Argumentative Essays Examples

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argumentative essays

In an argumentative essay, a student is asked to take a position on a topic and then defend that position.  This generally requires the student to investigate the topic, evaluate the evidence, present the evidence that supports the position, and explain why conflicting evidence does not require you to take an alternative position.  Failure to address conflicting evidence or arguments against your position weaken an argumentative essay, so it is critical to research positions other than the one you have chosen.  Argumentative essays frequently focus on hot-button issues that are easily politicized like abortion, the death penalty, and gun control.  However, you can write argumentative essays about lesser-known topics, which can be more impressive in an academic setting.  We have a large collection of argumentative essay examples which you can use to help you pick a topic or title for your paper, get ideas for an introduction, conclusion or hook sentence, and even find resources related to a specific topic.

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Argument Analysis of the Cohabitation Epidemic

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86252483

Cohabitation Epidemic

Argument Analysis" "The Cohabitation Epidemic"

In "The Cohabitation Epidemic," Neil Clark Warren argues that cohabitation between unmarried couples is an unhealthy situation that is decreasing the livelihood and well being of people in the contemporary context. Warren's argument is based on the idea that [state here the most important premises or assumption of the argument, or the basic strategy of his argument]. More specifically, in a part of his argument Warren assumes that [or something like this] [state problematic assumption]. I will argue that this move is problematic. In particular, is will show that ... [state main idea of your disagreement].

I will begin by explaining Warren's argument. He argues for this main thesis: that cohabitation rates are increasing, changing the nature of society, which is essentially endangering the health and welfare of future generations of Americans. Warren is essentially documenting a major rift in the structure of our contemporary society. This is one element of his argument that does have a logical foundation to it. After all, society and culture is always evolving to meet new environmental and technological demands. In the article, he states "make no mistake: We are witnessing a major societal shift before our…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Warren, Neil Clark. (2003). The cohabitation epidemic. Physicians for Life. Web.
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Argument From Scripture

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3457265

Scripture Argument

Argument from Scripture: God's existence cannot be proven by the presence of the concept of God within the text of the Holy Scriptures

Does God exist? Some would argue that this is the most fundamental question posed by any religion. However, even this assertion is somewhat problematic, since this assumption of God as a unified, theologically cohesive being that intervenes, but sometimes does not intervene in worldly affairs is itself problematic and a cultural construction of the major Western traditions of religious thought. There are those who would appeal to scripture for a proof of God's existence, such as the Catholic theologian and saint Anselm, who said that because scripture and the human mind could conceive of a 'something greater' existing, therefore it must exist. In other words, because the higher ideal of God was recorded in the Bible, filtered through the less perfect collective consciousness of the human animal, some higher being must be manifest, and must be true.

But this premise quite simply, is unsound.

Assailants of this [Anselm's] argument should remember that all minds are not cast in one mould, and it is easy to understand how some can feel the force of arguments that…… [Read More]

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Arguing for the Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59214750

Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

The legalization of Marijuana would allow for the government to have more regulation over the drug and its users. This of course does not come without rules and blankets like how cigarettes and alcohol come with warnings when purchased. If Marijuana were to be legalized, it can be sold with a list of active ingredients, purity levels and warnings like those of pharmaceutical drugs; this would let people know more about the drug. Marijuana does not have any harmful effects besides for the user, who is willing to accept those risks when in taking the drug. Countries that have legalized Marijuana, such as Amsterdam, have had positive results. The legalization of Marijuana has more benefits for the state of Washington than negative aspects.

The state of Washington has enacted laws on the legalization of medical Marijuana. This is due to modern research which suggests that Marijuana can help with the treatment of a lot of clinical applications, and can ease pain (Bock 2000, null7). Additionally, this treatment includes relief from nausea, glaucoma, spasticity and movement disorders. Because Marijuana is a very strong appetite stimulant, research suggests that it could protect the body from a…… [Read More]

Alan W. Bock, The Politics of Medical Marijuana (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000), null7,

Erich Goode, The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 211,
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Arguments Against Affirmative Action

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98903848

Against Affirmative Action

Contrary to the common perception, not all opponents of "Affirmative Action" are white males. Many African-Americans are also opposed to its continued application. For example, Ward Connerly, University of California Regent is black and a leading opponent of Affirmative Action. He believes that:

Affirmative action is an undesirable "crutch" for the black people on which they have started to depend believing that it is not possible to achieve anything without this "crutch."

The original intent of Affirmative Action was to eliminate discrimination rather than having different standards for blacks and whites for university admissions and hiring in government jobs. Connerly views such "preferences" as discriminatory.

Affirmative Action poisons the relationships between different groups and builds resentment because of the wide-spread perception among the white males that it works to the advantage of the minorities at their cost.

Connerly believes that preferences in jobs and admissions unnecessarily marginalize blacks, Latinos, and females who lose their sense of accomplishment by the "stigma" of having been given something instead of competing for it fairly in a level-playing field. (Montgomery, "Poison Divides Us.")

Walter E. Williams, Professor of Economics at George Mason University, writing in the Cato Journal (Vol. 17, No.…… [Read More]

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Arguments for Limiting Free Speech

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21176640

limiting free speech ID: 53711

The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.

Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the Regan administration sought to overthrow a popularly elected government because the new government wouldn't behave as the U.S. wanted it to. Our government didn't want to be seen as supporting terrorists so information was suppressed and events re-written to make it seems we were not part of the operations. Journalists were transferred away from…… [Read More]

Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,

Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
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Arguing for Theism on Faith

Words: 1832 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65507787

Theism or Atheism?

When humans consider the existence of God, they tend to look outward for evidence and inward for understanding. Humans must process both types of information through a filter that is based on an unwarranted confidence in human reasoning. Or, failing that, humans must fall back to rely on faith. The nature of faith may perhaps be characterized by an absence of definitive criteria other than the absolutes that are sometimes associated with faith. Consider the parameter suggested by the phrase: "Oh, ye of little faith" (Matthew 8:26). A believer can be described as having faith along a continuum: Great faith, little faith, no faith. However, if-then clauses are not attached to faith. It is generally not regarded as acceptable to claim that one will have faith, if something else -- whatever that concept of else may be. To qualify faith in this way transforms belief into bargaining: A person may promise to believe -- to have sufficient faith, going forward, to believe in God -- if only prayers are answered. To the contrary, belief that is grounded in human understanding is fraught with if-then qualifications. Accordingly, theism -- the belief in the existence of God -- can…… [Read More]

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Arguing for Egalitarian Societies

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81266852

Capitalism vs. Democracy

Curing Neoliberalism with Democracy

Pope Francis, never one to shy away from controversy, attacked contemporary forms of capitalism as not only exclusionary, but also deadly (Downie). To support his claim, Francis notes that the news media regularly report a meaningless one or two percent change in the Dow Industrials, but the death of a homeless person goes unnoticed; or that daily tons of food is thrown into the trash while millions starve. Although some liberty was taking in the paraphrasing of Francis' words, the point is the same; i.e., capitalism today, as it is being practiced, rewards the ruthless and powerful and marginalizes the rest. According to the author of the Washington Post article about Pope Francis' stinging criticism of neoliberalism, James Downie, what separates Pope Francis from earlier papal proclamations of capitalist evils is that Francis talks specifics, such as the destructiveness of trickle-down economics and the market economy. The main tenet of trickle-down theory, according to Downie, is that economic growth through a free market economy will eventually increase social justice and inclusion (para. 4). In addition, neoliberal proponents argue that the nation state should step aside and let the open markets determine our economic…… [Read More]

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Socratic Argument in the Apology Socrates Is

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51851880

Socratic Argument

In the Apology, Socrates is being placed on trial by three of his rivals for different activities that he is accused of being involved in. The most notable include: corrupting the youth of Athens and not supporting the same religious beliefs as everyone else. During the trial, his enemies are utilizing these charges to demonstrate how he knowingly engaged in these actions. They are demanding that he apologize for the crimes that he committed and begin to conform to the most common practices in contemporary society. (Plato, 2000) ("The Apology," 2012) ("Analysis of the Apology," 2010)

However, Socrates uses this as a forum to ridicule these individuals, question the legitimacy of the trial and to defend himself. This is problematic, as these cavalier attitudes will eventually lead to him being found guilty and sentenced to death. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining his key arguments and how they influenced the jury. Together, these elements will highlight the way he presented his case and the lasting impact. (Plato, 2000) ("The Apology," 2012) ("Analysis of the Apology," 2010)

Main Arguments in the Apology

In the Apology, Socrates tells the jury how their minds have been influenced…… [Read More]

Analysis of the Apology. (2010). CMU. Retrieved from 

The Apology. (2012). Spark Notes. Retrieved from:
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William Apess' Bible-Based Arguments Against Racism

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25090364

Biblical Argument

William Apess and the Biblical argument against racism

As a Native American who lived through the end of the 18th century and first 39 years of the 19th century, William Apess was subjected to extreme levels of racial prejudice. Indeed, the years during which Apess was most prolific as an author corresponded with the Presidential term of Andrew Jackson, a figure whose political platform included the mistreatment (and eradication) of Native Americans. As the son of a former slave and a member of the Pequot Native American tribe, Apess was exposed to significant racial injustice. However, he was also an Evangelical Christian, and used his extensive knowledge of the Bible as a platform through which to argue against racism. He also advocated for Native Americans to receive a formal education, and his own writing testifies to the power that education can have in influencing popular belief. Drawing from Apess's 1833 essay "An Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man" and 1831 memoir "A Son of the Forest," this essay delineates Apess's Biblical arguments against racism.

In "A Son of the Forest," Apess provides a comprehensive description of the injustice that was inflicted upon him by the white race. Additionally,…… [Read More]

Apess, William. "An Indians Looking-Glass for the White Man." Faculty. Texas A&M University-Commerce. 14 Nov. 2012.

Apess, William. "A Son of the Forest." On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, a Pequot. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. 1-99.
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Basil's Argumentation on the Holy Trinity

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68855844

Holy Trinity


Basil's Argumentation on the Holy Trinity

Basil's argumentation defending the divinity of the Holy Spirit addresses the unity of the Godhead and the eternal associations of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son within the Holy Trinity (Basil 60). Not only does this augment his defense of the Holy Spirit, it completes St. Basils' trinitarian theology thereby laying the foundations of Orthodox Christian Trinitarian theology.

The Holy Trinity

The unity of the Godhead is reflected in the works of the Holy Trinity. Whether regarding creation or human redemption, the works of the Holy Trinity are always one, revealing the communion of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. A good example of this unity of action is in the creation of the angels. These pure, spiritual and transcendent powers are called holy because they receive their holiness from the Holy Spirit. In considering the angels, or any other creature, it is best to think of the Father as the cause of all that exists. Then one should think of the Son, Who is their creator, and the Holy Spirit Who is their perfecter. The angels exist, therefore, due to the will of the Father and are brought…… [Read More]

Basil. St. Basil the Great: On the Holy Spirit (Trans. David Anderson). New York St. Vladimir's Seminary Press,, 1997. Print.
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Against Privatization Arguments for and

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65923975

One of them is represented by the inability of the system to satisfy the necessities of the people in need of financial assistance. Take the simple case of the retired Americans, who live on social security. Their income -- in the context in which it is limited to social security -- is not sufficient to ensure a decent life style. In other words, the system is unable to adequately support the individuals, and these need to also ensure their pension funds from other sources.

"To have a comfortable retirement, Americans need much more than just Social Security. They also need private pensions, savings and investments" (Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005).

The current social securities system is complex and inefficient and, as the editors at How Stuff Works point out, it is no longer applicable in the current context of the dynamic and modern day society. This is explained through two elements:

1. The aging of the population. In the time when it was created, the working population was significantly higher than the retired population, meaning as such that it was easy to finance those in need of social assistance. The contributions of both employee and employer to the social securities…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Social security: understanding the benefits, Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005, last accessed on October 11, 2010

How does the Social Security system work? How Stuff Works, 2010,  last accessed on October 11, 2010

Understanding the benefits, Social Security Online, last accessed on October 11, 2010
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Against Strict Compliance Arguments for

Words: 1882 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27618750

The enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has brought exponentially higher costs of operating to every organization that must comply to its requirements. As many organizations are already quite lean in terms of headcount to minimize costs, many outsource compliance and the resulting business process management (BPO) activities to outsourcing organizations. Ironically legislation meant to bring American companies into higher levels of compliance continues to be one of the most lucrative businesses globally for outsourcing companies. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) continues to accelerate as organizations spend heavily to gain access to expertise they do not have the funds to hire or the resources to fully take advantage of. The costs of compliance and governance and the risks associated with it paradoxically create higher levels of risk for organizations the laws were meant to protect and infuse with stability. Yet for all the costs of compliance, the benefits to organizations have already been seen at the cultural level, including more efficient processes, greater levels of accountability and measurement of results vs. merely monitoring activity. Compliance and governance has been the single most pivotal set of requirements any organization trading publicly in the U.S. has had to comply with, with the results being…… [Read More]

David Antony Detomasi 2007. The Multinational Corporation and Global Governance: Modeling Global Public Policy Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 71, no. 3 (March 1): 321-334.  (Accessed January 4, 2008).

Tim V Eaton, Michael D. Akers. 2007. Whistleblowing and Good Governance. The CPA Journal 77, no. 6 (June 1): 66-71.
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Mccloskey's Refutation of the Arguments of Existence

Words: 2142 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42816806

McCloskey's refutation of the arguments of existence of God and illustration of how God (and metaphysics) can be perceived in different ways and that this precludes us from making any final judgments regarding His existence and manner of rulership.

The Cosmological argument maintains that God's existence can be deduced from the fact that every act of creation needs an initiator. The world had a beginning -- after all it is an act of creation -- someone had to create it. This someone was God.

There are various classical arguments against the cosmological arguments but McCloskey's refutation is straight and to the point: the world shows cruelty and unjustness. Positing that the world has a creator, we then inferentially transfer these attributes to the Creator and posit that He in turn is unjust and cruel. Not much hope for a believer and certainly something that doesn't make us wish to accept the existence of a God. What kind of God, in other words, is this Being.

The Teleological argument is another argument for God's existence. It points to the order and structure inherent in the world and, states that this order could not have occurred by chance. A creator must have…… [Read More]


James W. The Varieties of Religious Experience
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Anselm's Ontological Argument Anselm 1033-1109 Philosopher Theologian

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74777943

Anselm's Ontological Argument

Anselm (1033-1109), philosopher, theologian and church leader, has presented an argument for the existence of God that has been debated by philosophers and academicians for centuries. Anselm presented this argument in the second chapter of his book Proslogium (Discourse) written in 1078, and it became known as the 'ontological argument' much later, in the 18th century. From the beginning, Anselm's argument has met with criticism, appreciation and interest. Even in his lifetime a fellow monk, Gaunilo challenged his argument, as have some later philosophers, including Immanuel Kant. Other philosophers like Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz have indirectly supported Anselm's view by presenting similar arguments for the existence of God. Any argument or thesis that has evoked so much interest over such a long period must have some merit and needs to be looked at with seriousness and an open mind. However, after a critical analysis of Anselm's argument, I have come to the conclusion that, although the argument is interesting, it has certain basic flaws, which I will attempt to bring out later in this paper.

The Argument

Anselm's argument was written in Latin so at the first reading of its translation in English it is difficult to…… [Read More]

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Inductive Argument Analysis Original Argument

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29882421

It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then write in the conclusion of his memoirs, "It is probably well that we had the war when we did. We are better off now than we would have been without it, and have made more rapid progress than we otherwise should have made." Had the war not been fought when…… [Read More]

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God's Existence Arguments for God's

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87783366

The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.

The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law, a difference between right and wrong and a desire to perform that which is right, he must get it from somewhere. The fact that man has a conscious or soul if you will means that someone, God, put it there. So this divine spark is the proof of God's existence.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989

Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
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Watch Argument an Assessment of Paley's Natural

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56481702

Watch Argument

An Assessment of Paley's Natural theology: The Watch Argument

In this section of Archdeacon of Carlisle William Paley's Natural Theology, the author constructs a detailed yet essentially simple and straightforward argument for the existence of God in the form of some primary designer. More specifically, Paley makes an argument against atheism or the belief that there is no such designer for the universe through a lengthy analogy about a watch, or perhaps a series of watches, he imagines might be discovered on the ground. Unlike a stone that can be assumed to have lain on the ground "forever," a watch found on the ground that has specific movements that appear to serve a specific purpose must have come from a creative and purposeful mind that designed the watch; the parts and their purpose could not have coalesced by simple chance the way a stone might tumble to the ground. Paley goes on to imagine a watch with such complex workings that its movement actually constructs another watch (assuming it has the appropriate materials to hand), using what he terms the "laws of metallic nature" to use other materials in a designed and purposed fashion that could perpetuate a…… [Read More]

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Criminal Law Argument One Sharon

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82345718

To distinguish battery from assault, the major deciding factor is whether there has been an actual touching of the victim. If so, the crime can only be battery. However, if there has been no such touching, then the act may or may not constitute an assault, depending on the circumstances and the wording of the law.

All jurisdictions include certain aggravating factors that raise a simple assault to an aggravated assault, which are typically felonies. These aggravating circumstances include using a dangerous or deadly weapon and/or having the intent to rape, maim or murder the victim.

An example of an aggravated assault, which is a felony, would be if Jack threatened to hit John with a baseball bat and came swinging at him. In the case at hand, if Sharon had missed her husband, her act would most likely be held as an aggravated assault. However, once the contact or offensive touching occurs, the act becomes a one of battery.


Klotter, John C., and Joycelyn M. Pollock. (2006): Criminal Law. 8th ed. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.

Padfield, Nicola. (2004): Criminal Law. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dix, George E. (2001): Gilbert Law Summaries: Criminal Law. Barbri Group.…… [Read More]

Klotter, John C., and Joycelyn M. Pollock. (2006): Criminal Law. 8th ed. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.

Padfield, Nicola. (2004): Criminal Law. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Paley's Argument From Design

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51031581

Paley's Argument From Design

William Paley's version of the argument from design is that Nature has a discernible order to it; a design and therefore it can be inferred that there is a Creator behind it. Paley reached this conclusion through using an analogy involving a watch and an ordinary stone, on the basis of which he inferred that if from finding a watch on the ground, it can be reasoned that the watch was an object that had been designed by someone for a purpose, the same logic could also be applied to a stone. Paley built his theory by addressing conceivable objections to his analogy: the conclusion that the watch had been designed for a purpose would have been reached even if an observer had no prior knowledge of the object; or if the watch was not working at the time of reasoning; or even in the case that one drew the assumption that the said watch was from an infinite series of a line for it would still have an original creator. Using such a line of reasoning, Paley submitted the argument that the stone, like the watch, was not an accidental product of Nature.

Paley uses…… [Read More]

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Religion Argument Why Religion Should

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96820091

If the teacher and the majority of the class were engaged in prayer, that student will undoubtedly be receiving the message that his or her beliefs are inferior and not as important. Schools are the primary institutions of forming social and political identities, and it is for this reason that they must be kept religiously neutral.

Allowing religion into public schools will only increase feelings of separatism and inequality in this country. It is not only Constitutionally forbidden, but it is also ethically and morally prohibited. Whether or not the religion is permitted to directly influence the workings of the class, members of non-dominant religions or who are not at all religious will necessarily feel inferior to the rest of the class. The protection of their rights in the face of other's actions is the primary concern of the Constitution.



I. Freedom of religion is a founding principle.

II. This has led to disagreements about prayer/religion in schools

III. Prayer/religion should not be sanctioned by the school

Prayer is Allowed

I. Individuals should be allowed to pray privately

II. Preventing this is a violation of the First Amendment

Group Prayer/Class-Sanctioned Religion is Prohibited

I. Rights only extend until…… [Read More]

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Berkeley's Primary Argument for the

Words: 1474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66587674

The real fire that burns you is the fire that is produced by God as the natural regulatory forces of nature. While the fire that is hallucination is fire that is conjured through the ideation of finite spirits such as other individuals. Real fire, since it is a subjective creation of God, has the ability to burn us, while illusionary fires do not have that inherent ability. Therefore all objectives that are not perceived by other human beings are perceived by God and have an existence within the world.

Berkeley's fundamental argument about reality and matter is that they are all sensory perceptions. However, since God creates ultimate harmony within the world and moreover provides a system in which we live in, his rules applies to all objects that we possess and use. Therefore, although arsenic in itself is nothing more than an idea, it is an idea that is regulated by the ideation of God, and therefore it is part of a defined regularity that have specific pre-defined properties. Eating arsenic, since it has dangerous properties that God instilled in it through His ideation, it is still toxic and deadly to human beings. The role of science has a…… [Read More]

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Patriotic Act Arguments for and Against the

Words: 3462 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70325965

Patriotic Act

Arguments for and against the Patriot Act

The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/Washington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and show why some view it positively while others despise it.

Theory, Rationale and Speculation

Max Weber first established the bureaucratic paradigm in the early half of the 20th century and that system has essentially become bedrock in the federal government. The bureaucracy behind the Patriot Act is, of course, only…… [Read More]

Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist

Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. < >
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Frederick Douglass' Argument in the

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97594370

After establishing that it is conceded that African-Americans are humans, Douglass moves on to the proposition that he should not be called upon to prove that humans are entitled to liberty. He points out that Americans have already declared that man is entitled to liberty and freedom. He points out that all men resist slavery and feel it is wrong for another person to claim ownership of them. He also points out the brutal side of slavery, and argues that no person could argue that those things were somehow right including: beatings, lashings, shackling, hunting them with dogs, split out families, knocking out their teeth, selling them at auction, and starvation. He believes that it is ridiculous to expect him to argue that a system that includes all of these horrors is wrong.

Douglass' also tackles the common argument during the time that slavery was a divinely ordained condition or institution. He believes it to be blasphemy to suggest that slavery is divine. He does not flesh out this argument, simply stating that the inhuman cannot be divine. Instead, he states that slavery is a crime against both man and God.

In making his speech, Douglass tackles the three most…… [Read More]

Douglass, F. (1852, July 4). The Hypocrisy of American Slavery. Retrieved February 13, 2012

from the History Place website:
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Illusion the Argument From Illusion -- a

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10131667


The Argument from Illusion -- a Description

The British philosopher George Berkeley sets forth an argument that separates the experience of the reality of an object from the object being experienced. By doing so, he suggests that things exist in different states -- not only the physical. This duality, plurality, or concurrent entity that one perceives is not the real object, or so Berkeley argues, because it has different properties than those properties one assigns to the material object. He supports his argument using several examples where the initial observation one might make has nothing to do with the reality of the object.

The Argument is not only that concerning illusion, but of hallucination and perceptual relativity. If an illusion is does not have the characteristics of the material object, then what is it? Similarly, the question is posed in terms of hallucinations for which no material object exists and perceptual relativity, for which material objects exist, but with characteristics of their material reality and illusion blended. The conclusion, then, is that all one's immediate experience excludes the real material object. One has moved from specific examples, of which there are many, to a generalization, which suggests that one…… [Read More]

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Paradaise Lost Satan's Argument to Eve Possesses

Words: 1084 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62832051

Paradaise Lost, Satan's argument to Eve possesses several fallacies. According to Laura Skye: "Satan's speeches are indeed rhetorical masterpieces that confuse and twist as much as his serpentine actions" (Slye 1). Satan does a wonderful job, up until the end of his speech, making his argument sound logical. However, he uses persuasive speech, flattery, and lies in order to convince her -- all fallacies of an argument.

Initially, Satan's actions with Eve involve little effort to convince her that he is not any evil demon that Adam told her to expect on her voyage. Of course, this is an example of one of Satan's fallacies, because he is lying -- of course he is evil; he's Satan, after all. The second type of fallacy he uses is flattery in order to gain her attention and trust, an essential objective if he was willing to destroy mankind (p. 248-249 lines 540-548):

By gift, and thy celestial beauty adore,

With ravishment beheld who shouldst be seen

Goddess among Gods, adored and served

By Angels numberless, thy daily train?'

Using this flattery to compliment her beauty, and allowing her to recognize the fact that all of Eden's animals adore her, he slyly inserts…… [Read More]

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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as rejecting to call for an everlasting ban on the practice, as well as highlighted the significance of additional public consideration on the topic (NBAC, 2001).

Interests and Rights

The dangers and doubts linked with the present state of cloning technology is one set of ethical alarms on the subject of…… [Read More]

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Gun Control Including Counter Arguments Owning a

Words: 2316 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36470008

gun control, including counter arguments. Owning a gun is much more than just a statement about this country's Constitution and Second Amendment rights. Owning a gun is a measure of protection and freedom that illustrates the principles this country's founders created, and it is a right that Americans should not take for granted. Gun control is not a suitable method for controlling crime, and it has not been proven to help control violent crime.

First, it is imperative to define what "gun control" means, because it can mean different things to different people. Two experts note, "Gun control is an umbrella term covering everything from laws prohibiting the ownership of defined classes of firearms to mandating the inclusion of gun locks with every firearm sold" (Moorhouse & Wanner, 2006). Clearly, with such a broad definition, and differing meanings, gun control cannot be easily measured or understood, which is one of the reasons it is controversial. Most advocates of gun control believe that the prevalence of readily available guns adds to violent crime statistics, but studies indicate that gun control does not seem to have a measurable effect on reducing violent crime, which negates their argument for stricter gun laws. Gun…… [Read More]

Beachler, D.W. (2003). Militias and segregationists: The politics of low turnout elections in the United States. Polity, 35(3), 441+.

Editors. (2003). Fact sheet: Stolen guns. Retrieved 6 July 2009 from the Johns Hopkins University Web site:
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Right to Bear Arms Arguing

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16897542

The first argument would be to point out that essentially, the right to bear arms is an individual right that can be exercised by any member of the civil society. In so doing, an individual is merely accomplishing a right that is rightfully his/hers from the beginning. The second main argument to be pointed out is that gun ownership does not necessarily translate to its improper use, posing as a threat to civil society. The legislative system has created a system that eliminates the occurrence of improper or inappropriate gun use, to prevent this threat from happening. Given these existing arguments for gun ownership, both anti-gun ownership groups and the general public would hopefully subsist to the view that indeed, exercising the right to bear arms is a privilege that will ensure the citizen of his/her safety and precaution against deviants in the civil society.… [Read More]

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High Speed Rail Arguments in

Words: 1060 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79532305

In HS2: Valuing the benefits of HS2 (London-West Midlands), the authors consider the direct benefits and disbenefits to users, the wider economic impact, and other economic and social impacts arising from land use changes. The major benefits for users are journey time savings, reduced crowding, and improved reliability. Though HS2 would generate profits, it would cost the government money to implement it. Finally, Dr. J Savin conducted a financial analysis that does not support the HS2. He believes that the numbers supporting HS2 may claim 90% more traffic than is realistically possible. He also believes that the real costs of construction are hidden because of the government's accounting methods, so that it will actually cost more than its publicized amount.

Chapter 4: Arguments in Favour of the New Line

The primary argument in favor of the new line is that it will provide high speed rail service to an area that is projected to have demand for rail service exceed capacity within a very short time. There is also the argument that increased traffic congestion will make car travel a less viable option, making rail even more necessary. The HS2 project would also allow for the repurposing of the existing…… [Read More]

Better than HS2 2011, A better railway for Britain. Available from:

Bluespace Thinking 2010, A review of high speed rail- HS2 proposals. Available from:
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Mills Arguments

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Mills Arguements

Intrinsic Value of Liberty

There can be very few doubts as to the importance of liberty to the philosophical espousing of John Stuart Mill, who even authored a treatise entitled On Liberty to underscore the amount of emphasis he placed on this particular concept. What is most interesting about the many different notions the author has in relation to freedom is the circumscriptions that are routinely placed upon it in what is the age-old conflict between the individual and the group -- the latter of which routinely takes the form of government or some other determining mechanism of society. Not surprisingly, Mill presents a number of viewpoints that contradict the notion that the morality of the state should influence the personal opinions and actions of the individual, especially when the effects of those actions only resonate within the individual himself. The two most eminent of these arguments, of course, revolve around the concept that there are both intrinsic and instrumental values of personal liberty that are forsaken, wrongfully, in instances in which the aforementioned condition occurs. However, a close examination of both of these arguments reveals that in this aspect of liberty -- which is of a personal…… [Read More]

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Nozick Rawl & the Argument

Words: 1389 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72604750

In order to gain a more complex understanding of Novick's idea of liberty one would actually have to consider the difference principle and the effects it would have on groups of people who managed to differentiate themselves from the masses by becoming productive and by directing their attention toward making profits without hurting anyone or acting in disagreement with rights generally accepted by the social order. Rawls virtually acts in discordance with all that Novick's stands for, as the latter considers freedom as being one of the most important concepts that society has access to.

Novick would certainly be reluctant to accept living in a society where people accept the difference principle and guide themselves in accordance to it. The philosopher's book "Anarchy, State, and Utopia" is practically meant to condemn individuals like Rawls as a result of their ignorance of ideas that are very obvious. It is likely that Novick was infuriated with Rawls' proposition for society to put behind it hundreds of years of progress in the field of liberty-related studies with the purpose of providing the worst-off with the ability to have access to concepts that they are not likely to have access to as a result…… [Read More]

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Opening Argument in Court

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Court Opening Argument

It is humbly submitted to the Hon'ble Court that this respondent as per the issues and syllabus cited submit that the issues of the litigation pertain -- not only to the law of marriage, but also to the recognition if it must be accorded to same sex marriages and unions, and whether no recognizing this social development amounts to denial of the constitutional rights of a group of citizens. It is also pertinent to question if the states in allowing adoption to opposite sex couples and denying the same to same sex couples. The question then becomes still deeper with the challenge of the validity of same sex marriages.

It is still with various states to give effect to the Defence of Marriage Act -- DOMA and the definition of marriage as per section 3 of the act makes marriage between a man and a woman alone valid. The debate if this definition is valid is now before the U.S. Supreme Court and is being discussed as on date of this petition in Gill et al. v. Office of Personnel Management, (2012) (See reference 1) The constitutionality of section 3 of the Defence of Marriage Act --…… [Read More]

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Dreaming Argument and Pragmatism

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Dreaming argument & Pragmatism


The Blumenfelds' argument in regards to dreaming is essentially that since we have dreams that resemble real life experiences, we cannot be certain that at this moment we are not dreaming, given that the character of our experience does not always alert us to the fact that we are in a dream state. Austen's objection to this is that simply being able to say that dreams have a 'real life' quality presumes that one knows what real life is, as distinguishable from dreams. Austen demands that there must be a particular reason to distrust one's senses and think that one is dreaming (Slides 15-16). "It is possible to recognize cases of deception only if there is a background of general non-deception" (Slide 17).

For a Pyrrhonian Skeptic, one must remain in a continual state of doubt. However, the Blumenfelds' argument suggests doubts in the ability for any appearance or fact to be trusted at all in what the Pyrrhonian might consider a dogmatic fashion -- a problem the Pyrrhonian also has with dogmatic, conventional skepticism. Ultimately, the Blumenfelds' argument is far more radical, given that the Pyrrhonian holds that at least some aspects of reality…… [Read More]

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Toulmin Argument an Argument for

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 485780


Many organizations have suggested that humans' actions can significantly reduce environmental problems. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, even small lifestyle changes can significantly impact the environment. Some of the small lifestyle changes that the Fund recommends include saving water, recycling, and turning off electrical equipment when it is not being used ("How You Can Help the Environment"). Because humans cause some of the environmental problems by refusing to take these precautions and because taking precautions like these can help solve environmental problems, Christians have responsibility to act. Bohlin calls that duty sacred, and suggests that Christians are commanded to take care of the "earth and its creatures." Carmical adds to this argument by suggesting that scriptural reference for Christians' responsibility to the environment comes in Genesis. He argues that God gave man "dominion over the earth," which means that while humans' needs are more important than nature's, humans also have a responsibility toward maintaining an earth that will sustain human life, as well as taking care of the resource that God gave humankind.


While scripture does suggest that humans have a responsibility to care for the earth, it does not suggest that humans must sacrifice…… [Read More]

Bohlin, Ray. "Christian Environmentalism." Leadership U. 14 July 2002. 29 October 2008. .

Carmical, Casey. "Christianity and Environmentalism." Casey's Critical Thinking. 2008.
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Debate Negative Argument

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Negative Argument for Debate

Negative Argument

Government should NOT turn away from fossil fuels

Installing solar collectors on rooftops and insulating homes in America will not provide citizens and businesses with the energy needed to keep American strong. It is paramount that the U.S. continues to use fossil fuels. It's a no-brainer, friends: if we shut down fossil fuel electrical generating plants, we shut down American industry; we also shut down computers, schools, hospitals, factories. And, according to the World Energy Council (, "cleaner fossil fuel systems mitigate and even neutralize the adverse consequences of the use of fossil fuels ... [and] the technology for these systems is advancing rapidly."

Nuclear Power, wind power and hydro power are not the ultimate answer

Nuclear power is extremely dangerous and nuclear plants can get out of control: The Chernobyl nuclear accident in Russia in 1986 caused an estimated 4,229 deaths in the Ukraine, and unknown number of cancers throughout Europe, according to Dr. Richard Smart, Department of Nuclear Medicine at St. George hospital in Kogarah Australia. World renowned radiation expert Dr. Helen Caldicott -- founder and president of Physicians for Social Responsibility -- explains that plutonium, a by-product of nuclear fission, is…… [Read More]

Bray, Tom. (2005). Fossil Fuel Tempest. The Washington Times, Retrieved April 17,

2005, from
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Veblen's Argument Veblen Believed That

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66585687

It is worth considering that there may be underlying economic reasons for social standing -- at least when Veblen's argument is viewed from the present. Social standing can be a means to economic opportunity. The better one's standing, the more opportunities will be available and the fewer barriers there will be to taking advantage of those opportunities. As a result, there may have been an underlying economic reason for consumers to engage in conspicuous consumption. It may not have been irrational at all. It would be interesting to see Veblen's response to such a supposition, given that it would have run counter to his underlying views about humanity and its motivations.

However, Veblen did not view consumption that way. He viewed consumption more from the framework of a desire to "imbue experience with aesthetic unity" and that humans cooperate to shape their environments for the common good (Throntveit, 2008). Veblen's argument therefore is that human behavior creates the markets; the markets do not create human behavior. Indeed, markets do not have the power to create human behavior as humans are guided by different principles.

Veblen would have rejected the idea that the markets direct self-interest towards societal goals. In his…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
JRank. (no date). Thorstein Veblen biography. Retrieved May 9, 2010 from

Throntviet, T. (2008). The will to behold: Thorstein Veblen's pragmatic aesthetics. Modern Intellectual History. Vol. 5 (3) 519-546.
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Silber's Argument Is That Private Universities and

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52179832

Silber's argument is that private universities and colleges, that he prefers to call 'independent', are really as much public as government-paid universities are since the public factor runs through all of their activities and manifestations. He goes on to laud the qualities of independent universities showing how they show a great record of diversity, how they contribute immensely to public education and professional contributions (in that, for instance, a majority of degrees are accorded to doctors, lawyers, and dentists), how they are careful and prudent in their activities, and, most of all, how so many of these independent institutions are becoming redundant and closing due to inability of expense to keep themselves afloat. Silber argues that in many ways they are more valuable to the public than public-sponsored universities are and that, therefore, it would be worth the taxpayer's while to keep these universities afloat.

Silber's primary fallacy -- and that is what his whole argument hinges on - lies in the fact that he confounds and equivocates two meanings of 'private'. Or 'public' for that matter.

Silber argues that since the private universities are "open to the public, serve public needs, and are gravely influenced by public deliberations" (158),…… [Read More]

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Legal Research and Argument to Begin the

Words: 2020 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98053890

Legal Research and Argument

To begin the research for this case and the argument that follows, one must first examine the case and determine what is essential. It is assumed that the engineer was negligent because he should have known about the circular which advised that further structural support would be required for the type of building he was constructing. It is not enough to rely upon 20 years-worth of experience in the field because situations change which may negate all of that experience. Thus, this does not seem to be a legitimate argument for the engineer. It could be argued that the engineer was not made aware of the circular and that this was not his negligence but the persons who filed the document before he had seen it. Unfortunately, this would seem to be immaterial because it is the engineer's responsibility to stay abreast of important changes within the industry and not that of anyone else. The fact that he had not heard of the contents of the circular in a six-month time span is curious for someone who is well-regarded in his field. Thus, it would be difficult for the engineer to find legitimate excuse for his…… [Read More]

Brickhill v Cooke (1984) 3 NSAWLR 396.

Carosella v Ginos & Gilbert Pty Ltd. (1981) 27 SASR 515.
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Brain-Death Arguments Upon Brain-Death Technology a Very

Words: 1419 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35786609


Arguments upon brain-death

Technology, a very familiar phenomenon of modern world, is continuously enhancing its ways towards comforts and luxuries. New thoughts and ideas are coming with every passing second, and what started as only a blurred vision; now became a necessity for all mankind and the entire society is involved in these technological reforms. The main notion behind creating & inventing all such equipments was to actually make the living better and easier than the past, & more importantly these all are less time consuming. Along with other technological advancements, medical science has been evolved from typical classical approaches towards a better and more scientific means of equipments and descriptions. Treatments of severe diseases like cancer and tumors is possible today and thus many lives can be saved by new emerging technology. Another main contribution of medical technology towards the betterment of mankind is of transplantation of organs, i.e., replacing one's spoiled or non-functional organ with some other's healthy organ, after the death of the donator. In the past, the kidney transplant was very common as it can be taken from an alive and healthy person and can be adjusted to someone in the need. But the donations…… [Read More]

Laureys S. 2005. "Science and society: death, unconsciousness and the brain." Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 6 (11): 899-909.

Perry, D.L. 2011. Ethics and Personhood: Some Issues in Contemporary Neurological Science and Technology. Retrieved from:
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Classical Argument Drug Prohibition Has

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53741639

Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.

Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to lace their finished product. Researchers can better understand the addictive brain as well as the brain that benefits from the occasional high.

Works Cited

Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport,…… [Read More]

Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.