. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 34. Issue: 4. 2003. Georgetown University Law Center.

J. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Radcliffe. Intellectual Property Law Primer for Multimedia Developers. 1994. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 23.

Keith Eugene Maskus. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. Harvard University Press. 2003. pp. 176.

James B. Kobak. Intellectual Property Misuse: Licensing and Litigation. American Bar Association Publication. 2000. pp. 87.
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Slaughter of the Innocent

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7929722

Animal Rights

Slaughter of the Innocent

This is a paper on the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent'. There are two references used for this paper.

Ethical and animal rights issues raised by experimentation are important to many people today. It is interesting to look at the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent' and compare it with the principles of Buddhism.

Vivisection

Vivisection is the "term now used to apply to all types of experiments on living animals, whether or not cutting is done. Broadly, it is any form of animal experimentation, especially if considered to cause distress to the subject. The term also applies to experiments done with the administration of noxious substances, burns, electric or traumatic shocks, drawn-out deprivations of food and drink, and psychological tortures leading to mental imbalance (Ruesch)."

Many scientists torture thousands of animals every day under the pretense of medical research. They assert that through this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification." The Buddha.
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Psychological Research on Animals Is

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85577964

The purpose is to determine whether the "face-processing system of humans" and in this case, the tamarin, share characteristics.

By finding out if humans' face-processing systems and the face-processing systems of the tamarin are similar, the researchers will be more readily be able to allow "early and quick processing of socially salient stimuli" (Neiworth, et al., 2003). Do humans and primate share sensitivity toward "conspecific faces" (i.e., faces of the same species), and do they share an ability to "generalize changes in the face that do not suggest a new identity" (Neiworth). The researchers presented the subjects (a human and taramin) with "a human face, chimpanzee face, taramin face, or an object as a sample." The faces were either in an upright position, or inverted in the next phase of the research.

Conclusion: The above-mentioned research is an example of a totally ethical, well-managed psychological experiment. The results showed that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychological Association. (2010). Animal Research Advances Animal and Human

Welfare: Research Animals in Psychology. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from  http://www.apa.org/research/responsible/research-animals.pdf .

Neiworth, Julie J., Hassett, Janice M., and Sylvester, Cara J. (2003). Face processing in humans

and new world monkeys: the influence of experiential and ecological factors. Animal Cognition. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/PSYC/monkeys/face.html.
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Warm Blooded vs Cold Blooded Animals

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40806833

Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals

Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.

asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.
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Declaration of the Rights of Man Written

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62650173

Declaration of the Rights of Man, written by Lafayette during the reign of Louis XVI, is quite different to that of the Declaration of the Rights of oman created by De Gourges during the rule of the revolutionary French government.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man consists of 17 short and succinct points. As we see it has been approved by the National Assembly of France on August 26, 1789. Its passage seems to have been smooth. That of the Rights of oman, however, was formed and accepted by oen group -- a partisan group of women -- and even they did not reflect the general population of females who, as de Gourges remarks, are against the status quo being changed and would need males to campaign for any effective social change in their condition to be accomplished. De Gourges was correct. The first pamphlet, the Declaration of Man,…… [Read More]

Wherever woman's rights are lacking, such as by property and tax, De Gourges focuses on this omission so that her rhetoric exceeds the called-for principle.

The whole, in content, vaguely resembles that of the Declaration of the Rights of Man but differs so diametrically in spirit, that it turns out to have little resemblance. The first is direct and to the point, taking up more or less a page. The second absorbs nine pages, preceding and concluding with diatribe against man and pads its principles with the same. The first is a calm and direct document. The second is an angry, philandering one calling upon women to wake up to their injustice and to battle for their rights. De Gourges recognizes, however, that women, intimidated so long by men and content with their inferiority will less likely do so. It will need men to do so for them. She describes marriage as an entombment of trust and love and seems to state that the state of the unmarried woman, thoguh not perfect, is preferable to that of the married one, She also includes an appendix that promotes a 'social contract between Man and Woman regarding how to put her principles into effect.' Lafayette had no such social contract between Man and the French Government. De gouges' document was a memorandum for men's treatment of women. Lafayette's was of that between the French government and its citizens. Since the citizens who Lafayette had in mind were men and since they unilaterally wanted these changes, there was no, or little problem. De Gouges however called for significant changes in the status quo and she seemed to criticize the preset French Revolutionary government, and therefore the Reign of Terror executed her.

De Gourges, too, was atypical in her time. She refused to call herself 'widow' or accept her position as widowed mother as was conventional then. She publicized her illegitimate (or alleged illegitimate) roots, and created for herself the public life of an active woman on a par to that of men. She also left her son in order to do so. All of these acts, and others, were unconventional revolutionary acts, which were perceived as subversive and seditious. Executed in Paris on November 3, 1973, De Gouges appealed to others to continue her crusade.
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Will Theory and Inalienable Rights

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45097221

Inalienable ights

Although America's founding documents declared unequivocally "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness," the signing of the Declaration of Independence did nothing more to end the debate over rights, power, and liberty than did the discourses of Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. The notion of inalienable rights is rooted in Hobbesian theory, after Hobbes wrote in his Leviathan that "to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own Nature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, of doing anything, which in his own judgment, and eason, he shall conceive to be the (most) apt means thereunto," thus offering philosophy's most basic elucidation of the concept of inalienable rights. Western philosophy has always focused the attention of…… [Read More]

References

Wenar, L. (2011). Rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2011 Edition), Edward Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/entries/rights/ 

Greenwald, J. (1987, July 06). A gift to all nations. TIME, Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964901,00.html
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Stop Eating Meat Now

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62364160

Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis

Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).

In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." www.youtube.com Web. https://youtu.be/uQCe4qEexjc
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923

CAFO's

The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Human or Animal Behavior You

Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205

Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
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Students' Right to Free Speech the Right

Words: 1540 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6534914

Students' ight to Free Speech

The right of student to free speech is a matter that has been debated over years. Where many people claim that students, just like any other group of people, have the right of free speech, others claim that students should know where their limits end. Therefore, at many schools, colleges and universities, the students are provided with a code of conduct that they have to follow. This code of conduct defines rules of speech for the students; to tell them where they have to start speaking and where they should end. These codes have also been controversial in some places.

The right of free speech can be highlighted from the fact that the distinguishing feature between human beings and other creatures is speech. By the freedom of speech, one does not only mean to speak what one feels like speaking, but it means to express…… [Read More]

References

Ash, Timonthy Garton (2012). "The basic Principle." Free Speech Debate.

Biskupic, Joan (2007). "High court case tests limits of student speech rights." USA Today. Gannett Company.

Mears, Bill (2007). "High court hears 'Bong hits 4 Jesus' case." CNN.

Morrison, Eric (2008). "School Board, Frederick reach settlement in 'Bong Hits' case'." Juneau Empire. Morris Communications.
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Gay Lesbian Civil Rights

Words: 1626 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30047925

passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.

Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.

Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection

Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.

Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
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All Animals Are Equal by Peter Singer

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84736512

Equality

Taylor's "A Vindication of the Rights of Brutes" was a direct satirical response to Mary Wollstonecraft's "1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women." The title of Taylor's treatise suggests that the author is making a direct comparison between women (the subject of Wollstonecraft's work) and animals, beasts, or "brutes" (the title of Taylor's work). Therefore, Taylor's central argument against women's rights is that women are animals. If we do not give rights to cows and horses, then why would we proffer those rights to women? Taylor classifies women as an inferior species, likening them to animals. Singer points out that Taylor's argument is rooted in the assumption that animals are inferior to human beings.

Singer argues, "The extension of the basic principle of equality from one group to another does not imply that we must treat both groups in exactly the same way, or grant exactly the same rights…… [Read More]

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Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]

References

Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
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Man's Ability to Treat Humans Like Animals

Words: 4278 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22493133

Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals

It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.

Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty

"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chestnutt, Charles. Charles W. Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays, USA: Library of America,

2002.

Esposito, Scott, "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe," Los Angeles Times,468, 7 March 2010.

Mackay, Marina. The Cambridge Companion to The Literature Of World War II, New York,
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Civil Society and the Rights of Individuals

Words: 2888 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58339726

Civil Society and the ights of Individuals

Through the years, civil society and the rights of man have come to know many things. Many philosophers have helped lay the groundwork for how we govern ourselves today. We have words like democracy, autocracy, dictatorship, and other ways of defining a society and rules that determine what the rights of individuals will be. It was in the hands of philosophers like ousseau and Burke who began the discussions concerning what governs a society. These philosophers studied society and defined very particular beliefs concerning social, political, and economic ideas that were present in society. These philosophers tackled questions such as what the state of Man actually is, social regimes, religion, and other forms of nature. ousseau and Burke were philosophers with conflicting views on man and civil society. This paper will discuss their beliefs and how they are seemingly trying to teach the…… [Read More]

References

Burke, "Reflections on the Revolution in France," ed Pocock (Hackett)

Rousseau, "Basic Political Writing," tr Kress, intro P. Gay (Hackett)
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Infanticide in the Animal Kingdom

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61949023

After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.

In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Janson, Charles H. And Carel P. Van Schaik. Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Alan Gewirth and Human Rights

Words: 1914 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46330274

lan Gewirth and Human Rights

The philosophical concepts of human rights are many and varied. Yet, one of the theories that stands out the most in both approach and application is that of lan Gewirth.

His work demonstrates and ideal that has often been set as a stage for the application of many public issues, from law to psychology. Within the body of his works Gewirth argues that, "...human rights are best defended as necessary prerequisites for individual human beings' exercise of free and rational will." Giving license to the concepts of the right of all humans to act on their own behalf to meet their own needs of happiness through their own free will.

Hence, the value or requiredness of autonomy is not disproved by pointing to conditions whose efficacy stems from a violation of autonomy. The solution to this problem is to maintain or restore autonomy, not acquiesce…… [Read More]

Alan Gewirth, "The Immoral Sense," Criminal Justice Ethics 13.2 (1994), Questia, 22 Apr. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Alan Norrie, ed., Closure or Critique: New Directions in Legal Theory (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993) 22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14922739

Evelyn B. Pluhar, Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995) 240.
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King Leopolds Ghost Human Rights

Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23678110

Human Rights: King Leopold's Ghost

King Leopold's Ghost: Human Rights

Conflicting arguments have been put forth in response to the question of whether or not colonialism is justified. Proponents of colonialism argue that it helps to bring civilization, progress and growth in the colonizer's religion. However, evidence shows that colonialism only benefits the colonialist nation at the expense of the colonized population. This text demonstrates why this is so using the book 'King Leopold's Ghost' by Adam Hochschild.

Those that plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity? Was this hypocritical? How? What justifications for colonial imperialism have been put forward over the past five centuries?

Simply stated, colonial imperialism is the establishment and maintenance of a nation's ruler over an alien nation that is subordinate, yet separate from the ruling power. Imperial powers from ancient to modern periods have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brems, Eva. Human Rights: Universality and Diversity. London, UK: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001.

Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999.

Gale, Thomson. "Colonialism," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Accessed October 1, 2015, http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Colonialism.aspx
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Understanding the African American Civil Rights Movement

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74474002

Coming of Age in Mississippi" by Anne Moody

In her article "Coming of Age in Mississippi," dating from 1968, Anne Moody tells the story of her participation in a blood shed sit-in demonstration at Woolworth's lunch counter. She was a student at Toogalo College in Jackson Mississippi, member of the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The Association, under the leadership of John Salter, Moody's social science professor, undertook a boycott in public stores as one of the numerous forms of manifestation within the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. The story begins with three young African-American students were peacefully asking for the right to be served at the same lunch counter where the whites were sitting.

With a lack of sentimentality and with deliberate detachment, Moody succeeds to present a realistic picture of the heaviest segregated place on earth in the sixties, Jackson, Mississippi. Moody, along…… [Read More]

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Led Right Virtually Anyone Who Reads Shakespeare's

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7738802

Led Right

Virtually anyone who reads Shakespeare's tragedy Othello readily notices that despite his noble nature and good intentions, the title character of this work, Othello, is plagued by numerous faults which eventually lead to not only his own downfall, but also to that of his wife. Shakespeare portrays Othello as a good hearted man who is prone to fits of both anger and illness. However, his primary fault is his overall credulousness which, when combined with his previously mentioned faults, leaves him highly susceptible to the machinations of Iago -- one whose evil intentions a more discerning leader would have detected. It is due to Iago's intricate planning that Othello eventually believes that Desdemona is unfaithful to him, and kills her for that perceived transgression. However, all of Iago's cunningness would have gone for naught had Othello endeavored to be less gullible and trusting. Ultimately, it was this credulousness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. Othello, The Moore of Venice. MIT. 1993. Web.  http://shakespeare.mit.edu/
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Islamic and Christian Marriage Rights

Words: 2689 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36455568

estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.

However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.

This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al Faruqi, Lamya. 1994. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publishers.

Davis, Susan Schaefer. 1985. Patience and Power: Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village. Cambridge: Schenckman Books.

Harik, Ramsay M. And Marston, Elsa. 1996. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. New York: Franklin Watts.

Islam-Husain, Mahjabeen. 1997. "It's Up to Muslim Women to Reclaim Our God-Given Rights," in Islam. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
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Finding the Right Balance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60537756

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness

Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.

Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…… [Read More]

References

Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved  http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids 

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

 http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467
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Human Behave Toward the Members

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6510421

However, by looking at the eyes of an animal, one can find compassion or hate because predators do not require good eyesight, peripheral vision or binocular focus. David killed the numerous baby black widows not because they had tiny eyes that could not prompt his actions towards them, but because he dreaded them. David says the sight of the black widows struggle for space and life disturbed him, but he did not assure the reader that he would repeat or not repeat such behaviour again. His thoughts permit the reader to go through both internal and external feelings and thoughts of the narrator and all the activities in the essay.

Conclusion

The question, "How should a human behave toward the members of another species" helps in structuring the essay. The question has instigated several ideas from different philosophers and different people. It has prompted the issue of animal rights and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Quammen, David. The Flight of the Iguana. NY: Touchstone, 1988
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Toulmin-Based Argument in Support of Pet Adoptions

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78772346

Toulmin-Based Argument in Support of Pet Adoptions From Shelters

More people who want pets should adopt them from shelters because many unwanted animals are being destroyed each year in favor of purebred species obtained from other sources which provide their operators with a profit. The worth of the lives of these otherwise-doomed animals, though, far outweighs the individual pet-owning preferences of owners and no animal should be destroyed in favor of one that is bred for sale. Certainly, as discussed further below, this does not mean that individual pet-owners do not have a right to choose what type of animal they want for their families, but it does mean that more emphasis needs to be placed on pet adoptions from shelters to save as many animals from destruction as possible. In fact, some American communities have gone so far as to adopt a "no kill" policy in their pet shelters…… [Read More]

References

Boks, E. (2005, May). Carrot & stick. Vegetarian Times, 331, 54.

Cherry, R. (2007, April). Puppy love. Vegetarian Times, 349, 78-79.

Fine, A.H. (2006). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Guither, H.D. (1998). Animal rights: History and scope of a radical social movement.
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Enemies of Science Haldane P 225

Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96827417

HALDANE

"Some Enemies of Science" J.B.S. Haldane

The vivisection debate: J.B.S. Haldane's "Some enemies of science"

The vivisection debate is an old one. As early as 1928, the scientist J.B.S. Haldane rigorously defended the practice of vivisection against its earliest detractors, arguing that even moderate government regulation of scientific behavior to protect animal rights was hypocritical, given the way that animals were treated in other spheres of human life. In contrast, David Suzuki's 1989 essay "The pain of animals" highlights the central paradox of animal experimentation. On one hand, animal experiments are only useful because of our biological similarities to animals. On the other hand, we assert our right to exploit animals based upon our inherent differences from them. The intelligence of animals such as the chimpanzee is analogous to a two-year-old child and yet through logical sleight of hand we justify using chimps in the laboratory by calling them…… [Read More]

References

Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Suzuki, David. (2004). The pain of animals. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
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Cruelty and Thereafter Apply the

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73028253

No animal understands what experimentation is. Therefore, how does one decide whether it is ethical to conduct experiments on them, experiments that involve blatant cruelty and assault?

It must be remembered that those people who voice their objections to using animals in experimentation fall under two broad categories: animal welfare activists, and animal rights activists. hile those who belong to animal welfare groups do agree that animal experimentation must carry on, but that they must be minimized, so that the pain and suffering of the poor creatures is also minimized, those that belong to the animal rights group are more radical with their opinions. These people have often stated that animals too have their rights, in much the same way as human beings do, and that animals must therefore never be used for the purposes of experimentation, as this is extremely cruel, unkind, brutal and unethical. (Bridgstock, 69)

Going back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bridgstock, Martin. Science, technology and society.

Cambridge University Press. 1998.

Covino, Joseph. Lab animal abuse, vivisection exposed.

Epic Press. 1990.
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Conciliation for the Sake of

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82514145

"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.

It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001

Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.

Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx 

Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
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Greyhound Racing The Case for

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44572698

Not only does it use animals for mere entertainment at a huge cost to the welfare of those animals, but it also condones countless other modes of abuse and neglect -- from needless or excessive animal experimentation, vivisection, to "animal mills" or excessive breeding facilities based on the "bottom line," to the needless suffering and torture of livestock reared and killed in "factory farms." Yet this nation does have tremendous empathy in some of its ranks -- enough at times to galvanize law makers (like the ones in Pennsylvania) to enact laws against the mistreatment of animals in whatever form. Dog racing is on the decline. One has but to work a bit harder to see it eventually die out altogether.

orks Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2004. Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from http://www.lcanimal.org/cmpgn/cmpgn_011.htm

Nardone, Melani. "The Myth of Neutrality." Greyhound Muses. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from  http://www.greyhoundmuses.com/neutrality.htm . TheMyth of Neutrality. Melani Nardone 2004

Rhodes, Amy. "PETA ASKS GOVERNOR to CLOSE DOG TRACKS in LIGHT of OUTBREAKS." Peta Media Center. 2003. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from  http://www.peta.org /news/NewsItem.asp?id=2151
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Wildlife Attraction Ethics

Words: 2849 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82932250

Wildlife Attractions

Animal attractions such as zoological parks have long been a favorite amongst tourist. However there is a great deal of debate concerning the ethical responsibilities of placing animals on display. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ethic and pros and cons wildlife attractions. More specifically the research will address four main arguments as it pertains to wildlife attraction ethics. The arguments include scientific research, conservation, educating the public and entertainment. We will also discuss the deaths of animals at wildlife attractions. Let us begin by discussing the history of wildlife attractions.

History of Wildlife Attractions

According to Flippen (2004) the collection of animals has long been a form of colonial commerce. The ability of merchants to sell large animals was dependent upon factors such as the popularity of circus animals and the abilities of professional collectors who supplied them. The article explains that initially zoos…… [Read More]

References

Animal Ethics Clarifier.n.d.http://www.wolftrust.org.uk/aec-x-entries.html#zoos

Benbow, S. Mary P. 2004. Death and Dying at the Zoo. Journal of Popular Culture 37, no. 3: 379+.

Bostock, Stephen C. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals. New York: Routledge.

Flippen, Brooks. 2004. Animal Attractions: Nature on Display in American Zoos. Journal of Popular Culture 37, no. 3: 546+.
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Masson Jeffrey Moussaieff and Mccarthy

Words: 1698 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79764450

One of the humans working with her used sign language to ask her what she should do for an upset stomach. Koko signed back "stomach you there drink orange," "there" being the refrigerator, which Koko pointed at. Amazingly, ten days later Koko apparently remembered this and used sign language to find out if the woman was feeling better (p. 159). In another remarkable story, a chimpanzee learned to draw and sought the activity out although she was never rewarded for doing so (p. 203). The authors note that the animal may have started drawing to relieve the boredom of being in captivity, but point out that the animal still showed the desire to be creative artistically.

Ultimately the authors plainly state what they have been leading the readers to: "In the end, when we wonder whether to ascribe an emotion to an animal, the question to ask is not, 'Can…… [Read More]

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Narrative of the Life of

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37264527

Yet even when Douglass is the slave of a good white woman who treats him well physically by satisfying his bodily appetite for food and he is "better off in the regard" that he always has bread with him, unlike "many of the poor white children in the neighborhood," he does not regard himself as a happy child and envies the free white boys. In fact, "I used to bestow upon the hungry littler urchins," this bread of slavery, for the poor white boys, "in return, would give me that more valuable bread of knowledge."(1898, Chapter IIV)

Beasts can eat, but only human beings can think and learn. After Douglass gains literary knowledge, "I envied by fellow-slaves for their stupidity. I have often wished myself a beast. I preferred the condition of the meanest reptile to my own. (1899, Chapter IIV)

But slaves true higher nature that they possess as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. "Narrative of the Life of an American Slave." From the Norton Anthology of American Literature. Volume 1. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
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Rise of the Planet of the Apes

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49498136

Rise of the Planet of the Apes

The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.

Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
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Horse Slaughter Ethical Issues of

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76037399

Many also subscribe to religious beliefs according to which various gods created other animal species for human consumption and which fundamentally distinguish human life and animal life predicated on the religious belief that we are different in kind rather than merely in degree.

Contrary to the beliefs of the radical fringe of the animal rights movement, that moral burden does not require that we all become vegetarians to avoid eating other animals. It simply means that we have an objective ethical obligation to take reasonable steps to avoid causing the species we choose to consume any more trauma and physical pain than absolutely necessary. This principle actually predates modern society as it is evident in the laws practiced by Jews, for one example, since before the Common Era.

While certain elements of Jewish dietary laws pertain to distinguishing by species which animals are permissible to eat, other elements of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bright, M. (1994). Intelligence in Animals: The Earth, Its Wonders, Its Secrets.

Montreal: Reader's Digest Books

Coren, S. (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs: A Guide to the Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
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Abuse of Horses Boarding Horses

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89578883

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orks Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. "ASPCA Equine Program."

Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://www.aspca.org.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Neglected horsed die, more in danger." Retrieved April 6, 2007 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1887025.htm.

Crawfurd, John. "On the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization." Transactions

Of the Ethnological Society of London Vol. 2 (1863): 387-468.

Flynn, Clifton P. "hy Family Professionals Can No Longer Ignore Violence toward Animals."

Family Relations 49.1 (2000): 87-95.

Hortness, Darci. "Neglected Horses Rescued by DoubleHP." Argus Leader Media. Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.argusleader.com.

United States Equine Rescue League, Inc. "Abuse & Neglect." Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.ncerl.com/abuse/abuse.html.… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. "ASPCA Equine Program."

Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://www.aspca.org.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Neglected horsed die, more in danger." Retrieved April 6, 2007 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1887025.htm.

Crawfurd, John. "On the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization." Transactions
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Ethics & Sharks Ethical Issues

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934434



Sharks Are Dangerous to People:

Finally, with respect to the argument that sharks constitute a genuine danger because they often attack and eat human beings, that point is both inaccurate and simplistic. Sharks actually avoid human beings except where drawn to us, either by the scent of blood in the water or perceptible signs of physical stress, both of which they evolved over many millions of years to detect (Perrine 1995). The evidence actually suggests that many fatal attacks on humans are the result of sharks' mistaking us for their usual prey; that accounts for the relative frequency with which sharks initiate only one test bite without pursuing the attack further (Stevens 1999). In fact, the vast majority of shark attacks on human are attributable to the ridiculous practice of feeding sharks in the open ocean, such as in conjunction with tourist cruises and diving expeditions. These practices condition sharks…… [Read More]

References

Bright, M. (1994) Intelligence in Animals: The Earth, Its Wonders, Its Secrets.

Montreal: Reader's Digest Books

Broad, W. Scientists Say Frenzy Over Shark Attack Is Unwarranted; the New York Times (9/5/01). Accessed April 29, 2008, at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE3D61439F936A3575AC0A9679C8B63&n=Top/News/Science/Topics/Sharks

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
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Divorce Among the Gulls

Words: 360 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93348865

Philosophy

Divorce Among the Gulls

This section, "Pictures at a Scientific Exhibition" is about young college students in the 1960s. They have to conduct laboratory experiments on rats, and other small animals and they have to kill the animals cruelly to do the experiments. The author shows how the students start out squeamish about killing the animals, but by the end of the physiology course, they are immune to the suffering of the animals they kill and maim. He also says that the course did not discover anything new about science, and so really, the animals died horribly for nothing. The author thinks that scientific training makes people less compassionate and less caring, and that does not make them any better scientists. In fact, he thinks it makes them less wise and less humane. He thinks that scientists should be more rational and that would make them better scientists. His…… [Read More]

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Non Surgical Sterilization of the

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5393951



Varied Perspectives on Non-Surgical Sterilization Methods:

There have been varied perspectives on the use of non-surgical sterilization of the dog since these products do not entirely solve the problem of the overpopulation of dogs and cats. Additionally, the varied perspectives and arguments on the use of these methods have also been due to the fact that some people don't care since they want to breed their animals. Given that there is no secure and effective non-surgical sterilization method of the dog that has been identified and announced, the varied perspectives have continued to increase. However, there have been various approaches to identify non-surgical products though none of the products have shown tremendous results to be widely adopted and implemented (Bowen, 2006).

One of the major perspectives has been against the non-surgical sterilization of the dog since the methods that have been explored have not only been ineffective but have also…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R. (2006, April 25). Nonsurgical Sterilization of Dogs and Cats. Retrieved Colorado

State University website:  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/petpop/nonsurg.html 

Singer, J. (2010, January 13). Non-Surgical Pet Population Control: A Godsend or Nightmare.

Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.petside.com/petsideblog/2010/01/non-surgical-pet-population-co.php
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Peter Singer - Ethics Peter

Words: 2190 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60734239



Chickens never see the light of day nor set foot on solid ground. They are raised in wire cages no bigger than this page -- often three to a cage -- and thus are never able to spread their wings or to establish a normal pecking order. They are so unable to move that their feet grow around the wire (Spira, 2005). Packed confinement makes them try to kill each other. The "remedy" for this is to cut off their beaks. The optimal (profitable) speed for chopping beaks off is four beaks per minute. Workers in a hurry often miss and chop the flesh instead. In egg factories when egg production slows or stops, the chicken is placed in total darkness with no food or water for three days. Faced with certain death, a last-ditch reproductive response is triggered and she lays a flurry of eggs (Scully, 2003).

Animals forced…… [Read More]

References

Animal rights and animal welfare: The theoretical origins of new welfarism: Accessed 4/24/06: http://www.animal-law.org/library/araw_iii.htm.

Atlantic Monthly (2005). If pigs could swim, 296 (2), 134, 136-139.

Scully, M. (2003). Dominion: The power of man, the suffering of animals, and the call to mercy. Boston: St. Martin's Press.

DeGrazia, D. (2003). Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
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Psychologists Are Addressing Both Psychologists

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38204485

The next day he got an a on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not?

No, Todd cannot draw that conclusion from the limited experiment he conducted. First of all, Todd does not know how he would have performed on the test if he hadn't eaten the popcorn, and he hasn't considered all the other conditions that occurred and may be the necessary condition for getting an a on the test, such as: amount of studying, amount of sleep, type of food eaten, memory ability, learning ability, etc.

* Depict a scenario describing each of the three relationships with their required conditions as discussed earlier in the Analyzing Data section of this Journal Activity.

Necessary condition: If the child hears the English language spoken, the child may or may not learn to speak English.

Sufficient…… [Read More]