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The different churches across the country then made lists of basic statements regarding the Christian faith. Many of the points on these lists were similar, since they could all trace their traditions back to the apostles. After church leaders discussed the lists, the differences were eliminated and a more or less standard statement was created. In the fourth century, Christianity became legal, and it was easier to hold meetings regarding the basic statements of faith and the books to include in the New Testament. It was during this century that the Apostles' Creed appeared in its standardized form.
elevance for United Methodist Church
United Methodist Christians today face similar challenges that the early church did, regarding identifying the truth among a myriad of different teachings. The matter is complicated by the many different church denominations existing today. The function of the Apostles' Creed in the United Methodist Church today can…
The Apostles' Creed (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/bible/apcreed.html
Morrison, M. (2012). The Apostles' Creed. Grace Communion International. Retrieved from: http://www.gci.org/history/apostles
However, the spirits would be judged based on their accomplished and on how they had lived their lives. Lives of sin would have obviously been punished with eternal damnation.
Certainly, this is not necessarily the message that will most likely convert the youth today to Christianity. In the 1st century AD, the idea of eternal damnation was strong enough to be imposed in any community. At the same time, one needs to consider that St. Paul created the Christian mythology basing many of his assertion on the human reactions, most notably on their fear. It is more difficult, nowadays, to promote the idea of fear of the afterlife in a period where technological advancements create more reasonable and rational answers.
In my opinion, the Christian message of love should be emphasized in any attempt to lead the young people towards a Christian way of life. St. Paul's messages were adapted…
Paul stresses female obedience and the need for continence. Saunders notes that, because of Paul's Jewish culture, his experiences and personal beliefs regarding sexuality were likely very different from those to whom he preached. Greco-Roman sexuality took a far more flexible view of divorce and intermartial relations than did Paul's Jewish culture. While the Letter to the Romans became one of the most foundational documents in Christian history, it is set in a very definable context, with a "specific history" and plans.
Saunders focuses on Romans as the seminal text that defines Paul's mission. Written to the Roman community, Paul says that he was sent by God to make their offering acceptable, and Jesus was sent to glorify the God of Israel. Paul had unique confidence in his mission, but was worried when he wrote both Romans and Galatians: "he asked the Romans to pray that he would be delivered…
Another great strength of the book is its focus, on two critical letters to the Christian community, centering on an issue that was of great interest to Christians then, but not to us now. It reminds the reader of the difference of his or her perspective from the Christian community of Paul's day. Then it was quite contentious whether Christians were also Jews, and if gentiles needed to become part of the Jewish community to become full believers in Christ. This issue has now been theologically 'settled,' while other issues perplex and divide Christians today. We always see scripture through the lens of our own history.
This strength, however, is to some degree the book's weakness. Just as the Paul of Romans and Galatians is slightly different, as the Apostle changed his perspective slightly over time, the entire Pauline corpus shows clear shifts in thoughts and contradictions, as Paul hammered out his philosophy in real time. Ultimately, Saunders suggests a coherent historical development for Paul, but if other documents were also considered, a more 'ragged' Paul might develop. Additionally, his stress upon simplicity can also make the historical narrative seem to brief -- some added chapters fleshing out more general questions of Paul's life and mission would be helpful. But for a student wishing to gain an academic version of Paul, to insert into his or her studies, or even discuss as a comparative perspective in a theological setting, this book is both useful and accessible to the layperson.
E.P. Saunders, Paul: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), p.66.
The particulars of the Resurrection and the Ascension of Christ, and the prophecy of His Return to Judgment, cannot be interpreted as properly essential parts of the doctrine of His Person.
When we compare with the canon for dogmatic statements, the propositions, on the one hand, concerning the Person of Christ which we have so far set forth, and on the other the statements contained in the oldest creeds expressing these facts (i.e. Resurrection, Ascension, and Judgment), it will be seen that the former correspond to both the requirements insisted on, and the latter to neither. For if the saving efficacy of Christ depends upon the being of God in Him, and trust in Him is based upon the impression' that such a living being of God indwells Him, then it is not possible to prove any immediate connection between these facts and that doctrine. The disciples acknowledged in…
Bruce F.F. And Rupp, E.G. ed., Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition. 1968.
Denny F.M. And Taylor, R.L. The Holy Bible in Comparative Perspective. 1985.
Orlinsky H.M. And Bratcher, R.M. A History of Bible Translation and the North American Contribution. 1991.
Apocalyptic Views of Apostle Paul
The major difference between the Apostle Paul and the other apostles is that Paul had not known Jesus while he was on earth as the Son of God. Paul's conversion occurred only after the Ascension. This fact plays a prominent role in his teachings about Jesus and about the apocalypse. elow is a discussion of this aspect of Paul's Christianity together with specific aspects of the apocalypse that Paul deals with in his writings. The three ages of the apocalypse as seen by Paul are discussed in the following order.
First, the end of the world as depicted by Paul in his first epistle to the Corinthians (Chapter 15:20-28) is considered. This is a celebration of God, who will come and reign over everything and everyone. Secondly, and closely related to this is Paul's view of the resurrection (1Cor15:20-28), during which the earth and human…
Holy Bible (1983). The New King James Version. New York: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Horsley, R.A. (1997). The Message and the Kingdom. London: Putnam.
Kraeling, E.G. (1965). I have kept the faith: the life of the Apostle Paul Chicago, Ill.: Rand McNally.
LaRondelle, H.K. (2003). "A Profile of the Biblical Doctrine of Salvation." http://www.biblerevelations.org/just&faith/a_profile_of_the_biblical_doctrine_of_salvation.htm
According to the seminal text of Christian Science's founder, Mary aker Eddy, all people should be able to be their "own physician, and Truth will be the universal panacea."
From Eddy's perspective, the ability of prayer to effect a cure for virtually any human medical problem was directly related to its origins in the sufferer's mind rather than the physical body. According to May, "In some cases, Eddy suggested that people may need help in bringing their minds into alignment with 'Mind.' Such assistance, in the form of reliance on certain others, was meant only to help the individual to help him- or herself."
Christian Scientists have experienced failure to heal their children time and again over the years since the religion's founding a century ago, and a number of criminal charges have been brought against Christian Science parents who relied strictly on Eddy's guidance concerning faith healing. As a…
Bressman, Lisa Schultz, "Accommodation and Equal Liberty," William and Mary Law Review, vol. 42 no. 3 (2001): 1007.
"Faith Healing." In the Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagasse, Paul. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2007. Database online. Available from Questia,
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112858281 . Internet. Accessed 15 July 2009.
Paul the Apostle's Second Missionary Journey
The Apostle Paul was an extremely important figure in the growth and expansion of Christianity. However, before Paul's acceptance of Christ, he was an avid persecutor of the early teachings and disciples of Jesus. From his birth all the way through this period of his young life, Paul the Apostle was known as Saul. Even during his time as a non-believer, Saul was very adamant about the spreading of his beliefs. Accordingly, he made many missionary journeys throughout this phase of his life. In fact, it was on one such voyage that the resurrected Jesus Christ first appeared to him in the veil of a great brilliant light. This beam of light was so strong that the future Apostle became blinded for a period of three days. After this time Paul began preaching in the name of Jesus Christ. Now believing that Jesus was…
Allen, Roland. Missionary Methods: St. Paul's or Ours? Old Dominion Press, 1962.
"Apostle Paul and the Earliest Churches." Lukas Media LLC. 2004. http://www.apostlepaulthefilm.com/paul/journeys.htm (accessed June 3, 2011).
Bailey, John W. "Paul's Second Missionary Journey." The Biblical World 33, no. 6 (1999): 414-423.
Campbell, Thomas H. "Paul's "Missionary Journeys" as Reflected in His Letters." Journal of Biblical Literature 74, no. 2 (1955): 80-87.
The Apostle Paul (formerly Saul of Tarsus) is arguably the most influential member of the early Christian church outside of Jesus himself, because Paul's teaching and missionary work laid the social and theological foundations for the worldwide religion known as Christianity. Not only did Paul expand and refine Jesus' message, he carried this message to a much wider audience than ever before, preaching to Jews and Gentiles alike while traveling throughout the Roman empire. One of the most well-recorded of these travels is Paul's second missionary journey, which began in Jerusalem but then moved throughout the empire. By examining Paul's second missionary journey, and particularly his visit to Philippi, it will be possible to not only trace Paul's travels on one of his most important missionary trips, but also understand how these travels influenced the theological content of his later epistles.
Paul set out to begin his second missionary…
Fant, Clyde, and Mitchell Reddish. A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2003.
Finlan, Stehpen. The Apostle Paul and the Pauline Tradition. Collegeville: The Order of St.
Benedict, Inc., 2008.
Bible Dictionary, New Testament
The New Testament book of the ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, or Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament, following the four Gospels. The author of Acts is in some dispute, however it is clear from the presence of the notorious "we passages" -- described by Bruce as "sections (dealing largely with journeys by sea made by Paul and some of his friends) in which the narrative is cast in the first person plural ('we'/'us') instead of the usual third person plural ('they' / them')" -- that the author was present for at least some of the events narrated. As Bruce notes "it is a reasonable inference that the narrator was one of Paul's companions for the periods covered by those sections. This inference (which is not universally drawn) may have given rise at an early date to the tradition that the author of the…
Bruce, F.F. The Book of Acts. Revised edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Print.
France, R.T. The Gospel of Mark. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002. Print.
France, R.T. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007. Print.
Peterson, David G. The Acts of the Apostles. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2009. Print.
Paul's Thorn In The Flesh
Studying the Bible, it becomes apparent that Jesus handpicked a number of his disciples to continue to spread his message after Jesus ascended to heaven. In addition to the men who followed Jesus before his death and resurrection, the leaders of the movement known as "The Way" included the Apostle Paul. Saul of Tarsus had been one of Jesus' most vocal detractors during Jesus lifetime and was skeptical of Jesus' claims that he was the Messiah. However, when Saul encountered a resurrected Jesus on the Damascus oad, Saul's disbelief disappeared. He converted to what is now known as Christianity and began to travel and share Christ's teachings.
Paul was unique from the other apostles in another significant way; he was the only one who received a thorn in the flesh. What this thorn was is never explicitly stated in the Bible, though it seems to…
Barnett, Paul. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians:The New International Commentary
on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997.
Dawson, Audrey. Healing, Weakness and Power: Perspectives on Healing in Writings of Mark, Luke and Paul. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2008.
Deane-Drummond, Celia. Brave New World?: Theology, Ethics, and the Human Genome.
Life of Prophet Muhammed
There is an inherent degree of difficulty incurred in the life of a prophet. This fact is documented in a number of different texts, one of the most revealing of which is The Life of Muhammad. This book is valuable because it illustrates a multitude of events in the progression of Muhammad's life from his birth to his journey as a man. However, it does so by revealing the fact that during all stages of his life, he was favored by God -- rendering him worthy as a prophet of Allah. Furthermore, this book illustrates the fact that despite a plethora of burdensome situations, Muhammad always retained God's favor and acted in accordance with his role as a divine prophet. A close examination of the textual evidence in this manuscript reveals that as a prophet, Muhammad encountered a significant amount of austere trials, the results of…
Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.
When Robert Browning writes "truth is within ourselves; it takes no rise/
From outward things, whate'er you may believe," he articulates an idea that is very common in modernity: that spiritual truth is found within the individual soul, rather than within the confines of an existing religious structure. This could be seen as a radical extension of some Protestant notions that it is one's inner life, rather than outer actions and deference to Church ritual that is important. The body is merely "gross flesh" which hems in the spirit and causes human beings to see the world in error. There is nothing good about the flesh. This deemphasizes the idea that Christ is 'spirit made flesh' and vice versa, and the world is God-created. Instead, it suggests that the physical world with its "outward things" (including formal religion) is an error, and what is good, divine, and light is…
Paul, the apostle of Jesus Christ, is more commonly known as St. Paul and is potentially the most important missionary of early Christendom. He was born around 5 AD or perhaps as early as 10 BCE and lived until approximately 67 AD. He is also known as Saul of Tarsus because this was his name before his conversion to Christianity (Acts 9:11). Paul was born in Cilicia in what is now Turkey and eventually became a great follower of Christianity and would spread the word of Jesus Christ far and wide. At that time, Cilicia was part of the Roman Empire and thus Paul was born a Roman citizen (Borg 2012,-page 67). Despite being a Roman citizen, Paul's early life was controlled by his Jewish views and indeed he held opinions that the members of the Jewish population were ethnically superior to all other people (Horrell 2006,-page 30).…
Barnett, P. (2002). Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity: a History of the New Testament Times.
The Bible. Chelsea House: New York, NY.
Borg, M (2012). The first Paul. Harper One. 67.
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
tensions ambivalence. Yet Christian ignore Paul's theology pressed letters. Discuss The rationale essay critically explore, evaluate discuss questions: ho St. Paul-hat Paul write letters churches individuals ministry? hat cultural, social, political religious contexts readings received Paul's writings? How contemporary church reads interprets Paul's writings 21st century evangelism, mission, ministry, Christian character formation ethical teachings.
Theology of Paul
Saint Paul (originally named Saul of Tarsus) was one of the most influential individuals in the Christian world and a person who is largely responsible for how society perceives Christianity. Even with the fact that he was not one of the original Twelve Apostles, his involvement in taking Jesus' words further increased his role as an imposing Christian figure. Paul's letters to individuals and churches were meant to provide these bodies with more information concerning Christianity. The Apostle likely considered that it was essential for the world to gain a complex understanding of…
Branick, Vincent P. "Understanding Paul and His Letters," (Paulist Press, 2009)
Connybeare, William John, "The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Volume 2," (1856)
Freed, Edwin D. "The Apostle Paul and His Letters," (Equinox Publishing Ltd., 1 Jan 2005)
Lenski, R.C.H. "The Interpretation of St. Paul's Epistles to the Ephesians and Philippians," (Augsburg Fortress, 15 Sep 2008)
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).
Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.
But this special awareness is also…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical Interpretation for Preaching. MI: Judson
Barla J.B. (1999). Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome:
Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.
Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.
Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?
The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the…
Kung, 2001, p22-3
Karant-Nun, 2003, p10
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Apostles chronicles the events that transpired after Jesus' death and resurrection. It describes the creation of the ministry of the apostles to spread the word of Jesus to the gentiles as well as the Jews and introduces the 'character' of the Apostle Paul in the history of Christianity.
and 2 Thessalonians
Paul, raised Jewish and a former persecutor of Christians, sets out the mission of his ministry to the gentiles and defines the word of God to the new Christian community.
Paul is concerned about the reversion to pagan ways in Corinth and the immorality of its residents. He sets forth the doctrine of Christian love, as opposed to physical love.
Paul describes Jesus as a vehicle of salvation in this letter to the mixed community of Jews and gentiles of Rome. Jesus' sacrifice has enabled the redemption of sinful humanity, as distinct from Mosaic Law in the…
Bible Gateway. http://www.biblegateway.com/
exterior actions would have a profound effect on Christianity's worldview, which stressed outward asceticism and interior humbleness and spiritual cultivation. In Protestantism, the division between the exterior and interior self would also create a divide between the secular and sacred world. In the secular world a human being could engage in a mundane life, provided he or she still attended to the spiritual world of the church and Jesus. Thus, the commonly expressed cliche that it is 'inside that is what is important, not what is outside' could be said to have its roots in Pauline philosophy.
Jesus' expressed relationship with Judaism is far more ambiguous than Paul's. In fact, he praises Mosaic Law at times, particularly the commandments: "Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches…
Fredriksen, Paula. "Was Jesus Jewish?" Frontline: From Jesus to Christ. April 1998
November 27, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/bornliveddied.html
"Parallel translations: New International Version." Biblos. 1984. November 27, 2009.
The image of physical resurrection implies that all believers can attain spiritual salvation through Christ. "e will all be changed," says Paul in I Corinthians 15:52). Jesus Christ serves as a symbol of the spiritual resurrection that comes from faith. hether in spirit or in body, resurrection is possible through unconditional faith. Although for many Christians, the resurrection of Jesus Christ is literal, Paul further hints that the resurrection of the physical body might have purely symbolic meaning: "I declare to you, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable," (I Corinthians 15:50). The notion of actual physical resurrection -- the raising of a corpse from the dead -- might be reserved for a being as miraculous as the Christ.
Through belief in Christ as the son of God, all will attain eternal salvation, another central Christian concept Eternal salvation…
The Bible: New International Version. I Corinthians 15. http://www.biblegateway.com/ passage/?search=1Corinthians%2015;&version=31' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…
Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.
Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.
Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.
3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.
The last supper is what gives the basis of the Eucharist according to the scriptures Therefore Leonardo used this tradition to form the basis for his painting.
Leonardo's painting the last supper was principally divided into three groups the first group was made up of Bartholomew, James the lesser and Andrew from the first group of three, here they ball appear surprised and Andrew holds his hands up in front of him in a gesture that depicted that he was frightened. The second group is made up of judas, simon peter and John .Judas here is holding a silver bag in his right hand and at the same time reaching with his left hand a piece of bread.simon peter leaning over Johns shoulder and holding a knife in his right hand symbolizes his readiness to defend Jesus while John appears to be swooning. This goes against the tradition since Judas…
Nicholl, C.(2012). The guardian. Leonardo and the Last Supper by Ross King -- review. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/oct/19/leonardo-last-supper-ross-king-review
Typology in Christianity
The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the ible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy ible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles,…
Barna, G. (1983). Typology offers perspectives on growing Christian market. Marketing News, 17(19), 12.
Brent, Allen. 2009. A Political History of Early Christianity. London: T & T. Clark, 2009. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
Cook, Jonathan A. 2006. "Christian Typology and Social Critique in Melville's "The Two Temples." Christianity & Literature 56, no. 1: 5-33. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
Driesen, Isolde, Chris Hermans, and Aad De Jong. 2005. "Towards a Typology of General Aims of Christian Adult Education." Journal Of Empirical Theology 18, no. 2: 235-263. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
ole of Women in Paul's Church
The role of women in church as laid out by the Apostle Paul has always been controversial. There are those who say that Paul hated women and created restrictive, secondary roles for them in the church because of it. Others, however, maintain that Paul loved women and that the roles he created for them in the Christian church were very liberating for them. Still others acknowledge that the roles for women that Paul created for the Christian church are somewhat restrictive and secondary, but say that this is because of the status of women in society at that time, not because Paul hated women. The role of women in the Christian church as ordered by Paul continues to be controversial and a matter of scholarly interpretation and study today. This paper takes a look at the role of women in the Christian church as…
D'Angelo, Mary Rose and Ross Shepard Kraemer, Women & Christian Origins. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schussler, But She Said: Feminist Practices of Biblical Interpretation. (New York: Beacon Press, 1992).
Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill, Good News for Women: A Biblical Picture of Gender Equality. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997).
Massey, Lesly F., Women and the New Testament: An Analysis of Scripture in Light of New Testament Era Culture. (Jefferson, NC: McFar, 1989).
Furthermore the rhetoric here is rich in symbolism. Dr. King draws parallels between the response of violence to his peaceful protests and other great personalities whose commitment to justice, truth, and love also had unintended and unfortunate consequences. Personalities like ocrates and Jesus, for example, could not be expected to deny their truth for fear of public reaction. Dr. King makes this argument even stronger by also drawing the parallel between himself and the completely innocent person, whose possession of money resulted in the evil of theft. By drawing these parallels, Dr. King points out that an argument regarding the actions of others cannot be used to condemn those who protest peacefully. Dr. King and his followers are innocent of the crime of violence. Dr. King's argument is therefore that they cannot be held accountable for the violence committed by others, who are neither followers of his, nor affiliated with…
King, Martin Luther. Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
Smith, N. (2010). Rhetoric and martin Luther King Jr.: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" and "I Have a Dream." Article Myriad. Retrieved from: http://www.articlemyriad.com/163.htm
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…
Orthodoxy and the Canon
In order to most effectively examine the pivotal events and movements that took place which influenced the foundation of orthodox Christianity and the formation of its canon, one must first understand the zeitgeist that was prevalent during the first five centuries of the Anno Domini time period in which these events occurred. Christianity had largely spawned as an upstart religion that emerged within the larger context of Judaism -- its chief proponent (Jesus Christ) was a man vilified for teaching what was regarded as heresy. For the next two centuries after Jesus' death and resurrection, Christianity remained a relatively small, poorly regarded religion that was largely perpetuated through the efforts of Christ's apostles and their followers. Once Constantine adopted the religion as the official belief system of the Holy Roman Empire, however, this faith suddenly had to contend with a rash of implications regarding its ideology,…
Frazee, Charles. "1054 Revisited." Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 42(2), 263-279, 2007.
Noll, Mark. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.
Parys, Michael. "The Historical Evidence on the Council of Chalcedon: The Council of Chalcedon as Historical Event." Ecumenical Review. 22(4), 305-320, 1970.
Piccopi, Victor. "From Ancient Gnostics to Modern Scholars-Issues in Defining the Concept of "Gnosticism." Romanian Journal for Multidimensional Education. 5(2): 41-56, 2013.
For Jesus and the apostles, Christianity was already universal: the reign of God being omnipresent, from “within,” and not dependent on external social or political structures (Lohfink, 2012, p. 50). Known as the entos hymon, the Lutheran translation of Luke 17:21 suggests that the Church is universal, timeless, and independent of geographic or temporal considerations. God embraces all under the rubric of the Church.
Practically speaking, though, Jesus understood that the disciples created the first real, tangible Christian community. That community blossomed rapidly, albeit not without problems, dissent, and conflict. Luke frames the formation of the Church more dramatically, as an “act of God,” (Boring, 2012, p. 1). Disciples are more than followers of Christ, they are enacting God’s will. The early church built itself upon solid theological foundations of universality, inclusivity, and omnipresence. The conflicts between the followers of Jesus and the Jews, on the one hand, coincided with…
A uniquely firm and strong message, James 5:1-6 also lends itself to misinterpretation. As Pilch points out, “James does not really denounce wealth as such,” but rather, “condemns the injustice and inhumanity that so frequently accompany it,” (p. 367). James refers to atonement for labor exploitation, for example, and for unbridled greed at the expense of others. It is fully possible to preach compassion, tolerance, and inclusivity while also warning against the pitfalls of materialism. Pilch also shows how the James passage denounces social status and advocates for a true Christian community.
The Pope’s writings reflect the balanced perspective related to gospel readings that can be reinterpreted as harbingers of their era. Pope Francis speaks of our living in a “turning point in history,” marked by tremendous income and status disparities (p. 38). As much material and technological progress that has been made, the vast majority of the earth’s inhabitants…
The Christ-hymn, or Christological Canticle from Colossians, contains several distinguishing features in its content and structure. One of the most unique elements, which has been a point of contention for Christians, is that the hymn points to Christ’s role in creation (cosmology), and Christ’s role in reconciliation (soteriology). The Canticle can be interpreted to show that Christ serves effectively as a “unifying principle, holding the universe together at its head,” (MacDonald, n.d., p. 65). Christ also holds together the church: positioning Christ clearly as the symbolic head and the Church as the body of Christ (MacDonald, n.d., p. 66). As MacDonald (n.d.) also points out, the cultural and historical context of the Christological Canticle informed some of its more mystical and symbolic dimensions. Extended to the global Christian community, the Christological Canticle from Colossians offers clear focus for how to worship, and particularly, how to worship within a Christian community.…
“Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ,” (Ephesians 5:21). This outstanding sentence clarifies one of Paul’s main objectives in outlining the household codes of Ephesians. Christ is the head of the Church, to which all Christians belong. However, Paul quickly shifts focus to the patriarchal marriage union to model Christian social norms: “Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything,” (Ephesians 5:24). Paul therefore uses the household code partly as an opportunity to provide a “theological justification and motivation for the subordination of wives, children and slaves to the head of the household,” (MacDonald, n.d., p. 341). Yet somewhat mysteriously, Paul switches back again and states, “This is a profound mystery—but I am talking about Christ and the church,” (5:32). Modern readers should not take Paul’s message about marriage customs and gender roles seriously, but should pay close attention to…
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
On the whole, it can be said that the first verses of Chapter 9 (Luke, 9: 1-6) are a summary of the main ideas of the entire Gospel of Luke. Even more, it makes the connection to other passages from the Gospel while at the same time explains in a more explicit manner their meaning. This is due in fact to the comprehensive, yet concise way in which the most important ideas are expressed, ideas that had been mentioned and developed before in the biblical text.
Firstly, the focal points that are mentioned relate to the authority with which the apostles were invested by Jesus. They have been given the "power and authority over all demons." (Luke, 9: 1) This idea however is seen before in the Gospel of Luke. Thus, the theme of exorcising demons is present also in Luke 4:33-37, which presents Jesus and one of His Acts…
The Holy Bible: containing the Old and New Testament. Nashville, TN: The Southwestern Company, 1962.
Leonardo's Last Supper (1495-1498) does something very different from the other Renaissance portrayals of this scene from the Gospel. Unlike Andrea del Castagno's or Domenico Ghirlandaio's Last Supper versions, Leonardo's is at once more earthly (neither Christ nor the Apostles wear halos) and chaotic than the others -- and yet at the same time it is substantially more divine and imposing in its stark simplicity. This paper will trace the compositional, stylistic and symbolic development of the story of the Last Supper as it is told by Leonardo da Vinci in his masterpiece of the same name.
The first thing to note about the composition of Leonardo's Last Supper is that there is a distinct separation between the space occupied by Christ and the Apostles and the viewer. They exist together, cramped, huddled, literally on top of one another on one side of a long table covered like an altar…
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
The Assumption of the Virgin
The Assumption of the Virgin is a work of art depicting the Virgin as she ascends to heaven, surrounded by the apostles. The underlying theme of The Assumption of the Virgin is religious as it depicts the assumption of the Virgin, which, to faithful Catholics of El Greco's time was not simply a spiritual or religious theme, but also a historical event. The symbolism used reaffirms the religious aspects of the painting. The apostles are shown, bending to the Virgin in reverence, and angels are shown waiting in heaven for the Virgin.
The work is narrative, because it shows an event and tells the story of that event. The story depicted in the painting was a familiar one to Catholics of El Greco's time, just as it is familiar to Catholics of today. Therefore, it is difficult to separate what story the painting…
Theotokopoulos, Domenicos. The Assumption of the Virgin. The Art Institute of Chicago,
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
However, in his evangelism he specifically chose a core group by which he molded into the people that would build him a kingdom.
There are many techniques that Jesus employed to get his apostles to fully understand the implications of his message. After finding individuals who would be teachable, Jesus' main technique was to allow his apostles to follow him throughout his teachings. In this way they would be able to begin to comprehend his message and also through Jesus' actions begin to understand how to live the life of a Christian. Although Jesus demanded much from his apostles he also gave them his own love. The chief technique that Jesus employed while he was with his chosen disciples was to share with them his love, and when they understood that they were not keeping with a law, but responding to One who loved them with his entirety they were…
For the early Christians, the Holy Spirit was experienced as a real power in their lives
. The Holy Spirit empowered them to continue the work of Jesus. When a person received the Holy Spirit, they experienced a difference in their lives -- and others noticed it. That is still true today.Although all Christians receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism, God's Spirit works in many
ways in the world, in both Christians and non-Christians. Yet the experience of being 'baptised in the Spirit' is a time of entering a deeper spiritual dimension.Those who experience this deeper infilling, or new outpouring, of God's Spirit usually begin to discover new spiritual gifts
. The gift of prophesy or that of speaking tongues given to the reborn disciples imparts them with the ability to sense what God is saying to a group or an individual, and to pass on that message. This…
Bruce, F.F. Commentary on the Book of Acts. NICNT. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI:
Rather, in Orthodox Gnosiology, the words within the Scriptures become the essential facilitator for an individual and personal journey of their interpretation. It becomes a very personal process to interpret the Scriptures, and thus there is more emphasis placed on the power of our nous, or our intellect. As such, Lossky states that Orthodox Gnosiology is "anchored in the experience of all to the degree of each one's spiritual faculties" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 64). e come to these conclusions, rather than having a person of Papal or religious authority guides us there without room for our own personal interpretations. Here, Lossky writes that it is our "analysis [that] leads us finally towards the Truth and the Spirit, the ord and the Holy Spirit" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 153). It is important in Orthodox Gnosiology to unite tradition and Scripture in order…
Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2000.
Lossky, Vladimir & Erickson, John H. In the Image and Likeness of God. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1974.
Lossky, Vladimir. The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1976.
The author of this report is to center and fixtate on a portion of the First Epistle to the Corinthians as written by Paul and analyze from a personal point of analysis as well as a scholarly one. The passage that will be used for this brief report is the first eleven verses of that first letter to the Corinthians. In that passage, Paul recites the resurrection and how it progressed from a procedural and chronological standpoint. He also makes it a point to assure people that they will be saved if they believe but they will fall if they do not. However, there is a little more complexity than just that when reviewing the passage. While being literal when engaging in biblical interpretations can be useful, there is also the use of metaphor and other literary devices and that needs to be recognized when assessing a passage…
Asher, J.R 2000. Popularity and Change in 1 Corinthians 15, Hermeneutische
Unterschingen zur Theological 42, Mohr Siebeck
Fee, G. 1987. The First Epistle to the Corinthians, New International Commentary on the New Testament, Grand Rapids
Gillespie, TW 1978, 'A PATTERN OF PROPHETIC SPEECH IN FIRST
Yet, before one can understand Johnson's call for a taking back of the feminine Christ, one must first understand how the feminine Christ was lost.
The starting point is with the ministries of Christ and to the point of his resurrection. This short period of time is the only time that Jesus himself was in charge of defining his philosophy, although even he recognized the fact that history would define him and not himself.
Jesus' ministry involved numerous acts of kindness, preaching and forgiveness. Many of these acts are seen as miracles, or "Signs" as the Gospel of John refers to them. These included exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising people from the dead. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus' ministry lasted for a period of three years. The major event of the ministry phase was the giving of the Sermon on the Mount, where…
Cook, Michael L. Responses to 101 Questions About Jesus. New York: Paulist Press, 1993.
"Gospel of Luke." King James Bible.
Johnson, Elizabeth. (1992): Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Herder & Herder.
Johnson, Timothy. (1991): The Gospel of Luke. Michael Glazier Inc.
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
In Chapter 2, verses 1-11, of St. Paul's letter to the Philippians, the Apostle exhorts his followers to be faithful to Christ. Christ is, as always, the point of the Pauline letters -- and arriving at Christ, whether through exhortation, logic, works, or affection and charity, is the sole aim. Paul points the finger in all matters to the divine Son of God, thanks Him for all things, and for Him suffers all things. What makes the letter to the Philippians especially meaningful is the robust affection that these disciples maintain for their teacher, Paul. As Joseph Frey tells us, "The church at Philippi was St. Paul's first foundation on European soil…The occasion of [the letter's] composition can be gathered from the Epistle. Learning that St. Paul had been cast into prison, the church at Philippi, in order to assist him, sent Epaphroditus with a sum of money…
Cole, Stephen J. "Supreme Humility." Flagstaff Christian Fellowship.
Cheung, Vincent. Commentary on Philippians. Boston: Cheung.
Frey, Rev. Joseph. The New Testament. NY: Confraternity of the Precious Blood.
Johnson, Luke T. "The New Testaments Anti-Jewish Slander and the Conventions of Ancient Polemic." Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 108, no. 3, 1989, 419-441.
This is furthered by the fact that the daughter closest to the infant, who perches on her mother's lap, holds that baby's hand, implying an ascent to motherhood. Behind the family, the picture window showing grand gardens and mansion details implies wealth. Indeed, the smooth texture and use of dark colors further suggests royalty. hile both Drurer's and van Ceulen's portraits use light and dark and positioning as symbols, then, Druer's work is focused on the Bibles -- spirituality -- while van Ceulen's painting is quite clearly focused on the earth -- economics, royalty, inheritance, and family.
The symbolism contained in these paintings is extremely relevant to another symbolic work out of the late Renaissance, Lanyer's "Eve's Apology in Defense of omen." In this work, Lanyer argues that women should not be held wholly responsible for Adam's actions in the Garden of Eden -- where women were rumored to have…
Lanyer, Amelia. "Evel's Apology in Defense of Women." CharleyYoung's.com 1611. 17
In the lines of the Apostles, Bishops of particular Churches throughout the world in charge of particular diocese are part of the Church and form the College of Bishops when the College is united as a decision-making body under the leadership of the Pope. The College may exercise power over the Universal Church by coming together in an ecumenical council when the council is recognized by the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. Additionally, "certain bishops are granted special status and position within the Church by being elevated to the College of Cardinals. The primary role of the College of Cardinals is to act as special advisors to the Pope and to come together on the death of a Pope to vote for his successor" ("The Catholic Church Hierarchy," Catholic Pages, 2007). Finally, there is also a counsel, created after Vatican II known as the Synod of Bishops. This formal…
The Catholic Church Hierarchy." Catholic Pages. 2007. December 7, 2008. http://www.catholic-pages.com/church/hierarchy.asp
History and Development of the Papacy." Religion Facts. 2008
Murphy, Donald. "Islam's Sunni-Shiite Split." 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p25s01-wome.html
Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.
Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."
For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.
During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.
Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104231781
Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104231922.Internet . Accessed 27 March 2008.
Barnhill, John H.. "The Journal and Selected Letters of William Carey.(Book Review)," Baptist History and Heritage, January 1, 2001. Available from Highbeam Research, http://www.highbeam.com .Internet. Accessed 27 March 2008.
Carey, Eustace. Memoir of William Carey, D.D.: Late Missionary to Bengal.(Jackson and Walford, 1836; Digitized Oct 24, 2006. Available from, http://books.google.com/books?id=_73iSb36t9IC&vq=William+Carey,+missionary&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0.Internet . Accessed 27 March 2008.
An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the by William Carey. Produced by Michael Ciesielski, Robert Shimmin and PG Distributed Proofreaders, N.d. Available from, http://www.fullbooks.com/an-Enquiry-into-the-Obligations-of-Christians.html. Internet. Accessed 27 March 2008.
The Gospel of Luke, as has been mentioned here, is very similar to that of Mark in its narrative and in describing Jesus, the man. This is an element of the Gospels about which authors Nickle and Brown agree. There is, too, a strong belief that the Gospel of Luke was written by a "missionary colleague of the Apostle Paul (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The Book of Luke is the most extensive and detailed account of the life of the historical Jesus of any other book in the Bible. "hen this Gospel is joined by its companion volume, Acts and Apostles, they together make up about twenty-seven percent of the New Testament (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The most distinctive characteristic of the Book of Luke, is that it is sequenced with Acts and Apostles (Nickle, 1980). Luke is unique in that his book goes beyond the life of Jesus, into…
Brown, Raymond E. The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. Questia. 21 July 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104676653 .
Nickle, Keith F. The Synoptic Gospels: Conflict and Consensus. Atlanta, GA: John Knox Press, 1980. Questia. 21 July 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74641618 .
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…
History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink
Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)
Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
The man we know as St. Paul was Paul of Tarsus. He is not a saint that everyone has felt comfortable. Many find him harsh, difficult and uncompromising. This is true not only, now but was so in the case of his early associates and later with the other saints of the Catholic Church including St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Barnabas. The gentle St. James once even advised him to be more diplomatic and tactful. Still at the end of it all the other saints came to look upon him with reverence and affection and so is the case with anyone who gets to know him by the study of his epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. He is a person with an indomitable spirit, filled with so much of loyalty and affection for his friends that finally he removes all criticism and his tough exterior…
Holy Roman Catholic Church. Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/newworldorder_themovie/catholicchurch.html
Accessed on 11/12/2004
Lindas, Barnabas. Apostle Paul, Saint. Retrieved from http://www.kat.gr/kat/history/Rel/Chr/PaulApostle.htm
Accessed on 11/12/2004
Paul's First Missionary Journey
The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.
Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.
They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.
Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.
The first missionary journey of Paul
Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria
He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.
John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia
Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie
Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.
Paul's strategy in his…
1. Cox, Raymond L. "Journey to Pisidia." Bible and Spade 7:4 (Autumn 1978): 123 -- 28.
2. Culpepper, R. Alan. "Paul's Mission to the Gentile World: Acts 13-19." Review & Expositor 71, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 487 -- 497.
3. Detwiler, David F. "Paul's Approach to the Great Commission in Acts 14:21 -- 23." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:605 (Jan 1995): 34 -- 41.
4. Fleming, Kenneth C. "Missionary Service in the Life of Paul." Emmaus Journal 1:3 (Winter 1992): 263 -- 78.
Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…
Abraham, William, James. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
Blauw, Johannes. The Missionary Nature of the Church. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Company Inc., 1974.
Bosch, David, C. Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission. New York: Orbis Books, 1991.
Flett, John, G. The Witness of God: The Trinity, Missio Dei, Karl Barth, and the Nature of Christian Community. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Faith and Reason Paper
Faith starts in the mind and moves to the will. Aquinas is one of the most well-known scholastics to make that argument.[footnoteRef:2] The mind must consent to the truths of the faith and the heart and mind must then act in unison to bear that faith out in one’s life. This is why the scholastics argued that faith rested on reason—for people are rational beings and need reasons to “buy into” an idea.[footnoteRef:3] Anselm’s ontological argument, for example, used reason to prove God’s existence.[footnoteRef:4] However, as others and Scripture show, faith can be obtained through deep intuition and feeling as well.[footnoteRef:5] This paper will explain how although faith typically depends on the use of reason, faith can be reached in a variety of ways; and in some cases, false reasoning can even be used to destroy faith. [2: Ralph McInerny, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings…
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…
Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html
Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm
Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
..the devils were full of hatred for me, but they had to obey me at the command of God, What I have written is but a pale shadow of the things I saw. But I noticed one thing: That most of the souls there are those who disbelieved that there is a hell." "There are special Tortures destined for particular souls. These are the torments of the senses. Each soul undergoes terrible and indescribable sufferings related to the manner in which it has sinned." And also "There are caverns and pits of torture where one form of agony differs from another. I would have died at the very sight of these tortures if the omnipotence of God had not supported me." (Sister Faustina's Vision of Hell) The devoted Sister Faustina also said, "Let the sinner know that he will be tortured throughout all eternity, in those senses which he made…
Apparitions of Jesus and Mary, Devotion to the Divine Mercy. Retrieved at http://www.apparitions.org/faustina.html. Accessed 17 July, 2006
Apparitions of Jesus, Biography of Saint Faustina. Retrieved at http://www.apparitions.org/Faustina.bio.html. Accessed 16 July, 2006
Bastian, Lisa A. John Paul II and the Feast of Divine Mercy. Retrieved at http://www.americancatholic.org/Features/JohnPaulII/DivineMercy.asp . Accessed 17 July, 2006
Catholic Online, Sister Faustina. Retrieved at http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=510Accessed 16 July, 2006
What does this small story tell us about Jesus? Try to discover the central message of this story, and then write it out. ead the stories before and after the text you chose, and write out their main messages.
In Mark 9:19-13, Jesus is being compared and contrasted with Elijah. Elijah is a harbinger of the messiah; not the messiah Himself. Thus, Elijah corresponds symbolically with John the Baptist. The story is one that establishes the true identity of Jesus Christ as Son of Man: a phrase that is used throughout the Bible. Here, the phrase clearly refers to Jesus during the transfiguration.
When the apostles ask, "Why do the teachers of the law say that Elijah must come first?" Jesus replies, "To be sure, Elijah does come first, and restores all things…Elijah has come, and they have done to him everything they wished, just as it is written…
Bible: New International Version.
Cline, A. (n.d.). Reactions to Jesus' Transfiguration (Mark 9:9-13). Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/biblegospelofmark/a/mark09b.htm
History of Christianity -- "The Didache"
hen was the Didache written?
The Didache is also known as "The Teachings of the 12 Apostles," and it is dated as having been written around 50's, 60's, or perhaps 70's AD although those dates are not certain. Jonathan Draper in fact says the latest revision of the possible date that the document was written is 100 AD. Even though the date is not certain, what is certain is that The Didache does in fact consist of instructions about how to be a Christian, and the first six chapters of the book deal with lessons on what is expected of Christians. The second four chapters describe Christian ceremonies -- including the Christian way of fasting, of baptism, and of community -- and the last six chapters deal with the actual organization of the Christian Church.
The documents were found around 1873 (by Philotheos Bryennios)…
Crossan, John Dominic. The Birth of Christianity: Discovering what Happened in the Years
Immediately After the Execution of Jesus. New York: HarperCollins. 1998.
Draper, Jonathan. Gospel Perspectives, Volume 5. The Jesus Tradition Outside the Gospels,
Editor David Wenham. 1965.
Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi
The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi.
Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized the works of art at this time. It tells the narrative story found in Matthew 17:24-27 in which Jesus and His disciples come to Capernaum and are told that they must pay the tribute. Jesus asks Simon Peter whether the children of the king or strangers pay the tribute. Peter answers that strangers pay it.…