Antibiotic Resistance Essays (Examples)

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Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There Are More Than

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92069765

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci

There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)

Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.

The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm

2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml

Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm

4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
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Resistance of the Planctomycetes Organisms to the

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21971513

resistance of the planctomycetes organisms to the various antibiotics using the in vitro method. The aim was to establish the susceptibility of these six selected organisms; Planctomyces maris, Planctomyces brasiliensis, Blastopirellula marina, Planctomyces limnophilus, Gemmata obscuriglobus and hodopirellula baltica as reference points by exposing them to 18 antibiotics which overall represented eleven antibiotics families. The methods that were used in the in vitro approach were strain and culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

It was found out that Planctomycetes were resistant to b-lactams and glycopeptides and further it was established that most Planctomycetes organisms were resistant to chloramphenicol and to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. The article also indicates that in as much as the Planctomycetes organisms are naturally resistant to some antibiotic families, there were observed large differences in the resistance profiles among genera and species.

Assessment of drugs resistance

One of the clearest and most reliable assessment that one can make…… [Read More]

References

Ingrid K., (2008). Getting Rid of Superbugs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/rarediseases/a/superbug_rid.htm

CDC., (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/ antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html

MedicineNet Inc., (2014). Antibiotic Resistance (Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance). Retrieved February 22, 2014 from  http://www.medicinenet.com/antibiotic_resistance/article.htm
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Role of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94718984

ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?

The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.

Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline

The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.

Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.

Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.

Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
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Does Antimicrobial Soap Promote Drug Resistance in Children

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69390200

Antibacterial Soap by Children Promote Antimicrobial Drug esistance?

Patient Problem:

Today, young people are encouraged to wash their hands several times a day in order to stay healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). This guidance is based on research that confirms that regular handwashing is the most cost-effective approach to keeping young people healthy (Clean hands save lives, 2015). For instance, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) emphasizes that, "egular handwashing, particularly before and after certain activities, is one of the best ways to remove germs, avoid getting sick, and prevent the spread of germs to others. It's quick, it's simple, and it can keep us all from getting sick" (Clean hands save lives, 2015, para. 1). The potential exists, though, that using antibacterial soap versus regular soap and water causes antimicrobial drug resistance in children. These concerns are similar to concerns that the over-prescription of powerful antibiotics for…… [Read More]

References

Clean hands save lives. (2015). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www. cdc.gov/handwashing/index.html.

Forrester, M. A. & Borthwick-Hunter, E. (2015, April 1). Understanding the development of musicality: Contributions from longitudinal studies. Psychomusicology, 25(2), 93-96.

QSEN. (2015). Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing. Retrieved from http://qsen.org/about-qsen/.

Rogers, C. (2015). FDA taking a closer look at "antimicrobial" soap. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from  http://www.fda.gov /forconsumers / consumer updates/ucm378393.htm.
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Staphylococcus Aureus Is a Type

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57712865

Tests are therefore conducted to examine if there is a presence of S. aureus that caused the illness and if the bacteria is or can be recognised as a potential source for food poisoning (Bennet & Lancette, 2001). One such test is known under the name of Direct Plate Count Method as it was illustrated by Bennet and Lancette, generally requiring a step-by-step procedure involving a. Equipment and materials, B. Media and reagents, C. Preparation of sample, D. Isolation and enumeration of S. aureus, E. coagulase test, F. ncillary tests, and G. Knowledge of some typical characteristics of species of staphylococci and micrococci (Bennet & Lancette, 2001).

fter considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy gar (TS) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. lso, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of…… [Read More]

After considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. Also, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of food.

In cases of antibiotic resistance, the issue is first and perhaps foremost of hygiene. Afterwards it is an issue of people having to take antibiotics only when necessary. Of course, these are preventive measures that generally are required from individuals. Overcoming antibiotic resistance has taken a new approach as exemplified by Levy (2002) and it consists of trasferring the resistance genes into other bacteria through several genetic means (p. 26). Of the three adoptive methods, it seems the latter, that of DNA released of dead bacteria and incorporated into new strains has also proved efficient in resisting among pneumococci and Haemophilus spp. (Levy, 2002, p. 26)

For determining antibiotic resistance a few sensitive testing methods exist: dilution methods, disk diffusion method, E-test, automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems, mechanism-specific tests, and genotypic
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332427

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long.
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Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use Triclosan

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2679510

Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan

Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.

Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.

Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…… [Read More]

References

Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water

Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.

Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.

Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide
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Why Evolution Is True

Words: 3309 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98702351

Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True

I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
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Evolution Sharma S Kunimoto

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6183547

" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.

The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)

The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview

Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from:  http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
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Super Integrons

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23747363

integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).

Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty

of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.

http://icarus.med.utoronto.ca/patho/faculty.asp?FacultyID=208

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
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Pathogens and Diseases Pathogens Are Common Characteristics

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65625701

Pathogens and Diseases:

Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.

Spread of Pathogens:

Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]

References:

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best

Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
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Nursing Evidence-Based Practice the Article

Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87121113



The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.

The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality.

The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical

Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March

20, 2010, from Web site:

http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/5/1451
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Acne Be Treated Treating Acne

Words: 3256 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88862282

co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."

The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."

Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…… [Read More]

References

The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.

Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm.

Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"

The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
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Changing World Map

Words: 4723 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99360523

Governments make and break alliances, treaties, and agreements for financial and political gains, as well as for power and control, all in a constantly fluid manner. Such changes have been taking place as long as there have been countries, so the maneuverings should not be of any surprise; what this paper seeks to do is determine how those ongoing changes reflect the current environment as well as how the alliances will influence governments over the next several years, and decades.

Historical Context -- World War I (1914 -- 1919)

A recent historical report states that "with deliberate deceptions, lies and attempts on all sides to appear as the wronged, it is little wonder that, after a hundred years, there is still no consensus on why the July Crisis escalated into the First World War" (Mombauer, 2014, p. 23). World War I was known as the war to end all wars,…… [Read More]

References

Bilefsky, D. & Baumejan, M.; (2015) Terrorists strike Charlie Hebdo, newspaper in Paris, leaving 12 dead, NY Times accessed on February 27, 2015 at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-paris-shooting.html

Bogdanor, V.; (2014) The shadows lengthen, History Today, 64(8)19-25

Bosco, D.; (2014) Assessing the UN Security Council: A concert perspective, Global Governance, 20(4) 545-561

Brinkley, J.; (2013) Islamic terror, World Affairs, 176(2) 43 -- 55
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Current Research on Staph Infections

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433754

Aureus

Current Areas of esearch

Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.

One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…… [Read More]

References

Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:

Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.

Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER

The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015

from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/11/23/regulatory-similarities-betweengmo-foods-and-phar.aspx

CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923

CAFO's

The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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UTI in Elderly Patients

Words: 1072 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31560520

Nursing Informatics

The scenario described herein is in grounded in geriatric medicine, and utilizes the NANDA, NIC, and NOC elements to link the various components in standardized language to the data, information, knowledge, and wisdom associated with this exercise. The key parts of the paper are as follows: 1) Introduction; 2) nursing diagnosis (NANDA), including actual diagnosis, risk diagnosis, and wellness diagnosis; 3) nursing outcomes classification (NOC); 4) nursing interventions classification (NIC); 5) conclusions.

Case Presentation

The patient is an elderly woman with early stage dementia, who reports her age as 87 years. The patient's family brought her to the clinic because she has been complaining of malaise and refuses to receive help with dressing, both of which are unusual for the patient. Vitals were taken and all are within normal range, except that the patient had a temperature just above 37.9C. Examination revealed that the patient was experiencing suprapubic…… [Read More]

References 4

http://download.lww.com/wolterskluwer_vitalstream_com/PermaLink/NE/A/NE_35_4_2010_04_16_SMITH_200117_SDC1.ppt

Beveridge, L.A., Davey, P.G., Philliops, G. & McMurdo, M.E.T. (2011, June). Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people. Clinical Interventions of Aging, 6, 173 -- 180. . doi: 10.2147/CIA.S13423. PMCID: PMC3131987

Mellen, C.K., Ford, M., & Rindone, J.P. (2010, July). Effect of high-dose cranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70(1), 139-142. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03674.x.

Nicolle, L.E. (2000). Asymptomatic bacteriuria in institutionalized elderly people: evidence and practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ),163(3), 285 -- 286.
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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Wild Species Which Includes That of Animals

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95417620

Wild species, which includes that of animals, plants, and of other organisms, constitute the most part of the seafood of the world and of the timber. The Wild species provide a means of earning to the communities apart from providing them with food, medicines, fibers, skins, furs and forage, without which many communities could not have had their living.

Apart from this they also help in the intellectual growth, provide a sense of beauty and also promotes the religious and cultural beliefs of the people. ecause of the importance given to the wild species and of the use made of them by people, many natural and semi-natural ecosystems owe their present existence and even their future would owe to these uses.

Firstly, the use of wild species is that it has direct commercial value in terms of fishing, hunting, harvesting which enables the U.S. economy to earn $200 billion and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albuquerque, NM. (1990) Conserving Endangered Species: A Commitment to the Future. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region.

Costanza, R. et al. (1997, May 15). The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature 387: 253-260.

Hill, H.R. (1994, August 8) Ohio State University Study Finds Genetic Altering of Bacterium Upsets Natural Order, The Oregonian,

Food and Drug Administration 57 Federal Register 22987(1995, December) EPA Approves Bt Corn and Cotton With Conditions, The Gene Exchange,
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Rfa Budgeting Proposal Exercise

Words: 415 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33597964

Budgeting for Clinical esearch

FA Title: Antimicrobial Use & esistance Data Collection (U01)

FA Number: FA-FD-16-046

Purpose of the FA:

The purpose of this FA is to "support the collection of data on antimicrobial use in animal agriculture. There are two main objectives. The first is to "provide needed information on antimicrobial practices in various animal production settings" and the second is to "provide important information on data collection methodologies to help optimize the long-term strategies for collecting and reporting such data."

Why you selected this particular FA:

This FA appealed because of my interest in the subject of antibiotic resistance. This topic felt close to that. Because this FA concerns antimicrobials use in animals, I felt that it reflected on this subject strongly.

Total Budget: $1.2 million

Budget (Time) Period: 4 years

Budget Categories

Budget Category: Personnel

Estimated Dollar Amount: $800,000

Description of the Category: Key research personnel and…… [Read More]

References

Wilenberg, K. (2004). Managing clinical trials -- frustration or bliss? Journal of Oncology Management. Nov/Dec 2004, 24-26

Stoller, S. (2009). An introduction to clinical trial budgeting and negotiating. Unpublished. In possession of the author.
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Woman Entered the National Institutes of Health

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43959445

woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.

The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…… [Read More]

References

"Klebsiella Pneumoniae Morphology" Klebsiella Pneumoniae.org. Retrieved from  http://klebsiella-pneumoniae.org/klebsiella_pneumoniae_morphology.html 

Melissa Block, Eddie Cornish. (30 Oct 2012). Interview "NIH Takes Extraordinary Steps

In Fighting 'Superbug'." NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/08/23/159931389/nih-takes-extraordinary-steps-in-fighting-super bug

Snitkin, Evan, etal. (Aug 2012). "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant
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Mitigating the Effects of Emerging Water Pollutants

Words: 2538 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46682089

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment

Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.

Introduction

A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…… [Read More]

References

Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8

Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246

Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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Hormones in Our Agricultural Food and the

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34425337

hormones in our agricultural food and the adverse effects it has on the animals and the human consumers. The writer provides an outline of the effect the hormones have both physically and politically on the consumer and the nation's that support the use of hormones. The writer also presents evidence of the health problems hormones are thought to cause as well. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

As the world becomes more crowded the demand for fast growing resources including food increase. The use of growth hormone in cattle has sparked a worldwide controversy as several nation's wrestle with trade organizations mandates against what they believe the hormone treated cows can cause by way of health problems.

The most common hormone used today in the cow industry is Bovine Growth Hormone, which is also referred to as BGH. This hormone is a genetically engineered hormone. It is…… [Read More]

References

Hormones spark meaty debate Jul. 23, 2001

http://chealth.canoe.ca/columns.asp?columnistid=7&articleid=1664

Provided by: Sun Media Written by: Marilyn Linton (accessed 5-4-2003)

Beef Hormones Linked to Premature Onset of Puberty & Breast Cancer
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Microbiome Can Be Defined as the Sum

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64994122

Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).

However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…… [Read More]

References

NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]

Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603

The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.

The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.
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Sociology Politics

Words: 2317 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 574399

genetically modified (GM) foods in the last half of the 20th century created a whirlwind of controversy in the developed. Critics argue that genetically modified foods are unnatural and unsafe, while supporters note that genetically modified foods can improve crop yields, increase nutrient content, and improve food safety. Over the past decades, the production and distribution of genetically modified foods in North America and Europe has long been discussed, and governmental controls have been implemented. In contrast, many African countries have not had the opportunity to develop GM food policies. hen the U.S. offered genetically modified foods as part of an aid package to African countries in the past years, the act renewed the controversy around genetically modified foods.

This paper will focus on the debate surrounding the use of genetically modified foods as food aid to African countries. First, a brief background to the GM food industry, and GM…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Batalion, Nathan. 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods. 05 November 2003.  http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm 

Bhattacharya, Shaoni. New Scientist Online News 14:06-25 June 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993874

Brissenden, Michael. U.S.-EU war over genetically modified food intensifies. The World Today - Wednesday, 25 June, 2003 12:45:00. Transcript. 05 November 2003.  http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s888140.htm 

Coghan, Andy. New Scientist Online News 19:00-29 January 03. 05 November 2003. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993317
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Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).

10)

There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
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Organic vs Non-Organic Organic vs

Words: 1062 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858433

From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.

This informative article demonstrates…… [Read More]

Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.

Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.

This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
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Gene Tinkering in Agriculture

Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81543511

genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
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Supplements There Are Many Reasons That Supplements

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53415536

Supplements

There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.

Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong:  http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/ 

FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO:  http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm 

WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
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Chlorhexidine Use in VAP Cases

Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50579885

Omit itles and Degrees]

Klompas M., Speck, K., Howell M.D., Greene, L.R., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2014). Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorohexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, 174 (5), 751-761.

his article deals with the routine oral care of patients using chlorhexidine gluconate as standard care when they receive mechanical ventilation during their hospital stay. heir aim is to assess the overall impact routine oral care has in conjunction with chlorhexidine in regards to patient-centered outcomes for patients receiving the aforementioned mechanical ventilation. hey chose randomized clinical trials that compared a placebo to chlorhexidine and chose only sixteen studies out of the 171 citations they explored because the 3,630 patients observed in the selected studies met criteria.

he results showed chlorhexidine provide patients with a lesser occurrence of infection than with placebo, although pneumonia risk was around the same for both.…… [Read More]

This webpage gives information on what VAP is. It also provides links on possible prevention information. It does not really highlight use of chlorhexidine. However, it does include monitoring practices to check for VAP for early intervention.

15. Beraldo, C.C., & Andrade, D.D. (2008). Oral Hygiene with chlorohexidine in preventing pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. Jornal Braisileiro de Pneumologia, 34(9), 707-714

This article failed to provide any new information with the exception of reducing another bacterium through the use of chlorhexidine. It is a search kind of article. They chose eight studies. From those eight studies, seven of them confirmed the use of chlorhexidine reduces instances of VAP.
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Justification Assessment of Proteome Changes

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18669217

efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).

Conclusion

The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…… [Read More]

References

Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.

Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.

Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.

Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
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Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry

Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60683277

Poultry

Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
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Nursing Practice Knowledge

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3028953

Nursing

Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…… [Read More]

References

Drugs & Medications - Singulair Oral. WebMed. Retrieved http://www.webmd.com/drugs/mono-8277-MONTELUKAST+-+ORAL.aspx?drugid=6485&drugname=Singulair+Oral

Why Is This Medicine Prescribed? Med Line Plus. Retrieved http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a600014.html#side-effects [Type text]
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Natural Selection First Described in Full by

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69618589

Natural Selection

First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…… [Read More]

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Helicobacter Pylori

Words: 1181 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96552566

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter (genus) pylori (species), commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that causes gastritis of the inner lining of the stomach in humans and is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide (Delaney, Moayyedi and Forman 536). Ingestion of contaminated food and water and person-to-person contact is the most likely means of acquiring H. pylori. Portals for entry are largely oral, as oral-oral and oral-fecal contact are the most common contamination methods. About 30% of the adult population in the United States are infected and is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation (Malcolm et al. 137). Infected individuals typically carry the infection indefinitely unless they are treated with medications to eradicate the bacterium. Other than the human stomach, there appears to be no natural reservoir for this bacterium. One out of every six patients with H. pylori infection will develop ulcers of the duodenum…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Delaney, B., P. Moayyedi, and D. Forman. "Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Clin Evid.10 (2003): 535-48.

Hofman, P., et al. "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 15-22.

Malcolm, C.A., et al. "Helicobacter Pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty." Scott Med J. 49.4 (2004): 136-8.

McLoughlin, R., et al. "Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 42-8.
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Certified Organic

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819610

Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.
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Clinical Decision Making Guide Subjective

Words: 1292 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20564934

A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.

An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.

If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.

The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
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Surgical Site Infections Are a

Words: 1392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20996974

The facility should strive to bring the SSI rate down below the expected level for the types of patients and surgeries that the facility has.

Plan of Action

In order to achieve better-than-average results in the SSI rates for our facility, there are a number of tactics that can be used. The first is that the culture of the organization needs to emphasize safety to a degree greater than the current degree. As of now, there is no particular focus on SSIs, and this contributes to a culture where there is little accountability with respect to the SSI rates, or to individual SSI cases. The organization must improve the accountability, so that staff members are specifically held accountable for the mistakes that they make that result in an SSI.

Beyond culture, there are specific things that the organization can do to promote an improved rate of SSI. The first is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, D. (2009). Surgical site infections. Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from  http://www.hapmd.com/home/hapmdcom/public_html/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/cirugia/bibliografica-cx/20110504_articulo_2.pdf 

Barie, P. & Eachempati, S. (2005). Surgical site infections. The Surgical Clinics of North America. Vol. 85 (6) 1115-35.

Harbarth, S., Samore, M., Lichtenberg, D. & Carmeli, Y. (2000). Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after cardiovascular surgery and its effect on surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Circulation. Vol. 101 (2000) 2916-2921.

Lauwers, S. & de Smet, F. (1998). Surgical site infections. Acta Clin Belg. Vol 53 (5) 303-310.
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1929 Event Penicillin Is One

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92859778



There are many bacteria that are able to resist against antibiotic drugs, including penicillin. The resistance to antibiotics often occurs because not all bacteria that are part of the same species are alike. These small differences that exist among the bacteria often mean that some will be able to fight off the assault of an antibiotic. hen a person's own defenses do not kill off these resistant bacteria then they increase. This antibiotic-resistant form of a disease often re-infects the patient, or is passed on from one person to another. hen a person takes an antibiotic for viruses like colds they can cause antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but it will kill off harmless and even the beneficial bacteria that live in a person's body. The surviving bacteria will live and multiply and may eventually cause disease. People with bacterial infections, who don't completely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bellis, Mary. 2009. "The History of Penicillin."

http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm>

"Penicillin." n.d.

"Penicillin: the first miracle drug." 2006.
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Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2795548

This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.

Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.

Conclusion

Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…… [Read More]

References

GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html

Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from  http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org 

Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.

Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
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Mutation That Most Probably Occurred

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20185087

On the other hand, induced mutations are caused by natural or man-made mutagens, which alter the structure or sequence of DNA. The spontaneous mutation frequency, which is the mutants/viable cell, is relatively low.

It is essential to understand the nature of mutations because they contribute to genetic variance in a population to ensure its survival. Bacteria are easy to study because they very short reproductive and life cycles. This lets an observer study multiple generations in a very short period of time. The relatively low frequency of mutations in a population will only result in the survival of a few in the event of a biological calamity. However, the progeny of the survivors will inherit the mutant strain as well, ensuring the continuity of the species. This would be a boon to humans; to know that the species will survive even global pandemics.

However, this phenomenon also has an adverse…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bouchelion et al. "Newcombe Experiment Biol302" 23 November 2008. 22 February

2011  http://userpages.umbc.edu/~bueltod1/index.html .

Team UPS. "Newcombe Experiment: A study of mutation in Escherichia Coli." 26

November 2008. 22 February 2011 http://upsbiol302.wordpress.com.
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Preventing VRE All Measures to

Words: 1874 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84626562

For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.

New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658

Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.

Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935

Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
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Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

Words: 4631 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37148611

" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)

There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]

References

Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.

Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html

Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php

Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
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Public Health information

Words: 2455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584020

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]

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Antimicrobial Agents

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73598608

Introduction: Antimicrobial Agents

Although they are often over-prescribed, antimicrobial agents are a critical defense against microbial infections. The sources of microbial infections include bacteria, viruses, funguses, and parasites. Therefore, the key categories of antimicrobial pharmaceutical agents are antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoal, and antiviral drugs. Sometimes the terms antibiotic, antimicrobial, and anti-infective are used interchangeably, but it is crucial to differentiate between the type of infection in order to choose the appropriate antimicrobial agent (Leekha, Terrell, & Edson, 2011, p. 156). Incorrect treatment can lead to deleterious results including resistance. There are several different ways to classify antimicrobial agents, and likewise, different methods of determining whether the infection is related to a virus, bacteria, or otherwise.

Classifying Antimicrobial Agents

One method of classifying antimicrobial agents is via their chemical composition or molecular structure. Another method of classifying antimicrobial agents is via their mechanism of action, and a third method is their level…… [Read More]

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Nursing Culture Overcoming Barriers to Change Introduction

Words: 5230 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4699596

Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change

Introduction and Theoretical Framework

This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.

Statement of the Problem

According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…… [Read More]

References

Banyard, V.L., & Miller, K.E. (1998). The powerful potential of qualitative research for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 485.

Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.

Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform. London:
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Immunology Toll Like Receptors

Words: 1635 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78389438

Immunology - Toll-Like receptors

The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)

Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…… [Read More]

References

Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004

Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004

Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004

"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
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Bacteria and Viruses

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58077988

What are Bacteria and Viruses?

The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Causes

Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…… [Read More]

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How to Treat Urinary Tract Infection

Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14006161

UTI Case Study

The case of L.J., a 23-year-old woman with no previous history of UTI, is one that represents a case of lower urinary tract infection. The gram negative rods on the gram stain are one of two types of bacteria classified that appear around the world; the gram negative classification is just a way to identify the type of bacteria associated with the infection: the bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan with a cell membrane and porins in the membrane. This is important to know, as the membrane guards the bacteria from various types of antibiotics that might otherwise be used. Knowing that the bacteria is gram negative instead of gram positive allows the health care provider to utilize an appropriate treatment method. This paper will discuss the possible treatment plans for L.J. in order to treat her UTI.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of the urinary tract infection is that…… [Read More]

References

Barillo, D., Marx, D. (2014). Silver in medicine: A brief history BC 335 to present.

Burns, 40(S1): 3-8.

Hooton, T. (2012). Clinical practice: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(11): 1028-37.

Lee, H., King, D. (2013). Complementary Therapy Strategies: Myths, Facts, and Lifestyle. Urinary Tract Infection. UK: Springer.
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Penicillin Slinn Judy 2009 Penicillin

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74508683

The promulgation of penicillin, for instance, is part of the story of the 1950s. America, fresh out of a World War and looking towards technology to save humanity -- the Atomic bomb, the Age of Plastics, new innovations for the kitchen, and then turning towards science to provide the fundamental answers that change and shape society.

Additionally, the story of penicillin is the story of economics. Once the synthesis of the cillians occurred, the larger pharmacological industry needed millions of dollars to produce the drug to the level needed. This author, in fact, believes that the cost of penicillin had a negative effect on the fall of the British Labour Party in the mid-1950s. The real tragedy, though, is that due to the overuse of the cillans, modern culture has actually changed the evolutionary nature of bacteria. The resistant strains now have a life of their own, and even though…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bellis, M. (2010). "The History of Penicillin." About.Com -- Inventors. Cited in:

http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm

Slinn, Judy. (2009). "Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy. -- Review of Robert Bud

Book." Medical History. 53 (1): 2009. 133.