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Toilet Design in Modern Society Public Toilets

Words: 3355 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7778469

Toilet Design

In modern society, public toilets has become a fixture wherever human activities take place; shopping malls, restaurants and filling stations all provide these places of convenience for travelers, diners and shoppers. However, when considering the nature and function of public toilets, many question their cleanliness and safety for public use. In addition, cultural and gender issues have also played a role in these debates. Women, for example, are obliged to make physical contact with public toilets, while this is not necessarily the case for men. In terms of cultural issues and sanitary concern, critics such as Isbit (2001) have suggested a toilet design whereby the human skin does not need to make any contact with the abode, but where both men and women squat to relieve themselves. To take these concerns into account, the history, background, and design of the public toilet should be considered in detail.

Historical…… [Read More]


A to Z. Of Manners & Etiquette. (2010) Toilet Etiquette. Retrieved from: 

Biddle, S. (2010, Aug 27). The Long, Unglamorous History of the Toilet. Gizmodo. Retrieved from: 

Brain, M. (2011). How Toilets Work. How Stuff Works, Inc. Retrieved from: 

Clark, E. (2011) 3 Serious Concerns About Hygiene in Public Restrooms Revealed in Survey. Ezine Articles. Retrieved from:
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Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment Nurses Are

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83494389

Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment

Nurses are very often the first medical aid providers that most patients see. In today's interprofessional healthcare set up, a nurse's approach in collecting a patient's history and diagnosing if the pain is acute or non-acute would assuredly help in providing the patient with appropriate treatment. It is therefore primary that nurses be fully equipped to diagnose the various ailments and start on the care to be provided. Nurses are also the first information gatherers and it is vital that they acquire the patient's past medical history. The importance of a structured approach in gathering this information is very vital as it forms the basis of analysis and also influences the care provided. Abdominal pain is one of the most common ailments that people complain of and seek medical care for. In most cases the pain's primary cause of pain may be ascertained almost immediately…… [Read More]

Biliary Colic: Biliary colic is a result of intermittent cystic duct or bile duct obstruction caused by gall stones. Typically affecting overweight women, pain in this case is usually colicky and localized in the right upper quadrant and in the epigastrium radiating towards the back. Vomiting is an associated symptom and the onset of pain is sudden and severe and it resolves as fast and spontaneously or after administering opiate analgesic.

Bowel Obstruction: Both the large and small intestines can get obstructed. Large intestine obstruction is caused by impacted faeces, tumors or volvulus (a case of the intestine twisting around itself). Obstructions in the small intestines are largely due to Crohn's disease, tumors, swallowed foreign objects or adhesions (Longmore et al. 2004.)The patient may experience colicky pain, vomiting, and will display a distended abdomen. It is also possible that some patients may become constipated as they might not be able to pass stools or gas due to the obstruction (Longmore et al. 2004). An X-ray can display the accurate position of the obstruction and help in finding speedy care.

Cholecystitis: An acute or chronic inflammation of the gall bladder, this is predominantly caused by
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Rheumatic Fever

Words: 1197 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46012770

heumatic Fever

The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today

Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…… [Read More]


Arocha, J.F., & Patel, V.L. (1995). Novice diagnostic reasoning in medicine: Accounting for evidence. Journal of the Learning Sciences 4(4), 375.

Patlak, M. (1991, October). 'Strep' demands immediate care. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 24.

Zamula, E. (1987, July-August). Rheumatic fever: Down but not out. FDA Consumer, 21, 26.
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Colds and Its Common Causes Possible Complications and Management

Words: 1641 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38882799

diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)

Common cold

The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…… [Read More]


ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from 

Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from 

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from 

Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
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Diagnosis in Mental Health Diagnosis

Words: 2203 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57813905

With medical terms, even though they explain little, we then have a reason to implement strong institutional controls such as the use of drugs and hospitalization.

The Medicalization of Deviant ehavior

Our discussion of DSM shows us clearly that the categories of deviant behavior voted on from time to time reflect social and political conventions. Depending on the disorder, the sociopolitical role played by diagnoses is either great or small, but the application of a diagnosis is always, to a greater or lesser degree, embracing political and social values. Diagnostic labels define what limits of difference society can tolerate.

Whenever a culture decides that it will define a set of behaviors as "sick" rather than "immoral" or unwitting, it is enacting a social value that favors illness over the view that such destructive or unusual behavior is volitional. Armed with this view of behavior as illness, we can justify forced…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). (Washington, DC: Author. 2008).

Robinson K, ed. Advances in School-Based Mental Health Interventions. (Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute; 2004).

Seligman, L. Selecting effective treatments: A comprehensive guide to treating mental disorders (Rev. ed.). (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2009).

US Census Bureau. Current population survey, (October 2009).
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Important Theme in Madeline

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34496936


The first book written by Ludwig Bemelmans in the series about Madeline, was first published in 1939. The hero in this book was different than all the princes in the children's stories: a little girl in a boarding school. Her main feature was her courage. In 1939, the world was swept by the Second World War and the heroine nothing alike those world saviors in stories and films alike. Madeline is a book that encompasses the essence of humanity in a few lines. One of the main themes in the book is the social feature of humanity, the ability to live in society, feel compassion, discover and develop solidarity etc.

Children who live in a boarding school are among the best sources to teach the rest of the world about compassion. "Twelve little girls in two straight lines. In two straight lines they broke their bread and brushed their…… [Read More]

Adults need this book because they need to rediscover their inner child while rebuilding their self-esteem and their trust in themselves. A little fearless girl, Madeline, learns how to use her fearlessness in order to achieve the greatest thing of all: to be human in the good way.

Madeline learns how to go through times of illness, after she has been operated because of the appendicitis. One of the most striking pictures in the episode of Madeline hospitalization is that depicting the children holding flowers in their hands and fearfully approaching Madeline's bed in the hospital. It is the picture of humanity at its best. Compassionate and full of love, children visit their companion in the hospital and bring her flowers.

Bemelmans, Ludwig. Mad About Madeline. The Complete Tales. Viking. Penguin Group. New York. 1993.
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Playwright as Rock Star Art

Words: 2345 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87064722

It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)

He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…… [Read More]

Woodcock, George. The Paradox of Oscar Wilde. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Terpening, William. "The Picture of Oscar Wilde: A brief life." Oscar Wilde Biographical Materials. 1998. 

Joe Orton Life and Work" Joe Orton Online.
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Inappropriate Hospital Admission Raising Health

Words: 5078 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82715825

Therefore, a basis is formed on which to reduce the inappropriate admissions after the correct rates are determined (estuccia, Shwartz, Ash, and Payne, 1996).

The connection between hospitalization rates and the inappropriateness of the admissions cannot be confirmed. A study of adults revealed that there was no link between the rates of hospitalization and the inappropriateness of the admission while a similar study conducted with no age limits produced contrary results. Three procedures of coronary angiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and carotid endarterectomy were used in another study to find out the relationship between the varying admission rates and their appropriateness (estuccia, Shwartz, Ash, and Payne, 1996).

It was revealed that there was more inappropriateness in high-use areas. When this study was repeated for a small area, the outcomes were quite different. This showed that inappropriateness cannot be used as a basis to find out the cause for the differing hospitalization…… [Read More]


Apolone G., Fellin G., Tampieri a., et al. (1997). Appropriateness of hospital use: Report from an Italian study. European Journal of Public Health Vol. 7, 1997 No. 1

Campbell J. (2001). Inappropriate admissions: thoughts of patients and referring doctors. JR Soc Med 2001;94:628-631.

Chopard P., Perneger T.V., Gaspoz J.M., Lovis C., et al. (1998). Predictors of inappropriate hospital days in a department of internal medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998:27.513-519

Chopard P., Gaspoz J.M., Lovis C., et al. (1998). Predictors of inappropriate hospital days in a department of internal medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 27, Number 3, June 1998, pp. 513-519(7).
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Woke Up Tuesday it Was

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94911434

This dissociative process was so powerful that Julia was able to endure what her physician referred to as agony, in a state in which she was blissfully unaware of the excruciating suffering she was feeling. The ramifications of this incident, of course, illustrate what Stout was stating about the consciousness' human ability to adapt and survive. Because Julia had endured so much suffering during her childhood by tuning out or disassociating herself from it, that reflex became her automatic reaction to situations in which there was actual, real danger -- all of which merely underscores how little of her life Julia had been present for.

To say the least, Stout's essay demonstrates that it is extremely safe to say that one's memories of the past definitely shape one's perceptions of the present. Moreover, it would be a little more accurate to state that one's memories of the past have the…… [Read More]

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Cholecystitis Biliary Colic and Cholecystitis Are in

Words: 1392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49859266


Biliary colic and cholecystitis are in the spectrum of gallbladder disease, ranging from asymptomatic gallstones to biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and cholangitis (Santen pp). hen gallstones temporarily obstruct the cystic duct or pass through into the common bile duct, gallstones become symptomatic and biliary colic develops, however, if the cystic duct or common bile duct becomes obstructed for hours or gallstones irritate the gallbladder, then cholecystitis develops, and when the stones become lodged in the common bile duct, choledocholithiasis occurs, resulting in possible cholangitis and ascending infections (Santen pp).

Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder caused by obstruction, usually a gallstone, of the cystic duct, and the inflammation may be sterile or bacterial and the obstruction may be acalculous or caused by sludge (Santen pp). Bacterial infection is believed to be a consequence, not a cause, of cholecystitis, approximately 75% of bile cultures are positive, with the most…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Kato, Norman S. (2004, July 14). Acute cholecystitis. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Web site: 

Cholecystitis. (1996). The Mosby Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Keeffe, Emmet B. 2000, March 15. Management of Gallstones and Their Complications.

American Family Physician. Retrieved July 03, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Sudanese Life in the United States

Words: 784 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17609626

people of Sudan, commonly known as the Sudanese, bring with them numerous traditions and cultural mainstays when they enter the United States. Their history, culture, medical practices and traditions provide them with a sense of home, and allow them to continue to preserve their past while allowing them to lead better lives. However, while their traditions and culture are vital to this preservation, their new positions in the United States often lead to struggles and conflict. This paper will outline the culture of the Sudanese, and will examine how that culture has altered in response to life in the United States.

One of the main differences in culture and medical practices lies in the circumcision of females in Sudan and in the female perspective overall. Female circumcision is a common practice in Sudan, since it is believed to ensure the virginity of young Sudanese women. In Sudan, circumcision is required…… [Read More]


Anderson, Mark. "Sudanese Refugees Lack Skill to Negotiate U.S. Culture." Lincoln Journal Star, 19 May 2004, C13.

Eastburn, Kathryn. "Circle of Refuge." Colorado Springs Independent, 23 January 2003, 1-2.

Halim, Abdel. Honorable Daughters: The Lived Experience of Circumcised Sudanese Women in The United States. June, 2003. Retrieved from Ohio Library and Information Network database. 5 October 2005. .

Matre, Lynn Van. "DuPage Agency to Aid Refugees from Sudan." Chicago Tribune, 14 February 2001, 15.
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Dehydration Impacts on Human Metabolism In This

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41795082

dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.

According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.

Thus, water is unspeakably…… [Read More]

Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.


In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
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Ybarra vs Spangard Case Study

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 43175112

According to the court's judgment in favor of the plaintiff, no further evidence as to the source of the muscle atrophy in his shoulder and arm, because "the thing itself speaks" when all three components of res ipsa loquitur are satisfied, as they were in the case of Ybarra vs. Spangard. The plaintiff's claim for negligence against his doctors was ultimately successful because (1) arm injuries do not ordinarily occur in an appendectomy operation absent negligent action by the physicians, surgeons, or nurses in attendance during the procedure, (2) the injuries were caused by an agency or instrumentality within the exclusive control of the defendant, as the plaintiff was rendered unconscious during the surgery's preparation period, and (3) the plaintiff never volunteered or submitted to the possibility of her arm being injured when they elected to undergo a surgery in their abdominal region. One of the most interesting aspects of…… [Read More]


Aspen Publishers (Ed.). (2006). Torts: Keyed to Courses Using Franklin, Rabin, and Greens Tort Law and Alternatives. Pg. 22, Aspen Publishers Online. Retrieved from  d&as_brr=3&ei=yMGBS7bpIKGEzQTLjpnoBQ&cd=9#v=onepage&q=ybarra%20v.%2 0 spangard&f=false

Ghiardi, J.D. (1955). Res Ipsa Loquitur in Wisconsin. Marq. L. Rev., 39, 361. Retrieved from 

Hetcher, S. (2013). The Immorality Of Strict Liability In Copyright. Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev., 17, 1-143. Retrieved from 

Louisell, D.W., & Williams, H. (1960). Res Ipsa Loquitur -- Its Future in Medical Malpractice Cases. California Law Review, 48(2), 252-270. Retrieved from  awreview
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Weimar Republic

Words: 5507 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11107001

Nervous Conditions

After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…… [Read More]


Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.

Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.

Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
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Treating Upper Abdominal Pain

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41600195

Patient: 66-Year-Old Black / African-American Female With Complaint of Sudden Onset of Mid Upper Epigastric Pain

Pertinent PMH

During the initial medical exam, it is critical to gauge the severity of the pain. The healthcare practitioner should inquire as to the presence of previous medical conditions such as colitis, Crohn's disease, and IBS which could be the cause of the sudden onset. In the instance of abdominal pain, the provider should determine the precise location of pain as much as is possible even though referent pain is often an issue. Even though the pain is located in the upper abdominal quadrant, greater specificity is needed to eliminate possible causes. For example, "pain in the patient's right-upper abdomen can indicate gallstones or inflammation" or "duodenal ulcers, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and acute hepatitis" (Lipman 2009; Karnath & Mileski, 2002, p. 46). In contrast, pain in the right mid-upper abdomen, may indicate…… [Read More]


Karnath, B. & Mileski, W. (2002). Acute abdominal pain. Review of Clinical Signs.

Retrieved from:

Lipman, M. (2009). When your belly hurts. Consumer Reports. Retrieved from:
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Nursing Shadow Experience

Words: 1911 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17776892

As a student who had only just completed the first semester of the course, I had no experience with pediatric patients prior to the shadowing task. Thus, the nurse shadowing task was a rather exciting experience for me, exposing me to several new aspects of pediatric care (Burkitt 2001). However, its most heart- rending element was congenital patient care – seeing babies being born with an illness was a rather touching experience.
While a few of my peers were fairly well- informed on the subject of pediatric care, I wasn’t. Most of the information I gleaned and things I saw in the course of my nurse shadowing assignment were new to me. The nurse practitioner I was tasked to shadow provided me with detailed information about appendicitis, which is apparently a widely- occurring pediatric issue and, at times, may take long to diagnose (Gaydos 2005). Further, I gained…… [Read More]