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But a multi-disciplinary approach is always useful.
4. Should archaeology students be required to take ethnographic methods classes?
Yes, because that knowledge is necessary in understanding the cultures of local communities or indigenous people on whose territory an archeologist studies sites and artifacts. Local communities are also affected by excavations and the knowledge about them is essential for doing archaeology.
5. Why is timely publication important? The data are already old!
One of the main stakeholders in archaeology is the public. Timely publication is necessary for public accountability.
6. Should archaeologists drink in the field?
There is no rule saying that they should and there is no rule against mild drinking. Excessive drinking should be avoided although many archaeologists often indulge themselves in heavy drinking in the field.
7. Should field crews develop personal relationships with local people? How personal?
Yes, but those relationships should still remain within the confines…
In this way, material culture and social paradigm were embedded in the cultural mythology of any given time in the past.
This once again emphasizes the inaccuracy of the Christian myth as the sole archaeological paradigm of research. The recognition of myth and indeed the "other" in the past provides the archaeologist with a fresh view of the past, which is much richer and wider than might previously have been recognized. Indeed, the "other" is even being recognized in archaeology today, with researchers often approaching natives for information about their history, their social structures, and their mythology.
This is a very far cry from the historical view of the native as barbaric and sub-human. According to Alcida Ramos (1994:80), it was only after a papal bull from Paul III that natives were even considered human. Christianity at the time was the only recognized myth that applied to human beings. As…
Bender, B. 1989. The Roots of Inequality. In D. Miller, M. Rowlands and C. Tilley (eds.), Domination and Resistance. London: Unwin Hyman, 83-95.
Bender, B. 1998. Stonehenge: Making Space. Oxford: Berg.
Gamble, C. 2001. Chapter 2: How Many Archaeologies Are There? In Archaeology: The Basics. London and New York: Routledge, 21-44.
Gero, J. 1994. Gender Division of Labour in the Construction of Archaeological Knowledge in the United States. In G.C. Bond and a. Gilliam (eds.), Social Construction of the Past. London and New York: Routledge, 144-153.
After brushing off all the debris, the team of archaeologists lifted the time capsule with a great sense of satisfaction and placed it on the research table. Inside we found five items that will enhance our understanding of life in the United States of America, circa 1969. The first two items we unearthed from the time capsule were bundled together using a piece of rough twine. The larger of the two objects was a disk, encased in a paper sheath. It was about one foot in diameter. When we examined the sheath, it had colorful artwork on it. The disk inside was black, and was etched with rings that looked like those found on a tree trunk after you cut it. Attached to the paper sheath with the piece of twine was a small envelope. Inside the envelope were two pieces of paper, which appeared to be tickets to…
Becker, H.S. (1967). History, culture, and subjective experience. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 8(3): 163-176.
Brattin, J. (2010). "Hendrix and Woodstock: 10 Little Known Facts about the Performance That Defined the '60s." WPI. Retrieved online: http://www.wpi.edu/news/20090/woodstock.html
Henderson, D. (1996). 'Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky. Bantam.
Savishinsky, N.J (1994). Transnational popular culture and the global spread of the Jamaican Rastafarian movement. KITLV 68(3, 4).
The Archaeological and Historical Consequences of the U.S. Invasion of Iraq
Like any war, the war waged against Iraq by U.S. forces has resulted in the destruction of more than just military sites. Many of Iraq's cultural sites, including museums, libraries and significant ancient sites have been the victims of destruction.
According to article by National Geographic News, "although U.S. bombs have spared most sites and treasures, some ancient locations have been seriously damaged by recent looting and long-tern neglect" (National Geographic News, 2003). Iraq is of key interest to historians and archaeologists alike and these ancient sites provide a wealth of information about early civilization.
An early tourist guide on Iraq, which was printed in 1982 states "Few countries in the world are as rich in archaeology as Iraq. The Iraq National Museum, with its great, well-organized and carefully labeled collection of archaeological finds is a reflection of…
http://www.news.nationalgeographic.com."Ancient Iraqi Sites Show Theft, Destruction." National Geographic News. June 2003.
Iraq: For Many, Destruction of Cultural Sites The Most Devastating Aspect of War." Zamira Eshanova. Radio Free Europe Reprint. 2003.
The issue at hand with respect to Olmec pottery relates to the chemical composition of the pottery sherds, and the implications that these chemical compositions have for the trade of pottery among the people of the Mexican highlands. There are two positions posited in the readings, and Sharer (2006) does a good job of explaining the issue. All of the researchers use instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the chemical composition of the sherds. At issue is the interpretation of the INAA results and the extrapolation of those results into findings about trade patterns. On the first point, Sharer (2006) notes that "it has long been acknowledged that INAA leadsto chemical composition groups." The two camps arguing take different interpretations of this, with one camp taking a broader view with respect to the potential number of materials and the other group interpreting the INAA results in a more…
Petrographic Evidence shows that Pottery Exchange between the Olmec and their neighbors was two ways Stoloman et al. 2005
On the Logic of Archaeological Inference: Early Formative Pottery and the Evolution of Mesoamerican Societies
Sharer et al., 2006
Olmec Pottery Production and Export in Ancient Mexico Determined through Elemental Analysis, Jeffery P. Bolmster, Science 307 (2005)
Nobles, Connie . (2000). Gazing upon the invisible: Women and children at the Old Baton Rouge Penitentiary. American Antiquity, 65(1), 5.
Archaeological investigation of the Old Baton Rouge Penitentiary includes studying artifacts to determine the conditions of the children and women who were housed there as prisoners. "There were a total of 1,310 artifacts collected from this site. Five major categories of items include: 1) ceramic goods, 2) glass vessels, 3) metal, 4) faunal materials, and 5) leather goods. These artifacts include a variety of goods that express the lives of both the prisoners and their guards" (p. 5).
Urwin, Gregory J.W. (2004). Black flag over Dixie: Racial atrocities and reprisals in the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
According to this source, archaeological finds in the area of Fort Pillow in enning, Tennessee including large caches of alcohol, and the author speculates that drunkenness among the troops,…
Historical archaeological investigations of the Civil War battlefields in the Old South have provided modern researchers with an "appreciation of the complexities inherent in ethnicity in the past, through the powerful integration of multiple data sources that place objects in richer contexts" (p. 603). Because the findings of such investigations are typically communicated to the local public in various ways, such studies remain an important source of cultural binding today. For instance, "The proliferation of ethnic festivals reflects not only the post-Civil War emigration of many Europeans but also the rediscovery of local heritage in many communities" (p. 603).
Thomas, Brian W. (1998). Power and community: The archaeology of slavery at the Hermitage Plantation. American Antiquity, 63(4), 531.
Because of the fundamental role played by power relations in the institution of slavery at it existed in the Old South prior to and during the Civil War, these relations must be considered when trying to interpret the archaeological artifacts of slavery. The author emphasizes that empirical observations and experience confirm that material culture is frequently involved in inextricable ways in establishing and maintaining social relations; however, the precise nature of this participation remains unclear. Because human actors manipulate material culture as a part of complex, at times contradictory, social actions, modern Civil War archaeologists are confronted with some profound challenges in directly correlating material remains with specific social relations. "Given the centrality of power in the plantation social milieu, however, one would expect the material remains from such sites to reflect its pervasive role - as indeed they do" (p. 531).
iblical Archaeology - Jericho
The story of the attempt to match up the archaeology of ancient Jericho with the account given in the Hebrew ible has come to be regarded as something of a cautionary tale in the history of iblical archaeology. Laughlin in Archaeology and the ible (2000) invokes Jericho in precisely that way, as the most generalized example that he can find to warn against trying to force archaeological data onto a hermeneutically Procrustean framework derived from the Old Testament:
For the student interested in "iblical Archaeology" there are two sets of data: the archaeological and the biblical. The ible can no longer be accepted uncritically as a "historical" account of ancient Israel, if by historical we mean all the modern connotations of that term. Rather the ible interprets through theological, and even mythological, lenses what archaeologists must interpret through scientific/historical ones. The case of the story of…
Bar-Yosef, O. The walls of Jericho: An alternative interpretation. Current Anthropology 27 (1986): 57 -- 62. Print.
Burroughs, William J. Climate Change in Prehistory: The End of the Reign of Chaos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Cline, Eric. Biblical Archaeology. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Diaz-Andreu, Margarita. A World History of Nineteenth Century Archaeology. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
Media Archaelogy and Videogames
In today's world, the rapid development of technology has opened worlds of vast information and entertainment that are instantly accessible at the touch of a button. The relationships created in this way not only involve those we interact with online or via gaming, but also our own perception, the mental imagery we create and the apparatus we use to access these. A researcher who truly wants to understand the past of a medium cannot only work with historical imagery or archival footage. There must also be a consideration of the technologies used in the past; the technology used to create historical imagery and archival footage. This is the point of study for media archaeology; where the researcher studies the specific technological devices used in the past to create media from the past and how this developed and its relationship to technology today.
Media archaeology is a…
Anderson, S.F. (2011). Technologies of History: Visual Media and the Eccentricity of the Past (Interfaces: Studies in Visual Culture). Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.
Ernst, W. And Parikka, J. (2012). Digital Memory and the Archive (Electronic Mediations). University of Minnesota Press.
Foucault, M. (2002). Archaeology of Knowledge. Michel Foucault. Routledge; 2 edition.
Friedberg, A. (2009). The Virtual Window: From Alberti to Microsoft. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Biblical Archaeology by G.E. Wright
This book, like its name, focuses on many of the archaeological findings that relate to the history of the Bible. Often, it is difficult to comprehend where many places in the Bible really are and what the world was like then. Because of this, archaeological information can help greatly in forming an understanding of Biblical times and Biblical lands. This book is not just for those with a casual interest in archaeology, however. It follows the chronology of the Bible and deals with the Biblical story quite frequently. It is neither just a text about archaeological discoveries or just a text about the history of the Bible. It is both, and it has to be both in order for it to make sense and be complete when it comes to understanding what it needed when studying archaeological information and how it relates to what is…
"Secondly, experience has shown that military cemeteries are somewhat unique and easily recognizable by the fact that there is a high level of traumatic injuries in the population, generally on the left side of the body, where soldiers usually attempt to ward off blows from a right-handed attacker." (Zias) the assumption was that these graves were not an unplanned military grave because the normal thing to do at the time was to bury soldiers in mass graves. The Qumran Cemetery was a well planned sight that was too well organized and it showed a great deal of coordinated planning and use over time.
The women and children discovered on the Qumran sight could have put doubt in the theory that the sight was in fact Essene. But there were other theories to would justify a woman or child being buried at that particular cemetery. "Elder poses some interesting solutions to…
Zias, Joe. "Celibacy: Confusion Laid to Rest?" Dead Sea Discoveries Vol. 7 (2000): pp. 220-53. Retrieved on 3 Nov. 2004, from www.joezias.com/QumranCemetry.htm.
There is little doubt that ancient civilizations and the thought of visitors from outer space are two subjects that easily capture the imagination. Most people are fascinated by one or the other or both. In fact, even science fiction gained some mileage out of combining the two; 'documentaries' often run on the non-major network stations purporting to show that earthworks of various kinds, and even patterns in fields of crops, were made by visitors from outer space. Often, the documentary makers attempt to draw parallels between the work of ancient civilizations, from the Celtic to the Mayan, and the 'work' of the visitors from outer space. It's a shame that they have to do that. The connections that have already been found between ancient civilizations -- particularly the Mayan -- and life on earth today are quite amazing enough.
Forget 2000; the real danger will arrive in 2012
Hawkins, Gerald S. Mindsteps to the Cosmos. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
Mehra, Jagdish. The Beat of a Different Drum: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Stearns, Peter N. Millennium III, Century XXI: A Retrospective on the Future. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Archaeology is a social science, with an emphasis on the word science. This means that the work that is conducted is done in a systematic acquisition of new knowledge about nature and the body of already existing knowledge gained. The scientific method is based on careful observation and the testing of theories by experiments. Archaeology uses these scientific procedures to study antiquities such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early age, inscriptions, implements, written manuscripts and other relics.
An archaeological excavation, therefore, consists of a process including an initial site survey, breaking the area to be excavated into quadrants, carefully removing soil, recording precise locations of objects and features or provenance, marking and photographing each incremental soil layer (every piece of information retrieved from the site must be related to the layers, finds and structures around it, so that the complex relationships that contribute to the interpretation…
Although named after La Gravette in the Dordogne in France, the Gravettian culture was largely focused in Central Europe (Lysianassa). The Gravettian culture probably migrated there from the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Balkans ("History of Europe" 2). The Gravettian culture is generally believed to be a subset of the larger group called the Aurignacian, and portable items like figurines and tools figured prominently among the people. Their frequent and large-scale migratory patterns show that portable figurines like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice were important objects to the Gravettian culture.
In general, the Gravettian culture "represents subsistence innovations, burial customs, landscape organization, the beginnings of art, projectile technology and other non-utilitarian elements of human behavior, (Lysianassa). In addition to small ceramic objects like the Venus of Dolni Vestonice, the Gravettian people produced cave paintings and other decorative arts. Lienard notes that the Gravettian people were "seriously producing art objects,"…
De Laet, Sigfried J. History of Humanity: Prehistory and the Beginnings of Civilization. Taylor & Francis, 1994.
Haynes, Gary. The Early Settlement of North America. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
"History of Europe." Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved online: http://books.google.com/books?id=Kiug84qYTaYC&pg=PA2&dq=gravettian+culture&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nDuHT7akBI-s8QTms9S0CA&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=gravettian%20culture&f=false
Lienard, John H. "The Dolni Vestonice Ceramics." Engines of Our Ingenuity. Retrieved online: http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi359.htm
Archaeological Sites in the U.S.
This paper examines underwater archaeology in the U.S. The paper discusses excavation techniques, tools and technology and also explores the Clovis theory. The paper also reviews findings at several submerged North American prehistoric archeological sites.
Underwater survey and excavation are typically more expensive and logistically more complex than comparable terrestrial projects. Underwater conditions involve more variability from site to site, and even from hour to hour at the same site. All survey and excavation work is constrained by safety factors; in general the deeper the site, the less time that a scuba diver can remain at that depth. Other factors that are frequently less than ideal include water currents, temperature, and visibility (Merwin, Lynch, and Robinson, 42).
Nonetheless, the potential to recover significant archaeological data outweighs the disadvantages of working underwater. In fact, underwater sites may allow for the preservation of organic materials…
Anderson, David G. And Faught, Michael K. "The Paleoindian Period (ca. 13,000 B.C. To 7,900 B.C.)." National Park Service. n.d. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Faught, Michael K. "Submerged Paleoindian and Archaic Sites of the Big Bend, Florida." Journal of Field Archaeology 29, 3-4, (2004): 273-290.
"Florida's First People" Florida State University 2004. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Merwin, Daria E., Lynch, Daniel P., and Robinson, David, S. "Submerged Prehistoric Sites in Southern New England: Past Research and Future Directions" Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 65 (2003): 41-56.
Situated on the Colorado plateau not far from Flagstaff, the monument is well-run by a team of professionals that can offer interested visitors educational tours. The U.S. Forest Service retains surrounding lands for campgrounds and also offers interpretive tours.
University input from Northern Arizona University and professional assistance from the Museum of Northern Arizona ensures that the project is well-maintained and well-preserved while it is enjoyed by the general public. Waputki is therefore a true example of public archaeology. Stakeholders like the Hopi and Navajo nations can therefore rest assured that the rich traditions of their ancestors are preserved and protected. Organizations like the FLAG Foundation help with raising and retaining funding for the Wupatki National Monument.
Center for Desert Archaology. (nd). "Visiting Places of the Past: Waputki National Monument." etrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.cdarc.org/visit/wupatki.php
Northern Arizona University's Partnership for Public Archaeology. etrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www4.nau.edu/idig/default.htm…
Center for Desert Archaology. (nd). "Visiting Places of the Past: Waputki National Monument." Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.cdarc.org/visit/wupatki.php
Northern Arizona University's Partnership for Public Archaeology. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www4.nau.edu/idig/default.htm
US Department of the Interior. (nd). Wuptaki National Monument. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.nps.gov/archive/wupa/home.htm
Votive deposition, religion and the Anglo-Saxon furnished burial ritual." In this article, Crawford examines burial practices for what they tell us about early religious belief's systems. View the following video by the anthropologist Nick Herriman; he describes the logic underneath belief systems. He does this with a few different societies. Explain what Nick Herriman examples provides to Crawford's article which is focused on burial evidence. Overall, connect the two sources to explain the ways that anthropologists are interested in uncovering clues about a group's belief system.
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpgAtylzMQE
According to Crawford (2004), gravesites are often seen as physical reflections of abstract spiritual belief systems. In her analysis she "questions the distinction between grave sites and other sacred places" and "whether deposits should only ever be interpreted as reflections of social structure."[footnoteRef:1] The focus of anthropologists upon burial grounds and surrounding rituals, as noted in the video narrated by anthropologist…
Crawford, Sally. "Votive Deposition, Religion and the Anglo-Saxon Furnished Burial Ritual."
World Archaeology, 36, no.1 (2004), 87-102.
Hornborg, Alf. "Animism, Fetishism, and Objectivism as Strategies for Knowing (or not Knowing)
the World." Ethnos, 71, no. 1 (2006): 21-32.
"The Mysteries of Chaco Canyon," narrated by Robert Redford, explores the mysteries surrounding the Pueblo site at Chaco Canyon. The film begins with a brief narration about how the original migration of people to the area of Chaco Canyon was for them to seek a special place to be the "center of our world." Therefore, there is deep spiritual and metaphysical significance in the actual physical, geographical location of the buildings. This is in spite of the fact that the area is unsheltered from the elements, which deliver temperature and weather extremes that can be inhospitable to life. It took 250 years to complete the massive construction project, and to build in architectural elements that would serve as an astronomical indicator such as the shaft of light that appears only at certain times a year. Four themes the film covers include the difference between archaeological and oral traditions;…
The Emergence of Social
Complexity in Neolithic China
This work will focus on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China and will revolve around the main idea that these burial sites present convincing evidence of an emerging social complexity. A second focus will be to provide proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period.
Until recently, archaeologists had believed that the Chinese civilization began in the center of China around the Yellow River valley and eventually migrated from there. However, new discoveries have revealed an extremely more complex version of Neolithic China. It is more viable today that China developed from multiple cultures from different regions of the land as opposed to a single or bi- cultural evolution. "As in other parts of the world, the Neolithic period was marked by the development of…
Thorp, Robert L., and Richard Ellis Vinograd. Chinese Art and Culture. New York: Abrams, 2000.
Underhill, Anne P. "An Analysis of Mortuary Ritual At The Dawenkou Site, Shandong, China." Journal of East Asian Archaeology. Vol. 2, (2000):(Neolithic Tomb at Dawenkou) 93-127.
Watson, William. Archaeology in China. London: M. Parrish, 1960.
They write, "Combining tribal narratives and interpretations with archeological data results in a more intimate rendering of history, and enables us to more easily imagine the vitality of life at these sites" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). This, the perspectives of the many participants helped create a larger picture of life and work at these sites.
The project seemed to work well because all the participants worked at getting along with each other, and were working together toward a common goal - preservation of ancient sites that had strong meaning in their cultures. The authors end their discussion with this comment, "We now see that tribes are and will continue to be proactive in directed research projects. [...] -- it is possible to set aside political and philosophical differences to address a common goal" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). The challenges included getting the many tribes and their representatives together,…
Lister, Florence C. 2000. Incidents in Southwestern Archaeology. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Swidler, Nina, David Eck, T.J. Ferguson and Leigh Kuwanwisiwma, Roger Anyon and Loren Panteah, and Klara Kelley and Harris Francis. 2000. Multiple Views of the Past. Cultural Resource Management. Vol. 23. http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/23-09/23-09-13.pdf
Take for example, Foucault's 'Omnus at singulatim', in which the thinker shows his reader how the Christian practice of 'pastoral power' paves the way for certain modern practices that in actuality govern almost all the aspects of a living population anywhere in the world. Foucault also stressed on his belief that religion, in a positive way, possessed the capacity to contest against the nascent forms of control instituted during the modern period of man, like for example, Protestant eformation, which tried its best to resist the onslaught of emerging forms, and therefore, became representative of a set of emerging disciplinary discourses and practices. As far as Foucault was concerned, religion presented difficulties for autonomous self fashioning, but at the same time, religion was not a dangerous precursor to modern forms of governments.
To conclude, it must be said that Michael Foucault's theories are as relevant today as they were…
Smart, Barry. Michael Foucault, Critical Assessments. Routledge, 1995.
McCall, Corey "Autonomy, religion and revolt in Foucaul." Journal of Philosophy & Scripture 2, no. 1 (Fall 2004): 7-13.
Gutting, Gary. The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Carrette, Jeremy R. Foucault and Religion: Spiritual Corporality and Political Spirituality, Routledge, 2000.
Archaeological Interpretations of Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings
There are many questions related to the chronological spread of Paleolithic tool production and paintings due to geographical differences in the progress of the spread of such tool production. While radiocarbon dating has furthered the ability to identify specific time period information there are still limitations to this type of data. There has been loose identification of chronological periods of production and in cave paintings the more complex paintings are not always those most recently created. Difficulty exists in the establishment of regional progressions of development. While the combination of radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance dating techniques assisted investigators for the upper Paleolithic period in the reconstruction of "a reasonably coherent global chronology." (Bar-Yosef, 2002) At the same time there are still significant standard deviations along with other limitations in this dating of archaeological findings. This study examines these issues and limitations…
Bar-Yosef, O. (2002) The Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Annu. Rev. Ahtropolog. 2002.
Bicho, et al. (2007) The Upper Paleolithic Rock Art of Iberia. Journal of Archeological Method and Theory. Vo. 14, No.1. March 2007.
Cave Art Interpretation II (2006) Guest Editorial Essay. Perception 2006, Vol 35.
De Leo, Guilio A. et al. (2001) Evolution of Prehistoric Cave Art. Brief Communications. Nature Vol. 413, 4 Oct 2001.
For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.
In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…
1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, edited by Fredrik Barth, pp. 9-38. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.
1996 the Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…
Examples of the mention of the use of the 'crannog' in Lough Laoghaire is stated by Brady and O'Conor to be referenced directly in the Annals of Ulster in 1436. These annals are "contemporary Gaelic records of the high profile events that occurred in Ireland, and such mention carries with it an automatic association of status and dramatic event." (Brady and O'Conor, nd)
III. O'SULLIVAN (1998)
Aidan O'Sullivan writes in the work entitled: "The Archaeology of Lake Settlement in Ireland" (1998) that in the Late Middle Ages...the Gaelic Irish experienced a revival in military power, giving rise to what is commonly known as the 'Gaelic esurgence'" which was a time when raids increased on the English settlements which were richer and there was a "state of endemic warfare across the country." (O'Sullivan, 1998) Cultural and military renewal among the Gaelic Irish were drivers of the 'esurgence' as well as…
References in historical literature further give indications that "crannogs and islands were used as permanent settlements and as temporary fortifications by the Gaelic Irish in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries." (O'Sullivan, 1998) the military tactics of the Gaelic Irish were such that natural defensive features were used such as those of "lakes, islands, woodlands and bogs." (O'Sullivan, 1998) O'Sullivan states that there is sound archaeological as well as historical evidence that crannogs were occupied as dwellings during the medieval and late medieval periods.
O'Sullivan, just as did Brady and O'Conor, states that historically, the use of crannogs has been ignored by research and has "tended to greatly reduce the attention paid to this later material." (O'Sullivan, 1998) Stated to be the best evidence of archeology for the occupation of crannogs during the thirteenth and sixteenth century were findings of medieval 'everted-rim war and crannog ware..." discovered on several crannogs in the north..." (O'Sullivan, 1998) This type of pottery was hand-made and used for cooking and is stated to be easily distinguished due to its "dark, unglazed appearance and heavy gritty inclusions and texture." (O'Sullivan, 1998)
O'Sullivan states that it is simply obvious that the Gaelic Irish used crannogs and that the Anglo-Normans even used the crannogs at times as defensive military settlements. Twice mentioned in history is the crannog on Lough Oughter which was occupied by the O'Reilleys and which was taken in an attack in 1247 by Milid Mac Gosdelb and also is referred to as the site "from which Toirrdelbach mac Aeda Ua Conchobari escaped in 1246..." (1998)
O'Sullivan additionally states that the work of Giraldus Cambrensis entitled: "Topographia Hiberniae" a twelfth century account of Ireland that the Irish lakes "contain islands rising to some height and very beautiful. The lords of the land usually appropriate them as places of safety and refuge, as well as of habitation. They are inaccessible except by boats." (O'Sullivan, 1998)
O'Conor writes in the work entitled: "Later Medieval Settlement in North Roscommon" that evidence presently available indicates that "despite close contacts with the Anglo-Normans since the 12th century" that it took over two centuries for "Gaelic lords to regularly build defended structures that can be classified as castles." (nd) O'Conor reiterates in this work that a great amount of "documentary, pictorial, radiocarbon, dencrochronological and excavated evidence" is in existence to indicate that the crannogs "were widely occupied and used by Gaelic lords throughout the whole later medieval period." (nd)
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…
Bawden, Garth. 1996 the Moche. Blackwell, Oxford.
Berezkin, Juri 1983. Moche Nauka, Leningrad.
Chapdelaine, Claude nd the Moche Occupation of the Lower Santa Valley and the nature of the Southern Moche State Anthropology Department. University of Montreal.
____The Growing Power of the Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. pp. 69-85 National Gallery of Art: Washington, D.C.
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…
Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24
Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.
Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
role of potassium argon dating within the field of archaeology. How it works and what methods are used to glean the date from archaeological artefacts and remains.
Potassium argon and the archaeologist
The majority of the world's archaeological sites are now so ancient that there is no actual way of giving them a complete and secure chronological date that radio-carbon dating can provide. However, here are many techniques for dating within the field of archaeology, one of these methods is the K-Ar (Potassium-Argon) method which has been a vast success within the field of geology (the study of earth).
It is possible to date rocks with a low potassium content such as basalts in this way. Sadly the dates are not always secure due to the behaviour of the geochemicals of the parent and daughter elements as they are likely to being disturbed by geological events such as weathering or…
Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York
McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London
Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames and Hudson: London
Fagan, B. (1998)
Disposable batteries have transformed the way that we live and the types of activities that we do. The purpose of this discussion is to provide the reader with a natural history of disposable batteries from the time the raw materials are extracted from the earth to the time they are recycled or in a land fill. We will seek to explain the environmental impact that batteries have along the path of creation, use, and disposal. This paper will also discuss the Peripheral impact, of batteries including: how they are shipped, how much fuel is used, and how much pollution is created. Finally we will discuss the social impact of batteries and facts about the societies that make, use, and dispose of batteries.
Natural History of Disposable Batteries
The concept of batteries was first discovered between 1780-1786 by Luigi Galvani. Galvani found that connecting iron and brass created an electrical current.…
Battery, Electric. 2000. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York:Columbia University Press.
Carpi John. 1994. Green Batteries: Powering Innovation. E. Volume: 5. Issue: 2. Publication Date: April 1994. Page Number: 46+.
Frazer, Lance. 2002. Leading the Charge for Better Batteries. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (4): 200.
Moyers Bill D. 1990. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Center for Investigative Reporting (U.S.) - Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.
This interpretation would therefore tend to suggest a view of the art that shows cultural and social disparities between classes and social groups in the society.
In the final analysis what is clear that Mithen's approach holds a great deal of potential for an understanding of past cultures and societies from an archeological perspective. This interpretive stance is valuable in that it takes into account a wide ranging and inclusive understanding of the concept of ecology. Mithen's view is both logical and consistent with contemporary approaches in other disciplines in its emphasis on holistic and integrative views and interpretations of reality. Another benefit of this stance is that it brings to bear a host of different disciplines and perspectives that can help to unravel the mysteries encapsulated in the artifacts of the past.
However, while holistic thinking and integration are useful conceptual tools for research one should not…
Hodder, I., & Hutson, S., 2003, Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology (3rd ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Faris, J., 1983, 'From Form to Content in the Structural Study of Aesthetic Systems', in D. Washburn (ed.), Structure and Cognition in Art, Cambridge University Press, London.
Flannery, K. V, and Marcus, J., 1976, 'Formative Oaxaca and the Zapotec Cosmos',
American Scientist, volume 64, pp.374-83.
ith the sole exception of a permanent exhibition room solely devoted to the work of Joseph Beuys - widely considered to be among the most important German artists of the post-war period - the Hamburger Bahnhof features a fair balance of works by contemporary artists from all over the world. As a matter of fact, many of the more important names of German art from the last few years are noticeably absent from the exhibition spaces. In the words of Forster-Hahn, writing shortly before the Museum's opening in 1996:
Amid increasingly fervent discourse on the possibility or impossibility of nationhood in the postmodern world, the vast space of the reconstructed railroad station installed with works by artists such as Joseph Beuys - but also with the flickering images of Nam June Paik - does not conjure up allusions to a static, permanent staple of art. Here, trains and railroad station…
Duncan, Carol. 1995. The Art Museum as Ritual. In the Art of Art History: A Critical
Anthology, ed. Donald Preziosi, 473-485. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Forster-Han, Francoise. Shrine of Art or Signature of a New Nation? The National
Gallery(ies) in Berlin, 1848-1968. In the Formation of National Collections of Art and Archaeology, ed. Gwendolyn Wright, 79-100. Washington: National Gallery of Art.
The devastation must have taken weeks to accomplish and was so well planned that there was no chance of restoration. (ibid) the reasons for and the perpetrators of this destruction are a mystery. Foreign forces and influences are not blamed and there were no political uprisings that may have precipitated these events. The only reasons given are possible dissatisfaction among the populace due to mismanagement. (ibid) With the demise of Teotihuacan's there was a subsequent change in the asin of Mexico with regard to the distribution of power. Without a centralized authority settlements began to emerge in parts of the asin. There was no perpetuation of the religion and ideology and "...we find no signs of the great Goddess, the Storm God, or Featheres Serpent." (Weaver M.P. p 204)
The Spanish were extremely impressed with the wealth they found in Mesoamerica. The Aztecs had succeeded in accumulating this wealth through…
Weaver, M.P. The Aztecs, Maya, and their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica, 3rd.ed.
As an example of the Chavin builder's keen attention to seemingly minor design details, the author's highlighted the monument's multifaceted use of structural columns throughout Chavin de Huantar's Old Temple and Circular Plaza, observing that "these structural columns ... are the only two architectural stages, illustrating possible ways in which builders at Chavin de Huantar may have adapted and continued architectural meaning across major architectural stages" (64). In the estimation of Conklin and Quilter, the Chavin people demonstrated an uncanny ability to evolve architecturally, imbuing the design of their civilization's greatest monument with a sense of continuity that expanded its influence across the span of generations.
One of the primary motivations for Chavin builders to design Chavin de Huantar with continuity as their goal was that the site served as the center of worship, celebration, and ceremony for many thousands of people across hundreds of miles of territory. Despite the…
Conklin, William J., and Jeffrey Quilter. Chavin: art, architecture, and culture. Vol. 61. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2008.
e suspect that these Chuck-E-Cheese temples were used for worship of the rodent god and we suspect also child sacrifice at these sites. Finding this coin at this site is perhaps an indication that the owner of this dwelling either was a member of the Chuck-E-Cheese cult or had escaped from one of the temples and later survived into adulthood.
The fifth specimen is a five cent piece from the United States of America. This piece is in abundance in the area, and this specimen is unexceptional. It was found in the main sleeping area of the dwelling. The sixth specimen was found near to the fifth. This specimen appears to be a one-cent piece, but is flat and nearly featureless. This type of damage is unusual, in that it is so severe it could not have been made by a human. It is possible that the damage was caused…
Beck, C. & Jones, G. (1989). Bias and archaeological classification. American Antiquity. Vol. 54 (2) 244-262.
Eerkens, J. & Lipo, C. (2005). Cultural transmission, copying errors, and the generation of variation in material culture and the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Vol. 24 (2005) 316-334.
Wylie, a. (1988). Simply analogy and the role of relevance assumptions: Implications of archaeological practice. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Vol. 2 (2) 134-150.
Personhood & Gender
The scope, definition, depth and breadth of gender has evolved greatly over the years and centuries. Rather than get muddled down in the cavalcade of resources and opinions that focus on the definitions of personhood and gender in a more modern context, one instead should focus on the word of anthropologists in scholarly journals as they show and describe some stunning and revealing observations. This report in particular will focus on two such studies and the revelations that are present within them and what they looked at.
The first major study looked at for this research looked at a people called the Igbo. The Igbo-Ukwu were present in modern-day Nigeria circa the 11th century A.D. In other words, they lived in the area almost exactly a millennia ago. The findings that are analyzed in this study were found in four different sites over the last fifty years…
Keith Ray, "Material Metaphor, Social Interaction and Historical Reconstructions:
Exploring Patterns of Association and Symbolism in the Igbo-Ukwu Corpus,"
in The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings, edited by Ian Hodder (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1987), 66-77
Culture in Anthropology:
Culture is basically defined as values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals. However, this definition of this has been a complex and relatively difficult task for anthropologists since the commencement of discipline in the late 19th Century. Culture originates from interactions and behaviors of people who eventually develop common attitudes, values, and behaviors. In essence, as people live and interact with one another, their learning skills and attitudes are in turn transmitted as knowledge and beliefs that are shared among them, which results in cultural beliefs and practices.
Despite the simple, basic definition of culture, anthropologists have struggled to describe and specify the concept since the discipline was established in the late 19th Century. There are various anthropologists who have attempted to define and specify the culture including Edward Tylor whose definition incorporates various significant features that are currently included in most…
Bonvillain, Nancy. "Chapter 2 -- The Nature of Culture" Cultural Anthropology. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. 19-42. Print.
Paul's First Missionary Journey
The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.
Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.
They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.
Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.
The first missionary journey of Paul
Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria
He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.
John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia
Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie
Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.
Paul's strategy in his…
1. Cox, Raymond L. "Journey to Pisidia." Bible and Spade 7:4 (Autumn 1978): 123 -- 28.
2. Culpepper, R. Alan. "Paul's Mission to the Gentile World: Acts 13-19." Review & Expositor 71, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 487 -- 497.
3. Detwiler, David F. "Paul's Approach to the Great Commission in Acts 14:21 -- 23." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:605 (Jan 1995): 34 -- 41.
4. Fleming, Kenneth C. "Missionary Service in the Life of Paul." Emmaus Journal 1:3 (Winter 1992): 263 -- 78.
The first analysis concentrated on the Y chromosome, which would illuminate King Tutankhamun's paternal heritage; the second analysis consisted of genetic fingerprinting," (SCA, cited by Ann). Genetic fingerprinting allowed for a five-generation "pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage," (Hawass 2010). All of the testing was replicated in an independent laboratory designed specifically for the Family of Tutankhamun Project (Hawass et al.). In addition to the DNA analyses that were performed on the royal mummies, CT scans were also used to help analyze bones.
The results of the DNA analysis revealed the parentage of King Tutankhamun. Akhenaten is the father of King Tutankhamun, not his brother as was previously believed (MalcolmJ). However, Hawass had already hypothesized that Akhenaten was the father of King Tutankhamun. Hawass notes that an inscribed limestone block that he helped piece together led him to question King Tut's heritage. The text printed on the limestone block states that…
Ann. "King Tut Further Unwrapped - the Family of Tutankhamun Project." Heritage Key. 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://heritage-key.com/blogs/ann/king-tut-further-unwrapped-family-tutankhamun-project
"Chief Inspector of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/chief-inspector-antiquities-giza-pyramids
"General Director of Antiquities for the Giza Pyramids, Saqqara, and Bahariya." Dr. Hawass.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://www.drhawass.com/events/general-director-antiquities-giza-pyramids-saqqara-and-bahariya
Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family." Journal of the American Medical Association. Feb 17, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/303/7/638?home
I do not even know where most of my ancestors are buried. I do not even know where most of them lived, or what land they considered to be at the heart of their lives. I do not know how most of them conceived of the soul or of what happened when they buried their dead. And yet I would be troubled by knowing that researchers could dig up their bones. I would not necessarily forbid it (if I had the power), but I would be troubled. And I think that I would be close to infuriated if researchers claimed that they were pursuing such disinterring for my benefit. So must many native peoples feel.
How Does One Define Affiliation?
Key to the legal strength of NAGPA as well as the broader implications that is has for the practice of the different sub-disciplines of anthropology, including archaeology, is the concept…
American Association of Physical Anthropologists. (2000). Statement by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists on the Secretary of the Interior's Letter of 21 September 2000 Regarding Cultural Affiliation of Kennewick Man. http://www.physanth.org .
Ousley, S., Billeck, W. & Hollinger, R. (2005). Federal Repatriation Legislation and the Role of Physical Anthropology in Repatriation. Yearbook of physical anthropology 48: 2-32.
Ubelaker, D. & Grant, L. (1989). Human Skeletal Remains: Preservation or Reburial? Yearbook of physical anthropology 32: 249-287.
Weaver, J. (2002, Fall). Review essay. Project Muse.
One of these issues is Central Asian archaeology. Towards the end of the chapter, the author notes that there may be whole cities buried beneath the desert sands in Central Asia. Because the author also mentions the importance of tourism for the economic empowerment of the region, it is clear that archaeology may become a major tourist draw.
In 1997, the author notes, an expedition on foot was undertaken to capture the Taklamakan desert on camera. Such adventures are rare, and not for the common visitor. Similarly, the common visitor will not be an archaeology scholar but rather, an amateur interested in ancient sites. For the same reason why tourists visit Egypt and Greece as much for ancient as modern culture, tourists to Central Asia may be driven by this core curiosity.
Lawler (2006) describes Viktor Sarianidi's unearthing of Gonur, one of many ancient settlements in Central Asia. Under the…
"Central Asia Archaeology" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.cyberpursuits.com/archeo/cntrlasia-arch.asp
Central Eurasia Project (2010). Call for Papers: Building Open Society in Central Asia & the South Caucasus. May 3, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/cep/news/cep-occasional-papers-20100503
Lawler, V. (2006). Central Asia's Lost Civilization. Discover. Retrieved online: http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/ancient-towns-excavated-turkmenistan
UNESCO (2010). Cultural and Eco-tourism in the Mountainous Regions of Central Asia and in the Himalayas. Retrieved online: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=1392&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Standard of Ur, Scenes of War/Peace, 2700 bce
The Standard of Ur is an artifact, which Charles Leonard Woolley discovered in the late 1920. It was in the Royal Tombs of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia, which was close to aghdad presently known as Iran about 2600 CE. Leonard was a London-based excavator who had gone to Ur in an effort to discover artifacts including archeological elements. Apparently, when he found it, he was not sure what it was; therefore, he assumed that it was a flag used back then in 2600 CE. In addition, other people were also not sure of what it was, and some of them assumed it was a type of emblem of a king, others suggested it was a musical instrument covering.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Wolley, Leonard. Excavations at Ur: A record of twelve years' work. (London: Routledge) ]
In this regard, the ritish Museum has favored this…
Gansell, Amy Rebecca, and Winter Irene. Treasures from the royal tombs of Ur. Cambridge,
Mass: Publications Dept., Harvard University, 2002.
Sailus, Christopher. "Standard of Ur: Definition, lesson and quiz." Education Portal. Accessed 23 April 2014.
Shannon, White. "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur: A Traveling Exhibition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology," Near Eastern Archaeology 67, no. 4. (2004): 229.
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…
Smith, E. (1834). Missionary Researches in Armenia: Including a Journey Through Asia Minor. London, J.S. Hudson. Cited in: http://books.google.com/books?id=-c0NAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Eli+Smith&hl=en&ei=e0Y9TN3FG4rCsAP3xLjaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Hallote, 2006, p.12.
Williams, J. (1999). The Times of Edward Robinson: Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
Historicity of Acts
For centuries, the historicity of the book of the Acts has been questioned and criticized, prompting historians to label it "the storm center of modern New Testament study." Many scholars have suggested that the Acts were written as a means of religious propaganda, rendering the work historically unreliable. Others view the Acts as a blend of historical facts and unhistorical traditions.
While the argument continues in present time, the book of Acts has withstood the test of time, holding its ground as an accurate and reliable historical work, particularly as a result of many recent archaeological findings.
An unknown pastor once described his unquestioning faith in Jesus Christ by saying: "Even if some archeologists were to find the bones of Jesus tomorrow, I would still believe in Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord!" While faith draws its life and strength from a place far beyond history,…
Bruce, F.F. Are the New Testament Documents Reliable? London: IVP, 1943.
Bruce, F.F. New Bible Commentary, 3rd. ed. Leicester: IVP1989.
Bruce, F.F. The Book of the Acts, revised edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.
Carson, D.A., Moo, D.J. And Morris, L. An Introduction to the New Testament. Leicester: Apollos, 1992.
The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).
The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…
ATWOOD, R. (2014). Under Mexico City. Archaeology, 67(4), 26.
Berdan, F.F. (1988). "Principals of Regional and Long-Distance Trade in the Aztec Empire," in J. Kathryn Josserand and Karen Dakin (Editors), Smoke and Mist: Mesoamerican Studies in Memory of Thelma D. Sullivan, part ii, pp. 639-656, British Archaeological Reports, International Series vol. 42, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Deal, T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Duran, D. (1967). Historia de Las lndias de Nueva Espana, 2 vols (ed A.M. Garibay K.). Mexico City: Pornia.
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…
Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm
Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online: http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm
Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…
Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.
Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…
Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.
Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.
Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…
Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167
Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.
Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.
Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940.
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity, 3rd edn. NY: Doubleday,
Albright, William F. "How Well Can We Know the Ancient Near East?" Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 56, no. 2 (June, 1936), 121-144.
RITUALISTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PRACTICAL USES OF PULIC SPACE AT THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS AND TRAJAN'S FORUM
Acropolis is renowned as a fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Greeks built their towns in plains near or around a rocky hill that could easily be fortified and defended. Nearly every Greek city had its acropolis, which provided a safe place of refuge for townspeople during times of turmoil or war. Rulers of the town often lived within the walls of this stronghold. In many cases the acropolis became the site of temples and public buildings and thus served as the town's religious center, focal point of its public life, and as a place of refuge.
The Athenian Acropolis is the most well-known acropolis of the ancient world. Ruins of its temples and their sculptures are widely regarded as the finest examples of ancient Greek art and architecture. uilt on a limestone…
Allen, J.T. "On the Athenian Theater Before 441 B.C." University of California Publishers in Classical Archaeology, Berkley: University of California Press 1.no.6 (1937) 169-172
Andronicos, Manolis. The Acropolis. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon S.A., 1975.
Bennett, J., Trajan Optimus Princeps. A Life and Times (London and New York, 1997)
Bieber, M. History of the Greek and Roman Theater New Jersey: Princeton University Press (1961)
Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.
The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…
Indian Empires." http://www.american-indians.net/empires.htm.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Lemonick, Michael D. "Mystery of the Olmec: Ancient Culture of Mesoamerica."
Time. July 01, 1996. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1G1:18419168&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=Time&author=Lemonick%2C+Michael+D%2E&title=Mystery+of+the+Olmec%2E+%28ancient+culture+of+Mesoamerica%29&date=07%2F01%2F1996&query=Olmecs&maxdoc=30&idx=1&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Olmec Civilization: 1200 B.C.- 600 A.D." http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html .(accessed 11-24-2003).
FUNERAL RITES SIMLAR TO AND DIFFERENT FROM THOSE SEEN IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES?
The objective of this study is to examine how contemporary funeral rites are similar to and different from those viewed in archaeological sites. Toward this end a literature review in this area of inquiry will be conducted.
Shape and Depth of the Grave
According to Pearson (1999) the "shape and depth of a grave may relate to the social status or gender of the person buried. It may also reflect the degree of formality in the burial rite." (p.7) In addition, the hole that is dug for the grave "may serve not just as a repository for the corpse, but its shape and dimensions may be constructed so that it echoes other contexts." (Pearson, 1999, p. 7) Pearson additionally reports that there are many examples of graves that are similar to "houses or storage pits." (1999, p. 7)…
Death (nd) Ancient Tombs in Archaeology. Retrieved from: http://www.bible-archaeology.info/tombs.htm
Pearson, Mike Parker (1999) The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Texas A & M. University Press. College Station. Retrieved from: http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/anthro/jadar/pearson.pdf
Wigington, P. (2014) Caring for the Dead: Funeral Practices Around the World. Paganism. Retrieved from: http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/samhainoctober31/a/CaringForDead.htm
Persian Contraction From 1700 to 2000
Persia represented an important link between East and West. It held the Middle position and in geopolitical terms, this position meant a lot as the Industrial Age began to get underway in the modern era. Persian territory was viewed with envious eyes by other nations that saw the strategic location Persia occupied. The decadence of the Ottoman Empire, a series of wars, power plays, globalization, cultural changes and influences, and diaspora have all impacted Persia and accounted for its contraction between 1700 and 2000. This paper will analyze these factors and show how in these three hundred years, changes in the way of the world, such as the influence of technology and industry, had a direct effect on the shape of Persia and its geographical location.
Persia in the 18th Century
The Suffavean dynasty was founded in the 16th century and it lasted for…
Bashir, Hassan. "Qanun and the Modernisation of Political Thought in Iran," Global
Media Journal, vol. 8, no. 14 (Spring 2009).
Ekhtiar, Maryam. "Nasir al-din Shah and the Dar al-Funum: The Evolution of Institution," International Society for Iranian Studies: Qajar Art and Society, vol. 34, no. 1/4 (2001).
Fisher, Michael. "Teaching Persian as an Imperial Language in India and in England
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…
Albright, William and C.S. Mann. The Anchor Bible. Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971
Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2004
Broshi, Magen. The Credibility of Josephus. Journal of Jewish Studies: Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin 1982 from Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. http://www.centuryone.com/josephus.html Accessed 10 April, 2010
Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? Random House. New York. 1961.
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…
The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).
There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…
"Ancient Babylonia - the Ishtar Gate."n.d., viewed 14 November 2010,
"Ancient Egypt Brought to Life With Virtual Model of Historic Temple Complex." 2009, viewed 14 November 2010,
"Babylon and the Ishtar Gate." 2010, viewed 14 November,
Andrews, Mark. 2010. "Luxor Temple of Thebes in Egypt," viewed 14 November 2010,
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
Even though the movement has experienced having more success in the better developed parts of the globe, it is also present in third-world countries in domains such as art and philosophy.
The modern era lasted until approximately the end of the first half of the twentieth century, as the 1940s still had people subjecting themselves to the typical behavior of the time. ith the new movement into place, people learnt that they had the chance to change their lives without anyone prohibiting them to do so.
Even though technology has begun to flourish decades before, the technology brought by Postmodernism was completely different from what it had been until the time.
Considering a team of Archeologists that would excavate a site where technology flourished during the beginning or the twenty first century and a site where it prospered during the 1940s, the findings that they would make is that the…
1. Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
2. McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.