Animal Rights Essays (Examples)

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The Rights of Animals Used in Lab Tests

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69183405

Is Such Testing Ethical?
Nowadays, animal testing is used in various fields such as the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Rabbits are commonly used in such tests. Sadly, the rabbits undergo torture and their survival it always at stake. I believe that such testing should end because it is unethical to treat animals are research objects or experimentation tools (Bilchitz, 2010). From this perspective, animals must be given equal rights to human beings to live a full life, free of suffering and pain. However, opponents of this point of view contend that though it is unethical to abuse these rabbits unnecessarily for the production of cosmetics, the testing must continue due to the enormous scientific resource that the rabbits offer. The advocates of this theory further assert that some advancement in the laboratories should strive to improve the rabbits’ living conditions.
Arguments Why Animal Testing is Ethical or Unethical
The center…… [Read More]


Allen, D., & Waters, M. D. (2014). Reducing, refining and replacing the use of animals in toxicity testing. Royal Society of Chemistry

Bilchitz, D. (January 01, 2010). Does transformative constitutionalism require the recognition of animal rights? Sa Publiekreg = Sa Public Law, 25, 2, 267-300.

Watson, S. (2009). Animal testing: Issues and ethics. New York: Rosen Pub.


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Animal Experience

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658186

Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from Web site:

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from Web site:
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Are All Non Human Animals Equal

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745

Animal ights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…… [Read More]


Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.


The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from
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Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection The

Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14004763

Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection:

The right to carry handguns for law abiding citizens has been a continual social and political debate about the restriction or availability of firearms within the country. Actually, the right to carry handguns has developed to become one of the major controversial and intractable issues within the social and political environments in the nation. The main reason attributed to the development of this controversial issue is the constitutional provision regarding firearms and the government's responsibility to prevent criminal activities, maintaining order, and safeguarding citizens' well-being. The debate has been characterized by different reasons that have been raised by intellectuals, social activists, and advocates in support and opposition of the controversial issue.

Historical Overview:

The debate regarding the right to carry and keep firearms can be traced to the inception of the gun culture, which explained the affections of American's citizens in adopting and celebrating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arnold, Larry. "The History of Concealed Carry, 1976-2011." Texas Concealed Handgun Association. Texas Concealed Handgun Association, 25 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"THE FACTS: WHY RIGHT TO CARRY IS RIGHT FOR MISSOURI!" MOCCW - The Fight for Concealed Carry in Missouri., 9 May 2006. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"National Right to Carry Reciprocity Act of 2012" Introduced in U.S. Senate." USA Carry. USA Carry, 14 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .

"Right-To-Carry 2012." NRA-ILA: Insitute for Legislative Action. National Rifle Association of America. Institute for Legislative Action, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
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Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and

Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17902811

The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. last Updated October 1, 2006. Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
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Argument for in Favor of Keeping Animals in Zoos

Words: 2974 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41647202

Zoo Animals

Human beings have kept animals in zoos for centuries, but only relatively recently have the ethical considerations of this practice been widely considered. At one extreme are those individuals and organizations that see no problem keeping animals in zoos and other attractions, in keeping with the long history of animal confinement in the service of human entertainment, and at the other extreme are those individuals and groups arguing that animals should not be kept in zoos out of ethical considerations. However, this dichotomy has been complicated in recent years as zoos have increasingly become some of the most important centers of animal conservancy efforts, forcing a reevaluation of the ethical status of zoos in regards to the animals they contain, and the potential benefit they provide. Examining the history of zoos, their potential for harm, and the ways they might better consider animal welfare reveals that not only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bostock, Stephen. Zoos and animal rights: the ethics of keeping animals. London: Routledge,


Cohn, Jeffrey P. "Do Elephants Belong in Zoos?" Bioscience 56.9 (2006): 714-7.

Cui, Bingbing, and Dezhong Jiang. "The Problems and Countermeasures of Animal Protection in Zoos-Take Shenyang Glacier Zoo for Example." International Journal of Biology 3.1
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644

In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]


Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009.
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Circus Without Animals Imagine if

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64660638

Furthermore, animals are given much more respect within entertainment than otherwise. Animals are viewed with both awe and joy by those who are watching them. They raise the level of awareness we feel for animals and make the audience care more. They would receive no better treatment were they "in the wild" or domesticated. Having animals in entertainment can be equivalent to having a pet at home, both of which is not demeaning as a rule.

Using Animals within entertainment does not hurt animals, on the contrary it helps improve their overall image within audiences, and at the same time they receive special and respectful treatment from their caretakers. It is a win-win situation for both sides.

Anderson, Kay. 1998. Animals, Science and Spectacle in the City, in Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-Culture orderlands. 27-50. New York: Verso.

eardsworth, Alan…… [Read More]

Beardsworth, Alan and Alan Bryman. 2001. The wild animal in late modernity: The case of the Disneyization of zoos. Tourist Studies 1(1):83-104.

Bostock, S. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights. London and New York: Routledge.

Croke, Vicki. 1997. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos, Past, Present and Future. New York: Scribner.
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Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]


Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
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Evaluating the Health of Animal Species

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078

Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]


Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: .

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Origin of Rights in Today's

Words: 1404 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58213525

In the 19th century, the idea and definition of rights was extended by calls for social and economic rights that came on the tail of rapid industrialization. This new era of rights was based upon the utilitarian idea of obtaining the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This included a discussion of property ownership, both private and common, and the ideas of public of rights and private responsibility (Nuncio).

By the 21st-century, the idea of rights has been transformed into a global political order based on constitutionalism and positive legalism. In a climate that supported the international will to maintain peace, the world's nations largely adopted a single agreement to ensure such rights. This agreement, the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted in December of 1948 (Nuncio). This Declaration included provisions for both rights of nations, and the rights of individuals (Human Rights eb; a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fagan, Andrew. Human Rights. in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, James Fieser, Ph.D., and Bradley Dowden, Ph.D., eds, 2004. 13 October 2004.

Human Rights Web. A Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004. 

Human Rights Web. Short History of the Human Rights Movement, 1997. Last edited on January 25, 1997. 13 October 2004. 

Nuncio, Rhod V., Prof. An ESSAY on the POWER DISCOURSE of RIGHTS: The History, Politics and End of Human Rights. Diwatao, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2001. 13 October 2004.
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Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48069703

Killing Animals for Food Is Not Necessarily Wrong

Over time, vegetarians have presented a wide range of reasons as to why eating meat and/or any other product derived from animals is wrong. In seeking to support their position, most vegetarians cite the need to uphold animal rights. In the recent past, the number of people turning to vegetarian diet has been increasing steadily. However, regardless of this, it is important to note that a careful review of literature clearly demonstrates that the consumption of meat and/or other products derived from animals is not necessarily a bad thing.

In Zacharia's (2012) opinion, "the market for vegan food is booming." This effectively means that the number of those joining the vegetarian bandwagon is steadily increasing. However, a vast majority of the population still believes that there is nothing wrong with eating meat or any animal produce. It could be right.

To begin…… [Read More]

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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Extinction

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23113659


Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionists for generations after Darwin imagined a slow and steady process of adaptation, in which daily culling and breeding success very gradually adapted a population from one form into another. Such a process would not be dissimilar to unnatural selection, such as that done with domesticated animals, that gradually worked to change a wolf into a little Cairn Terrier or Shih Tzu. However, some have suggested that there might be a more sudden sort of change involved, in which evolution moves suddenly and with great speed. This theorized form of evolution, called punctuated equilibrium, has been widely debated, but seems to be increasingly accepted by scientists. There appears to be evidence for punctuated equilibrium from laboratory experiments, from field and fossil evidence, from theory and even from Darwin's original work.

It is a common misconception that evolution cannot be experimentally studied in laboratories -- actually, a number…… [Read More]


Broyles, R.C. 1997. Punctuated Equilibrium.

Kerr, R.A. 1995. Did Darwin get it all right? Science, v267 n5203 p1421(2)

Mlot, Christine. 1996. Microbes hint at a mechanism behind punctuated evolution. Science, v272 n5269 p1741(1)

Theobald, D. 2003. All you need to know about Punctuated Equilibrium (almost): Common misconceptions concerning the hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium. University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Right to Use the Name

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16649736

There have been several arguments with reference to the social impact of the Intellectual Property, and it has been observed that the Intellectual property law has been responsible for the promotion of the competitive forces in such a manner that 'antitrust law does not address, and may do so based on evidence that would be insufficient in an antitrust context' (Brinson, 1994). It is indeed a difficult practice related to the 'forced sharing to attain optimal competition' (Brinson, 1994), and it appear to be unwarranted 'in most antitrust contexts, and it is clear indication of the absent clear proof of market harm' (Thomas, 2006), although it is expected to 'constitute improved and comprehensive Intellectual Property policy, even in the presence of ambiguous evidence' (Brinson, 1994). The anti-trust law and the intellectual property law is expected to minimize the cost of three different things, which include, false positives, as per which…… [Read More]


Inigo Igartua Arregui. Refusals to Deal Involving Intellectual Property Rights. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 34. Issue: 4. 2003. Georgetown University Law Center.

J. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Radcliffe. Intellectual Property Law Primer for Multimedia Developers. 1994. Law and Policy in International Business. Volume: 23.

Keith Eugene Maskus. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. Harvard University Press. 2003. pp. 176.

James B. Kobak. Intellectual Property Misuse: Licensing and Litigation. American Bar Association Publication. 2000. pp. 87.
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Slaughter of the Innocent

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7929722

Animal Rights

Slaughter of the Innocent

This is a paper on the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent'. There are two references used for this paper.

Ethical and animal rights issues raised by experimentation are important to many people today. It is interesting to look at the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent' and compare it with the principles of Buddhism.


Vivisection is the "term now used to apply to all types of experiments on living animals, whether or not cutting is done. Broadly, it is any form of animal experimentation, especially if considered to cause distress to the subject. The term also applies to experiments done with the administration of noxious substances, burns, electric or traumatic shocks, drawn-out deprivations of food and drink, and psychological tortures leading to mental imbalance (Ruesch)."

Many scientists torture thousands of animals every day under the pretense of medical research. They assert that through this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification." The Buddha.
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Psychological Research on Animals Is

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85577964

The purpose is to determine whether the "face-processing system of humans" and in this case, the tamarin, share characteristics.

By finding out if humans' face-processing systems and the face-processing systems of the tamarin are similar, the researchers will be more readily be able to allow "early and quick processing of socially salient stimuli" (Neiworth, et al., 2003). Do humans and primate share sensitivity toward "conspecific faces" (i.e., faces of the same species), and do they share an ability to "generalize changes in the face that do not suggest a new identity" (Neiworth). The researchers presented the subjects (a human and taramin) with "a human face, chimpanzee face, taramin face, or an object as a sample." The faces were either in an upright position, or inverted in the next phase of the research.

Conclusion: The above-mentioned research is an example of a totally ethical, well-managed psychological experiment. The results showed that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychological Association. (2010). Animal Research Advances Animal and Human

Welfare: Research Animals in Psychology. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from .

Neiworth, Julie J., Hassett, Janice M., and Sylvester, Cara J. (2003). Face processing in humans

and new world monkeys: the influence of experiential and ecological factors. Animal Cognition. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from
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Warm Blooded vs Cold Blooded Animals

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40806833

Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals

Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.

asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…… [Read More]


Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.
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Declaration of the Rights of Man Written

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62650173

Declaration of the Rights of Man, written by Lafayette during the reign of Louis XVI, is quite different to that of the Declaration of the Rights of oman created by De Gourges during the rule of the revolutionary French government.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man consists of 17 short and succinct points. As we see it has been approved by the National Assembly of France on August 26, 1789. Its passage seems to have been smooth. That of the Rights of oman, however, was formed and accepted by oen group -- a partisan group of women -- and even they did not reflect the general population of females who, as de Gourges remarks, are against the status quo being changed and would need males to campaign for any effective social change in their condition to be accomplished. De Gourges was correct. The first pamphlet, the Declaration of Man,…… [Read More]

Wherever woman's rights are lacking, such as by property and tax, De Gourges focuses on this omission so that her rhetoric exceeds the called-for principle.

The whole, in content, vaguely resembles that of the Declaration of the Rights of Man but differs so diametrically in spirit, that it turns out to have little resemblance. The first is direct and to the point, taking up more or less a page. The second absorbs nine pages, preceding and concluding with diatribe against man and pads its principles with the same. The first is a calm and direct document. The second is an angry, philandering one calling upon women to wake up to their injustice and to battle for their rights. De Gourges recognizes, however, that women, intimidated so long by men and content with their inferiority will less likely do so. It will need men to do so for them. She describes marriage as an entombment of trust and love and seems to state that the state of the unmarried woman, thoguh not perfect, is preferable to that of the married one, She also includes an appendix that promotes a 'social contract between Man and Woman regarding how to put her principles into effect.' Lafayette had no such social contract between Man and the French Government. De gouges' document was a memorandum for men's treatment of women. Lafayette's was of that between the French government and its citizens. Since the citizens who Lafayette had in mind were men and since they unilaterally wanted these changes, there was no, or little problem. De Gouges however called for significant changes in the status quo and she seemed to criticize the preset French Revolutionary government, and therefore the Reign of Terror executed her.

De Gourges, too, was atypical in her time. She refused to call herself 'widow' or accept her position as widowed mother as was conventional then. She publicized her illegitimate (or alleged illegitimate) roots, and created for herself the public life of an active woman on a par to that of men. She also left her son in order to do so. All of these acts, and others, were unconventional revolutionary acts, which were perceived as subversive and seditious. Executed in Paris on November 3, 1973, De Gouges appealed to others to continue her crusade.
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Will Theory and Inalienable Rights

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45097221

Inalienable ights

Although America's founding documents declared unequivocally "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness," the signing of the Declaration of Independence did nothing more to end the debate over rights, power, and liberty than did the discourses of Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. The notion of inalienable rights is rooted in Hobbesian theory, after Hobbes wrote in his Leviathan that "to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own Nature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, of doing anything, which in his own judgment, and eason, he shall conceive to be the (most) apt means thereunto," thus offering philosophy's most basic elucidation of the concept of inalienable rights. Western philosophy has always focused the attention of…… [Read More]


Wenar, L. (2011). Rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2011 Edition), Edward Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from 

Greenwald, J. (1987, July 06). A gift to all nations. TIME, Retrieved from,9171,964901,00.html
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Stop Eating Meat Now

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62364160

Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis

Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).

In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." Web.
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available:

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available: .
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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923


The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013.

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013.
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Human or Animal Behavior You

Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205

Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007
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Students' Right to Free Speech the Right

Words: 1540 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6534914

Students' ight to Free Speech

The right of student to free speech is a matter that has been debated over years. Where many people claim that students, just like any other group of people, have the right of free speech, others claim that students should know where their limits end. Therefore, at many schools, colleges and universities, the students are provided with a code of conduct that they have to follow. This code of conduct defines rules of speech for the students; to tell them where they have to start speaking and where they should end. These codes have also been controversial in some places.

The right of free speech can be highlighted from the fact that the distinguishing feature between human beings and other creatures is speech. By the freedom of speech, one does not only mean to speak what one feels like speaking, but it means to express…… [Read More]


Ash, Timonthy Garton (2012). "The basic Principle." Free Speech Debate.

Biskupic, Joan (2007). "High court case tests limits of student speech rights." USA Today. Gannett Company.

Mears, Bill (2007). "High court hears 'Bong hits 4 Jesus' case." CNN.

Morrison, Eric (2008). "School Board, Frederick reach settlement in 'Bong Hits' case'." Juneau Empire. Morris Communications.
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Gay Lesbian Civil Rights

Words: 1626 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30047925

passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.

Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.

Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection

Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.

Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
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Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]


Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
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Man's Ability to Treat Humans Like Animals

Words: 4278 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22493133

Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals

It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.

Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty

"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chestnutt, Charles. Charles W. Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays, USA: Library of America,


Esposito, Scott, "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe," Los Angeles Times,468, 7 March 2010.

Mackay, Marina. The Cambridge Companion to The Literature Of World War II, New York,
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Civil Society and the Rights of Individuals

Words: 2888 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58339726

Civil Society and the ights of Individuals

Through the years, civil society and the rights of man have come to know many things. Many philosophers have helped lay the groundwork for how we govern ourselves today. We have words like democracy, autocracy, dictatorship, and other ways of defining a society and rules that determine what the rights of individuals will be. It was in the hands of philosophers like ousseau and Burke who began the discussions concerning what governs a society. These philosophers studied society and defined very particular beliefs concerning social, political, and economic ideas that were present in society. These philosophers tackled questions such as what the state of Man actually is, social regimes, religion, and other forms of nature. ousseau and Burke were philosophers with conflicting views on man and civil society. This paper will discuss their beliefs and how they are seemingly trying to teach the…… [Read More]


Burke, "Reflections on the Revolution in France," ed Pocock (Hackett)

Rousseau, "Basic Political Writing," tr Kress, intro P. Gay (Hackett)
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Infanticide in the Animal Kingdom

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61949023

After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.

In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Janson, Charles H. And Carel P. Van Schaik. Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Alan Gewirth and Human Rights

Words: 1914 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46330274

lan Gewirth and Human Rights

The philosophical concepts of human rights are many and varied. Yet, one of the theories that stands out the most in both approach and application is that of lan Gewirth.

His work demonstrates and ideal that has often been set as a stage for the application of many public issues, from law to psychology. Within the body of his works Gewirth argues that, "...human rights are best defended as necessary prerequisites for individual human beings' exercise of free and rational will." Giving license to the concepts of the right of all humans to act on their own behalf to meet their own needs of happiness through their own free will.

Hence, the value or requiredness of autonomy is not disproved by pointing to conditions whose efficacy stems from a violation of autonomy. The solution to this problem is to maintain or restore autonomy, not acquiesce…… [Read More]

Alan Gewirth, "The Immoral Sense," Criminal Justice Ethics 13.2 (1994), Questia, 22 Apr. 2004

Alan Norrie, ed., Closure or Critique: New Directions in Legal Theory (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993) 22.

Evelyn B. Pluhar, Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995) 240.
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Pinochet Case's Is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists

Words: 2174 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87565104

Pinochet's Case is Not Yet Satisfying to Chilean and Human Rights Activists

Although hampered by internal constraints and challenges, the nation of Chile stands poised to enter the 21st century as a major player in the world's international community. On the one hand, the sound economic policies that were first implemented by the Pinochet dictatorship resulted in unprecedented growth in 1991- 1997; these policies have also helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. On the other hand, General Augusto Pinochet has been found guilty of the torture, disappearance, and murder of thousands of Chileans, including international citizens, but he has not yet been brought to justice. After Patricio Aylwin inaugurated a democratic presidency in 1990, he continues to bring excuses for Pinochet's actions or exercises control to avoid facing justice. Pinochet declared himself as Commander of Chief of the Army and afterwards, Senator for life in Chile.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blakesley, Christopher. "Autumn of the Patriarch: The Pinochet Extradition Debacle and Beyond." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.1 (2000): 1.

Ensalaco, Mark. Chile Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Facts on File. "Chile: Pinochet Ruled Unfit for Trial, Resigns." Facts On File World News Digest, 2002. Multnomah County Library, Portland, Oregon. 11 Jul. 2002.

Hawkins, Darren. "Universal Jurisdiction for Human Rights: From Legal Principle to Limited Reality." Global Governance 9. 3 (2003): 347+.
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King Leopolds Ghost Human Rights

Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23678110

Human Rights: King Leopold's Ghost

King Leopold's Ghost: Human Rights

Conflicting arguments have been put forth in response to the question of whether or not colonialism is justified. Proponents of colonialism argue that it helps to bring civilization, progress and growth in the colonizer's religion. However, evidence shows that colonialism only benefits the colonialist nation at the expense of the colonized population. This text demonstrates why this is so using the book 'King Leopold's Ghost' by Adam Hochschild.

Those that plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity? Was this hypocritical? How? What justifications for colonial imperialism have been put forward over the past five centuries?

Simply stated, colonial imperialism is the establishment and maintenance of a nation's ruler over an alien nation that is subordinate, yet separate from the ruling power. Imperial powers from ancient to modern periods have…… [Read More]


Brems, Eva. Human Rights: Universality and Diversity. London, UK: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001.

Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999.

Gale, Thomson. "Colonialism," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Accessed October 1, 2015,
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Understanding the African American Civil Rights Movement

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74474002

Coming of Age in Mississippi" by Anne Moody

In her article "Coming of Age in Mississippi," dating from 1968, Anne Moody tells the story of her participation in a blood shed sit-in demonstration at Woolworth's lunch counter. She was a student at Toogalo College in Jackson Mississippi, member of the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The Association, under the leadership of John Salter, Moody's social science professor, undertook a boycott in public stores as one of the numerous forms of manifestation within the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. The story begins with three young African-American students were peacefully asking for the right to be served at the same lunch counter where the whites were sitting.

With a lack of sentimentality and with deliberate detachment, Moody succeeds to present a realistic picture of the heaviest segregated place on earth in the sixties, Jackson, Mississippi. Moody, along…… [Read More]

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Led Right Virtually Anyone Who Reads Shakespeare's

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7738802

Led Right

Virtually anyone who reads Shakespeare's tragedy Othello readily notices that despite his noble nature and good intentions, the title character of this work, Othello, is plagued by numerous faults which eventually lead to not only his own downfall, but also to that of his wife. Shakespeare portrays Othello as a good hearted man who is prone to fits of both anger and illness. However, his primary fault is his overall credulousness which, when combined with his previously mentioned faults, leaves him highly susceptible to the machinations of Iago -- one whose evil intentions a more discerning leader would have detected. It is due to Iago's intricate planning that Othello eventually believes that Desdemona is unfaithful to him, and kills her for that perceived transgression. However, all of Iago's cunningness would have gone for naught had Othello endeavored to be less gullible and trusting. Ultimately, it was this credulousness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. Othello, The Moore of Venice. MIT. 1993. Web.
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Islamic and Christian Marriage Rights

Words: 2689 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36455568

estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.

However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.

This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al Faruqi, Lamya. 1994. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publishers.

Davis, Susan Schaefer. 1985. Patience and Power: Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village. Cambridge: Schenckman Books.

Harik, Ramsay M. And Marston, Elsa. 1996. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. New York: Franklin Watts.

Islam-Husain, Mahjabeen. 1997. "It's Up to Muslim Women to Reclaim Our God-Given Rights," in Islam. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
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Finding the Right Balance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60537756

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness

Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.

Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…… [Read More]


Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from: