Antitrust Essays (Examples)

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Healthcare Legislation and Economic Competition

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42788459

Antitrust Legislation and Healthcare
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) was designed to promote competitive practices in the marketplace and protect consumers from price gouging and other egregious practices generated from a lack of competition in monopolistic markets. It was not originally designed to impact the healthcare market but over the years its protections have been extended to do so
Strengths
Antitrust and anticompetitive laws were not always applied to physician and healthcare conduct. But in Goldfarb v. Virginia State Bar (1975), the “Supreme Court made it clear that professional conduct that interfered with normal market processes would face a heavy burden of justification and might even be unlawful per se” (Sage, Hyman, & Greenberg, 2003, par. 18). This ensured that collusion between healthcare providers, including withholding information, was illegal. It also meant that it was illegal to limit the actions of consumer ratings agencies which graded physicians and other healthcare…… [Read More]

References
Chamseddine, J. (2015). Obamacare, antitrust laws can coexist, says FTC official.
Washington Health Policy Week in Review. Retrieved from:  http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletters/washington-health-policy - in-review/2015/dec/dec-21-2015/obamacare-antitrust-laws-can-coexist
Cohen, J. (2012). How antitrust laws hinder the goals of healthcare reform. Medical Economics.
Retrieved from: http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical- economics/news/modernmedicine/modern-medicine-now/how-antitrust-laws-hinder- goals-healthcare?page=full
Sage, W., Hyman, D. & Greenberg, W. (2003). Why competition law matters to healthcare
quality. Health Affairs, 22(2) 31-44. Retrieved from:
http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/22/2/31.full
 
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Market Dominance

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40993660

Antitrust Practices and Market Power

The modern business environment is increasingly characterized by the proliferation of emerging monopolies in various industries. One of the industries that have experienced an increase in budding monopolies is Information Technology, particularly with the growth and development of social media and networks. Technology companies have rapidly developed into monopolies because of the connection between attractive business opportunities. The growth of leading technology companies into monopolies has also been fueled by their efforts to gain and maintain market power. However, some of these companies such as Google, AT&T, Standard Oil, Microsoft, and Facebook have been investigated for antitrust behavior.

Similar to Google, Facebook is company whose growth and development is partly attributed to the failure by Microsoft to strangle it like it did to Netscape a decade before. Facebook's business and operations are entirely built on focusing on developing network effects since the firm's value for…… [Read More]

References

European Commission (2014, October 24). Antitrust: Commission Probes Allegations of Antitrust Violations by Google. Retrieved November 13, 2014, from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-10-1624_en.htm

Fox, J. (2013, January). The Web's New Monopolies. Atlantic Monthly, 30-34.

Windrum, P. (n.d.). Back from the Brink: Microsoft and the Strategic Use of Standards in the Browser Wars. Retrieved November 13, 2014, from http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?fid=292
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Economic General

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66901875

Antitrust Case

Economic general

Antitrust practices and market power: Microsoft

One of the most famous and prolonged cases involving antitrust allegations was that of the suit brought about by the Department of Justice against the Microsoft Corporation. It was alleged that Microsoft's act of 'bundling' specific applications such as its web browser, Internet Explorer and Windows Media Player to make them the default setting of its Windows operating system resulted in anticompetitive practices within the software industry. The European Union also waged an antitrust case against Microsoft, and its findings against the company were even more broad and sweeping than in the United States. As a result, in the EU, Microsoft "was not allowed to offer any technological, commercial, or contractual term or inducement to make the bundled version the more attractive, and a monitoring trustee was required to ensure that the unbundled version of Windows works as well as…… [Read More]

References

Economides, N., & Lianos, I. (2009). The elusive antitrust standard on bundling in Europe and in the United States in the aftermath of the Microsoft cases. Antitrust Law Journal, 76(2), 483-567.
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Economics of Public Policy

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40440193

Monopolies and Trusts:

Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?

Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…… [Read More]

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Microeconomics Over the Last Few Years it

Words: 2027 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52668040

Microeconomics

Over the last few years, it is evident that the airline industry in the U.S. has been experiencing long standing as well as novel challenges (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012). These includes the increase in the price of fuel, slowing demand for air travel and pressures to expand globally. Consolidation among various airlines across the country is the most common remedy that most of the airline firms are applying.

In April 2012, the U.S. Airways made an announcement to move and take over the American Airlines. American airline is the fourth largest airline in the United States while U.S. Airways is the fifth (Plane Buzz, 2013). This merger, therefore, will make the U.S. Airways- American the largest in the United States with a combined share of more than 21% (The American Antitrust Institute, 2012).

The merger is worth 11 billion U.S. dollars and will turn America into the largest…… [Read More]

References

Carlton, D.W., Landes, W.M. & Posner, R.A 1980 'Benefits and Costs of airline mergers, The

Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-83

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3003401?uid=2134&uid=2&suid=70&uid=4&sid=21101927848577

Raper, K.C, Love, A.H. & Shumway, R.C 2007, Distinguishing the Source of Market Power, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Feb., 2007), pp. 78-90 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4123564?uid=3738336&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101942783417
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Business Law Contract Analysis U-Haul

Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46964143

Independent dealers must sign a contract that sets forth the manner in which they will operate their rental centers. Often a small business owner will supplement their income be adding U-Hauls to their market mix. Independent contractors earn a commission on their sales.

Each division of AMERCO has it own president. All of them must report to a Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board and overall President is Edward Shoen, descendent of the original founders of the company. Many members of the Shoen family still control much of the company (Google Finance). Little information is available about the company, aside from their financial statements. Although they have a Board of Directors, the company continues to operate as a family-style operation, with the family members occupying many positions in upper management. The company structure is simple and little is available beyond basic information.

Purchasing Contract Analysis and the UCC…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ceh v. UHaul International, Inc., 11th district court of appeals, No. 04-10031.

A www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200410671.pdf. Accessed January 22.

Company News; U-Haul's Parent Seeks Bankruptcy Protection." June 21, 2003. New

York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EFDF173BF932A15755C0A9659C8B63. Accessed January 23, 2007.
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Market Competition and Regulation the

Words: 2379 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65812053

Of course, this is a good thing for customers on short-term, but is negatively affects other companies on the market. This is because smaller competitors and especially those that intend to enter the market addressed by IBM find it at least difficult to provide product prices in accordance with those provided by IBM. These smaller companies do not have the ability of reducing their production or operating costs, which does not allow them to introduce competitive prices on the market. This way, they are clearly disfavored by IBM's position and market power.

In addition to this, in a field like it, it is imperative to make continuous investments into the research and development activity. This requires significant capital amounts from these companies. The investment levels that IBM reaches cannot be reached by many of these companies. This makes it difficult for these companies to keep up with IBM and its…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Oates, J. (2009). IBM Faces EU Monopoly Probe. Enterprise. Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.channelregister.co.uk/2009/01/20/ibm_eu_probe/.

2. Annual Report (2010). IBM. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/51143/000104746910001151/a2195966z10-k.htm.

3. Monopoly: A Brief Introduction (2006). Linux Information Project. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from  http://www.linfo.org/monopoly.html .

4. O'Gara, M. (2010). EC Opens Two Antitrust Investigations of IBM. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from  http://soa.sys-con.com/node/1478919 .
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Telecom Industry the Total Business

Words: 2045 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63354661

Wireless although the performance of Cingular has been mediocre also. The new Cingular expects that the added network coverage from at & T. Wireless will assist in opposing that belief nearly from the very beginning. (FCC OKs Cingular, at&T Wireless Merger)

The merger is regarding placing two companies in unison that do not have the metrics to go for the optimum services. Whereas there is scanty reservations regarding the amalgamation gives Cingular instruments to perk up customer satisfaction, the company has to proceed very speedily. Since in excess of 170 million subscribers are at present using a mobile phone in the United States, the phenomenal surge in the recent years is sure of slowing down. Meanwhile, the customers of at & T. Wireless has been deserting at the rate of 3.5% per month during 2004 which is worrying given that rivals Verizon and Nextel Comunications Inc. has been losing their…… [Read More]

References

Cingular, att Wireless merge after clearing last hurdle. October 26, 2004 Retrieved at http://economy.news.designerz.com/cingular-att-wireless-merge-after-clearing-last-hurdle.html. Accessed on 22 November, 2004.

Cingular Completes at&T Wireless Takeover. October 26, 2004. Retrieved at  http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/cingular.html . Accessed on 22 November, 2004.

Consumers Will Pay Big for Cingular/at&T Merger, Study Warns. May 27, 2004 Retrieved from ttp:/ / www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/att_merger_phoenix.html. Accessed on 22 November, 2004.

Customer Benefits. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.newcingular.com/c_benefits.html. Accessed on 22 November, 2004.
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Private University Is Selling a Share or

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28203394

Private University is selling a share, or something else. At the outset of the Act, "security" is defined as "any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate…" and many others are subject to the law. The key is that the security creates a share of income for the holder, whether in the form of debt or equity. Options for later purchase are also included in the definition of security.

The asset in question is a "share" that entitles the bearer to college credits in any school at the future date. A college credit is not a claim to a cash flow, nor it is claim to equity. Therefore, this is not a security. Rather, it is a coupon by which a product can later be acquired. There is no difference between this asset…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FTC. (2013). The antitrust laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm

FTC. (2013). Horizontal merger guidelines. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.ftc.gov/os/2010/08/100819hmg.pdf

Securities Act of 1933. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://www.sec.gov/about/laws/sa33.pdf 

Stewart, J. (2011). Antitrust suit is simple calculus. New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/10/business/att-and-t-mobile-merger-is-a-textbook-case.html?pagewanted=all
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Separation of Powers and Federalism How Do

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95887507

separation of powers and federalism. How do these central architectural features of American government seek to support Thomas Jefferson's perspectives; "That government is best which governs least." Why from the view of many business executives is government "gridlock" good?

Separation of powers is that element of the American government designed to protect the nation from tyranny and to, as far as possible, keep the power of the nation decentralized. Federalism, while certainly not designed to promote tyranny, is designed to strengthen the power of the government to act and govern the nation, centralizing power into a strong formal national government. Each of these aspects of modern American government have different implications for business.

According to Thomas Jefferson, "That government is best which governs least." The separation of powers helps to assure that the different branches of the government balance each other sufficiently that no single branch can govern so much…… [Read More]

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Dan Brown's the Davinci Code

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36681891

Grasso last year, contending that the $139.5 million payout that Mr. Grasso received in the summer of 2003 was exorbitant and in violation of New York's not-for-profit law, which states that executives at not-for-profit organizations, like the exchange, receive "reasonable" compensation. Mr. Spitzer has said he will seek more than $100 million back from Mr. Grasso. In his complaint, Mr. Spitzer cited the Webb report as crucial to his investigation. But until yesterday it remained confidential. The document describes some of the crucial points made in the complaint, among them that the board was misled about the size of Mr. Grasso's bonuses and that $13 million of his $139.5 million payment was vested when in fact it was not (THOMAS and Anderson 2005).

Question

The antitrust authorities should permit Microsoft to merge with Yahoo because it will be more profitable in the end. This is due to the fact that…… [Read More]

References

Eternal Reward: $10,000. retrieved March 7, 2008, at  http://www.ericdsnider.com/snide/eternal-reward-10000/ 

2007). CRIMES and CORRUPTION of the NEW WORLD ORDER NEWS. Retrieved March 7, 2008, at  http://mparent7777-2.blogspot.com/2007_01_07_archive.html 

2007). Friends' getting too friendly. Retrieved March 7, 2008, at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb07/jn.html

Gunderman, Robert and Hammond, John.(2007). Reexamination of the Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich. Retrieved March 7, 2008, at http://www.ipfrontline.com/depts/article.asp?id=14617&deptid=3
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Lets Talk Money Interview Transcript

Words: 1632 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25270026

alt Disney Company Scenario

Scene: Fiscal Karat (FK), host of TV's Let's Talk Money, is seated at the center of an oak conference table. Let's Talk Money is a weekly PBS talk show that interviews business leaders and often finds government officials to debate certain ideas and programs. Tonight's episode features Mr. Michael McDuck (MM), CEO of alt Disney Company and Mr. Rigid B. Crat (RC), Senior Administrator for the U.S. Treasury's Anti-trust Division.

FK: Good evening and welcome to Let's Talk Money, your weekly adventure into provocative and interesting monetary topics ranging from mild to wild. Tonight, a special treat for the kid in us all -- Michael McDuck, CEO of alt Disney goes head to head with the Administration's Senior Anti-Trust Maven, Rigid B. Crat. elcome gentlemen!

First though, let's take a moment to establish a bit of background. The alt Disney Company is a multinational mass media…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Disney Vows to Investigate Claims of ABuse at Factories. (2005, June). Retrieved from SACOM: http://sacom.hk/archives/66

J&J, Walt Disney, Kraft Foods Top Rankgin. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from Environmental Leader:  http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/10/13/jj-walt-disney-krafts-foods-top-csr-ranking/ 

Hearing: Are Government Contractors Exploiting Workers Overseas? (2011, November 2). Retrieved from Sparky - Keeping You Plugged In:  http://mssparky.com/2011/10/hearing-are-government-contractors-exploiting-workers-overseas/ 

Areeda, P., & Hovenkamp, H. (2011). Fundamentals of Antitrust Law. New York: Kluwer Law.
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Economic Situation in the U S as Compared

Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59224956

economic situation in the U.. As compared to five (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, and unemployment in the analysis.

Between 2009-2011, 6.1million workers were displaced from jobs that they held for at least 3 years. In 2012, the statistics for employment seemed to be more optimistic: whilst 1,340 mass layoff actions occurred in July, the Bureau of Labor tatistics (http://www.bls.gov/) reported that productivity increased 2.2% in the nonfarm business sector in the second quarter of 2012 whilst in manufacturing, productivity grew 0.1%. During this same year (2012), demand for employment also grew in wholesale trade and retail trade, whilst employment in the food and drink sector remained constant. The jobless rate as a whole this year has also decreased in a large number of areas whilst from April to July alone employment rose from 2.1 million to 19.5 million.

In June, 2012, the Federal Reserve ystem noted that…… [Read More]

Sources

Antitrust Acts and Laws

 http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/A-Ar/Antitrust-Acts-and-Laws.html#ixzz25kaHoiON 

Bureau of Labor Statistics

 http://www.bls.gov/
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Unionization on the NBA Unionization

Words: 2516 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81144759

The result is an increasing gap between the richest and poorest teams that would reinforce disparities around and earning power, concentrating productivity into monopolistic dominant teams with a concommitant reduction of competition in play and consumer price. The result is less competition for higher prices and restricted options for most employees.

Under a bargaining agreement negotiated with a players' union on the other hand, all employers could offer baseline salaries negotiated with players at various tiers, based on productivity, tenure or any legal conditions the teams collaborated to offer should the players agree, which could result in salary reductions, salary caps, various distribution of BI revenue and perhaps reduced 'frictional cost' of having to bid for talent every season (Feldman, 2012, p. 1233). This stability could reduce turnover and search cost and thus slow ticket price increases, and then if players agreed to additional free agent conditions in the negotiated…… [Read More]

References

Beck, H. (2011). N.B.A. reaches a tentative deal to save the season. New York Times 26 Nov.

2011. A1. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/27/sports/basketball/nba-and-basketball-players-reach-deal-to-end-lockout.html?pagewanted=all

Brandt, a. (2011). The big deal over BRI. NBA. ESPN.com. 5 Nov. 2011. Retrieved from  http://espn.go.com/nba/story/_/id/7194222/basketball-related-income-affects-nba-lockout-talks 

Feldman, G. (2012). Antitrust vs. labor law in professional sports: Balancing the scales after
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Unethical Business Research Practices What Unethical Research

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21824562

Unethical Business esearch Practices

What unethical research behavior was involved?

The antitrust case brought by Wal-Mart and other retailers against Visa and MasterCard in the U.S. Eastern District court, was settled in 2003 for $3 billion and primarily involved a dispute concerning the efficient pricing of access to payment information, including security data that confirmed or refuted the transactional identities of cardholders (oberds & Schreft, 2009). In their pleadings, Wal-Mart and other class action litigants argued that third-party providers such as Visa and MasterCard required them to accept both debit and credit cards issued by MasterCard but the interchange fees were higher for debit cards (Ulzheimer, 2012). In sum, the suit filed by Wal-Mart and other large retailers claimed that Visa and MasterCard "required all merchants who accept their credit cards to also accept their signature debit cards [which] constitutes an illegal tie-in in violation of antitrust law" (Peterson, 2002,…… [Read More]

References

An introduction to ISO 27001. (2012). The ISO2700 Directory. Retrieved from http://www.

27000.org/iso-27001.htm.

Azola, M. (2011). The Reconciliation Project: Separation and integration in business ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 19 -- 36.

Binning, D. (2012). Top five cloud computing security issues. ComputerWeekly. Retrieved from:
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Industrial Economic Regulations According to the Organization for

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91303075

Industrial/Economic egulations

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines economic regulations (industrial regulations) as "intervening directly in market decisions such as pricing, competition, market entry, or exit ("Economic regulations," 2002). The main reason for economic regulation is because it is permits the straightforward businessman to succeed in the economy and decrease business relations within the economy from being broken by the illegal activity that takes place (Black, 2010). However, within the economy the market has four different structures that industries are classified under that the government uses to help control the advantages and limitations of supply and demand. The goal of the four structures is to look at how it "affects the outcomes in the market with impacts on the motivations, opportunities, and decisions of economic buyers and sellers through their behaviors within market competition" states Fischer (n.d.). The OECD defines social regulations as an impact…… [Read More]

References

Black, W. (2010, January 11). Inside the fed's secret war on good regulation. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23879_Page_1_19.pdf

Boyer, P. (2001). Federal regulatory agencies. The oxford companion to United States history. Retrieved May 18, 2011 from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119FederalRegulatoryAgencies.html

Department of Trade, Federal Trade Commission. (2011). Ftc guide to the antitrust laws. Washington, DC: Government Website. Retrieved from http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm

Economic regulations. (2002, July 31). Retrieved from  http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=4639
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Book the Titans of Takeover

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59437841

Robert Slater

This report is based upon the book Titans of Takeover by Robert Slater. This book was originally published in 1987 by Englewood Cliffs, and then re-published and copyrighted in 1999 by Beard Books.

Introduction of the Author

The book Titans of Takeover was authored by Robert Slater, who is famous for his strong stand against President Ronald Reagan's attempts to make the U.S. marketplace a free economy by doing away with the Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Laws. He proved to America that although such a move would appear to yield immediate benefits by putting the nation's economy on the map against the vibrant economies that gave no room to antitrust laws, it would, to an equally large extent, produce devastating outcomes on the economy in the long run. Slater has authored a couple of other bestselling business books and authored several articles on the Wall Street Journal, in…… [Read More]

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Cartels Should Be Illegal In

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17602474

orkers can increase their own value in the workplace by improving their work assets, through education, effort or tenure.

In addition, the U.S. economy would not necessarily benefit. A higher national minimum wage would distort the market for labor in some states that currently face conditions leading to lower wages. This disruption of the market could reduce demand for labor and could also result in a less efficient market. In addition, increases in production costs are often passed on to consumers. hile the minimum wage worker may earn more, inflation will increase, essentially transferring wealth from all consumers to a small group of workers. This does not imply the creation of new wealth, only a redistribution of it in a manner that increases economic inefficiency. In addition, a higher minimum wage entices workers into the job market to the detriment of other workers, and many minimum wage earners are young…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mui, Y. & Barnes, R. (2007). High court overturns century-old antitrust rule. Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/28/AR2007062802370.html 

Gibson, M. (2010). A brief history of OPEC. Time Magazine. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2019120,00.html

Garfield, R. (1996). The case against a higher minimum wage. Joint Economic Committee Report. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.house.gov/jec/cost-gov/regs/minimum/against/against.htm
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Microsoft Is a Company That Was Found

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40563821

Microsoft is a company that was found to be in violation of antitrust laws by both the U.S. Justice Department and the European Commissions. The reason behind such a finding, is that Microsoft acted in a manner that was found to be overly aggressive in regards to its operating systems and software. As the Weil and McMillan article wrote that it was "alleged that Microsoft harmed Netscape's browser business through anticompetitive practices related to the Windows operating system" (Weil, McMillan, 2003) while the United States vs. Microsoft article went even further by stating "critics contend that Microsoft used monopolistic business practices and anti-competitive strategies including refusal to deal and lying, put unreasonable restrictions in the use of its software and used misrepresentative marketing tactics" (United States, 2002, 2006).

It is this author's belief that it does not matter if a company is 'capitalistic' or not, most companies would not have…… [Read More]

References

Aguilar, J.; Prato, F.; Bravo, C.; Rivas, F.; (2009) A multi-agent system for the management of abnormal situations in an artificially gas-lifted well, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 406 -- 426

United States v. Microsoft, (2002, 2006) Retrieved from http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_index.html

Weil, N., & McMillan, R. (2003, May 29). AOL, Microsoft settle Netscape suit. PCWorld. Retrieved from http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,110930,00.asp
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Regulation of Mergers Government Regulation of Mergers

Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21023654

egulation of Mergers

Government regulation of mergers and expansion in the smartphone operating systems market primarily protects consumers and encourages free market competition. There are antitrust laws that protect wireless consumers and promote competition against monopolistic practices.

Simply put government regulation is needed to allow more competitors to enter the market. Therefore offering consumers more innovative smartphone operating system choices and options.

Another advantage of regulation is to ensure pricing of products is not overly burdensome to consumers or generating an unreasonable profit for the corporations involved.

Mergers should not unfairly take advantage of consumers or force them to use their products or services due to dominating by monopolistic strategies.

Intervention of Government in Mergers

The rational of the Department of Justice overseeing regulations concerning mergers of corporations is to ensure free or open market competition (Stewart, 2011). This allows multiple software companies to develop new technological products that differentiate…… [Read More]

References

Ferner, M. (2011). 11 credit card apps swipers for iPhone, android, and blackberry. Practical Commerce. Retrieved February 27, 2012 from  http://www.practicalecommerce.com/articles/2497-11-Credit-Card-Apps-Swipers-for-iPhone-Android-and-BlackBerry 

Michaels, R.J. (2011). Transitions and strategies. South Western Cengage Learning.

Stewart, J.B. (2011). Antitrust suit is simple calculus. Retrieved February 27, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/10/business/att-and-t-mobile-merger-is-a-textbook-case.html?pagewanted=all

TabletPCDevices.com. (2010). Tablet PC reviews and comparisons. Retrieved February 27, 2012 from  http://www.tabletpcdevices.com/
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Mills Elinor & Greg Sandoval

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30875177

It is surely an understatement to observe: "Competitors who rely on the same setup as Youube," said Heberger, "where it's all user-generated content, they might be in trouble facing a Google-Youube team." (Mills & Sandoval, 2006)

he impact of the federal government upon economic behavior in this instance is clear -- there may have been grounds to contest the merger of Google and Youube, especially as Google has its own video service already. he government's action or inaction has changed the future of the Internet. Moreover, although the market structure of providers is relatively concentrated, the social diversity of the users of the services of Google and Youube is unprecedented. Every person's lives are affected, provided they use the Internet

What is the downside for Google? On one hand, people could begin to lose interest in posting on Youube, as Youube is not a strictly essential service, like a business'…… [Read More]

The impact of the federal government upon economic behavior in this instance is clear -- there may have been grounds to contest the merger of Google and YouTube, especially as Google has its own video service already. The government's action or inaction has changed the future of the Internet. Moreover, although the market structure of providers is relatively concentrated, the social diversity of the users of the services of Google and YouTube is unprecedented. Every person's lives are affected, provided they use the Internet

What is the downside for Google? On one hand, people could begin to lose interest in posting on YouTube, as YouTube is not a strictly essential service, like a business' use of a computer mainframe like Windows. "Baked into all these predictions are the assumption that online video really is the next big thing in Internet content and that its popularity can translate into advertising sales. Certainly, Google's executives think that's the case and were willing to spend big on YouTube, despite having their own video service and a reputation for steering clear of major acquisitions," and banking on the continued ubiquity of YouTube and its synonymous nature with shared, online video content (Mills & Sandoval, 2006). "This is the first time in history where people can shoot, edit and distribute videos," and the technology is so new, the wave of public interest, industry insides speculate, is still cresting (Mills & Sandoval, 2006).

When YouTube first came out, there were fears that copyright legislation might inhibit the posting of television shows and advertisements, but rather than contest the questionable right of third parties to post such clips, many companies and artists seem to welcome the free added attention and buzz YouTube gives to their products. There also seems to be little downside for the consumer regarding this acquisition, presumably the reason the government allowed Google to make its move. The only downside is for Google's competitors Yahoo and Microsoft. Because other companies wish to compete with Google, and are unwilling to cede this particular market space, "now the value for every other video-sharing company is rising with the purchase of YouTube, said analysts" (Mills & Sandoval, 2006). This merger seems to be a win-win scenario in the short run, for everyone but Yahoo and Microsoft, but at least in the short-term, video-sharing companies are likely to remain in the news as Google's competitors attempt to generate interest about new sites.
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Corporate Mergers and Public Good

Words: 3815 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52676350

Corporate Mergers and the Public Good

The United States of America, during the last years of the Nineteenth Century, witnessed a rash of corporate mergers. The Industrial Revolution had taken firm hold, and the nation was changing rapidly. Millions of Americans who had once been independent farmers or tradesmen now found themselves in the position of what some termed "wage slaves." At the mercy of their corporate employers, they worked long hours at low pay, and often under appalling conditions. The reasons for the merger mania of this period are many and complex, as are its effects upon the population as a whole. In breaking down the traditional vocational environment, the gigantic new conglomerates also transformed the entire social landscape. ork was no longer a family business shared by all generations. Communities no longer clung together for mutual protection and aid. Suddenly, the citizen of this new world was out…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Applebaum, Herbert. The American Work Ethic and the Changing WorkForce: An Historical Perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Aronowitz, Stanley. False Promises: The Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Atack, Jeremy. (1985). "Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation" Explorations in Economic History 22, 48.

Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "Corporations, Workers and the Public Interest." Journal of Economic Issues 37.2 (2003): 305+.
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U S Economy the May 2007 Economy Presented

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89656035

U.S. Economy

The May 2007 economy presented a rosy picture: the lowest unemployment rate of the Bush Administration 4.4% (Bureau of Labor Statistics.gov. 2012. PP. 1), the peak of housing values, strong GDP growth of 3.6% (Trading Economics.com. 2012. PP. 1), a stable inflation rate of 2.2% (Trading Economics.com. 2012. PP. 1), and a normalized non-emergency FED Funds of 5.25% (Moneycafe.com. 2012. PP. 1). Yet, the collapse was imminent as the "Great Recession" began in the fourth quarter of 2007, decimating the economy and bringing the global financial system to a grinding halt. Now five years later the economy is regaining its footing in a ponderous yet upward trajectory which began in the second quarter of 2009. An espy of May 2012 presents a dramatically different story than of 2007: unemployment stands at 8.1% (Bureau of Labor Statistics.gov. 2012. PP. 1), housing values have plummeted; "Americans overall have lost almost…… [Read More]

One of the noteworthy aspects of the U.S. economy is that consumer spending

"accounts for 70% of economic activity" (Crutsinger, M. May 15, 2012. PP. 1). Business is on a never ending quest to create products, services, and pricing which will maximize revenue and increase profit. Price discrimination and segmentation are common in the marketplace (airline tickets as one of a plethora of examples); consumers may respond through indifference or anger towards the company, but are in the preponderance of economic activities likely to choose based on: perceived value, availability, rewards, or pricing options. Business can choose to discount products or services to entice certain groups: new customers, income sensitive customers, or competitor's customers.

The crux of the question on discounts for certain customers rather than others is really one of questioning the role government in the process. The government already chooses certain customers for assistance based on income, unemployment, opportunity, or other criterion. Food stamps have become plentiful over the last five years, a sign of a soft economy and one of an expanded government role. The qualifications are income-based which has struck many taxpayers as unfair because they are subsidizing a segment of the population. So too with unemployment benefits which in some cases have been
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Economic Situation U S Compared 5 Years Ago

Words: 866 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97675243

economic situation U.S. compared (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, unemployment analysis. 2.Propose (2) strategies federal government implement encourage people spend money order create employment opportunities.

Q1.Analyze the current economic situation in the U.S. As compared to five (5) years ago. Include interest rates, inflation, and unemployment in your analysis.

The unemployment rate in January 2012 was 8.3%. The relative improvement in the economy has caused many to pressure Fed chairman Ben Bernanke to raise interest rates above their current record lows to curb inflation, although Bernanke still feels that the economy is fragile enough to justify keeping rates extremely low. "The unemployment rate has fallen for five straight months and employers have added an average of 200,000 net jobs per month from November through January" (Crustinger 2012). Until recently, the Fed has believed that there has been little risk of inflation due to an excess in the money…… [Read More]

References

Barger, Melvin. (1984). What killed Ma Bell? AT&T Divestiture. Porticus. Retrieved:

http://www.porticus.org/bell/whatkilledmabell.html

Block, Sandra. (2012). Inflation could lead to a modest tax cut. USA Today. Retrieved:

 http://www.usatoday.com/money/perfi/columnist/block/story/2011-09-19/inflation-tax-brackets/50469496/1
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Intrastrate Acquisition of People's Natural

Words: 2288 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52966006

" (Schlossberg, 2004)

FERC analyzed while making a review of the electric utility mergers proposition, the transaction being proposed "likely effect" on (1) competition;

(2) rates; and (3) regulation. (Schlossberg, 2004)

There are stated to be "no antitrust exemptions for transactions subject to FERC review and such mergers are regularly reviewed by either the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or the Division." (Schlossberg, 2004) The Securities and Exchange Commission had previously held jurisdiction for reviewing acquisitions of stock of electric utility companies however, the authority provided under the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed in 2005.

III. FORESEEAILITY DOCTRINE REHAILITATION

The work of Trujillo (2006) entitled: "State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the Foreeseability Doctrine" states that a capitalist society that has policies which were established for the purpose of regulating "the promotion of competition in traditionally regulated industries such as the electrical market seems counterintuitive.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ewing, Saul (2007) FTC Complaint May Seek to Erode 'State Action' Immunity of Utilities. Staying Ahead Bulletin April 2007. Utility Law. Online available at: http://www.saul.com/common/publications/pdf_1285.pdf

Schlossberg, Robert S. (2004) Mergers and Acquisitions: Understanding the Antitrust Issues. American Bar Association 2004. Google, Books Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=JmcoRxfB1OsC

Trujillo, Elizabeth (2006) State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the foreseeability Doctrine. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4048/is_200601/ai_n16410098/