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Overall the underlying theme of the story is that some people really are criminally minded and what may be seen a "right of youth" can be quite detrimental over the long run. As such negative behaviors must be dealt with appropriately even if this means that the family of the criminal may be embarrassed. In the case of Sasha reform seemed unlikely only because he had already lost hope. This is evident because he is 25 years old and he refers to life as being insufferably difficult. It seems that the loss of his parent and his lack of education and guidance have made it difficult for him to make good choices in life. As such he has been associating with the wrong elements and this has led to criminal behavior. It is evident that Sasha has deep seated issues related to entitlement and a clear lack of direction and…… [Read More]
In other words, his transformation was not based on any kind of moral or ethical epiphany regarding the sinfulness of deceit and adultery, but rather on the simple fact that he happened to fall in love with one woman. Gurov had always pursued his desires with a vengeance; it was just that up until this point in time, he had never really experienced true love. He ultimately did not want to lose the 'warm and fuzzy' feelings that true love afforded him, thus in essence, he remained selfish and hedonistic even after his 'internal makeover'.
In considering this, it is important to understand that while Gurov did experience significant changes regarding his views of women, his ridding himself of bitterness and his newfound ability to feel love, an evolution of morality did not occur as readily as many readers might initially assume. This is particularly apparent when he continues to…… [Read More]
Even with this, he cannot help but criticizing individuals whom he considers to be inexperienced in life in general. "I've never met such frivolous people as you before, or anybody so unbusinesslike and peculiar" (Chekhov 37).
Lopakhin and anevskaya could on the surface be perceived as representatives of the ascending capitalist middle class and the degrading aristocracy, but the characters are far more complex than it appears, overcoming the social class paradigm in favor of roundness and contradiction. We sympathize with noble anevskaya when she feels that the things she holds close to her heart should matter more than money, yet we also understand the endeavors of capitalist Lopakhin as he delights in uprooting the old ways by all means.
Change is the trial that all the characters of the Cherry Orchard undergo. Lopakhin and anevskaya overshadow each other's inner conflicts between past and present, having grown up together in…… [Read More]
The family hangs on to their memories of what was through the cherry orchard, the direct opposite of the rest of the realism in this novel. They hang on to the orchard for sentimental reasons, something directly opposed to the reality Chekhov promotes, indicating their love of the natural world, and their inability to fit inside the real world of the present.
In conclusion, Chekhov's drama uses reality and naturalistic premises to show a family in decline who cannot face their circumstances or the solution. Living in the past, they insist on remaining there, while their world crumbles around them, and by using real situations and natural surroundings, Chekhov makes the family seem more real, and more pathetic because they refuse to budge from their positions.
Chekhov, Anton. "The Cherry Orchard." iBiblio.org. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.ibiblio.org/eldritch/ac/chorch.htm
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." Gutenberg.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/5200/5200-h/5200-h.htm… [Read More]
Sisters by Anton Chekov
When a child becomes an adult, one of the things they must accept is that the world does not always work the way they want it to. Children often have dreams that go unfulfilled, and when they accept this, it is one of the step to becoming an adult. Acceptance of one's circumstances is also one of the factors in becoming happy and being content with one's own life. Anton Chekov, in his play, Three Sisters, examines how three sisters, disillusioned by their circumstances with life, deal with the fact that their dreams and aspiration will never be fulfilled, and how at least a degree of happiness can be found.
The Prozorov family was originally from the sophisticated and cultured city of Moscow, but had moved to a small provincial village some years in the past. After the death of their father, the three sisters, Olga,…… [Read More]
Psychological Impoverishment in "Anyuta"
In Anton Chekhov's short story "Anyuta," the title character is defined by her internal impoverishment. Perhaps drawing on his professional background as a doctor, Chekhov primarily explores Anyuta's psychological impoverishment through her physical behavior and body, and secondarily through her relationship to Stepan Klochkov.
The story opens with an image of Anyuta and Stepan Klochkov in a dirty apartment. The image introduces several pertinent clues about how to interpret Anyuta's character, before the reader even sees her interact with Stepan. First, the narrator has given Stepan a last name but declined to specify Anyuta's. One possible interpretation of this difference is that Stepan's identity in the world is more particular and concrete than Anyuta. A last name is usually a family name. The reader gets the sense that Stepan has a family, comes from somewhere, is grounded by a historical past. Stepan not only has Another…… [Read More]
Lady with the Dog" by Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov's short story, entitled, "The Lady with the Dog," is a love story between the two main characters, Dmitri Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna, and the struggle that they experienced as they try to prevent their affair from happening, especially since they are already married and have their own respective families to live with. In addition to their love story, the primary focus of the story is the illustration of the development of Dmitri Gurov's character. Dmitri's development as the main character in the story can be illustrated through a study and analysis of his life and outlook in life before, during, and after he met Anna Sergeyevna, referred to in the story as the 'lady with the dog.'
The first analysis of Dmitri Gurov's character can be seen in his life before he met Anna, and this is found in Chapter 1…… [Read More]
Despite these differences, there are also many similarities between the two. The plot similarities are obvious, including the fact that both have affairs beginning and continuing in similar circumstances. Both have husbands that they do not wish to leave, partly out of habit and partly out of pity. They compartmentalize their lives and are able to think of themselves as somehow different people when with their husbands and with their lovers. In this, as in their inability to choose a partner, to overcome their fear and guilt and shame, or to find something in their lives that makes them truly happy, both of these Annas are very ineffectual and weak. In both cases there is a sense of guilt and shame associated with the affair, even though in the Russian Anna's case this sense of shame is far greater than in the modern Anna's. She obsesses constantly on her shame…… [Read More]
Chekhov "The Bet"
Anton Chekhov's short story "The Bet" depicts an unusual wager. After a heated discussion about the morality of capital punishment, a pro-capital punishment banker offers the lawyer two million dollars to remain imprisoned for five years. Filled with pride and conviction that a life sentence is preferable to execution does him one better: "If you mean it seriously," the young lawyer states, "then I bet I'll stay not five but fifteen." ith the bet on, the two men agree to the terms of the confinement, during which the lawyer is permitted unlimited access to reading materials, one musical instrument, food, wine, and tobacco. Through the vicissitudes of his imprisonment, the lawyer becomes a worldly, learned man who has mastered six languages and has become well-versed in every subject from religion to politics to history. He passes his fifteen years in this manner, but during this time the…… [Read More]
The death that occurs at the end of the Cherry Orchard -- that of the serf-turned-servant, Fiers -- is far more comic than the death of Konstantin, however, and that is why this death occurs onstage rather than out of sight of the audience. Much of the Cherry Orchard is focused on the inability of many of the characters to see beyond the ends of their own noses and immediate interests; with better foresight and acknowledgement of others, many of the bad things that befall the characters could have been averted. This is definitely a dark form of comedy, but the repeated nature of this trope throughout the play makes it ultimately comedic. The idea that Fiers decides to curl up on a couch in an old house and die, having been forgotten by his family and former masters, is the final punch-line of the play and must be seen…… [Read More]
In Chekhov's story, many details remind the reader of Vanka's limited point-of-view. Vanka's anecdotes are always told from the point-of-view of a child who has been relatively well treated. He is often overdramatic, as is typical of many children. In describing his distress, Vanka writes, "I will always pray for you do take me away from here or I'll die...." His descriptions and memories are childlike, as e describes being fed sweets, playing with Eel (the dog), and being taught to read. Clearly, his Grandfather was in service in the kitchens, and as so likely had very different memories of being servant and required to get a Christmas tree. The story also says little about Pelageva, Vanka's mother, other than that she was in service at the big house. The story also fails to mention the exact circumstances of Vanka's apprenticeship to the shoemaker Alyahin.
The story is…… [Read More]
Tolstoy and Chekhov
Death is the only true inevitability in a person's life. Once born, the only thing that is guaranteed is that one day that life will be extinguished. People live their whole lives with a death sentence hanging over their heads. For some people, death is terrifying and they rail against it and do whatever they can to avoid it. Others see death as a kind release, excusing them from the world of men, where they toil. Each person reacts differently to their own impending death and to the deaths of their loved ones. There is no single right or wrong way to react to someone's death or to react around someone who is in the process of dying. In both Anton Chekhov's "Rothschild's Fiddle" and Leo Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilych," the authors explore the ways that a man may deal with the death of those…… [Read More]
Most of the time he had to beg for food in the villages. One of the most striking and touching descriptions in the whole story is at the end of the Tatar's monologue when he was asking himself about the way to find means of living with his wife in Siberia: "Now, when his whole body was aching and shivering, he ought to go into the hut and lie down to sleep; but he had nothing to cover him there, and it was colder than on the riverbank; here he had nothing to cover him either, but at least he could make up the fire..." (Chekhov, 1892).
The contradiction in views, between the old man and the young Tatar on one hand and the old man and Vassily Sergeyich, the ex-gentleman wit a sick daughter, is not coming to any resolution at all. Everyone remains convinced the other one is…… [Read More]
Kafka's Joseph K. goes through a confusing and bizarre experience over the course of the novel, learning more and more about the legal bureaucracy surrounding him without ever actually learning anything about it. In a sense, Joseph K.'s experience mirrors the human experience in any society, because it demonstrates how the justification for legal and political authority is ultimately an illusion; there is no inherent justification for human political power, but rather it depends either on the consent of the governed or coercive force, and both of these actually serve to isolate the individual (Panichas 86).
In the case of the former, consent of the governed, the individual is isolated due to the fact that he or she must give up some agency and power to the state, and thus lose some small bit of individuality. The individual essentially becomes a constituent element of the state, and thus, like the…… [Read More]
Chekhov likened his characters to a child who is just starting to understanding a new concept and meaning of love, leading him to further evaluate himself not just as a lover to Anna, but as a man and individual as he appears to Anna and other people:
He had two lives: one, open, seen and known by all who cared to know…and another life running its course in secret… everything that was essential, of interest and value to him…was hidden from other people; and all that was false in him…all that was open.
While Gurov admitted and acknowledged the hypocritical life he led by carrying on a love affair with Anna while still living with his wife, Anna remained confused and uncertain about herself and her lover in Oates' redevelopment of Chekhov's original short story. Created to complete the missing information on events surrounding Anna and her lover's affair in…… [Read More]
Fictional Elements in Selected orks from Kate Chopin and Anton Chekhov
In both of Kate Chopin's works, "The Story of an Hour" and "Desiree's Baby," the most important element of fiction which the author invokes is plot and conflict, for the simple fact that this element is the most effective way of imparting the powerful irony which grips both of these tales. "The Story of an Hour" in particular is too brief to provide a significant level of characterization or setting, yet it's brevity actually helps to accentuate the irony of a work in which the principle protagonist, Mrs. Mallard, believes that she has escaped the overbearing will and presence of her husband and reaffirms her devotion to live -- only to die suddenly at the unexpected presence of the latter at the story's conclusion. Chopin utilizes such a plot to emphasize the situation irony with which her tale is…… [Read More]
Shades of Grey: Love and Contradiction in "The Lady with the Dog"
Anton Chekhov's story "The Lady with the Dog" is a portrait of a love affair that is intended to be brief, but its reverberations change both its participants' lives. In Gurov, the male protagonist, Chekhov has created a character that is at once pitiable, despicable, and relatable. He is relatable mainly because one often feels both pitiable and despicable when it comes to love; it just depends on whether you are the one who is lovesick or the one in control/doing the hurting. The central purpose of the story is to ask more questions than it answers. It leaves the reader wondering where the story will go after its end: ill the main characters continue their affair or is it doomed to fail? Chekhov plays with his audience by challenging them to make moral judgments about the characters…… [Read More]
Lady ith the Pet Dog
According to Vladimir Nabokov, "The Lady with the Pet Dog" is referred to be one of the greatest stories ever written. The story was published in 1899, revealing a symbolic suitability according to the era. Chekhov, who was to die within five years, is revealed in the story as reinventing the form for the 20th century. In the context of this short tale, Gurov experiences an unfamiliar and winding course of principled and emotional growth that is not expected by most of the readers.
The author of "The Lady with the Pet Dog" is Anton Chekhov. Realizing the time, the cultures and the two continents transversely, Chekhov narrates tales of concealed love that extends deep into the lives, fears and hopes of men and women who are married. Such pairs struggle to traverse past their marriages that are fruitless and devoid of love in order…… [Read More]
The subtlety of their actions make their affair all the more romantic, because, set in the real world, who would consider the actions of two people committing adultery as romantic? Thus, a closer look at how love is given meaning by Dmitri and Anna opens the reader's eyes to the realization that one need not be verbalize or explicitly show his or her feelings in order to feel that love is present between two people. Thus, the author spared the readers any romantic words and dialogues, and provided them with incidents in the story that may seem trivial, yet significantly important to the lovers in the story. This is exemplified in the scene where the author narrates their rendezvous: "She was pale; she looked at him, and did not smile, and he had hardly come in when she fell on his breast. Their kiss was slow and prolonged, as though…… [Read More]
Both characters found ways to avoid living through isolation. They alienated themselves from practically everyone and this resulted in severe pain. The message here is to think about the things that consume us and then consider how important those things will be at the end of our lives or when our lives become difficult.
The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "ard No. 6" are compelling stories that force us to think of life and death through the most painful experience of others. The search for the meaning of life becomes significant with these men who have lived rather aloof lives until they are stricken with a confounding truth. Ivan must face the truth that his life was not lived the best way that it could have been. Andrey must come to terms that he has been living has been terribly misguided. Both men realize that to some extent, their lives…… [Read More]
Chekhov employed an attitude similar to most nineteenth century short story writers, as he attempted to captivate the reader's attention through putting across concepts that would make it especially difficult for him or her to keep his or her state of mind. The lawyer and the banker both go through intense emotional and physical occurrences as they struggle to find their personal identity. The fact that the banker eventually comes to feel sorrow for his thinking is essential because the story provides readers with a turn of events as characters experience significant change as a result of observing that their previous perspective concerning the world was not necessarily accurate.
The moment when the reader becomes acquainted with the fact that the lawyer has won when considering his state of mind as he left confinement is essential for the short story. This concept and the fact that the banker starts to…… [Read More]
Certainly, this subverts, right away, our assumptions of what is likely and humanly possible. Later, Gregor's enraged father violently illustrates the old social maxim that appearances really do matter, by pelting his stubbornly-metamorphosed son with apples in a fury one day. Soon afterward, Gregor dies. In most cases, human beings are saddened when a son or brother dies, but in this case, the remaining Samsa family members, with the possible exception of little sister Grete, are actually relieved. Gregor's metamorphosis and subsequent death forces upon each of them a metamorphosis of his or her own: ironically, Gregor's physical metamorphosis forces each of them back into life, like butterflies finally emerging from especially stubborn cocoons. Here, Kafka is pointing out the fallacies and limitations of typical human assumptions about first (in Gregor's case) what one "should" do for others; and second, in the cases of his parents and sister, what one…… [Read More]
He alone knew that with the consciousness of the injustices done him, with his wife's incessant nagging, and with the debts he had contracted by living beyond his means, his position was far from normal." (Tolstoy, Chapter III). Not everyone thinks Ivan Ilyich's salary is meager, and he chooses to live beyond his means, thus although he is ordinary, his world is not absent of examples of how it is possible to live differently. Likewise, the married lovers of "The Lady with the Dog" could theoretically leave their spouses, although divorce is difficult in 19th century Russia. hat impedes them seems to be the fact that openly leaving their spouses and children will make them societal pariahs, and result in a loss of financial and social status. At the end of the tale, their resolve to begin their life anew rings hollow, and they may very well remain willing to…… [Read More]
The reality of this truth is that is Nora does not know herself, her husband cannot possible know who she is. Nora experiences the pain of a blind love that has finally seen the truth. In a moment of enlightenment, she tells her husband, "You don't understand me, and I have never understood you either -- before tonight" (194).
For years, Nora lived safely behind the lie that she called a marriage but after Torvald found out about the loan, the happy marriage was gone and both partners saw the lies of one another. Nora's difficulty with love is different in that she makes a positive discovery in addition to the terrible truth she has learned. In short, not all is in vain. Nora can walk away a more informed, educated, and independent woman as a result of what she went through with Torvald. She can also look forward to…… [Read More]
Characters Struggling Authenticity
The state of being authentic in our lives, in our personalities, and in our actions can be a difficult, but important concept to come to terms with. As we grow, events and people in life can shape who we are, and we can choose to be true to ourselves or succumb to pressures and assume an inauthentic identity. In the stories "Signs and Symbols," "The Lady with the Dog," and "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" (written by Vladimir Nabokov, Anton Chekhov, and Leo Tolstoy, respectively), we can examine characters influenced into inauthenticity, and the realization of their example can help us reflect upon the authenticity of our own lives.
Each of the characters in these stories is influenced by a different motivator. Through their judgment of their circumstances, they choose to react in the way they see fit. In "Signs and Symbols," for example, a…… [Read More]
The heartfelt letter denouncing materialism shocks the banker and makes him realize what it took the lawyer fifteen years to discover: that life is meaningless unless filled with spiritual love.
Characterization is strong in both "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" And "The Bet." The peasants, especially protagonist Pahom, in Tolstoy's story are strong characters who work hard to achieve upward social mobility. Their effort is admirable when tempered with wisdom, but pitiable when taken to an extreme like Pahom does. In "The Bet," the two men are equally as strong, their opinions powerful enough to make them willing to enter into an outlandish bet.
Suspense is key to "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" And "The Bet," stories in which both authors build tension. Readers have no idea what will become of Pahom when he walks around the plot of land until the very end of the…… [Read More]
"I can hear you...I'm alright," he says, but at the end of the story he resumes his drinking again (Carver, 1989, p.274).
The significance of physicality in both stories is noteworthy, as it seems to reflect a distrust of language, rather than an embrace of language, as the characters communicate primarily though touching. Carver's prose has often been called minimalistic, a charge that he resisted. Yet Inez and Lloyd do not connect when they go for marital counseling, they do connect, if only briefly, when Inez must clean Lloyd's ears. The only time Lloyd can really hear is when his wife tries to reach him through physical rather than verbal gestures. The husband of "Cathedral" rages against blindness, but enters the blind man's world through the medium of touch, even after he has tried to exclude the blind man by turning on the TV.
hat is particularly important for an…… [Read More]
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…… [Read More]
Constantin Stanislavsky is the father of modern acting theory. His theories which he extols in his four books, My Life in Art (1924), An Actor Prepares (1936), uilding a Character (1941), and Creating a Role (1961) have had an unparalleled effect on actors and acting instructors throughout the world. Acting theorists such as Vsevelod Meyerhold, Uta Hagen, and ertold recht have all taken his theories into account while developing their own. Indeed, entire movements in world drama have been in part inspired by the work of Stanislavsky.
ut what of his influence on Russia? During Stanislavsky's life and his career Russia went through many changes. Two major events in Russian history would determine the fate of theatre and as a result Stanislavsky. The first was the failed revolution in 1905. "The great rehearsal," Lenin called it and that's exactly what it was. The second major event was the 1917…… [Read More]
But as for the modern version of ARTEK, the writer claims "...the camp has little in common with the ideology that reigned at ARTEK in Soviet times... [and] is similar to boy and girl scout camps in the est."
Indeed, Bransten writes that during the 80th anniversary of ARTEK (August 18, 2005), show business stars like soccer player Andrei Shevchenko and pop music star Ruslana along with movie star (of Ukrainian origin) Milla Jovovich arrived for the celebration. Also attending: Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, and Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus.
Tim Jackson, a British electronics professional and technical programmer visited ARTEK Pioneer Camp in August 1965, when the camp was still under the control of course of the Communist Soviet Union authorities. On his eb site Jackson write poignantly about his stay at ARTEK. He remembers boarding a bus in Simferopol and saying…… [Read More]
humanities study means human. In 10 weeks, thought critically concepts myths narratives, morality decision making, freedom, happiness, specific subjects literature, art, music, film, popular culture.
(1) I am a human being who lives in the 21st century. In my time, being human is a complex process. As a race, we exist on a series of predetermined conditions which serve to shape our daily experience into a habitual cycle of living. These general patterns converge to define the meaning of living in a modern era. As a rule, one person from my time undergoes a carefully structured education from birth to adulthood.
A day in the life of a typical modern adult person starts with waking up amidst family and getting ready for work. Jobs are required to ensure continuous survival for a family and occupy an average of eight hours out of an adult's day span. At times, adults disrupt…… [Read More]
Tone and Voice
Life can be very difficult and unexpected things can happen which change a person and their family forever. orks of literature have the ability to transform the perspective of the reader and to inform the reader about some of the least pleasant aspects of life. In the essays "hat Broke My Father's Heart" and "Patient" the authors Katy Butler and Rachel Riederer put the reader into a position where they understand what it feels like to be vulnerable. Each essay is about a person experiencing a traumatic period in their lives and having to deal with the trauma and how it affects them and the people that they love. In the first story, a young woman tells about her experiences with an ailing father and his caretaker wife. The second is about a young woman who finds herself in the hospital after suffering a horrible injury. Each…… [Read More]
English Literature - Introduction
Minimalism -- John Barth's Description
Minimalism certainly means using fewer words to express thoughts, plots, ideas, quotes and action, but there is more to it than that, according to John Barth. By using Henry James' mantra of "show, don't tell," Barth covers the subject very well. Barth also quotes Edgar Allen Poe, who wrote that "…undue length is…to be avoided." The short story itself is an example of minimalism, simply because it condenses the components of a novel into a much shorter space. There are writers who specialize in what Barth calls "luxuriant abundance" and in "extended analysis," which clearly is the opposite of minimalism; he mentions Guy de Maupassant and Anton Chekov as "masters of terseness" (Barth, 1986).
And because Barth uses examples of well-known writers, he certainly couldn't omit Ernest Hemingway, whose short stories were very tight and yet very expressive with fewer, well-chosen…… [Read More]
This shows up most poignantly in her relationship with her granddaughter, the "mixed" child who causes the comment at the start of the story and who basically drives the plot of the story forward. The narrator has difficulty understanding her granddaughter Sophie's behavior, but only partially blames this on the way she is raised. Instead, the grandmother sees this mainly as a function of Sophie's mixed ethnic identity, saying that by the age of three "already I see her nice Chinese side swallowed up by her wild Shea side." The narrator tends to associate everything negative about her daughter and granddaughter with the Irish and American influences, while claiming that if they acted more Chinese things would get better. This shows that racism is not an issue related solely to this country, but that -- ironically -- it is actually a universal aspect of all cultures; a commonality that all…… [Read More]
Conflict Between Exterior and Interior Life
Kate Chopin's "The story of an Hour" offers a story behind a story. First it can be noted that this talks about Mr. And Mrs. Mallard. Mrs. Mallard received a news that her husband has just died. This prompted for a roller coaster of emotions to build inside her heart and mind.
First, she felt sadness. She was saddened by the fact that she is now alone and that her husband will no longer be with her. But the feeling of sadness did not stay for long in Mrs. Mallard's heart because she suddenly realized that she is now free. The death of her husband would mean that nobody will hurt her anymore. Because her husband is dead, nobody will discriminate her anymore. Nobody will make her feel that she is just a low or second class citizen. Nobody will prevent her from doing…… [Read More]