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The Rights of Animals Used in Lab Tests
Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69183405
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Is Such Testing Ethical?
Nowadays, animal testing is used in various fields such as the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Rabbits are commonly used in such tests. Sadly, the rabbits undergo torture and their survival it always at stake. I believe that such testing should end because it is unethical to treat animals are research objects or experimentation tools (Bilchitz, 2010). From this perspective, animals must be given equal rights to human beings to live a full life, free of suffering and pain. However, opponents of this point of view contend that though it is unethical to abuse these rabbits unnecessarily for the production of cosmetics, the testing must continue due to the enormous scientific resource that the rabbits offer. The advocates of this theory further assert that some advancement in the laboratories should strive to improve the rabbits’ living conditions.
Arguments Why Animal Testing is Ethical or Unethical
The center…

References
Allen, D., & Waters, M. D. (2014). Reducing, refining and replacing the use of animals in toxicity testing. Royal Society of Chemistry
Bilchitz, D. (January 01, 2010). Does transformative constitutionalism require the recognition of animal rights? Sa Publiekreg = Sa Public Law, 25, 2, 267-300.
Watson, S. (2009). Animal testing: Issues and ethics. New York: Rosen Pub.
 

Karen Joy Fowlers We are all Completely Beside Ourselves
Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75450801
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We are all Completely Beside Ourselves
“We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves” is Karen Joy Fowler’s sixth novel. It covers various sophisticated moral and ethical issues, in a young woman’s funny, witty and wry voice. Rosemary, the narrator, works hard to keep certain aspects of her young life a secret from other people. However, she also worked hard to conceal the secret from herself. Her sister and brother went missing, her father retreats into research and data while her mother became a shell. She tossed a glass full of milk on the floor and got arrested. But, something else ‘beside themselves’ is going on. It is a secret (Fowler, 2014).
The book analyzes an ostensibly experiment of nature vs. nature. If Fern was raised as human, what would she be capable of, especially in language literacy. According to Rosemary, a psychologist’s daughter, whatever is being studied is not what is…

References
Fowler, K. J. (2014). We are all completely beside ourselves. GP Putnam\\'s Sons.
Calarco, M. (2014). Boundary Issues: Human–Animal Relationships in Karen Joy Fowler\\'s We Are All Completely beside Ourselves. MFS Modern Fiction Studies, 60(3), 616-635.
Kingsolver, B. (2013). The Other Sister: Karen Joy Fowler’s We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves. New York Times.

Animal Experience
Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70658186
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Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site:  http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671 

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html

Are All Non Human Animals Equal
Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745
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Animal ights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…

References

Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.

Rights and Welfare of Animals
Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 54812576
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Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from  http://www.aspca.org .

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.

Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection The
Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14004763
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Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection:

The right to carry handguns for law abiding citizens has been a continual social and political debate about the restriction or availability of firearms within the country. Actually, the right to carry handguns has developed to become one of the major controversial and intractable issues within the social and political environments in the nation. The main reason attributed to the development of this controversial issue is the constitutional provision regarding firearms and the government's responsibility to prevent criminal activities, maintaining order, and safeguarding citizens' well-being. The debate has been characterized by different reasons that have been raised by intellectuals, social activists, and advocates in support and opposition of the controversial issue.

Historical Overview:

The debate regarding the right to carry and keep firearms can be traced to the inception of the gun culture, which explained the affections of American's citizens in adopting and celebrating…

Works Cited:

Arnold, Larry. "The History of Concealed Carry, 1976-2011." Texas Concealed Handgun Association. Texas Concealed Handgun Association, 25 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"THE FACTS: WHY RIGHT TO CARRY IS RIGHT FOR MISSOURI!" MOCCW - The Fight for Concealed Carry in Missouri. MOCCW.org, 9 May 2006. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"National Right to Carry Reciprocity Act of 2012" Introduced in U.S. Senate." USA Carry. USA Carry, 14 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"Right-To-Carry 2012." NRA-ILA: Insitute for Legislative Action. National Rifle Association of America. Institute for Legislative Action, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and
Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17902811
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The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89130367
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.

Circus Without Animals Imagine if
Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64660638
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Furthermore, animals are given much more respect within entertainment than otherwise. Animals are viewed with both awe and joy by those who are watching them. They raise the level of awareness we feel for animals and make the audience care more. They would receive no better treatment were they "in the wild" or domesticated. Having animals in entertainment can be equivalent to having a pet at home, both of which is not demeaning as a rule.

Using Animals within entertainment does not hurt animals, on the contrary it helps improve their overall image within audiences, and at the same time they receive special and respectful treatment from their caretakers. It is a win-win situation for both sides.

Anderson, Kay. 1998. Animals, Science and Spectacle in the City, in Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-Culture orderlands. 27-50. New York: Verso.

eardsworth, Alan…

Beardsworth, Alan and Alan Bryman. 2001. The wild animal in late modernity: The case of the Disneyization of zoos. Tourist Studies 1(1):83-104.

Bostock, S. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights. London and New York: Routledge.

Croke, Vicki. 1997. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos, Past, Present and Future. New York: Scribner.

Why Animal Testing Should Be Banned
Words: 2153 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18170868
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Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Testing for Medical Research or Commercial Products?
The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. – Genesis 9:2 (c. 1450 BCE)
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2019)
As the epigraphs above clearly show that humankind’s views about using animals for their own purposes have changed significantly over the past several millennia, but despite increasing condemnation by animal rights advocates, animal testing for medical research or commercial products continues around the…

Ethical Treatment of Animals the
Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60756557
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The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…

Bibliography

Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.

Evaluating the Health of Animal Species
Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078
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Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…

references/phspol.htm#Introduction.

Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available:  http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.

Origin of Rights in Today's
Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58213525
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In the 19th century, the idea and definition of rights was extended by calls for social and economic rights that came on the tail of rapid industrialization. This new era of rights was based upon the utilitarian idea of obtaining the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This included a discussion of property ownership, both private and common, and the ideas of public of rights and private responsibility (Nuncio).

By the 21st-century, the idea of rights has been transformed into a global political order based on constitutionalism and positive legalism. In a climate that supported the international will to maintain peace, the world's nations largely adopted a single agreement to ensure such rights. This agreement, the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted in December of 1948 (Nuncio). This Declaration included provisions for both rights of nations, and the rights of individuals (Human Rights eb; a…

Works Cited

Fagan, Andrew. Human Rights. in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, James Fieser, Ph.D., and Bradley Dowden, Ph.D., eds, 2004. 13 October 2004.  http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hum-rts.htm 

Human Rights Web. A Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/legal/undocs.html 

Human Rights Web. Short History of the Human Rights Movement, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004.  http://www.hrweb.org/history.html 

Nuncio, Rhod V., Prof. An ESSAY on the POWER DISCOURSE of RIGHTS: The History, Politics and End of Human Rights. Diwatao, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2001. 13 October 2004. http://www.geocities.com/philodept/diwatao/rights_discourse.htm

Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48069703
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Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily Wrong

Over time, vegetarians have presented a wide range of reasons as to why eating meat and/or any other product derived from animals is wrong. In seeking to support their position, most vegetarians cite the need to uphold animal rights. In the recent past, the number of people turning to vegetarian diet has been increasing steadily. However, regardless of this, it is important to note that a careful review of literature clearly demonstrates that the consumption of meat and/or other products derived from animals is not necessarily a bad thing.

In Zacharia's (2012) opinion, "the market for vegan food is booming." This effectively means that the number of those joining the vegetarian bandwagon is steadily increasing. However, a vast majority of the population still believes that there is nothing wrong with eating meat or any animal produce. It could be right.

To begin…

Motivational Theories of animal'shelters
Words: 1580 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91594106
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Functional motivation suggests that psychological factors, such as a need to feel useful, a need for a sense of purpose, motivate volunteerism (Widjaja, 2010). Therefore, volunteerism can be framed within the tenets of basic behaviorism and cognitive-behavioral principles. If volunteering feels good, then a person will be increasingly motivated to volunteer. Volunteering is not always selfless and altruistic; it can be ego-driven. In some situations, the motivation to volunteer comes from concrete extrinsic variables such as receiving credit in school or one's place of employment (Widjaja, 2010). Social motives for volunteering include social pressure or even shaming (Widjaja, 2010). Individuals can be pushed into volunteering from a sense of obligation or guilt, or pulled into it based on factors like boredom, curiosity, or an altruistic desire to promote the well being of others.
Self-determination theory takes individual differences into account, and differentiates between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation (Oostlander, Guntert,…

Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott
Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 37460457
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Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."

Right to Use the Name
Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16649736
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There have been several arguments with reference to the social impact of the Intellectual Property, and it has been observed that the Intellectual property law has been responsible for the promotion of the competitive forces in such a manner that 'antitrust law does not address, and may do so based on evidence that would be insufficient in an antitrust context' (Brinson, 1994). It is indeed a difficult practice related to the 'forced sharing to attain optimal competition' (Brinson, 1994), and it appear to be unwarranted 'in most antitrust contexts, and it is clear indication of the absent clear proof of market harm' (Thomas, 2006), although it is expected to 'constitute improved and comprehensive Intellectual Property policy, even in the presence of ambiguous evidence' (Brinson, 1994). The anti-trust law and the intellectual property law is expected to minimize the cost of three different things, which include, false positives, as per which…

References

Inigo Igartua Arregui. Refusals to Deal Involving Intellectual Property Rights. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 34. Issue: 4. 2003. Georgetown University Law Center.

J. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Radcliffe. Intellectual Property Law Primer for Multimedia Developers. 1994. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 23.

Keith Eugene Maskus. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. Harvard University Press. 2003. pp. 176.

James B. Kobak. Intellectual Property Misuse: Licensing and Litigation. American Bar Association Publication. 2000. pp. 87.

Slaughter of the Innocent
Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7929722
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Animal Rights

Slaughter of the Innocent

This is a paper on the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent'. There are two references used for this paper.

Ethical and animal rights issues raised by experimentation are important to many people today. It is interesting to look at the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent' and compare it with the principles of Buddhism.

Vivisection

Vivisection is the "term now used to apply to all types of experiments on living animals, whether or not cutting is done. Broadly, it is any form of animal experimentation, especially if considered to cause distress to the subject. The term also applies to experiments done with the administration of noxious substances, burns, electric or traumatic shocks, drawn-out deprivations of food and drink, and psychological tortures leading to mental imbalance (Ruesch)."

Many scientists torture thousands of animals every day under the pretense of medical research. They assert that through this…

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification." The Buddha.

Warm Blooded vs Cold Blooded Animals
Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40806833
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Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals

Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.

asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…

Bibliography

Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.

Common Property and Animal Testing
Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89483570
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Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).

The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.

For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…

Declaration of the Rights of Man Written
Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62650173
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Declaration of the Rights of Man, written by Lafayette during the reign of Louis XVI, is quite different to that of the Declaration of the Rights of oman created by De Gourges during the rule of the revolutionary French government.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man consists of 17 short and succinct points. As we see it has been approved by the National Assembly of France on August 26, 1789. Its passage seems to have been smooth. That of the Rights of oman, however, was formed and accepted by oen group -- a partisan group of women -- and even they did not reflect the general population of females who, as de Gourges remarks, are against the status quo being changed and would need males to campaign for any effective social change in their condition to be accomplished. De Gourges was correct. The first pamphlet, the Declaration of Man,…

Wherever woman's rights are lacking, such as by property and tax, De Gourges focuses on this omission so that her rhetoric exceeds the called-for principle.

The whole, in content, vaguely resembles that of the Declaration of the Rights of Man but differs so diametrically in spirit, that it turns out to have little resemblance. The first is direct and to the point, taking up more or less a page. The second absorbs nine pages, preceding and concluding with diatribe against man and pads its principles with the same. The first is a calm and direct document. The second is an angry, philandering one calling upon women to wake up to their injustice and to battle for their rights. De Gourges recognizes, however, that women, intimidated so long by men and content with their inferiority will less likely do so. It will need men to do so for them. She describes marriage as an entombment of trust and love and seems to state that the state of the unmarried woman, thoguh not perfect, is preferable to that of the married one, She also includes an appendix that promotes a 'social contract between Man and Woman regarding how to put her principles into effect.' Lafayette had no such social contract between Man and the French Government. De gouges' document was a memorandum for men's treatment of women. Lafayette's was of that between the French government and its citizens. Since the citizens who Lafayette had in mind were men and since they unilaterally wanted these changes, there was no, or little problem. De Gouges however called for significant changes in the status quo and she seemed to criticize the preset French Revolutionary government, and therefore the Reign of Terror executed her.

De Gourges, too, was atypical in her time. She refused to call herself 'widow' or accept her position as widowed mother as was conventional then. She publicized her illegitimate (or alleged illegitimate) roots, and created for herself the public life of an active woman on a par to that of men. She also left her son in order to do so. All of these acts, and others, were unconventional revolutionary acts, which were perceived as subversive and seditious. Executed in Paris on November 3, 1973, De Gouges appealed to others to continue her crusade.

Will Theory and Inalienable Rights
Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45097221
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Inalienable ights

Although America's founding documents declared unequivocally "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness," the signing of the Declaration of Independence did nothing more to end the debate over rights, power, and liberty than did the discourses of Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. The notion of inalienable rights is rooted in Hobbesian theory, after Hobbes wrote in his Leviathan that "to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own Nature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, of doing anything, which in his own judgment, and eason, he shall conceive to be the (most) apt means thereunto," thus offering philosophy's most basic elucidation of the concept of inalienable rights. Western philosophy has always focused the attention of…

References

Wenar, L. (2011). Rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2011 Edition), Edward Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/entries/rights/ 

Greenwald, J. (1987, July 06). A gift to all nations. TIME, Retrieved from  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964901,00.html

Stop Eating Meat Now
Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62364160
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Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis

Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).

In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…

Works Cited

Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." www.youtube.com Web.  https://youtu.be/uQCe4qEexjc

Medical Testing on Animals
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27055506
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against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available:  http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc .

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .

Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding
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CAFO's

The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013.  http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change 

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013.  http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp

Vindication of the Rights of
Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94246949
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Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.

Human or Animal Behavior You
Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205
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Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007  http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html

Gay Lesbian Civil Rights
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passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.

Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…

Works Cited

Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.

Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection

Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.

Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address  http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.

Film Culture and its Impact on Civil and Social Rights
Words: 4688 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16536715
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Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights

Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…

Man's Ability to Treat Humans Like Animals
Words: 4278 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22493133
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Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals

It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.

Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty

"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…

Works Cited

Chestnutt, Charles. Charles W. Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays, USA: Library of America,

2002.

Esposito, Scott, "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe," Los Angeles Times,468, 7 March 2010.

Mackay, Marina. The Cambridge Companion to The Literature Of World War II, New York,

Infanticide in the Animal Kingdom
Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61949023
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After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.

In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are…

Works Cited

Janson, Charles H. And Carel P. Van Schaik. Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Alan Gewirth and Human Rights
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lan Gewirth and Human Rights

The philosophical concepts of human rights are many and varied. Yet, one of the theories that stands out the most in both approach and application is that of lan Gewirth.

His work demonstrates and ideal that has often been set as a stage for the application of many public issues, from law to psychology. Within the body of his works Gewirth argues that, "...human rights are best defended as necessary prerequisites for individual human beings' exercise of free and rational will." Giving license to the concepts of the right of all humans to act on their own behalf to meet their own needs of happiness through their own free will.

Hence, the value or requiredness of autonomy is not disproved by pointing to conditions whose efficacy stems from a violation of autonomy. The solution to this problem is to maintain or restore autonomy, not acquiesce…

Alan Gewirth, "The Immoral Sense," Criminal Justice Ethics 13.2 (1994), Questia, 22 Apr. 2004  http://www.questia.com/ .

Alan Norrie, ed., Closure or Critique: New Directions in Legal Theory (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993) 22.

Pinochet Case's Is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists
Words: 2174 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87565104
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Pinochet's Case is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists

Although hampered by internal constraints and challenges, the nation of Chile stands poised to enter the 21st century as a major player in the world's international community. On the one hand, the sound economic policies that were first implemented by the Pinochet dictatorship resulted in unprecedented growth in 1991- 1997; these policies have also helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. On the other hand, General Augusto Pinochet has been found guilty of the torture, disappearance, and murder of thousands of Chileans, including international citizens, but he has not yet been brought to justice. After Patricio Aylwin inaugurated a democratic presidency in 1990, he continues to bring excuses for Pinochet's actions or exercises control to avoid facing justice. Pinochet declared himself as Commander of Chief of the Army and afterwards, Senator for life in Chile.…

Works Cited

Blakesley, Christopher. "Autumn of the Patriarch: The Pinochet Extradition Debacle and Beyond." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.1 (2000): 1.

Ensalaco, Mark. Chile Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Facts on File. "Chile: Pinochet Ruled Unfit for Trial, Resigns." Facts On File World News Digest, 2002. Multnomah County Library, Portland, Oregon. 11 Jul. 2002.  http://www.2facts.com .

Hawkins, Darren. "Universal Jurisdiction for Human Rights: From Legal Principle to Limited Reality." Global Governance 9. 3 (2003): 347+.

King Leopolds Ghost Human Rights
Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23678110
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Human Rights: King Leopold's Ghost

King Leopold's Ghost: Human Rights

Conflicting arguments have been put forth in response to the question of whether or not colonialism is justified. Proponents of colonialism argue that it helps to bring civilization, progress and growth in the colonizer's religion. However, evidence shows that colonialism only benefits the colonialist nation at the expense of the colonized population. This text demonstrates why this is so using the book 'King Leopold's Ghost' by Adam Hochschild.

Those that plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity? Was this hypocritical? How? What justifications for colonial imperialism have been put forward over the past five centuries?

Simply stated, colonial imperialism is the establishment and maintenance of a nation's ruler over an alien nation that is subordinate, yet separate from the ruling power. Imperial powers from ancient to modern periods have…

Bibliography

Brems, Eva. Human Rights: Universality and Diversity. London, UK: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001.

Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999.

Gale, Thomson. "Colonialism," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Accessed October 1, 2015,  http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Colonialism.aspx

Understanding the African American Civil Rights Movement
Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74474002
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Coming of Age in Mississippi" by Anne Moody

In her article "Coming of Age in Mississippi," dating from 1968, Anne Moody tells the story of her participation in a blood shed sit-in demonstration at Woolworth's lunch counter. She was a student at Toogalo College in Jackson Mississippi, member of the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The Association, under the leadership of John Salter, Moody's social science professor, undertook a boycott in public stores as one of the numerous forms of manifestation within the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. The story begins with three young African-American students were peacefully asking for the right to be served at the same lunch counter where the whites were sitting.

With a lack of sentimentality and with deliberate detachment, Moody succeeds to present a realistic picture of the heaviest segregated place on earth in the sixties, Jackson, Mississippi. Moody, along…

Led Right Virtually Anyone Who Reads Shakespeare's
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Led Right

Virtually anyone who reads Shakespeare's tragedy Othello readily notices that despite his noble nature and good intentions, the title character of this work, Othello, is plagued by numerous faults which eventually lead to not only his own downfall, but also to that of his wife. Shakespeare portrays Othello as a good hearted man who is prone to fits of both anger and illness. However, his primary fault is his overall credulousness which, when combined with his previously mentioned faults, leaves him highly susceptible to the machinations of Iago -- one whose evil intentions a more discerning leader would have detected. It is due to Iago's intricate planning that Othello eventually believes that Desdemona is unfaithful to him, and kills her for that perceived transgression. However, all of Iago's cunningness would have gone for naught had Othello endeavored to be less gullible and trusting. Ultimately, it was this credulousness…

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. Othello, The Moore of Venice. MIT. 1993. Web.  http://shakespeare.mit.edu/

Islamic and Christian Marriage Rights
Words: 2689 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36455568
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estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.

However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.

This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…

Works Cited

Al Faruqi, Lamya. 1994. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publishers.

Davis, Susan Schaefer. 1985. Patience and Power: Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village. Cambridge: Schenckman Books.

Harik, Ramsay M. And Marston, Elsa. 1996. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. New York: Franklin Watts.

Islam-Husain, Mahjabeen. 1997. "It's Up to Muslim Women to Reclaim Our God-Given Rights," in Islam. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Finding the Right Balance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 60537756
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness

Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.

Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…

References

Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved  http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids 

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

 http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467

Human Behave Toward the Members
Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6510421
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However, by looking at the eyes of an animal, one can find compassion or hate because predators do not require good eyesight, peripheral vision or binocular focus. David killed the numerous baby black widows not because they had tiny eyes that could not prompt his actions towards them, but because he dreaded them. David says the sight of the black widows struggle for space and life disturbed him, but he did not assure the reader that he would repeat or not repeat such behaviour again. His thoughts permit the reader to go through both internal and external feelings and thoughts of the narrator and all the activities in the essay.

Conclusion

The question, "How should a human behave toward the members of another species" helps in structuring the essay. The question has instigated several ideas from different philosophers and different people. It has prompted the issue of animal rights and…

Work Cited

Quammen, David. The Flight of the Iguana. NY: Touchstone, 1988