But a multi-disciplinary approach is always useful.
4. Should archaeology students be required to take ethnographic methods classes?
Yes, because that knowledge is necessary in understanding the cultures of local communities or indigenous people on whose territory an archeologist studies sites and artifacts. Local communities are also affected by excavations and the knowledge about them is essential for doing archaeology.
5. Why is timely publication important? The data are already old!
One of the main stakeholders in archaeology is the public. Timely publication is necessary for public accountability.
6. Should archaeologists drink in the field?
There is no rule saying that they should and there is no rule against mild drinking. Excessive drinking should be avoided although many archaeologists often indulge themselves in heavy drinking in the field.
7. Should field crews develop personal relationships with local people? How personal?
Yes, but those relationships should still remain within the confines…… [Read More]
In this way, material culture and social paradigm were embedded in the cultural mythology of any given time in the past.
This once again emphasizes the inaccuracy of the Christian myth as the sole archaeological paradigm of research. The recognition of myth and indeed the "other" in the past provides the archaeologist with a fresh view of the past, which is much richer and wider than might previously have been recognized. Indeed, the "other" is even being recognized in archaeology today, with researchers often approaching natives for information about their history, their social structures, and their mythology.
This is a very far cry from the historical view of the native as barbaric and sub-human. According to Alcida Ramos (1994:80), it was only after a papal bull from Paul III that natives were even considered human. Christianity at the time was the only recognized myth that applied to human beings. As…… [Read More]
After brushing off all the debris, the team of archaeologists lifted the time capsule with a great sense of satisfaction and placed it on the research table. Inside we found five items that will enhance our understanding of life in the United States of America, circa 1969. The first two items we unearthed from the time capsule were bundled together using a piece of rough twine. The larger of the two objects was a disk, encased in a paper sheath. It was about one foot in diameter. When we examined the sheath, it had colorful artwork on it. The disk inside was black, and was etched with rings that looked like those found on a tree trunk after you cut it. Attached to the paper sheath with the piece of twine was a small envelope. Inside the envelope were two pieces of paper, which appeared to be tickets to…… [Read More]
The Archaeological and Historical Consequences of the U.S. Invasion of Iraq
Like any war, the war waged against Iraq by U.S. forces has resulted in the destruction of more than just military sites. Many of Iraq's cultural sites, including museums, libraries and significant ancient sites have been the victims of destruction.
According to article by National Geographic News, "although U.S. bombs have spared most sites and treasures, some ancient locations have been seriously damaged by recent looting and long-tern neglect" (National Geographic News, 2003). Iraq is of key interest to historians and archaeologists alike and these ancient sites provide a wealth of information about early civilization.
An early tourist guide on Iraq, which was printed in 1982 states "Few countries in the world are as rich in archaeology as Iraq. The Iraq National Museum, with its great, well-organized and carefully labeled collection of archaeological finds is a reflection of…… [Read More]
The issue at hand with respect to Olmec pottery relates to the chemical composition of the pottery sherds, and the implications that these chemical compositions have for the trade of pottery among the people of the Mexican highlands. There are two positions posited in the readings, and Sharer (2006) does a good job of explaining the issue. All of the researchers use instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the chemical composition of the sherds. At issue is the interpretation of the INAA results and the extrapolation of those results into findings about trade patterns. On the first point, Sharer (2006) notes that "it has long been acknowledged that INAA leadsto chemical composition groups." The two camps arguing take different interpretations of this, with one camp taking a broader view with respect to the potential number of materials and the other group interpreting the INAA results in a more…… [Read More]
Nobles, Connie . (2000). Gazing upon the invisible: Women and children at the Old Baton Rouge Penitentiary. American Antiquity, 65(1), 5.
Archaeological investigation of the Old Baton Rouge Penitentiary includes studying artifacts to determine the conditions of the children and women who were housed there as prisoners. "There were a total of 1,310 artifacts collected from this site. Five major categories of items include: 1) ceramic goods, 2) glass vessels, 3) metal, 4) faunal materials, and 5) leather goods. These artifacts include a variety of goods that express the lives of both the prisoners and their guards" (p. 5).
Urwin, Gregory J.W. (2004). Black flag over Dixie: Racial atrocities and reprisals in the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
According to this source, archaeological finds in the area of Fort Pillow in enning, Tennessee including large caches of alcohol, and the author speculates that drunkenness among the troops,…… [Read More]
iblical Archaeology - Jericho
The story of the attempt to match up the archaeology of ancient Jericho with the account given in the Hebrew ible has come to be regarded as something of a cautionary tale in the history of iblical archaeology. Laughlin in Archaeology and the ible (2000) invokes Jericho in precisely that way, as the most generalized example that he can find to warn against trying to force archaeological data onto a hermeneutically Procrustean framework derived from the Old Testament:
For the student interested in "iblical Archaeology" there are two sets of data: the archaeological and the biblical. The ible can no longer be accepted uncritically as a "historical" account of ancient Israel, if by historical we mean all the modern connotations of that term. Rather the ible interprets through theological, and even mythological, lenses what archaeologists must interpret through scientific/historical ones. The case of the story of…… [Read More]
Media Archaelogy and Videogames
In today's world, the rapid development of technology has opened worlds of vast information and entertainment that are instantly accessible at the touch of a button. The relationships created in this way not only involve those we interact with online or via gaming, but also our own perception, the mental imagery we create and the apparatus we use to access these. A researcher who truly wants to understand the past of a medium cannot only work with historical imagery or archival footage. There must also be a consideration of the technologies used in the past; the technology used to create historical imagery and archival footage. This is the point of study for media archaeology; where the researcher studies the specific technological devices used in the past to create media from the past and how this developed and its relationship to technology today.
Media archaeology is a…… [Read More]
Biblical Archaeology by G.E. Wright
This book, like its name, focuses on many of the archaeological findings that relate to the history of the Bible. Often, it is difficult to comprehend where many places in the Bible really are and what the world was like then. Because of this, archaeological information can help greatly in forming an understanding of Biblical times and Biblical lands. This book is not just for those with a casual interest in archaeology, however. It follows the chronology of the Bible and deals with the Biblical story quite frequently. It is neither just a text about archaeological discoveries or just a text about the history of the Bible. It is both, and it has to be both in order for it to make sense and be complete when it comes to understanding what it needed when studying archaeological information and how it relates to what is…… [Read More]
"Secondly, experience has shown that military cemeteries are somewhat unique and easily recognizable by the fact that there is a high level of traumatic injuries in the population, generally on the left side of the body, where soldiers usually attempt to ward off blows from a right-handed attacker." (Zias) the assumption was that these graves were not an unplanned military grave because the normal thing to do at the time was to bury soldiers in mass graves. The Qumran Cemetery was a well planned sight that was too well organized and it showed a great deal of coordinated planning and use over time.
The women and children discovered on the Qumran sight could have put doubt in the theory that the sight was in fact Essene. But there were other theories to would justify a woman or child being buried at that particular cemetery. "Elder poses some interesting solutions to…… [Read More]
There is little doubt that ancient civilizations and the thought of visitors from outer space are two subjects that easily capture the imagination. Most people are fascinated by one or the other or both. In fact, even science fiction gained some mileage out of combining the two; 'documentaries' often run on the non-major network stations purporting to show that earthworks of various kinds, and even patterns in fields of crops, were made by visitors from outer space. Often, the documentary makers attempt to draw parallels between the work of ancient civilizations, from the Celtic to the Mayan, and the 'work' of the visitors from outer space. It's a shame that they have to do that. The connections that have already been found between ancient civilizations -- particularly the Mayan -- and life on earth today are quite amazing enough.
Forget 2000; the real danger will arrive in 2012
The…… [Read More]
Archaeology is a social science, with an emphasis on the word science. This means that the work that is conducted is done in a systematic acquisition of new knowledge about nature and the body of already existing knowledge gained. The scientific method is based on careful observation and the testing of theories by experiments. Archaeology uses these scientific procedures to study antiquities such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early age, inscriptions, implements, written manuscripts and other relics.
An archaeological excavation, therefore, consists of a process including an initial site survey, breaking the area to be excavated into quadrants, carefully removing soil, recording precise locations of objects and features or provenance, marking and photographing each incremental soil layer (every piece of information retrieved from the site must be related to the layers, finds and structures around it, so that the complex relationships that contribute to the interpretation…… [Read More]
Although named after La Gravette in the Dordogne in France, the Gravettian culture was largely focused in Central Europe (Lysianassa). The Gravettian culture probably migrated there from the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Balkans ("History of Europe" 2). The Gravettian culture is generally believed to be a subset of the larger group called the Aurignacian, and portable items like figurines and tools figured prominently among the people. Their frequent and large-scale migratory patterns show that portable figurines like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice were important objects to the Gravettian culture.
In general, the Gravettian culture "represents subsistence innovations, burial customs, landscape organization, the beginnings of art, projectile technology and other non-utilitarian elements of human behavior, (Lysianassa). In addition to small ceramic objects like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice, the Gravettian people produced cave paintings and other decorative arts. Lienard notes that the Gravettian people were "seriously producing art objects,"…… [Read More]
Archaeological Sites in the U.S.
This paper examines underwater archaeology in the U.S. The paper discusses excavation techniques, tools and technology and also explores the Clovis theory. The paper also reviews findings at several submerged North American prehistoric archeological sites.
Underwater survey and excavation are typically more expensive and logistically more complex than comparable terrestrial projects. Underwater conditions involve more variability from site to site, and even from hour to hour at the same site. All survey and excavation work is constrained by safety factors; in general the deeper the site, the less time that a scuba diver can remain at that depth. Other factors that are frequently less than ideal include water currents, temperature, and visibility (Merwin, Lynch, and Robinson, 42).
Nonetheless, the potential to recover significant archaeological data outweighs the disadvantages of working underwater. In fact, underwater sites may allow for the preservation of organic materials…… [Read More]
Situated on the Colorado plateau not far from Flagstaff, the monument is well-run by a team of professionals that can offer interested visitors educational tours. The U.S. Forest Service retains surrounding lands for campgrounds and also offers interpretive tours.
University input from Northern Arizona University and professional assistance from the Museum of Northern Arizona ensures that the project is well-maintained and well-preserved while it is enjoyed by the general public. Waputki is therefore a true example of public archaeology. Stakeholders like the Hopi and Navajo nations can therefore rest assured that the rich traditions of their ancestors are preserved and protected. Organizations like the FLAG Foundation help with raising and retaining funding for the Wupatki National Monument.
Center for Desert Archaology. (nd). "Visiting Places of the Past: Waputki National Monument." etrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.cdarc.org/visit/wupatki.php
Northern Arizona University's Partnership for Public Archaeology. etrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www4.nau.edu/idig/default.htm…… [Read More]
Votive deposition, religion and the Anglo-Saxon furnished burial ritual." In this article, Crawford examines burial practices for what they tell us about early religious belief's systems. View the following video by the anthropologist Nick Herriman; he describes the logic underneath belief systems. He does this with a few different societies. Explain what Nick Herriman examples provides to Crawford's article which is focused on burial evidence. Overall, connect the two sources to explain the ways that anthropologists are interested in uncovering clues about a group's belief system.
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpgAtylzMQE
According to Crawford (2004), gravesites are often seen as physical reflections of abstract spiritual belief systems. In her analysis she "questions the distinction between grave sites and other sacred places" and "whether deposits should only ever be interpreted as reflections of social structure."[footnoteRef:1] The focus of anthropologists upon burial grounds and surrounding rituals, as noted in the video narrated by anthropologist…… [Read More]
"The Mysteries of Chaco Canyon," narrated by Robert Redford, explores the mysteries surrounding the Pueblo site at Chaco Canyon. The film begins with a brief narration about how the original migration of people to the area of Chaco Canyon was for them to seek a special place to be the "center of our world." Therefore, there is deep spiritual and metaphysical significance in the actual physical, geographical location of the buildings. This is in spite of the fact that the area is unsheltered from the elements, which deliver temperature and weather extremes that can be inhospitable to life. It took 250 years to complete the massive construction project, and to build in architectural elements that would serve as an astronomical indicator such as the shaft of light that appears only at certain times a year. Four themes the film covers include the difference between archaeological and oral traditions;…… [Read More]
The Emergence of Social
Complexity in Neolithic China
This work will focus on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China and will revolve around the main idea that these burial sites present convincing evidence of an emerging social complexity. A second focus will be to provide proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period.
Until recently, archaeologists had believed that the Chinese civilization began in the center of China around the Yellow River valley and eventually migrated from there. However, new discoveries have revealed an extremely more complex version of Neolithic China. It is more viable today that China developed from multiple cultures from different regions of the land as opposed to a single or bi- cultural evolution. "As in other parts of the world, the Neolithic period was marked by the development of…… [Read More]
They write, "Combining tribal narratives and interpretations with archeological data results in a more intimate rendering of history, and enables us to more easily imagine the vitality of life at these sites" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). This, the perspectives of the many participants helped create a larger picture of life and work at these sites.
The project seemed to work well because all the participants worked at getting along with each other, and were working together toward a common goal - preservation of ancient sites that had strong meaning in their cultures. The authors end their discussion with this comment, "We now see that tribes are and will continue to be proactive in directed research projects. [...] -- it is possible to set aside political and philosophical differences to address a common goal" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). The challenges included getting the many tribes and their representatives together,…… [Read More]
Take for example, Foucault's 'Omnus at singulatim', in which the thinker shows his reader how the Christian practice of 'pastoral power' paves the way for certain modern practices that in actuality govern almost all the aspects of a living population anywhere in the world. Foucault also stressed on his belief that religion, in a positive way, possessed the capacity to contest against the nascent forms of control instituted during the modern period of man, like for example, Protestant eformation, which tried its best to resist the onslaught of emerging forms, and therefore, became representative of a set of emerging disciplinary discourses and practices. As far as Foucault was concerned, religion presented difficulties for autonomous self fashioning, but at the same time, religion was not a dangerous precursor to modern forms of governments.
To conclude, it must be said that Michael Foucault's theories are as relevant today as they were…… [Read More]
Archaeological Interpretations of Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings
There are many questions related to the chronological spread of Paleolithic tool production and paintings due to geographical differences in the progress of the spread of such tool production. While radiocarbon dating has furthered the ability to identify specific time period information there are still limitations to this type of data. There has been loose identification of chronological periods of production and in cave paintings the more complex paintings are not always those most recently created. Difficulty exists in the establishment of regional progressions of development. While the combination of radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance dating techniques assisted investigators for the upper Paleolithic period in the reconstruction of "a reasonably coherent global chronology." (Bar-Yosef, 2002) At the same time there are still significant standard deviations along with other limitations in this dating of archaeological findings. This study examines these issues and limitations…… [Read More]
For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.
In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…… [Read More]
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…… [Read More]
Examples of the mention of the use of the 'crannog' in Lough Laoghaire is stated by Brady and O'Conor to be referenced directly in the Annals of Ulster in 1436. These annals are "contemporary Gaelic records of the high profile events that occurred in Ireland, and such mention carries with it an automatic association of status and dramatic event." (Brady and O'Conor, nd)
III. O'SULLIVAN (1998)
Aidan O'Sullivan writes in the work entitled: "The Archaeology of Lake Settlement in Ireland" (1998) that in the Late Middle Ages...the Gaelic Irish experienced a revival in military power, giving rise to what is commonly known as the 'Gaelic esurgence'" which was a time when raids increased on the English settlements which were richer and there was a "state of endemic warfare across the country." (O'Sullivan, 1998) Cultural and military renewal among the Gaelic Irish were drivers of the 'esurgence' as well as…… [Read More]
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…… [Read More]
Oracle Bones, Peter Hessler (2006) explores the history and culture of China, incorporating personal and social commentary. Hessler (2006) also weaves personal stories of individual Chinese people into Oracle Bones, to provide both a broad and an intimate narrative. The three core personal narratives are vastly different, to capture the diversity of Chinese culture and society. One of the people that Hesler (2006) follows is a Uighur (Muslim from Eastern China), who successfully endeavors to leave China for the United States. Named Polat, the Uighur's perspective on Chinese society and politics provides an interesting counterpart to the entire tale of Oracle Bones. The second personal narrative belongs to Chen Mengjia, who lends Hessler's book its title because Cheng Mengjia was an oracle bone scholar. The oracle bones become the title for Hessler's (2006) book because they symbolize the continuity between past, present, and future that characterizes modern China.
A third…… [Read More]
role of potassium argon dating within the field of archaeology. How it works and what methods are used to glean the date from archaeological artefacts and remains.
Potassium argon and the archaeologist
The majority of the world's archaeological sites are now so ancient that there is no actual way of giving them a complete and secure chronological date that radio-carbon dating can provide. However, here are many techniques for dating within the field of archaeology, one of these methods is the K-Ar (Potassium-Argon) method which has been a vast success within the field of geology (the study of earth).
It is possible to date rocks with a low potassium content such as basalts in this way. Sadly the dates are not always secure due to the behaviour of the geochemicals of the parent and daughter elements as they are likely to being disturbed by geological events such as weathering or…… [Read More]
Disposable batteries have transformed the way that we live and the types of activities that we do. The purpose of this discussion is to provide the reader with a natural history of disposable batteries from the time the raw materials are extracted from the earth to the time they are recycled or in a land fill. We will seek to explain the environmental impact that batteries have along the path of creation, use, and disposal. This paper will also discuss the Peripheral impact, of batteries including: how they are shipped, how much fuel is used, and how much pollution is created. Finally we will discuss the social impact of batteries and facts about the societies that make, use, and dispose of batteries.
Natural History of Disposable Batteries
The concept of batteries was first discovered between 1780-1786 by Luigi Galvani. Galvani found that connecting iron and brass created an electrical current.…… [Read More]
This interpretation would therefore tend to suggest a view of the art that shows cultural and social disparities between classes and social groups in the society.
In the final analysis what is clear that Mithen's approach holds a great deal of potential for an understanding of past cultures and societies from an archeological perspective. This interpretive stance is valuable in that it takes into account a wide ranging and inclusive understanding of the concept of ecology. Mithen's view is both logical and consistent with contemporary approaches in other disciplines in its emphasis on holistic and integrative views and interpretations of reality. Another benefit of this stance is that it brings to bear a host of different disciplines and perspectives that can help to unravel the mysteries encapsulated in the artifacts of the past.
However, while holistic thinking and integration are useful conceptual tools for research one should not…… [Read More]
ith the sole exception of a permanent exhibition room solely devoted to the work of Joseph Beuys - widely considered to be among the most important German artists of the post-war period - the Hamburger Bahnhof features a fair balance of works by contemporary artists from all over the world. As a matter of fact, many of the more important names of German art from the last few years are noticeably absent from the exhibition spaces. In the words of Forster-Hahn, writing shortly before the Museum's opening in 1996:
Amid increasingly fervent discourse on the possibility or impossibility of nationhood in the postmodern world, the vast space of the reconstructed railroad station installed with works by artists such as Joseph Beuys - but also with the flickering images of Nam June Paik - does not conjure up allusions to a static, permanent staple of art. Here, trains and railroad station…… [Read More]
The devastation must have taken weeks to accomplish and was so well planned that there was no chance of restoration. (ibid) the reasons for and the perpetrators of this destruction are a mystery. Foreign forces and influences are not blamed and there were no political uprisings that may have precipitated these events. The only reasons given are possible dissatisfaction among the populace due to mismanagement. (ibid) With the demise of Teotihuacan's there was a subsequent change in the asin of Mexico with regard to the distribution of power. Without a centralized authority settlements began to emerge in parts of the asin. There was no perpetuation of the religion and ideology and "...we find no signs of the great Goddess, the Storm God, or Featheres Serpent." (Weaver M.P. p 204)
The Spanish were extremely impressed with the wealth they found in Mesoamerica. The Aztecs had succeeded in accumulating this wealth through…… [Read More]
As an example of the Chavin builder's keen attention to seemingly minor design details, the author's highlighted the monument's multifaceted use of structural columns throughout Chavin de Huantar's Old Temple and Circular Plaza, observing that "these structural columns ... are the only two architectural stages, illustrating possible ways in which builders at Chavin de Huantar may have adapted and continued architectural meaning across major architectural stages" (64). In the estimation of Conklin and Quilter, the Chavin people demonstrated an uncanny ability to evolve architecturally, imbuing the design of their civilization's greatest monument with a sense of continuity that expanded its influence across the span of generations.
One of the primary motivations for Chavin builders to design Chavin de Huantar with continuity as their goal was that the site served as the center of worship, celebration, and ceremony for many thousands of people across hundreds of miles of territory. Despite the…… [Read More]
e suspect that these Chuck-E-Cheese temples were used for worship of the rodent god and we suspect also child sacrifice at these sites. Finding this coin at this site is perhaps an indication that the owner of this dwelling either was a member of the Chuck-E-Cheese cult or had escaped from one of the temples and later survived into adulthood.
The fifth specimen is a five cent piece from the United States of America. This piece is in abundance in the area, and this specimen is unexceptional. It was found in the main sleeping area of the dwelling. The sixth specimen was found near to the fifth. This specimen appears to be a one-cent piece, but is flat and nearly featureless. This type of damage is unusual, in that it is so severe it could not have been made by a human. It is possible that the damage was caused…… [Read More]
Personhood & Gender
The scope, definition, depth and breadth of gender has evolved greatly over the years and centuries. Rather than get muddled down in the cavalcade of resources and opinions that focus on the definitions of personhood and gender in a more modern context, one instead should focus on the word of anthropologists in scholarly journals as they show and describe some stunning and revealing observations. This report in particular will focus on two such studies and the revelations that are present within them and what they looked at.
The first major study looked at for this research looked at a people called the Igbo. The Igbo-Ukwu were present in modern-day Nigeria circa the 11th century A.D. In other words, they lived in the area almost exactly a millennia ago. The findings that are analyzed in this study were found in four different sites over the last fifty years…… [Read More]
Culture in Anthropology:
Culture is basically defined as values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals. However, this definition of this has been a complex and relatively difficult task for anthropologists since the commencement of discipline in the late 19th Century. Culture originates from interactions and behaviors of people who eventually develop common attitudes, values, and behaviors. In essence, as people live and interact with one another, their learning skills and attitudes are in turn transmitted as knowledge and beliefs that are shared among them, which results in cultural beliefs and practices.
Despite the simple, basic definition of culture, anthropologists have struggled to describe and specify the concept since the discipline was established in the late 19th Century. There are various anthropologists who have attempted to define and specify the culture including Edward Tylor whose definition incorporates various significant features that are currently included in most…… [Read More]
Paul's First Missionary Journey
The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.
Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.
They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.
Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.
The first missionary journey of Paul
Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria
He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.
John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia
Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie
Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.
Paul's strategy in his…… [Read More]
The first analysis concentrated on the Y chromosome, which would illuminate King Tutankhamun's paternal heritage; the second analysis consisted of genetic fingerprinting," (SCA, cited by Ann). Genetic fingerprinting allowed for a five-generation "pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage," (Hawass 2010). All of the testing was replicated in an independent laboratory designed specifically for the Family of Tutankhamun Project (Hawass et al.). In addition to the DNA analyses that were performed on the royal mummies, CT scans were also used to help analyze bones.
The results of the DNA analysis revealed the parentage of King Tutankhamun. Akhenaten is the father of King Tutankhamun, not his brother as was previously believed (MalcolmJ). However, Hawass had already hypothesized that Akhenaten was the father of King Tutankhamun. Hawass notes that an inscribed limestone block that he helped piece together led him to question King Tut's heritage. The text printed on the limestone block states that…… [Read More]
I do not even know where most of my ancestors are buried. I do not even know where most of them lived, or what land they considered to be at the heart of their lives. I do not know how most of them conceived of the soul or of what happened when they buried their dead. And yet I would be troubled by knowing that researchers could dig up their bones. I would not necessarily forbid it (if I had the power), but I would be troubled. And I think that I would be close to infuriated if researchers claimed that they were pursuing such disinterring for my benefit. So must many native peoples feel.
How Does One Define Affiliation?
Key to the legal strength of NAGPA as well as the broader implications that is has for the practice of the different sub-disciplines of anthropology, including archaeology, is the concept…… [Read More]
One of these issues is Central Asian archaeology. Towards the end of the chapter, the author notes that there may be whole cities buried beneath the desert sands in Central Asia. Because the author also mentions the importance of tourism for the economic empowerment of the region, it is clear that archaeology may become a major tourist draw.
In 1997, the author notes, an expedition on foot was undertaken to capture the Taklamakan desert on camera. Such adventures are rare, and not for the common visitor. Similarly, the common visitor will not be an archaeology scholar but rather, an amateur interested in ancient sites. For the same reason why tourists visit Egypt and Greece as much for ancient as modern culture, tourists to Central Asia may be driven by this core curiosity.
Lawler (2006) describes Viktor Sarianidi's unearthing of Gonur, one of many ancient settlements in Central Asia. Under the…… [Read More]
Standard of Ur, Scenes of War/Peace, 2700 bce
The Standard of Ur is an artifact, which Charles Leonard Woolley discovered in the late 1920. It was in the Royal Tombs of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia, which was close to aghdad presently known as Iran about 2600 CE. Leonard was a London-based excavator who had gone to Ur in an effort to discover artifacts including archeological elements. Apparently, when he found it, he was not sure what it was; therefore, he assumed that it was a flag used back then in 2600 CE. In addition, other people were also not sure of what it was, and some of them assumed it was a type of emblem of a king, others suggested it was a musical instrument covering.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Wolley, Leonard. Excavations at Ur: A record of twelve years' work. (London: Routledge) ]
In this regard, the ritish Museum has favored this…… [Read More]
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…… [Read More]
Historicity of Acts
For centuries, the historicity of the book of the Acts has been questioned and criticized, prompting historians to label it "the storm center of modern New Testament study." Many scholars have suggested that the Acts were written as a means of religious propaganda, rendering the work historically unreliable. Others view the Acts as a blend of historical facts and unhistorical traditions.
While the argument continues in present time, the book of Acts has withstood the test of time, holding its ground as an accurate and reliable historical work, particularly as a result of many recent archaeological findings.
An unknown pastor once described his unquestioning faith in Jesus Christ by saying: "Even if some archeologists were to find the bones of Jesus tomorrow, I would still believe in Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord!" While faith draws its life and strength from a place far beyond history,…… [Read More]
The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).
The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…… [Read More]
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…… [Read More]
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…… [Read More]
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…… [Read More]
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…… [Read More]
RITUALISTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PRACTICAL USES OF PULIC SPACE AT THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS AND TRAJAN'S FORUM
Acropolis is renowned as a fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Greeks built their towns in plains near or around a rocky hill that could easily be fortified and defended. Nearly every Greek city had its acropolis, which provided a safe place of refuge for townspeople during times of turmoil or war. Rulers of the town often lived within the walls of this stronghold. In many cases the acropolis became the site of temples and public buildings and thus served as the town's religious center, focal point of its public life, and as a place of refuge.
The Athenian Acropolis is the most well-known acropolis of the ancient world. Ruins of its temples and their sculptures are widely regarded as the finest examples of ancient Greek art and architecture. uilt on a limestone…… [Read More]
Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.
The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…… [Read More]
FUNERAL RITES SIMLAR TO AND DIFFERENT FROM THOSE SEEN IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES?
The objective of this study is to examine how contemporary funeral rites are similar to and different from those viewed in archaeological sites. Toward this end a literature review in this area of inquiry will be conducted.
Shape and Depth of the Grave
According to Pearson (1999) the "shape and depth of a grave may relate to the social status or gender of the person buried. It may also reflect the degree of formality in the burial rite." (p.7) In addition, the hole that is dug for the grave "may serve not just as a repository for the corpse, but its shape and dimensions may be constructed so that it echoes other contexts." (Pearson, 1999, p. 7) Pearson additionally reports that there are many examples of graves that are similar to "houses or storage pits." (1999, p. 7)…… [Read More]
Persian Contraction From 1700 to 2000
Persia represented an important link between East and West. It held the Middle position and in geopolitical terms, this position meant a lot as the Industrial Age began to get underway in the modern era. Persian territory was viewed with envious eyes by other nations that saw the strategic location Persia occupied. The decadence of the Ottoman Empire, a series of wars, power plays, globalization, cultural changes and influences, and diaspora have all impacted Persia and accounted for its contraction between 1700 and 2000. This paper will analyze these factors and show how in these three hundred years, changes in the way of the world, such as the influence of technology and industry, had a direct effect on the shape of Persia and its geographical location.
Persia in the 18th Century
The Suffavean dynasty was founded in the 16th century and it lasted for…… [Read More]
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…… [Read More]
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]
The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).
There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…… [Read More]
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…… [Read More]