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Vonnegut and Sassoon -- Anti-War Sentiments in Writing
Kurt Vonnegut and Sigfried Sassoon are both war veterans turned writers who have writings that can be expressed as anti-war. With both men, their experiences in war left them very much opposed to it and with a sense of its futility. They chose to express these feelings in writing, but did so in very different ways. Vonnegut expressed his anti-war sentiments in prose, most notably in his famous novel, "Slaughterhouse Five." Sassoon expressed his in poetry. Also, Vonnegut's anti-war sentiments are more metaphorical and have to be teased out of his writing, whereas Sassoon's are much more literal and are evident in every word that he writes. There is no mistaking how Sassoon feels about war once one reads his poems. This paper examines "Slaughterhouse Five" and three different poems by Sassoon, and how these writings express the anti-war sentiments…
Sassoon, Sigfried. Counter-Attack and Other Poems. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1918.
Sassoon, Sigfried. Memoirs of an Infantry Officer. New York: Simon Publications, 1930.
Sumner, Gregory D. Unstuck in Time: A Journey Through Kurt Vonnegut's Life and Novels. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2011.
Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Delacorte, 1969.
Neoliberalism is both an ideology and philosophy which believes that "human welfare is best promoted by economic growth, which in turn is best enabled by reducing the interference of governments in the private sector. Neo-liberals also support measures that enable trade and finance to have unrestricted movement across national borders. These policies attempt to 'roll back' the state and the role of government, and leave decisions about allocation, production and distribution in the economy to the global market thereby excluding or limiting government measures that restrict or redistribute the wealth of individuals" (faxed material3, par. 18).
These ideas were materialized through the policies of liberalization, privatization, and deregulation.
Liberalization, or trade liberalization to be more exact, is of course at the heart of free trade. This policy acts towards the removal of government restrictions on goods that are imported and exported. It also refers to the liberalization of financial capital.…
Faxed material 1
Faxed material 2
Faxed material 3
George Mason University Website (2009). Marxist Origins of Communism, II. Retrieved from http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx2.htm on March
Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle
Can patter out their hasty orisons.
No mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells,
Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs,
The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;
And bugles calling for them from sad shires.
What candles may be held to speed them all?
Not in the hands of the boys, but in their eyes
Shall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes.
The pallor of girls' brows shall be their pall;
Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds,
And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds.
Owen's poem appears to inspired by the many deaths of soldiers he saw each day in the trenches of war. He starts the poem off, describing innocent young men being sent to war like cattle are sent to slaughter. He abandons his original views of war as heroic and glorious, and describes it as one…
Brecht, Bertolt. Mother Courage and Her Children. Tr. Eric Bentley in Representative Modern European Dramas. ed. Lee Gun-sam. Seoul: Pan Korea Book Corp., 1978.
Lewis, Day C. (1963 ed). The Collected Poems of Wilfred Owen. By Wilfred Owen. New York: New Directions, 1963.
Roberts, David. (1998). Short Biography of Wilfred Owen. Saxon Books.
Vietnam Antiwar Lit Review
Vietnam Anti-War Literature Review
The Vietnam War marked a lot of "firsts" in relation to the course of American history. It is the first war that the United States lost. It is one of the first major military actions where actual war was not declared. It is also the first war that was brought to a halt by a public uproar and political fallout. The people were a major reason (if not the main reason) that the war ended the way it did and this movement took on many forms. There have also been many scholarly and pundit-based treatises written and scrutinized since then that are worthy of review. This report covers a dozen sources relating to the Vietnam antiwar movement and they range in time of authorship from during the action to since then up through the present day. While the war could have potentially…
Berkowitz, William R. 1974. "THE IMPACT OF PROTEST: WILLINGNESS OF
PASSERSBY TO MAKE ANTIWAR COMMITMENTS AT ANTI-VIETNAM
DEMONSTRATIONS." Journal Of Social Psychology 93, no. 1: 31-42. SocINDEX
with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed February 25, 2015).
This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)
The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…
El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.
Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.
Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at http://www.adc.org/hatecrimes/pdf/2003_report_web.pdf
Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (http://biblioteca.rrp.upr.edu/LatCritCD/Publications/PublishedSymposium/LCIXVillanova&SetonHall%20(2005)/20LCIXGGot.pdf
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home."
Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…
Biddle, Stephen. "Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon." Foreign Affairs 85.2 (2006): 2-14.
Taibbi, Matt. "The Chicken Doves." Rolling Stone Issue 1046 (2008): 37-39.
It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. hese include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. he article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." his comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…
The second material I am using is an article by ABC News Good Morning America "Iraq War Images Seep into Popular Culture." It is available online at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/IraqCoverage/story?id=759253&page=1 , This material mainly explains how the war in Iraq is becoming part of America at home. It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.
Third media material I am using is the "war and militarism" section of FAIR [Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting]. The website is available at http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26 . FAIR is dedicated to challenging the mainstream media reporting. It has specific sections that deal with a variety of issues, but most important for my blog is the section on war and militarism. The articles here show how often mainstream media reports present wrong impressions of wars and militarism. The media often lies about the realities of war and militarism and many people accept media representations as truth and fail to see many negative consequences of wars. For instance, Pat Tillman, a former popular soccer player who went to war but became an anti-war soldier and killed in a friendly fire, was at first reported to have been killed in a heroic fight with the Taliban. FAIR helps to expose these kinds of lies of the mainstream media.
All three materials are important for my blog. The documentary extra featuring George Gerbner explains the relationship between violent images in the media and American culture. The video tells how heavy exposure to violent images has affected America's national psyche. Many people are addicted to violence and crave for more and more violent imagery in films and on TV. The ABC News article is important to my blog because it explains how an ongoing war -- in this case, the Iraq War -- enters the American society. It explains how the Iraq War is becoming part of our popular culture. And the third media material is invaluable to my blog because it regularly publishes articles that are relevant to the topic of war, violence, and the nation. I will add these materials to my blog and also add my detailed commentaries because my purpose is not only to present media materials, but also try to explain some of the consequences of our culture's increasing obsession with war and violence.
As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf .
Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…
As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.
Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"
Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens
At present, marijuana is the most used drug and most frequently available in United States of America. The American youth takes serious dosages of marijuana. At least 60% of the adult population in United States of America was prone to marijuana in 2002. The statistics were prepared in the supervision of The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The website address is www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov .
Social marketing campaigns as well as social awareness programs are imperative to raise and propagate awareness pertaining to excessive drug abuse in United States of America. But in this case, the social campaigners as well as social marketers are armed with effective programs and messages, but remain hesitant to reach the teen audience. It's a tad bit complicated. Wordsen and Slater (2004) concluded that creating targeted ads regarding marijuana and its abuse through PSA's tended to be less…
Eddy, M. (2003). War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. CRS Report for Congress, Order Code RS21490
Teinowitz, I. (2003). "Drug Office to Yank Terror Ads in About-Face," Advertising Age, March 31, 2003, pp. 1, 89.
US Congress (2002). U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Treasury and General Government, Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, special hearing, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., June 19, 2002 (Washington: GPO), p. 14.
Worden, J.K. & Slater, M.D. (2004). Theory and practice in the national youth anti-drug media campaign. Social Marketing Quarterly. 10 (2), 13-27.
Anti-Federalist & ill of Rights
The Anti-federalist vs. Federalist argument is one of the most heated political debates the United States has ever seen. Though the length of the actual debate was relatively short, lasting from October of 1787, when the final version of the constitution was approved by the first congressional convention to June of 1788 when Virginia was the first to ratify the constitution of the United States. The concepts ideas and standards that were set forth by both the anti-federalists and the federalists as well as other more moderate politicians are expressed throughout the foundational documentation of the United States.
Most notably the ill of Rights, or the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution are a reflective example of the compromises and victories of both sides but this can be seen elsewhere in the foundational documentation as well. Knowing this and being able to demonstrate…
Bill Of Rights" Thomas Legislative Information on the Internet http://memory.loc.gov/const/bor.html
Cato, New-York Journal, November 22, 1787 "To the Citizens of the State of New York." Constitution Society Homepage http://www.constitution.org/afp/cato_05.htm
Bill Of Rights" Thomas Legislative Information on the Internet
Anti Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorist Tactics
The threat of terrorism involves many variables. The nature and degree of risk posed by a potential attack depends on a number of factors, including the goals of the attackers and their means of inciting terror. There are numerous terrorist organizations with agendas ranging from various political ideologies to animal rights, environmental, and reproductive issues. With so many diverse groups and causes in play, the number and variety of potential targets present an enormous challenge. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to address likely goals and targets of specific terrorist groups. It is important to understand, however, that the risk posed to any company or environment is related to the nature of the particular threat posed by particular terrorist groups (Bauman, 1995). In addition, while local police play a major role in gathering information about likely terrorist attacks, it…
Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in Fragments. Oxford: Blackwell.
Buruma, I. And A. Margalit (2004 Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies. New York: The Penguin Press.
Cohen, N. (2003) A Kind, Really Nice Boy. The Observer, in Guardian Unlimited (May 4): 1-4.
David, M. (2004) Clash of Civilizations. The New York Times (May 13): A-25.
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
Some of the most emotionally incendiary propaganda to utilize the medium of film was conceived and directed towards partisans during the fighting of World War II. A pair of films, Went the Day Well and 49th Parallel, delicately play upon the psyche of their intended audiences to get viewers to emotionally, (and perhaps even physically) take a stance during the fighting of the second Great War. By demonstrating various aspects of homeland vulnerability and enemy infiltration, these movies were created to galvanize audiences into an anti-Nazi stance at the time when Hitler's Third Reich was at its peak of power.
The events that constitute the plot of Went the Day Well are obviously designed to prey on the fears of British residents during World War II. The film actually was released in 1942 while the war was still contested -- and largely undecided -- and depicts Nazi's posing…
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration
A crucial issue between many identity groups is conflict. Toleration by definition is basically the rejection of a belief or practice, which is followed by restraint of one's self from suppressing that belief. Those seeking to make social and political aspects of toleration among people from different backgrounds need to delve more deeply into the idea of toleration; what it means and what it is based on. In the 16th century, the aim was to establish conditions of harmonious living for people who held different beliefs. Thus, the most crucial issue among politicians and other thinkers was the conflict between identity groups that begun in the 1970s and brought about a quick end to the spread of communism. The idea of tolerance provides a basis for thinking differently about how to react to the said conflict. The rejection of a…
Kant, Immanuel. "Toward perpetual peace." Practical philosophy 8 (1996): 836.
Creppell, Ingrid. "Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration." Res Publica 7.3 (2001): 247-271.
Bobbio, Noberto. "In Praise of La Mitezza," in P. Ricoeur, ed., Tolerance between Intolerance and the Intolerable Providence: Berghahn Books (1996). Print
Williams, Howard. "Colonialism in Kant's Political Philosophy." Diametros 39 (2014): 154-181.
ar on AIDS
Affordable retroviral drugs now!
Fighting the 'good fight' against AIDS in Africa
It's one of the most long-standing theoretical ethical debates: you know someone is dying, and will die if they do not get a certain kind of medicine. However, the medicine is prohibitively expensive. Do you steal this all-important medication? Or do you allow the person to wither and die, because stealing is wrong -- or rather, because the pharmaceutical companies 'deserve' to make a profit? Of course, you ensure that the individual has the medication, ideally by pressuring the store or company to give you the medicine for free. But although this moral impulse may seem like a 'no brainer' on an individual level, on a mass level, people are still dying in record numbers from AIDS in Africa, in a way that would be unacceptable, if it took place in the so-called developing world.…
Colebunders R. et al. (Oct 2005). "Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients." PLoS Medicine. 2(10). Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020276
Global Access to HIV Therapy Tripled in Past Two Years, But Significant Challenges
Remain." (2007). WHO: World Health Organization Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news57/en/index.html
Miller, Charles & Kenneth Goldman. "Merck, AIDS, and Africa." (23 Oct 2003).
The time to go in and dismantle his war machine was now, Bush insisted.
But now, nearly four years after the invasion of Iraq, with nearly 3,000 American casualties and over $380 billion having been spent (Sidoti, 2006), less than 40% of Americans support the war. No weapons of mass destruction have been found. No evidence of any nuclear program Hussein was alleged to have launched has been found. And recently the U.S. intelligence agencies reported that the war in Iraq has created more terrorists, and that we are not any safer now than we were in 2001 after 9/11.
Moreover, the American people are clearly fed up with what they see on television from Iraq: a) there is now a civil war going on between rival ethnic factions, and dozens of innocent civilians are kidnapped and/or slaughtered every day; the U.S. involvement has exacerbated this bloodletting; b) images of…
Hess, Pamela. "Pentagon late to the information war." United Press International. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.upi.com .
Reuters. "Factbox - Military and Civilian Deaths in Iraq. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2006 at http://www.alertnet.org .
Sidoti, Liz. "Analysis: Iraq war dominates campaign." Associated Press. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 from http://www.mercurynews.com .
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
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ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
American esponse to Vietnamese War
Twenty five years and more have passed since the United States officially withdrew its forces and involvement in Vietnam. Not since the civil war had the country been so divided and separated in the political and social opinions. Almost every family in America was in some way affected, losing husbands, sons, friends and daughters. More than 100,000 American soldiers were killed and those who made it back to the homeland suffered extreme mental and physical trauma and someone them still do. A lot of the war veterans were so traumatized and treated with disrespect in their own country that they ended up taking their own lives, while most of them ended up on streets begging for a loose change.
American esponse to the Vietnamese War
However the effect of the war on the Vietnamese people was even more drastic, by the time Saigon was lost…
Anderson, David L. (2002). Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War.
Cable, Larry. (1991). Unholy Grail: The U.S. And the Wars in Vietnam.
Duiker, William J. (1996). The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam.
Mitchell K. Hall. (2007). The Vietnam War; short survey. Pages168.
" Du Fu, of course, is speaking of the An Lushan Rebellion, which was not put down for nearly a decade in mid-eighth century China.
Emperor u's wars have essentially decimated the land. The lands are barren -- in more ways than one. The consequences of war are numerous: the men are gone, so in villages where couples should normally be uniting and having children, no children are had. The image Du Fu uses is of stark fields where "nothing grows but weeds," but the image could easily be construed as being representative of the lack of new life in the "two hundred districts / And in thousands of villages."
The next image Du Fu employs is one of heartbreaking sorrow: "and though strong women have bent to the ploughing, / East and west the furrows are all broken down." Du Fu's image is akin to the ballads of Ireland,…
Du Fu. "Song of War Chariots." Web. 24 May 2011.
"Heroes or Bandits! " 2008. Web. 24 May 2011.
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.
At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…
Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf
Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003
Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.
Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
The viewer is not directed to mourn the bodies that cover the ground, but rather celebrate alongside the victors, who charge forward carrying guns and swords. Instead, the piled corpses are merely a means to an end, a soft topping to the pile of rubble that is apparently necessary to secure Liberty and allow her to take charge.
The contrast in theme is particularly strong because the style of either artist does not immediately feel conducive to their apparent goal, but upon closer examination . While Delacroix is decidedly more "realistic" than Picasso, the realism of his corpses does not direct the viewer to sympathize with them, but merely adds some sense of gravity to central image of a glowing Liberty directing "the people" onward with a rifle and French flag. Thus, while one might imagine Delacroix's "realism" would instill some sort of thematic or ideological realism into the painting,…
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "Cezanne and Delacroix's Posthumous Reputation." The Art
Bulletin 87, no. 1 (2005): 111-129,5.
Delacroix, Eugene. Wikimedia, Liberty Leading the People. Last modified 1830. Accessed
August 25, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eugene_Delacroix
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
World War I: Dada
The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.
Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…
Buskirk, M., & Nixon, M. (1996). The Duchamp Effect. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Elder, B. (2013). Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Hulsenbeck, R. (1988). "En avant Dada: A history of Dadaism." In R. Motherwell (Ed.), The Dada painters and poets (pp. 23-48). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1920)
Jones, A. (2002). Equivocal Masculinity: New York Dada in the context of World War I. Art History, 25(2), 162.
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
Women in World War II
The Second World War was fought on many fronted. The activities that took place both in the battlefield and outside showed a number of suffering and inhumanity. It will go down in human history that more than six million Jews were killed in a single war. In this war, women were not left behind as they also took an active role in the practice. There eight most notable women who came forth to fight for their side of the battle line. The following study focuses on the similarities and differences of Therese Bonney, May Craig, and Janet Flanner and their contributions during the war.
Each of the three women made significant contributions towards the fight during the Second World War. Therese Bonney was a highly educated woman having studied at Harvard among other institutions. She was a career photographer (Wagner, 2011). During the war,…
Wagner, L. (2011). Women war correspondents of World War II. New York: Greenwood Press.
Lessons Learned by the Americans Experience of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War is one infamous war in the history of America. It was the first war that America took part in an international stage and lost terribly. War statistics shows that the America lost a total of 58,000 lives and over 350,000 casualties. The war also ran into millions of dollars dispensed to finance the war. The war also injured the international reputation of the country among the peers of great nations such as the Soviet Union (Westheider, 2011). To this effect, many lessons were drawn upon which the American nation have formulated their external war strategies to date.
Lessons from diplomatic negotiations
The cause of the Vietnam War was something that could easily be solved diplomatically. Immediately after independence, Vietnam was divided into two regions: the north and the south. Each one of them operated independently with the…
Coward, R. (2014). A voice from the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Salisbury, H. (2010). Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons from a war. New York: Harper & Row
Westheider, J. (2011). The Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar
ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance.
Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…
Bacevich, A.J. (2010). Washington rules: America's path to permanent war. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
Bass, G.J. (2010, September 3). Book review - Washington rules - America's path to permanent war. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com /2010/09/05/books/review/Bass-t.html
Boston University. (2012). Andrew J. Bacevich | International Relations | Boston University. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.bu.edu Web site: http://www.bu.edu/ir/faculty/alphabetical/bacevich/
Burns, K. (Director). (2007). The War [Motion Picture].
packet primary source documents drawn historical periods covered chapters 18-21 Give Me
The historical situation that produced this primary source written by John Reed in April of 1917, "Whose War" was America's imminent participation in World War I. It is noteworthy that the author alludes to the two factors that most readily led to America's involvement in this martial affair -- the Zimmerman Telegram (which he refers to twice as the "note") and the sinking of United States ships enacted by German submarines. There certainly appears to be a bias in evaluating the context of this source -- Reed was considered a "radical" and is definitely anti-war at a time in which patriotism and support for war was exceedingly high. Thus, this source reads like a piece of journalism that was written to attempt to alert people to the incongruence and atrocities associated with America's impending actions.
The author's major…
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…
"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.
"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.
Social Activism and Literature
Two of the major themes in 20th century American literature are war and social protest. The United States has been engaged in a steady series of wars since the beginning of the 20th century. With the carnage of the First World War, the horrors of the Second, the futility of Vietnam, many writers and artists contributed to the literature of protest with respect to war, and America's involvement in it.
Amy Lowell's September, 1918 is a good example of how writers reacted to the First World War. Its presentation of a wistful era where there is no war, juxtaposed against the current "broken world," illustrates the yearning that many had for a world without war. The First World War had essentially eliminated any romance that there was of war in society, and its brutality would spark this sort of response across the world. For the first…
Parini, J. & Cutter, M. (2009). Themes in Contemporary American Literature. Cengage.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
Korea became the first identifiable danger. Of course, the Korean conflict was only the first of hot-spot conflicts in the Cold ar. "To police the world, to risk nuclear war, to eradicate the creed of communism, all in the name of national defense, the new national security priesthood would wage bloody war in Korea and Vietnam, overthrow the democratically elected governments of Iran, Guatemala, and Chile, and assassinate the elected president of Congo, nearly come to nuclear war over Cuba, foster civil wars throughout Africa, topple the regime in Indonesia and enable reigns of terror by right-wing death squads throughout Central America" (Atwood, p.177). Atwood cites numerous examples, beginning with the treatment of combatants (tattooing them with anti-Communist slogans that would prevent them from reassimilating into their societies after the war) and non-combatants (bombing civilian targets) of ways that the United States violated the human rights principles it said it…
Atwood, Paul. "Cold War / Hot War: Savage Wars of Peace." War and Empire: The American
Way of Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 174-214.
Standard Outline of Presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about why voters are angry in today's political climate so that they might better understand their choices at the polls this November. The central idea of this presentation is that voters are angry because they perceive the Establishment to be against them, the system to be "rigged," and the wars in the Middle East to be unending and dangerous to global security.
The ideal audience for this presentation would be anyone attempting to understand why this election is seeing two unpopular candidates in a presidential contest -- on the one hand, a political insider and polished member of the Washington Establishment, and on the other hand an unpolished outsider who seeks to represent Middle America. The audience could be broad and include all genders, races, and ages.
This topic is important for the audience because an…
Altheide, D. (2007). The mass media and terrorism. Discourse and Communication,
Bakker, B., Rooduijn, M., Schumacher, G. (2016). The psychological roots of populist
voting. European Journal of Political Research, 55(2): 302-320
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Media and Vietnam ar
In The Uncensored ar (1989), David S. Halin divides the Vietnam ar and the media coverage of it into three phases, 1961-65, 1965-68 and 1968-73. In the pre-1965 phase, before large numbers of American troops were in the country, the war received almost no TV or radio coverage, and a small number of journalists from the print media dominated coverage. Vietnam only became a television war or living room war with the big escalation in 1965-68, and the search-and-destroy strategy put in place by Gen. illiam estmoreland. At the same time, antiwar and anti-draft protests also escalated in the U.S., although during these three years most of the media reported the government line on the war and were highly negative toward the antiwar movement. Only after the Tet Offensive in January 1968, which was followed by Lyndon Johnson's abrupt decision to refuse to run for president…
Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley, 1980.
Hammond, William M. Reporting Vietnam: Media and the Military at War. University Press of Kansas, 1998.
Halin, Daniel C. The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam. Berkeley, 1980.
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
In the novel, Howad is foced to seve as an U.S. secet Agent by the Blue Faiy, a caee that eventually led to his own death.
Mothe Night epesents the fictional memois of Howad W. Campbell J., an Ameican who seved as a secet agent fo the Ameican Amy duing the Second Wold Wa. Giving that the actual autho of the novel seved himself as a soldie duing the same wa, the question of whethe o not the autho esembles the potagonist in the novel is undestandable. Pehaps one of the visions they shae is the eality of facts, Mothe Night being Vonnegut's only novel that does not featue fantastic elements. Vonnegut wote "We ae what we petend to be, so we must be caeful about what we petend to be," as the final moal fo his novel and one thing Campbell and Vonnegut shae afte all is thei vocation…
references to such stories like "Jack the Giant Killer" and uses the image of some demons and serpents to create the background. The tone of the play is quite humourous and ironic, thus explained by the existence of the Fool. However, the King himself is quite intelligent, even though Shakespeare uses his insanity to address nonhuman objects. Like in many of his other writings, Shakespeare's style of writing is poetic, using iambic rhythms and free verse.
Therefore, it is quite interesting to observe that such aspects of human nature depicted in King Lear resemble other works like that of Vonnegut's and his Mother Night. The technique used by the later is ultimately different from that of Shakespeare's, less dramatic, but tragic nonetheless, written in a first-person journal style. This confessional style is bound to credit the protagonist-narrator because we only get his version of the events. Interesting enough though, it seems as though Campbell discovers more things about himself as the story unfolds than does the reader.
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
China and the Cold War
The term "cold war" is used for explaining the shifting efforts of the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the ending of World War II until 1989 in order to attain supremacy influence and esteem on a global level. If seen from a worldwide magnitude, the conflict can be understood as an ideological clash between communism and capitalist democracy ("cold war," 2012). China occupied an exceptional place in the Cold War for the reason that it was the point of both the affection and aggression of the two main world powers i.e. The United States of America and Soviet Union (Bernstein, 2003, p. 91).
Cold War -- China's ole
The West and the Soviet Union had a long history of joint mistrust and this resistance was every now and then apparent in the Grand Alliance during World War II. After the end of the…
Bernstein, L. (March/April 2003). Mao's China and the Cold War. Military Review, 83(2), Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-348080571/mao-s-china-and-the-cold-war
"Cold War." In (2012). Columbia University Press. Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-coldwar/cold-war
Ross, R.S. (1993). China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making in the Cold War. New York M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/77421052/china-the-united-states-and-the-soviet-union-tripolarity
War on Iraq
Long road for U.S. Iraq Proposal." CNN International Online. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/09/08/sprj.irq.russia/.
This article was published on the eve of the U.S.-Iraq proposal in conducting an offensive attack against Iraq. The U.S. administration's plan to conduct an offensive attack against Iraq (and particularly, Saddam Hussein) was spurred by reports on incidents about civil unrest in Iraq, as well as Iraqi attacks against the U.S. These arguments are supported by reports that Iraq has been responsible for the attacks in the UN headquarters in Baghdad. During this time, UN support on the proposed war against Iraq is perceived to be the best support that the U.S. can receive as a solid backing in pursuing an attack against Iraq and Saddam Hussein's regime. In addition to an offensive attack against Iraq, U.S. also asks for additional financial support through the Congress to back up the costs of attacking Iraq…
Johnson's article presents a clear illustration of the after-effects of the offensive attack against Iraq. Through this article, readers become informed about the two sides of Iraqis inside Iraq: one group who wants independence with U.S. assistance, and the other group who wants independence without U.S. assistance. Although Iraqis do not approve of Hussein as their leader, neither do they want their nation be commandeered by Americans, since they know the cultural and religious differences that Americans and Iraqis have. This Newsweek article presents the "human side" of civil society-led insurgencies, a more dangerous and serious problem than the issue concerning Saddam, since Iraqis themselves are now expressing their disapproval of U.S. intervention in rebuilding Iraq through violent means/methods.
Beyer, L. "Inside the Kingdom." September 15, 2003. TIME Magazine. pp. 16-27.
Lisa Beyer's cover article for TIME Magazine delves into the political and social system of Saudi Arabia, a Muslim nation that is a declared ally of the U.S. In its war against terrorism. Beyer's focus, however, is about the danger that Saudi Arabia poses against the U.S., primarily because its actions does not parallel with its statements on anti-terrorism. The reporter provides an in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia as a nation and its leaders, all of whom Beyer alleges to be supporters and financiers of terrorist groups, which Beyer qualifies as "Taliban extremists" and "Pakistani radicals." In addition to this information, Beyer also reports on Wahhabism, a religious movement (Muslim) that is dominant in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is relevant in Beyer's report because this is the primary ideology that Saudi Arabia uses in motivating and training members of radical and extremist groups that they finance. The article ends with a skeptical look on the future of U.S.-Saudi Arabia relations. While U.S. And Saudi Arabia are presently allies (not necessarily against terrorism), it is still questionable whether Saudi Arabia will maintain its pro-U.S. stance in the future. Beyer's report is also another analysis of the present and future effects of the U.S.-Iraq war on the U.S.'s relationships with Muslim nations. The article's critical look on Saudi Arabia gives the readers an idea of the stance of the reporter, which is clearly anti-Saudi Arabia, if its loyalty and honesty with the U.S. will be gauged. Moreover, this TIME article also mirrors the truth that aside from problems, criticisms, and possible attacks against Americans in Iraq, there is more at stake when other countries, specifically Muslim nations, are put into the picture of the current U.S. "rehabilitation program" in the Middle East.
6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…
Boylan, James. "When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina." Columbia Journalism Review, Volume 46, Issue 2 (July-August 2007), 59.
Kamiya, Gary. "Iraq: Why the Media Failed." Salon.com (10 April 2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/kamiya/2007/04/10/media_failure/ .
Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the 'War on Terror.'" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Volume 37, Issue 4 (2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5024109830?title=Bushspeak%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Lying%3a%20Presidential%20Rhetoric%20in%20the%20%22War%20on%20Terror%22 .
Payne, Kenneth. "The Media as an Instrument of War." Parameters, Volume 35, Issue 1 (2005). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5011208618?title=the%20Media%20as%20an%20Instrument%20of%20War.Smith , Sylvia a. "Media Faulted on War's Lead-up." Outside Cab le News (12 March 2008). July 22, 2008. http://outsidecablenews.blogsome.com/2008/03/12/media-faulted-on-wars-lead-up/ .
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.
The League of Nations…
"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
Germans and Jews After I
Germans and Jews After orld ar I
In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…
Anti-Semitism in History: World War 1. United States Holocaust Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 2014. Print. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007166
While Anti-Semitism is nothing new in society, this article spells out clearly what was taking place in Germany after WWI and how that shaped the beliefs of the Germany people when it came to their feelings about Jews in their country.
Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743 -- 1933. New York, 2002. Print.
The Jewish people in Germany never really had much of a chance to be a part of the country, at least not on a proper level. They were marginalized from the very beginning, and that only got worse after WWI, finally culminating in the atrocities of WWII.
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), is a representation of several medical and psychological complaints, which are affecting several men and women who had participated in the Gulf War which took place in 1991. These ailments are muscular pain, skin rash; sleep disturbances peripheral numbness, memory loss, fatigue, respiratory illness, headaches, fever, spasms, low blood pressure and dizziness. The Depleted uranium could be considered partly as a factor responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome. The depleted uranium produced long-term health problems in people who had contacts with its usage. It was in the Gulf war that the Depleted uranium weapons were used for the first time. There have been studies conducted by scientists regarding whether depleted uranium affects the physical health of individuals. As a result they are of the opinion that many veterans of the Gulf War are affected in terms of health problems by the depleted uranium. Even though several…
Myers, Steven Lee. Test drug may be cause of Gulf War Syndrome, Scientific Survey Finds, New York Times, Oct. 18, 1999
Bruce, Ian. Troops in Gulf to use depleted uranium shells, Fourth Sunday of Advent, December 19, 1999 (Frisk, Robert. The Truth About Depleted Uranium, Independent, UK, January 8, 2001)
The Herald (Scotland) January 22, 2003 http://www.mint.gov.my/policy/nuc_disarm/issue_duweapons.htm
The period after the Second World War saw the decolonization of Africa and the establishment of many new nations. But these new states often degenerated into conflict with their neighbors, internal uprisings and revolutions, as well as ethnic and religious clashes. The conflicts in Africa often mirrored global tensions as the Cold War reached its peak and both the Soviet Union and the United States vied for African allies and supporters. For example, Angola was the site of civil war in which both the U.S. And the U.S.S.. played an active part. The combination of problems which surfaced as a result of decolonization along with the geopolitical situation of the Cold War led to a number of situations in which ethnic and tribal rivalries, political ideology, and economic forces created conflicts throughout Africa.
As Africa was colonized in the 18th and 19th centuries the Europeans imposed upon the…
Black, Jeremy. (2005). War Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books.
Clayton, Anthony. (1999). Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since 1950. London: UCL
Wood, J.R.T.. (2011). "Countering the Chimurenga." In Counterinsurgency in Modern
The Federalists advocated a strong central government while the Anti-Federalists advocated state governments. The former feared that division would lead to fighting and instability. The latter feared that centralized power would lead to the kind of totalitarianism that the American Revolutionaries had just victoriously opposed in the War for Independence. This paper will describe why I would align myself with the Anti-Federalists because of their aversion for centralized power.
The difference between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists was all about what kind of government the United States would have. The Federalists wanted to ratify the Constitution (which we have today) because it defined the ways in which states would be subject to a federal government and the ways in which they would be free to act on their own. The view of the Federalists was that the Constitution would protect the states from "domestic factions and convulsions" and provide unity…