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Antibiotic resistant organisms has become a topic of much debate in recent years. Antibiotic resistance is a serious concern because of the health care implications that occur as a result of this problem. The purpose of this discussion is to explain antibiotic resistance development in humans. The research will also provide a General overview of specific strains, causes and effects.
Antibiotic Resistance Development
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention antibiotics or antimicrobial drugs are drugs that fight infections that occur as a result of bacteria (. The CDC explains that once antibiotic resistance takes place the bacteria or other microbes has become resistant to the curing effects of the antibiotic. This simply means that antibiotics that were once used to cure bacterial infections no longer work. The CDC further explains that bacterial change is what leads to decreasing or completely destroying the capacity of the drug to…
About Antibiotic Resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/community/anitbiotic-resistance-faqs.htm
Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance." NAID. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialResistance/Research/basicResearch.htm
Brown G., Layton D.F. (2008) Resistance economics: social cost and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Environment and Development Economics. 1 (3):349-355
Community-Associated Antibiotic-Resistant Staph Infection (CA-MRSA). CRS - Adult Health Advisor, 1/1/2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from; http://web.ebscohost.com/chc/detail?vid=4&hid=112&sid=9108f53b-bba2-429b-aedb-27b601098faf%40SRCSM2&bdata=JnNpdGU9Y2hjLWxpdmU%3d#db=cmh&AN=36257566#db=cmh&AN=36257566
Conventional approaches including bacterial therapy are becoming less effective and in some cases completely ineffective for combating bacterial infection. Bacteria are evolving, becoming smarter and more virulent, and increasingly resistant to traditional treatment including antibiotic use. hile scan the literature available on probiotic use supports use of probiotics for treating drug resistant strains of bacteria in some cases (Diped, 2003). If nothing else the literature supports the use of probiotic therapy to support the body's immune system and strengthen the body's natural ability to fight off infection. Probiotics are also useful in many instances for reducing inflammation and restoring the flora or healthy balance of bacteria in the gut and intestine if destroyed by routine antibiotic therapy, a benefit that can alone improve one's health and well being significantly.
There is ample evidence supporting the use of probiotic therapy as a potential treatment for imbalances in the human…
Antibiotic Alternatives." (2003, Jul - Aug). American Scientist, 91:4): 289.
Chen, C.C. & Walker, W.A. (2005). "Probiotics and prebiotics: role in clinical disease states." Adv Pedatr. 52(1): 77-113.
Diped, T.R. (2003). An introduction to complementary medicine. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.
Levy, S.B. (1992). The antibiotic paradox: How miracle drugs are destroying the miracle. New York: Plenum Press.
This is a proposal describing a study to test the hypothesis that: The macrolide, erythromycin, normally used to treat individuals with community-acquired pneumonia, causes significant antibiotic resistance in patients in Europe but not individuals in the United States. 9 sources
To assess the prevalence of macrolide resistance (Erythromycin) among pneumococci in Europe and the United States and difference in frequency of Erythromycin use in both countries for respiratory infections. To identify the prevalent serotypes that cause pneumonia in both regions.
This will basically be a retrospective analysis of data collected by Public Health laboratories in Europe and institutions such as the Center for Disease Control in the United States. The two continents should be divided into 4 geographical regions each for the sake of clarity and convenience. Previous data relating to pneumococci isolated from patients with suspected pneumonia during a chosen specific period of time spanning about 5…
Cresti S, Lattanzi M, Zanchi A, Montagnani F, Pollini S, Cellesi C, Rossolini GM. (2002). Resistance Determinants and Clonal Diversity in Group A Streptococci Collected during a Period of Increasing Macrolide Resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(6):1816-1822.
A de Azavedo JC, McGavin M, Duncan C, Low DE, McGeer A. (2001).Prevalence and Mechanisms of Macrolide Resistance in Invasive and Noninvasive Group B. Streptococcus Isolates from Ontario, Canada Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 45 (12): 3504-3508.
Gay K, Baughman W, Miller Y, Jackson D, Whitney CG, Schuchat A, Farley MM, Tenover F, Stephens DS.(2000). The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolide antimicrobial agents: a 6-year population-based assessment. J Infect Dis., 182(5):1417-24.
Hyde TB, Gay K, Stephens DS, Vugia DJ, Pass M, Johnson S, et al. For the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. (2001). Macrolide Resistance Among Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates. JAMA, 286:1857-1862.
Efficiency of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Transfer Mechanisms Upon Exposure to Triclosan
Triclosan has become the latest buzz word in the grocery store. It is being hailed as the ultimate biocide and finds its way into many everyday products such as toothpaste and hand soap. Mass media produced a great amount of hype and convinced the general public that this was necessary to protect them from potentially harmful or even fatal bacteria. Now the use of antibacterial products is being widely questioned by the medical community as it is now known that bacteria can develop resistance to antibacterial agents and that we may be producing a type of super-bacteria. The proposed research will explore the efficiency of antibiotic gene transfer mechanisms upon exposure to triclosan. It is expected that the research will empirically demonstrate that exposure to triclosan significantly increases rate and efficiency of antibiotic gene transfer mechanisms.
Efficiency Of Antibiotic…
1. Addy M, Willis L, Moran J. Effect of toothpaste rinses compared with chlorhexidine on plaque formation during a 4-day period. J Clin Periodontol 1983; 10:89.
2. Chuanchuen R, Beinlich K, Hoang TT, Becher A, Karkhoff-Schweizer RR, Schweizer HP.
Cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by multidrug efflux pumps: exposure of a susceptible mutant strain to triclosan selects nfxB mutants overexpressing MexCD-OprJ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Feb. (45)2:428-32.
3. Clarke, T., "Groceries trip triclosan switch." American Society for Microbiology General Meeting, Florida, May 2001. Printed in Nature News Service. Macmillan Magazines Ltd. November 2002
Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci
There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)
Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.
The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…
Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm
2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml
Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm
4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
resistance of the planctomycetes organisms to the various antibiotics using the in vitro method. The aim was to establish the susceptibility of these six selected organisms; Planctomyces maris, Planctomyces brasiliensis, Blastopirellula marina, Planctomyces limnophilus, Gemmata obscuriglobus and hodopirellula baltica as reference points by exposing them to 18 antibiotics which overall represented eleven antibiotics families. The methods that were used in the in vitro approach were strain and culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
It was found out that Planctomycetes were resistant to b-lactams and glycopeptides and further it was established that most Planctomycetes organisms were resistant to chloramphenicol and to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. The article also indicates that in as much as the Planctomycetes organisms are naturally resistant to some antibiotic families, there were observed large differences in the resistance profiles among genera and species.
Assessment of drugs resistance
One of the clearest and most reliable assessment that one can make…
Ingrid K., (2008). Getting Rid of Superbugs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/rarediseases/a/superbug_rid.htm
CDC., (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/ antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html
MedicineNet Inc., (2014). Antibiotic Resistance (Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance). Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.medicinenet.com/antibiotic_resistance/article.htm
Antibiotic resistance develops in the same way that human resistance to infection develops—through exposure, the body builds up a resistance so that whatever is introduced is less effective at performing its task. As Ventola (2015) notes, “the overuse of antibiotics clearly drives the evolution of resistance. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between antibiotic consumption and the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria strains” (p. 277). Moreover, bacteria can inherent genes that are already resistant to antibiotics, which means that horizontal gene transfer occurs to create a veritable shield of defense against antibiotics. The more that antibiotics are used, the less effective they become and the stronger harmful bacteria can become. The complications that ensue are based on the fact that “when these resistant bacteria are all that are left, they are free to multiply, passing the resistance to their offspring” (Environmental Encyclopedia 4, 2011, p. 81).…
ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?
The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.
Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline
The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…
American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.
Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.
Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.
Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
Antibacterial Soap by Children Promote Antimicrobial Drug esistance?
Today, young people are encouraged to wash their hands several times a day in order to stay healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). This guidance is based on research that confirms that regular handwashing is the most cost-effective approach to keeping young people healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). For instance, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) emphasizes that, "egular handwashing, particularly before and after certain activities, is one of the best ways to remove germs, avoid getting sick, and prevent the spread of germs to others. It's quick, it's simple, and it can keep us all from getting sick" (Clean hands save lives, 2015, para. 1). The potential exists, though, that using antibacterial soap versus regular soap and water causes antimicrobial drug resistance in children. These concerns are similar to concerns that the over-prescription of powerful antibiotics for…
Clean hands save lives. (2015). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www. cdc.gov/handwashing/index.html.
Forrester, M. A. & Borthwick-Hunter, E. (2015, April 1). Understanding the development of musicality: Contributions from longitudinal studies. Psychomusicology, 25(2), 93-96.
QSEN. (2015). Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing. Retrieved from http://qsen.org/about-qsen/ .
Rogers, C. (2015). FDA taking a closer look at "antimicrobial" soap. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov /forconsumers / consumer updates/ucm378393.htm.
Tests are therefore conducted to examine if there is a presence of S. aureus that caused the illness and if the bacteria is or can be recognised as a potential source for food poisoning (Bennet & Lancette, 2001). One such test is known under the name of Direct Plate Count Method as it was illustrated by Bennet and Lancette, generally requiring a step-by-step procedure involving a. Equipment and materials, B. Media and reagents, C. Preparation of sample, D. Isolation and enumeration of S. aureus, E. coagulase test, F. ncillary tests, and G. Knowledge of some typical characteristics of species of staphylococci and micrococci (Bennet & Lancette, 2001).
fter considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy gar (TS) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. lso, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of…
After considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. Also, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of food.
In cases of antibiotic resistance, the issue is first and perhaps foremost of hygiene. Afterwards it is an issue of people having to take antibiotics only when necessary. Of course, these are preventive measures that generally are required from individuals. Overcoming antibiotic resistance has taken a new approach as exemplified by Levy (2002) and it consists of trasferring the resistance genes into other bacteria through several genetic means (p. 26). Of the three adoptive methods, it seems the latter, that of DNA released of dead bacteria and incorporated into new strains has also proved efficient in resisting among pneumococci and Haemophilus spp. (Levy, 2002, p. 26)
For determining antibiotic resistance a few sensitive testing methods exist: dilution methods, disk diffusion method, E-test, automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems, mechanism-specific tests, and genotypic
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan
Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.
Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.
Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…
Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water
Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.
Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.
Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide
Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True
I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…
Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.
The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)
The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…
Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).
Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…
Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty
of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.
Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.
The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality.
The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may…
American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical
Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March
20, 2010, from Web site:
co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."
The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."
Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…
The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.
Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .
Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"
The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
Governments make and break alliances, treaties, and agreements for financial and political gains, as well as for power and control, all in a constantly fluid manner. Such changes have been taking place as long as there have been countries, so the maneuverings should not be of any surprise; what this paper seeks to do is determine how those ongoing changes reflect the current environment as well as how the alliances will influence governments over the next several years, and decades.
Historical Context -- World War I (1914 -- 1919)
A recent historical report states that "with deliberate deceptions, lies and attempts on all sides to appear as the wronged, it is little wonder that, after a hundred years, there is still no consensus on why the July Crisis escalated into the First World War" (Mombauer, 2014, p. 23). World War I was known as the war to end all wars,…
Bilefsky, D. & Baumejan, M.; (2015) Terrorists strike Charlie Hebdo, newspaper in Paris, leaving 12 dead, NY Times accessed on February 27, 2015 at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-paris-shooting.html
Bogdanor, V.; (2014) The shadows lengthen, History Today, 64(8)19-25
Bosco, D.; (2014) Assessing the UN Security Council: A concert perspective, Global Governance, 20(4) 545-561
Brinkley, J.; (2013) Islamic terror, World Affairs, 176(2) 43 -- 55
Current Areas of esearch
Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.
One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…
Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:
Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.
Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…
"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change
"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Wild species, which includes that of animals, plants, and of other organisms, constitute the most part of the seafood of the world and of the timber. The Wild species provide a means of earning to the communities apart from providing them with food, medicines, fibers, skins, furs and forage, without which many communities could not have had their living.
Apart from this they also help in the intellectual growth, provide a sense of beauty and also promotes the religious and cultural beliefs of the people. ecause of the importance given to the wild species and of the use made of them by people, many natural and semi-natural ecosystems owe their present existence and even their future would owe to these uses.
Firstly, the use of wild species is that it has direct commercial value in terms of fishing, hunting, harvesting which enables the U.S. economy to earn $200 billion and…
Albuquerque, NM. (1990) Conserving Endangered Species: A Commitment to the Future. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region.
Costanza, R. et al. (1997, May 15). The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature 387: 253-260.
Hill, H.R. (1994, August 8) Ohio State University Study Finds Genetic Altering of Bacterium Upsets Natural Order, The Oregonian,
Food and Drug Administration 57 Federal Register 22987(1995, December) EPA Approves Bt Corn and Cotton With Conditions, The Gene Exchange,
Budgeting for Clinical esearch
FA Title: Antimicrobial Use & esistance Data Collection (U01)
FA Number: FA-FD-16-046
Purpose of the FA:
The purpose of this FA is to "support the collection of data on antimicrobial use in animal agriculture. There are two main objectives. The first is to "provide needed information on antimicrobial practices in various animal production settings" and the second is to "provide important information on data collection methodologies to help optimize the long-term strategies for collecting and reporting such data."
Why you selected this particular FA:
This FA appealed because of my interest in the subject of antibiotic resistance. This topic felt close to that. Because this FA concerns antimicrobials use in animals, I felt that it reflected on this subject strongly.
Total Budget: $1.2 million
Budget (Time) Period: 4 years
Budget Category: Personnel
Estimated Dollar Amount: $800,000
Description of the Category: Key research personnel and…
Wilenberg, K. (2004). Managing clinical trials -- frustration or bliss? Journal of Oncology Management. Nov/Dec 2004, 24-26
Stoller, S. (2009). An introduction to clinical trial budgeting and negotiating. Unpublished. In possession of the author.
woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.
The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…
"Klebsiella Pneumoniae Morphology" Klebsiella Pneumoniae.org. Retrieved from http://klebsiella-pneumoniae.org/klebsiella_pneumoniae_morphology.html
Melissa Block, Eddie Cornish. (30 Oct 2012). Interview "NIH Takes Extraordinary Steps
In Fighting 'Superbug'." NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/08/23/159931389/nih-takes-extraordinary-steps-in-fighting-super bug
Snitkin, Evan, etal. (Aug 2012). "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
hormones in our agricultural food and the adverse effects it has on the animals and the human consumers. The writer provides an outline of the effect the hormones have both physically and politically on the consumer and the nation's that support the use of hormones. The writer also presents evidence of the health problems hormones are thought to cause as well. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
As the world becomes more crowded the demand for fast growing resources including food increase. The use of growth hormone in cattle has sparked a worldwide controversy as several nation's wrestle with trade organizations mandates against what they believe the hormone treated cows can cause by way of health problems.
The most common hormone used today in the cow industry is Bovine Growth Hormone, which is also referred to as BGH. This hormone is a genetically engineered hormone. It is…
Hormones spark meaty debate Jul. 23, 2001
Provided by: Sun Media Written by: Marilyn Linton (accessed 5-4-2003)
Beef Hormones Linked to Premature Onset of Puberty & Breast Cancer
Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).
However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…
NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]
Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603
The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.
The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.
genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. hen the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.
This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM…
Batalion, Nathan. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. 05 November 2003. http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm
Bhattacharya, Shaoni. New Scientist Online News 14:06-25 June 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993874
Brissenden, Michael. U.S.-EU war over genetically modified food intensifies. The World Today - Wednesday, 25 June, 2003 12:45:00. Transcript. 05 November 2003. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s888140.htm
Coghan, Andy. New Scientist Online News 19:00-29 January 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993317
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…
CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…
Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/
Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/
Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35
Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…
Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/
FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm
WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
Omit itles and Degrees]
Klompas M., Speck, K., Howell M.D., Greene, L.R., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2014). Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorohexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, 174 (5), 751-761.
his article deals with the routine oral care of patients using chlorhexidine gluconate as standard care when they receive mechanical ventilation during their hospital stay. heir aim is to assess the overall impact routine oral care has in conjunction with chlorhexidine in regards to patient-centered outcomes for patients receiving the aforementioned mechanical ventilation. hey chose randomized clinical trials that compared a placebo to chlorhexidine and chose only sixteen studies out of the 171 citations they explored because the 3,630 patients observed in the selected studies met criteria.
he results showed chlorhexidine provide patients with a lesser occurrence of infection than with placebo, although pneumonia risk was around the same for both.…
This webpage gives information on what VAP is. It also provides links on possible prevention information. It does not really highlight use of chlorhexidine. However, it does include monitoring practices to check for VAP for early intervention.
15. Beraldo, C.C., & Andrade, D.D. (2008). Oral Hygiene with chlorohexidine in preventing pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. Jornal Braisileiro de Pneumologia, 34(9), 707-714
This article failed to provide any new information with the exception of reducing another bacterium through the use of chlorhexidine. It is a search kind of article. They chose eight studies. From those eight studies, seven of them confirmed the use of chlorhexidine reduces instances of VAP.
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).
The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…
Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.
Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.
Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.
Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…
Drugs & Medications - Singulair Oral. WebMed. Retrieved http://www.webmd.com/drugs/mono-8277-MONTELUKAST+-+ORAL.aspx?drugid=6485&drugname=Singulair+Oral
Why Is This Medicine Prescribed? Med Line Plus. Retrieved http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a600014.html#side-effects [Type text]
First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…
Helicobacter (genus) pylori (species), commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that causes gastritis of the inner lining of the stomach in humans and is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide (Delaney, Moayyedi and Forman 536). Ingestion of contaminated food and water and person-to-person contact is the most likely means of acquiring H. pylori. Portals for entry are largely oral, as oral-oral and oral-fecal contact are the most common contamination methods. About 30% of the adult population in the United States are infected and is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation (Malcolm et al. 137). Infected individuals typically carry the infection indefinitely unless they are treated with medications to eradicate the bacterium. Other than the human stomach, there appears to be no natural reservoir for this bacterium. One out of every six patients with H. pylori infection will develop ulcers of the duodenum…
Delaney, B., P. Moayyedi, and D. Forman. "Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Clin Evid.10 (2003): 535-48.
Hofman, P., et al. "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 15-22.
Malcolm, C.A., et al. "Helicobacter Pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty." Scott Med J. 49.4 (2004): 136-8.
McLoughlin, R., et al. "Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 42-8.
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…
Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
The facility should strive to bring the SSI rate down below the expected level for the types of patients and surgeries that the facility has.
Plan of Action
In order to achieve better-than-average results in the SSI rates for our facility, there are a number of tactics that can be used. The first is that the culture of the organization needs to emphasize safety to a degree greater than the current degree. As of now, there is no particular focus on SSIs, and this contributes to a culture where there is little accountability with respect to the SSI rates, or to individual SSI cases. The organization must improve the accountability, so that staff members are specifically held accountable for the mistakes that they make that result in an SSI.
Beyond culture, there are specific things that the organization can do to promote an improved rate of SSI. The first is…
Anderson, D. (2009). Surgical site infections. Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from http://www.hapmd.com/home/hapmdcom/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/cirugia/bibliografica-cx/20110504_articulo_2.pdf
Barie, P. & Eachempati, S. (2005). Surgical site infections. The Surgical Clinics of North America. Vol. 85 (6) 1115-35.
Harbarth, S., Samore, M., Lichtenberg, D. & Carmeli, Y. (2000). Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after cardiovascular surgery and its effect on surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Circulation. Vol. 101 (2000) 2916-2921.
Lauwers, S. & de Smet, F. (1998). Surgical site infections. Acta Clin Belg. Vol 53 (5) 303-310.
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
There are many bacteria that are able to resist against antibiotic drugs, including penicillin. The resistance to antibiotics often occurs because not all bacteria that are part of the same species are alike. These small differences that exist among the bacteria often mean that some will be able to fight off the assault of an antibiotic. hen a person's own defenses do not kill off these resistant bacteria then they increase. This antibiotic-resistant form of a disease often re-infects the patient, or is passed on from one person to another. hen a person takes an antibiotic for viruses like colds they can cause antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but it will kill off harmless and even the beneficial bacteria that live in a person's body. The surviving bacteria will live and multiply and may eventually cause disease. People with bacterial infections, who don't completely…
Bellis, Mary. 2009. "The History of Penicillin."
"Penicillin: the first miracle drug." 2006.
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
On the other hand, induced mutations are caused by natural or man-made mutagens, which alter the structure or sequence of DNA. The spontaneous mutation frequency, which is the mutants/viable cell, is relatively low.
It is essential to understand the nature of mutations because they contribute to genetic variance in a population to ensure its survival. Bacteria are easy to study because they very short reproductive and life cycles. This lets an observer study multiple generations in a very short period of time. The relatively low frequency of mutations in a population will only result in the survival of a few in the event of a biological calamity. However, the progeny of the survivors will inherit the mutant strain as well, ensuring the continuity of the species. This would be a boon to humans; to know that the species will survive even global pandemics.
However, this phenomenon also has an adverse…
Bouchelion et al. "Newcombe Experiment Biol302" 23 November 2008. 22 February
2011 http://userpages.umbc.edu/~bueltod1/index.html .
Team UPS. "Newcombe Experiment: A study of mutation in Escherichia Coli." 26
November 2008. 22 February 2011 http://upsbiol302.wordpress.com .
For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.
New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…
Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658
Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.
Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935
Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
Case Study: Urinary Tract Infection
CHIEF COMPLAINT: Urination with a burning sensation, pelvic genital pain, frequent and urgent urination, urine which is colored for the past three days and dribbling urination.
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: A patient visits complaining about urination with a burning sensation, pelvic genital pain, frequent and urgent urination, urine which is colored for three days and dribbling urination. He is an African American who is 58 years old. However, he denies having fever.
This 58-year-old man describes his symptoms as having urination with a burning sensation, pelvic genital pain, frequent and urgent urination, urine which is colored for three days and dribbling urination. These symptoms show that he has a urinary tract infection commonly known as UTI. This infection has been often diagnosed in older adults. Most of the times, it has been diagnosed in residents with long-term care. This accounts for over a third…
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…
Introduction: Antimicrobial Agents
Although they are often over-prescribed, antimicrobial agents are a critical defense against microbial infections. The sources of microbial infections include bacteria, viruses, funguses, and parasites. Therefore, the key categories of antimicrobial pharmaceutical agents are antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoal, and antiviral drugs. Sometimes the terms antibiotic, antimicrobial, and anti-infective are used interchangeably, but it is crucial to differentiate between the type of infection in order to choose the appropriate antimicrobial agent (Leekha, Terrell, & Edson, 2011, p. 156). Incorrect treatment can lead to deleterious results including resistance. There are several different ways to classify antimicrobial agents, and likewise, different methods of determining whether the infection is related to a virus, bacteria, or otherwise.
Classifying Antimicrobial Agents
One method of classifying antimicrobial agents is via their chemical composition or molecular structure. Another method of classifying antimicrobial agents is via their mechanism of action, and a third method is their level…
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change
Introduction and Theoretical Framework
This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.
Statement of the Problem
According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…
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Immunology - Toll-Like receptors
The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)
Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…
Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004
Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004
Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004
"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…