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Sub-Disciplines of Philosophy
Final Argumentative Paper Three important -disciplines philosophy addressed: ETHICS, EPISTEMOLOGY, ELIGION. For paper, develop argument includes view specific topic relating -disciplines. A list topics choose attached.
There are three main sub-disciplines of philosophy, which are ethics, epistemology, and religion. Philosophy deals mainly with ultimate value questions Mironov, 2013.
These questions cannot be answered using scientific or empirical data. The questions are mainly concerned with truth, reality, justice, goodness, beauty, and meaning. Mainly these questions cannot be answered by human beings, but the questions cannot be avoided. Ethics deals with questions regarding how human beings should behave and live, what is right and wrong, and what is a good life. Ethics allows people to either analyze their actions through the consequences of those actions or analyze their actions by the rules that preceded those actions. Analyzing actions allow human beings to determine what is ethically correct. Epistemology deals…
Avnur, Y., Brueckner, A., & Buford, C.T. (2011). NO CLOSURE ON SKEPTICISM. [Article]. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 92(4), 439-447. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0114.2011.01405.x
Gordon, J.-S., Rauprich, O., & Vollmann, J. (2011). APPLYING THE FOUR-PRINCIPLE APPROACH. [Article]. Bioethics, 25(6), 293-300. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8519.2009.01757.x
Jeong, C., & Han, H. (2013). Exploring the Relationship Between Virtue Ethics and Moral Identity. [Article]. Ethics & Behavior, 23(1), 44-56. doi: 10.1080/10508422.2012.714245
Mironov, V.V. (2013). On Progress in Philosophy. [Article]. Metaphilosophy, 44(1/2), 10-14. doi: 10.1111/meta.12011
Yet at the same time, the only way that he is able to deal with the murder is to return his lost skull to the grave. This allows the headless horseman to return to hell and peace is restored to the community. These elements are significant, because they are illustrating how modern science can provide specific insights in addressing the underlying causes for a host of different problems. At the same time, it is also highlighting that it is not the end all solution in dealing with these underlying issues. As, there are certain aspects which cannot be explained that will affect the outcome. Therefore, the film is showing how some kind of balance needs to be applied when using the latest techniques in regards to addressing a wide variety of issues. ("Sleepy Hollow")
Clearly, the similarities between the two different works are that the novel is about a school…
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. IMDB, 1999. Web. 15 Aug. 2011
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Soh Stream, 1999. Web. 15 Aug. 2011.
Sleepy Hollow. Imaginary Cinema, 1999. Web. 15 Aug. 2011
Sleepy Hollow. Tim Burton Collection, 1999. Web. 15 Aug. 2011
Values Portrayed in Popular Music: Argumentative Essay
he content or meaning of the words accompanying today's popular music is such that serves to define, direct, inform and ultimately bring about cohesion within society among various views providing a balanced view of the world inclusive of the polar opposites and everything ranging between the two. Generally, the individual given proper guidance from the authority figures in their lives including parents and teachers, is able to sort through this information and correctly assign values.
he Popularity of Sexual Degrading Content in oday's Music
he work of Primack, Gold, Schwarz, Dalton (2008) reports a study that states findings that individuals who are exposed to "more degrading sexual references in popular music are more likely to initiate intercourse at a younger age." he study reported used Billboard magazine for identifying the top popular songs in 2005. he songs were analyzed by independent coders for…
Thoman E. Skills and strategies for media education (2003) The Center for Media Literacy. 2003.
Thomson, R., & Holland, J. (2002). Young people, social change and the negotiation of moral authority. Children and Society, 16. 103 -- 115.
Took KJ, Weiss DS. (1994) The relationship between heavy metal and rap music and adolescent turmoil: real or artifact? Adolescence 1994;29:613-21.
Gun control is one of the most polarizing issues of our time. Because this is such a controversial subject, it is actually harder to make a coherent case -- others are arguing in circles, twisting facts to suit their agendas, and misusing statistics as a matter of routine. This does not mean that we cannot have a reasonable discussion about the subject of gun control, just that we seldom do. This paper will examine the issue of gun control, what governments hope to achieve with gun control and whether or not gun control actually addresses those issues. The latter component of the argument is important, if often overlooked. It is believed that the evidence will show that most gun control efforts are ultimately not aimed at achieving higher levels of safety, and not surprisingly gun control efforts fail to achieve higher levels of public safety.
There are many…
Gerbis, N. (2014). Do countries with stricter gun laws really have less crime or fewer homicides? How Stuff Works. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http://people.howstuffworks.com/strict-gun-laws-less-crime1.htm
Lott, J. (2010). More Guns Less Crime. University of Chicago: Chicago.
Rivara, F., Satlin, R., Gielen, A. & Houry, D. (2013). The role of research in addressing the public health problem of gun violence. Injury Prevention. Vol. 19 (2013) 224-
Squires, P. (2001). Gun Culture or gun control: Firearms, violence and society. Taylor & Francis: London.
The American administration was well aware of the genocidal massacre of the Tutsi by their Hutu neighbors that accounted for more than a million innocent victims killed, mostly by machetes that would have posed less of a problem to U.S. forces had they been deployed to stop the carnage in wanda.
Similar atrocities, albeit less in number, have been ongoing in Sudan and especially in Darfur since before Operation Iraqi Freedom was launched. If humanitarian concern was the justification for the war in Iraq, we would have been equally obligated to intervene in all those situations, not to mention perhaps freeing the North Koreans from the oppressive reign of the maniacal Kim Jong Il. In truth, President Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, Donald umsfeld, and Paul Wolflowitz focused on Iraq immediately after the September 11th Attacks instead of on the real source of support for Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt.
Clarke, R.A. (2004) Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: Simon & Schuster
Desch, M. Bush and the Generals; Foreign Affairs, May-Jun/07 (pp.97-108) Kuan, L.Y. The United States, Iraq, and the War on Terror; Foreign Affairs, Jan- Feb/07 (pp. 2-7) Mulrine, a. Taking Stock of Iraq; U.S. News and World Report, Dec. 24/07 (pp.35-39) Rubin, B. Saving Afghanistan; Foreign Affairs, Jan- Feb/07 (pp.57-78)
Scheuer, M. (2004) Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror. Washington: Brassey's
Commercialization of the Medical Profession
One of the problems with the field of medicine is that when it operates as a market-based business, severe imbalances of care and treatment inevitably arise. According to the New York Times, there has been a rapid spike in doctors desiring to specialize and a rapid downturn in the number of doctors willing to become general practitioners. This is a reflection both of economic and personal forces. Specialists make more money and work more predictable hours than physicians in high-need fields such as general practice or pediatrics. From a self-interested, market-based perspective, the decisions of young doctors simply 'make sense.' owever, when allowing the market to simply run its course, the result for the individual patient is problematic: the need for general practitioners is far greater than the number of new physicians willing to fulfill them. Also, the 'best and the brightest' tend to be…
However, Kuehn (2012) suggests the possibility that other influences may affect doctors' choices of specialties. The presence of female faculty in the field of surgery medical schools results in a higher percentage of women choosing the specialty of surgery, once favored by males, despite the fact that it is very demanding (Kuehn 2012:4). It is possible that the examples of mentorship shown by women in the field are inspiring, because they show the possibility of striking an effective life balance between home and career -- a frequent concern of young mothers with children. Negative attitudes towards women who become pregnant during their residencies are one reason that women still shy away from surgery, since it can be a challenge to combine the physically laborious task of surgery with pregnancy. There has been increased flexibility to accommodate the demands of pregnancy, however, in the structure of even the most grueling residency programs (Kuehn 2012: 5).
However, it is not only women who are concerned about the effects of their career choices on their personal lives. "Lifestyle considerations accounted for 55% of a doctor's choice of specialty in 2002, according to a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association" of both men and women (Richter 2004: 341). This suggests that to create a more balanced ratio of physicians in general practice vs. specialties, and a more balanced ratio of women in medicine in general, there must be a systematic, structural reform in the way that different fields of medicine are compensated for and they way residency programs are designed.
Scholarships for physicians who elect to choose general practice and for women who enter historically-underrepresented fields in medicine are examples of how to influence the current demographics of who goes into different fields of medicine. Patients suffer when the best and the brightest physicians shy away from entering into fields where there is a critical need, like family practice, and enter boutique fields like dermatology. The field of medicine suffers without the joint perspective a woman may offer upon the human condition.
Legalization of Marijuana
The growing approval and use of marijuana for medicinal purposes has strengthened the debate as to whether marijuana should be legalized for general use. Eight states now have laws allowing the medical use of marijuana, and territories within Australia and Canada have pass laws legalizing the use of the drug. European countries, such as Switzerland have also passed laws that legalize the use, but in some cases, outlaw the possession of the drug (Joffe et al., 2004). In fact, there are a wide variety of compelling factors that support the legalization of marijuana. Legalization allows for regulation of the substance for medicinal purposes, ensuring that supplies used by the public are not tainted with harmful chemicals. By permitting the use of marijuana governments also have increased potential to reduce the amount of violent crime that often results when drugs are illegalized and trade is driven to an…
Joffe et al. (2004) Legalization of Marijuana: potential impact on youth. Pediatrics. Vol. 113 No. 6. pp. e632-e638
GMO stands for genetically modified organism. GMO foods are microorganisms or organisms with genetically altered material that contain a piece of DNA from another organism. Pieces of DNA that are stitched together are the work of modern recombinant DNA technology, and can be done regardless of the pieces' source. The technology has been around for decades. As early as the 1980's researchers have stitched pieces of DNA together to see what can be made. Some uses have been to determine gene function, make copies of proteins or genes, generate models for human illness, and study gene expression patterns.
ecent and prevalent application of this technology has been to create food crops modified in such a way that is beneficial to either the consumer or the producer or both. Today's GMO crops have had bacterial genes added into their genomes encoded for herbicide or pest resistance. This is supposed to allow…
Blancke, S., Van Breusegem, F., De Jaeger, G., Braeckman, J., & Van Montagu, M. (2015). Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition. Trends in Plant Science, 20(7), 414-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2015.03.011
Kamle, S., & Ali, S. (2013). Genetically modified crops: Detection strategies and biosafety issues. Gene, 522(2), 123-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.03.107
Krimsky, S. (2015). An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment. Science, Technology & Human Values, 40(6), 883-914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0162243915598381
Rezazadeh, T., Aghaiypour, K., & Heidari, Z. (2013). The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(2), 92-95. Retrieved from http://hrcak.srce.hr/113694
technological advancements over the years, the way human beings communicate has changed tremendously. Today, email, texting, social media, online chatting, and video calling, are common methods of communication. Nonetheless, while electronic communication has made communication faster and more fascinating, the downsides cannot be ignored. Indeed, electronic communication has increasingly threatened in-person or direct human interaction as people ever more desire to interact online. More importantly, electronic communication has contributed to reduced self-esteem, cyber bullying, and loneliness. These negative consequences constitute the focus of this essay.
One of the major disadvantages of electronic communication according to Roxby is the negative impact it has on self-image, with young people being the most affected. Facebook, Instagram, hatsapp, Snapchat and other popular social networks are now common platforms of communication. Through these platforms, users can post and share as much content as they desire in a day. Broadly speaking, social media users post content,…
LaMotte, Sandee. The health risks of cyberbullying in college. CNN, 3 March 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/02/health/cyberbullying-in-college/ . Accessed 17 April 2017.
Roxby, Philippa. Does social media impact on body image? BBC, 13 October 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/health-29569473 . Accessed 17 April 2017.
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. "Does Faecbook make you lonely?" Science Daily, 9 October 2014, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141009163418.htm . Accessed 17 April 2017.
Shelby Steele and Gerald Early are firmly on the side of liberal individualism and equal rights in their essays, as opposed to nationalism or racial group identities, and argued that this was exactly what Martin Luther King and the early civil rights movement were trying to achieve. Steele was a conservative Republican and supporter of Ronald Reagan, which was most unusual for any black intellectual, and argued that blacks would be best served by adopting middle class values and aspirations. Black nationalists had criticized James Baldwin for being too sympathetic to the idea of liberal integration in the 1950s and 1960s, although at best he seemed only cautiously optimistic about this possibility compared to Steele and Early, even while recognizing that blacks and whites in American had developed a different identity from their ancestors in Europe and Africa, partially as a result of their struggles against each other. All…
Baldwin, James, "Stranger in the Village," 1955, 1983: 41-54.
Early, Gerald, "Understanding Afrocentrism," 1995: 2-23.
Steele, Shelby, "I'm Black, You're White, Who's Innocent?," 1987: 24-40.
Sonny's Blues," by James Baldwin, "The Sorrow Songs," by .E.B. Du Bois, and "Am I Blue," by Alice alker. Specifically, it will discuss the use of the blues in all three works, and how music influences each story. In this paper I will argue that music, specifically the blues, play an important and valuable role in supporting the characters and making the stories more believable and moving. Music has always played a strong part in black American's lives, from the old-time Negro spirituals to urban rap today, and this is why the authors use them to illustrate the most important themes of their stories.
THE BLUES IN THREE ORKS
Each author uses the blues in a different way, but the music plays an important part in each story, making them more readable, and the characters more sympathetic to the reader. The blues is a form of music that originated in…
Du Bois, W.E.B. "The Sorrow Songs." Bartleby.com. 2003. 24 March 2003. http://www.bartleby.com/114/14.html
Tsomondo, Thorell. "No Other Tale to Tell: 'Sonny's Blues' and 'Waiting for the Rain.'" Critique XXXVI. Vol. 3. (1995): 195-209.
Walker, Alice. "Am I Blue?" Utne Reader. Jan./Feb. 1989, pp. 98-102.
Ageism in the United States
Many countries of the world honor their elderly citizens and hold them up as paragons of another time. Other countries look down upon the elderly and push them to the margins of society, sometimes quite literally. In the United States, elderly citizens as a group are very widely marginalized by the larger population. Many are put in retirement homes are pushed off to hospitals. Quite a few are forced out of their homes and made to exist on pension or Social Security and in some cases are not able to get by. Most senior citizens are negatively stereotyped as extremely weak and feeble. There are also positives stereotypes of the elderly which allow them to have more freedom of discourse and behavior which people younger than them are not afforded. There are many potential reasons behind this national tendency to possess biases against elderly people…
Cook, F.L. "Ageism: Rhetoric and Reality." The Gerontologist. 32(3): 292-293. 1992. Print.
Letvak, Susan. "Myths and Realities of Ageism and Nursing." AORN Journal. 2002. Print.
Palmore, Erdman Ballagh. Ageism: Negative and Positive. Springer. Print.
Beyond Police Oversight
Oversight by external agencies has been posited as one of the best means of improving the standard of policing in America. In recent years, issues with many police departments have come to the fore, in particular the treatment of minorities by police departments. Issues identified include a lack of consistent training, either on ethics or on operations, that allows bad police to continue to operate, to the detriment of the people whom they are serving, and to the detriment of the reputation of police officers across the country. Scholars have sought to examine the sometimes vague, but broad-based issues faced by police departments in ensuring a high standard of quality, looking at issues of recruitment, training and motivation, all of which go far beyond what external oversight boards can offer. If one is seeking to improve the quality of policing, then it should be understood that the…
Porter, L. (2013). Beyond oversight: A problem-oriented approach to police reform. Police Practical and Research: An International Journal. Vol. 14 (2) 169-181.
Sim, J., Cornell, J., & Sadler, M. (2013). Understanding police and expert performance: When training attenuates (vs. exacerbates) stereotypic bias in the decision to shoot. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 39 (2010) 291.
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
1444 South Pinnacle Drive
Head of Political Science
1250 W Wisconsin Avenue
Dear Mr. McAdams,
EF: The Case against the Death Penalty
The death penalty is a form of punishment used to punish offenders for capital crimes or capital offenses such as treason, murder, and armed robbery. This form of punishment is used by states to execute people who are found guilty of various crimes that are commonly known as capital crimes or offenses. However, the use of this form of punishment varies across countries and states depending on the existing regulations that define the type of capital crimes that are punishable by the death sentence or penalty. In the past few years, capital punishment has become increasingly controversial and attracted several debates between proponents (like you) and opponents (like me). Following an analysis of arguments and counter-arguments, I hold the view that the death penalty…
Center for Constitutional Rights. (n.d.). The Death Penalty is a Human Rights Violation: An Examination of the Death Penalty in the U.S. from a Human Rights Perspective. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://ccrjustice.org/sites/default/files/assets/files/CCR%20Death%20Penalty%20Factsheet.pdf
Death Penalty Information Center. (2000). Arguments For and Against the Death Penalty. Retrieved from Michigan State University website: http://deathpenaltycurriculum.org/student/c/about/arguments/arguments.PDF
There is no such thing as a time machine. Ancient history can only be understood by modern peoples through the cultural documentation that was left behind. ritings from the period of the New Testament exist but they do not provide information into every aspect of everyday life. Consequently, historians and scholars must analyze the documents that are in existence in order to gain a greater understanding into the world's past. One technique that makes it possible for current populations to understand ancient texts is the use of literary ethnography. This procedure is the endeavor to use qualitative means to learn about and to better understand various cultural documentation and ideology which mirror that culture's society. Particularly of importance to ethnography is the ways and means of knowledge acquisition of a culture and also the system of meanings and which dictate that culture, such as language and the roles of…
Aphthonius of Antioch. "Progymnasmata."
Diogenes and Crates. "Principal Representatives of Cynic Philosophy."
Epictetus. "A Stoic View of Divine Providence."
Lucien of Samosata. "The Dream, or the Rooster."
The art of argumentation is a style of reasoning with civility that is the foundation of discourse in business, public affairs, and group process. The emphasis on freedom of speech in a democracy is based on a civil society's need to resolve complex problems using discourse and argumentation instead of violence. In the interpersonal sphere, mastering the rhetoric of reasonable argumentation is an effective way to get people to listen to and respect what one says.
Americans are lucky to live in a society that offers its citizens freedom of speech. This freedom has, for decades, provided Americans with the right to have ideas that are originally and not necessarily "politically correct." However, in today's society, many people are joining a movement aimed at stripping us of freedom of speech in an effort to become more politically correct.
In Michiko Kakutani's essay, The Word Police (1996), the author…
Goshgarian, Gary. (2001). Exploring Language. New York: Longman.
Churchill, Ward. (1996). "Crimes against Humanity." Left, Right, and Center: Voices Across the Political Spectrum. Ed. Robert Atwan and Jon Roberts. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 423-433.
Kakutani, Michiko. (1996). "The Word Police." Left, Right, and Center: Voices Across the Political Spectrum. Ed. Robert Atwan and Jon Roberts. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 420-424.
Theism or Atheism?
When humans consider the existence of God, they tend to look outward for evidence and inward for understanding. Humans must process both types of information through a filter that is based on an unwarranted confidence in human reasoning. Or, failing that, humans must fall back to rely on faith. The nature of faith may perhaps be characterized by an absence of definitive criteria other than the absolutes that are sometimes associated with faith. Consider the parameter suggested by the phrase: "Oh, ye of little faith" (Matthew 8:26). A believer can be described as having faith along a continuum: Great faith, little faith, no faith. However, if-then clauses are not attached to faith. It is generally not regarded as acceptable to claim that one will have faith, if something else -- whatever that concept of else may be. To qualify faith in this way transforms belief into bargaining:…
Aikin, S.F. And Talisse, R.B. (2011). Reasonable atheism: A moral case for respectful disbelief. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
King James Bible. Matthew 8:26.
Paley, W. (1802). The watch and the watchmaker, Chapter II.7. In William Paley, Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature, pp. 84-86.
Grube, G.M.A. And Cooper, J.M. (2002). Plato. Five Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett)
Capitalism vs. Democracy
Curing Neoliberalism with Democracy
Pope Francis, never one to shy away from controversy, attacked contemporary forms of capitalism as not only exclusionary, but also deadly (Downie). To support his claim, Francis notes that the news media regularly report a meaningless one or two percent change in the Dow Industrials, but the death of a homeless person goes unnoticed; or that daily tons of food is thrown into the trash while millions starve. Although some liberty was taking in the paraphrasing of Francis' words, the point is the same; i.e., capitalism today, as it is being practiced, rewards the ruthless and powerful and marginalizes the rest. According to the author of the ashington Post article about Pope Francis' stinging criticism of neoliberalism, James Downie, what separates Pope Francis from earlier papal proclamations of capitalist evils is that Francis talks specifics, such as the destructiveness of trickle-down economics and…
Downie, James. "Pope Francis's Stinging Critique of Capitalism." Washington Post 26 November 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
Muller-Doohm, Stefan. "Nation State, Capitalism, Democracy: Philosophical and Political Motives in the Thought of Jurgen Habermas." Trans. Stefan Bird-Pollan. European Journal of Social Theory 13.4 (2010): 443-57. Print.
Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014. Print.
The American healthcare system is in a crisis situation, with exorbitant spending unbalanced by “poor health outcomes, including shorter life expectancy and greater prevalence of chronic conditions” versus high income countries with universal healthcare systems (Squires & Anderson, 2015, p. 1). The Affordable Care Act was an attempt, albeit an incomplete one, to reform the way healthcare is structured and financed. Universal health care is a concept that has gained some traction in the United States, but its thorough implementation is hindered by values, norms, and fears. Overall, the pros of universal healthcare undoubtedly outweigh the cons. The pros of universal healthcare include reductions in wasteful spending, the promotion of social justice and health equity, and the improvement of overall health outcomes in the United States.
The United States already has some limited forms of universal healthcare, addressing the needs of specific patient populations. For example, the American…
person has the right to live their lives with dignity and freedom, a person also has the right to die with the same dignity and freedom. A person who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, for which there is no cure and which causes certain pain, should not be forced to suffer. Likewise, a person should be allowed to choose whether or not to keep their body on life support indefinitely, even if they are in a persistent vegetative state from which no meaningful recovery. The collective issues known loosely as "right to die" comprise various types of physician-assisted suicide, in which a medical doctor can help a terminally ill patient to end their suffering. ight to die legislation, like that recently passed in the state of California, helps not only the patients but also their families ensure all Americans have access to the quality of life they deserve.…
Brown, Jennifer. "Right-to-Die Initiative Headed for Colorado's November Ballot." The Denver Post. July 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.denverpost.com/2016/07/05/right-to-die-colorado-ballot/
Parker, Kathleen. "Is 'right to die' Becoming a Form of Health Care?" The Denver Post, 13 June 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.denverpost.com/2016/06/13/is-right-to-die-becoming-a-form-of-health-care/
"Right to Die," (n.d.). Justia. Retrieved online: http://law.justia.com/constitution/us/amendment-14/35-right-to-die.html
Waimberg, Joshua. "Does the Constitution Protect a Right to Die?" Constitution Daily. 2 Oct, 2015. Retrieved online: http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2015/10/does-the-constitution-protect-a-right-to-die/
validity of the argument and the counterargument for corporal punishment on children and adolescents. The paper furthermore attempts to view this issue from the perspective of the adults administering and questioning this issues as well as from the perspective of the young people on the receiving end of punishment. In this way, the paper aims to provide holistic context by arguing for both sides of the issues from more than one perspective.
Corporal punishment is an issue that is debated often with respect to local and global issues. Corporal punishment is most often applied to children in the home and as part of their formal education. Corporal may be experienced in other institutions, including in situations where adults experience corporal punishment such as in the military, prison, fraternities, and in the home as part of domestic abuse. There is often a spectrum of perspective with regard to the issue of…
Durrant, Joan E. "Evaluating the Success of Sweden's Corporal Punishment Ban." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 23, No. 5, 435 -- 448, 1999.
Straus, Murray A., & Stewart, Julie H. "Corporal Punishment by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, Severity, and Duration, in Relation to Child and Family Characteristics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999.
Turner, Heather A., & Finkelhor, David. "Corporal Punishment as a Stressor Among Youth." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 155 -- 166, 1996.
Assignment 1: Is physician-assisted suicide morally acceptable when a person is suffering from a painful, incurable, terminal condition?
Premise 1: Physician-assisted suicide is not morally acceptable under any circumstances.
According to the American Medical Association (2018), “permitting physicians to engage in assisted suicide would ultimately cause more harm than good,” (p. 1). The reasoning behind the AMA’s position is threefold. First, the AMA (2018) claims that physician-assisted suicide is “incompatible with the physician’s role as healer,” (p. 1). Second, the AMA points out that there are too many ways the process can be abused. As alternatives to physician-assisted suicide, the AMA recommends improving access to pain relief and emotional support to patients with terminal illnesses.
Another reason for opposing physician-assisted suicide is the rapid pace at which medicine advances. If a person has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, there is still a possibility—however slim—that either a cure or an…
In the Apology, Socrates is being placed on trial by three of his rivals for different activities that he is accused of being involved in. The most notable include: corrupting the youth of Athens and not supporting the same religious beliefs as everyone else. During the trial, his enemies are utilizing these charges to demonstrate how he knowingly engaged in these actions. They are demanding that he apologize for the crimes that he committed and begin to conform to the most common practices in contemporary society. (Plato, 2000) ("The Apology," 2012) ("Analysis of the Apology," 2010)
However, Socrates uses this as a forum to ridicule these individuals, question the legitimacy of the trial and to defend himself. This is problematic, as these cavalier attitudes will eventually lead to him being found guilty and sentenced to death. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining his key…
Analysis of the Apology. (2010). CMU. Retrieved from http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80250/part2/ApologyAnalysis.html
The Apology. (2012). Spark Notes. Retrieved from: http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/apology/analysis.html
Plato. (2000). The Trial and Death of Socrates. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.
illiam Apess and the Biblical argument against racism
As a Native American who lived through the end of the 18th century and first 39 years of the 19th century, illiam Apess was subjected to extreme levels of racial prejudice. Indeed, the years during which Apess was most prolific as an author corresponded with the Presidential term of Andrew Jackson, a figure whose political platform included the mistreatment (and eradication) of Native Americans. As the son of a former slave and a member of the Pequot Native American tribe, Apess was exposed to significant racial injustice. However, he was also an Evangelical Christian, and used his extensive knowledge of the Bible as a platform through which to argue against racism. He also advocated for Native Americans to receive a formal education, and his own writing testifies to the power that education can have in influencing popular belief. Drawing from…
Apess, William. "An Indians Looking-Glass for the White Man." Faculty. Texas A&M University-Commerce. 14 Nov. 2012.
Apess, William. "A Son of the Forest." On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, a Pequot. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. 1-99.
pursuant attached instructions. The argument analysis attached article, Ellen inner. As, instructions I sources -text citations/quotations.
"Sometimes our folk theories are correct: Parents do shape their children"
Ellen inner's essay "Sometimes our folk theories are correct: Parents do shape their children" is a counter-argument to recent claims that 'nurture' is of little importance in shaping children's life paths and personalities. She argues that the results of personality tests have had far too much of an influence on recent theories which suggest that biology shapes the human character more than the environment. She adds that furthermore, the lack of 'mirroring' of parents and children on personality tests is hardly adequate testimony to a lack of parental influence. Children may react to their parents' influence, in a negative way, argues inner. To substantiate this she cites the hypothetical example of an Alex P. Keaton-like child who reacts against his parent's…
"Freakonomics: How much influence does a parent have on a child's education?" Marketplace.
14 Jun 2011. 15 Feb 2012. http://www.marketplace.org/topics/life/freakonomics-radio/freakonomics-how-much-influence-does-parent-have-childs-education
Lehrer, Jonah. "Do parents matter?" Scientific American. 9 Apr 2009.
Academic Argument on Faculty Perceptions of Student Disengagement in Online Learning
The emergence of technology has meant that today people are challenged every single day to accept something new in their lives on a regular basis. This is not to say that this is a bad thing, but the argument that can here is that are we really ready as a society to incorporate these new technological advancements in their day-to-day life? And it is exactly at this juncture that we face a critical issue.
hile there is no doubt that the mark of technology has been felt on every segment of our lives, no matter how trivial it may seem, the fact of the matter remains that there is currently a majority of people who are not equipped to handle this new intrusion in their lives. The reason for this can vary from the lack of acceptability to the…
A History of Online Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved from Online Education: http://seacstudentweb.org/a-history-of-online-learning.php
Kurubacak, G. (2002). Book Review: E-tivities; The Key to Achieve Online Learning by Gilly Salmon. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education,, 4 (1).
Liyan Song, E.S. (2004). Improving Online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 59-70.
Michael W. Ward, G.P. (2010). Student and Faculty Perceptions of the Quality of Online Learning Experiences. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11 (3).
Getting old is not very fun when considering the opinions of the elderly. This is true because many hard and difficult decisions must be made in terms of health and health care. Two options immediately arise when one is not able to take care of themselves and seek the assistance of others. The first option is home health care and the other is nursing home health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine, weigh and discuss these two options. This essay will then conclude on when it is best to choose nursing home care and when it is not wise or advisable to do such a thing.
Home Health Care
What exactly is home health care and what does it entail? Home health care helps seniors live independently for as long as possible, given the limits of their medical condition. It covers a wide range of…
Berger, Joseph, (2012). A Shift From Nursing Homes to Managed Care at Home. The New York Times, 23 Feb 2012. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/nyregion/managed-care - keeps-the-frail-out-of-nursing-homes.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Bojorquez, Manuel, (2013). Eleven states get failing grades for nursing home care. CBS News, 9 Aug 2013. Web . http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57597944/eleven-states - get-failing-grades-for-nursing-home-care/
Friedland, R. (2009). Home Care vs. Nursing Home Care. Care, 25 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.care.com/senior-care-home-care-versus-nursing-home-care-p1017- q14698.html
Klauber, M. (2001). The 1987 Nursing Home Reform Act. Public Policy Institute, Feb 2001. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/home-garden/livable-communities/info - 2001/the_1987_nursing_home_reform_act.html
Basil's Argumentation on the Holy Trinity
Basil's argumentation defending the divinity of the Holy Spirit addresses the unity of the Godhead and the eternal associations of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son within the Holy Trinity (Basil 60). Not only does this augment his defense of the Holy Spirit, it completes St. Basils' trinitarian theology thereby laying the foundations of Orthodox Christian Trinitarian theology.
The Holy Trinity
The unity of the Godhead is reflected in the works of the Holy Trinity. hether regarding creation or human redemption, the works of the Holy Trinity are always one, revealing the communion of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. A good example of this unity of action is in the creation of the angels. These pure, spiritual and transcendent powers are called holy because they receive their holiness from the Holy Spirit. In considering the angels, or any…
Basil. St. Basil the Great: On the Holy Spirit (Trans. David Anderson). New York St. Vladimir's Seminary Press,, 1997. Print.
A modern-day reenactment: the murder trial of Ned Kelly
This is the story of a courageous hero. A valiant leader and bold luminary, who was not afraid to stand up for justice. It's the story of a man who was not afraid to stand up for his family and his community, and fight to defend against an oppressive government and a corrupt and violent police force.
This brave man is Ned Kelly. And it is precisely because of his strong sense of justice and leadership ability that made him a target of the police and government.
We've seen that the police would resort to uncivilized violence for the sake of maintaining order in a rigged system, that reduced the Irish Catholics of this country to poor, 2nd class citizens. The police were blindly carrying out the British government's system, which relegated the Irish Catholics to permanent inferior status.…
One of them is represented by the inability of the system to satisfy the necessities of the people in need of financial assistance. Take the simple case of the retired Americans, who live on social security. Their income -- in the context in which it is limited to social security -- is not sufficient to ensure a decent life style. In other words, the system is unable to adequately support the individuals, and these need to also ensure their pension funds from other sources.
"To have a comfortable retirement, Americans need much more than just Social Security. They also need private pensions, savings and investments" (Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005).
The current social securities system is complex and inefficient and, as the editors at How Stuff Works point out, it is no longer applicable in the current context of the dynamic and modern day society. This is explained through two…
Boskin, M.J., Break, G.F., The crisis in social security: problems and prospects, Transaction Publishers, 1977, ISBN 0917616162
Mishra, B.N., Dynamics of social security administration, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 1993, ISBN 8170418321
Sacks, A., Social security explained, CCH Incorporated, 2004, ISBN 0808010719
Social security: understanding the benefits, Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005, http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/fed_prog/ssundben/ssundben.pdf last accessed on October 11, 2010
The enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has brought exponentially higher costs of operating to every organization that must comply to its requirements. As many organizations are already quite lean in terms of headcount to minimize costs, many outsource compliance and the resulting business process management (BPO) activities to outsourcing organizations. Ironically legislation meant to bring American companies into higher levels of compliance continues to be one of the most lucrative businesses globally for outsourcing companies. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) continues to accelerate as organizations spend heavily to gain access to expertise they do not have the funds to hire or the resources to fully take advantage of. The costs of compliance and governance and the risks associated with it paradoxically create higher levels of risk for organizations the laws were meant to protect and infuse with stability. Yet for all the costs of compliance, the benefits to organizations have already…
David Antony Detomasi 2007. The Multinational Corporation and Global Governance: Modeling Global Public Policy Networks. Journal of Business Ethics 71, no. 3 (March 1): 321-334. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed January 4, 2008).
Tim V Eaton, Michael D. Akers. 2007. Whistleblowing and Good Governance. The CPA Journal 77, no. 6 (June 1): 66-71.
The scientists in the documentary the Great Global Warming Swindle (2007) are conservatives and are letting their politics rule their science. Even though they allege that the bad science in an Inconvenient Truth is unsupported by scientific fact, and just because they present scientific facts disputing the science presented in an Inconvenient Truth, just goes to show that the truth is not always convenient! Science has been wrong many times in the past, and everyday in the news there is information to show that what many of us grew up believing, like that Uranus is a planet; has been proven wrong.
Just because Al Gore did not use mathematical formulas in his an Inconvenient Truth, does not mean that the scientists who used mathematical formulas to show that Al
Gore's assertions were wrong are right.
Al Gore wasn't just vice president; he was also a United States senator and very…
nselm's Ontological rgument
nselm (1033-1109), philosopher, theologian and church leader, has presented an argument for the existence of God that has been debated by philosophers and academicians for centuries. nselm presented this argument in the second chapter of his book Proslogium (Discourse) written in 1078, and it became known as the 'ontological argument' much later, in the 18th century. From the beginning, nselm's argument has met with criticism, appreciation and interest. Even in his lifetime a fellow monk, Gaunilo challenged his argument, as have some later philosophers, including Immanuel Kant. Other philosophers like Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz have indirectly supported nselm's view by presenting similar arguments for the existence of God. ny argument or thesis that has evoked so much interest over such a long period must have some merit and needs to be looked at with seriousness and an open mind. However, after a critical analysis of nselm's argument,…
As we have seen from our description and analysis of Anselm's ontological argument, the weaknesses in the argument are at times so glaringly apparent that one is constrained to wonder what the all fuss was about. But the argument is structured in such a way that when you look at the argument from another angle, it may look quite plausible. Is it a magical trick or was Anselm pulling a fast one on us when he put together his argument? We are never likely to know for sure but 'the saint' is probably smiling from 'up there' while he looks down on people still struggling with the 'predicates' and the 'premises' of the argument and getting nowhere.
Gijsbers, Victor. "Theistic Arguments: Anselm's Ontological Argument." Retrieved at http://www.positiveatheism.org/faq/anselm.htm
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…
The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.
The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989
Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
Martin, C.F.J. Thomas Aquinas: God and Explanations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.
McIntyre, John. St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1954.
An Assessment of Paley's Natural theology: The Watch Argument
In this section of Archdeacon of Carlisle William Paley's Natural Theology, the author constructs a detailed yet essentially simple and straightforward argument for the existence of God in the form of some primary designer. More specifically, Paley makes an argument against atheism or the belief that there is no such designer for the universe through a lengthy analogy about a watch, or perhaps a series of watches, he imagines might be discovered on the ground. Unlike a stone that can be assumed to have lain on the ground "forever," a watch found on the ground that has specific movements that appear to serve a specific purpose must have come from a creative and purposeful mind that designed the watch; the parts and their purpose could not have coalesced by simple chance the way a stone might tumble to the…
To distinguish battery from assault, the major deciding factor is whether there has been an actual touching of the victim. If so, the crime can only be battery. However, if there has been no such touching, then the act may or may not constitute an assault, depending on the circumstances and the wording of the law.
All jurisdictions include certain aggravating factors that raise a simple assault to an aggravated assault, which are typically felonies. These aggravating circumstances include using a dangerous or deadly weapon and/or having the intent to rape, maim or murder the victim.
An example of an aggravated assault, which is a felony, would be if Jack threatened to hit John with a baseball bat and came swinging at him. In the case at hand, if Sharon had missed her husband, her act would most likely be held as an aggravated assault. However, once the contact or…
Klotter, John C., and Joycelyn M. Pollock. (2006): Criminal Law. 8th ed. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
Padfield, Nicola. (2004): Criminal Law. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dix, George E. (2001): Gilbert Law Summaries: Criminal Law. Barbri Group.
Dressler, Joshua, and Frank R. Strong. (2006): Understanding Criminal Law. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
Paley's Argument From Design
William Paley's version of the argument from design is that Nature has a discernible order to it; a design and therefore it can be inferred that there is a Creator behind it. Paley reached this conclusion through using an analogy involving a watch and an ordinary stone, on the basis of which he inferred that if from finding a watch on the ground, it can be reasoned that the watch was an object that had been designed by someone for a purpose, the same logic could also be applied to a stone. Paley built his theory by addressing conceivable objections to his analogy: the conclusion that the watch had been designed for a purpose would have been reached even if an observer had no prior knowledge of the object; or if the watch was not working at the time of reasoning; or even in the case…
If the teacher and the majority of the class were engaged in prayer, that student will undoubtedly be receiving the message that his or her beliefs are inferior and not as important. Schools are the primary institutions of forming social and political identities, and it is for this reason that they must be kept religiously neutral.
Allowing religion into public schools will only increase feelings of separatism and inequality in this country. It is not only Constitutionally forbidden, but it is also ethically and morally prohibited. Whether or not the religion is permitted to directly influence the workings of the class, members of non-dominant religions or who are not at all religious will necessarily feel inferior to the rest of the class. The protection of their rights in the face of other's actions is the primary concern of the Constitution.
I. Freedom of religion is a founding principle.…
The real fire that burns you is the fire that is produced by God as the natural regulatory forces of nature. While the fire that is hallucination is fire that is conjured through the ideation of finite spirits such as other individuals. Real fire, since it is a subjective creation of God, has the ability to burn us, while illusionary fires do not have that inherent ability. Therefore all objectives that are not perceived by other human beings are perceived by God and have an existence within the world.
Berkeley's fundamental argument about reality and matter is that they are all sensory perceptions. However, since God creates ultimate harmony within the world and moreover provides a system in which we live in, his rules applies to all objects that we possess and use. Therefore, although arsenic in itself is nothing more than an idea, it is an idea that is…
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…
Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist
Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. < http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/reauthorization-of-the-usa-patriot-act >
Celente, Gerald. "Gerald Celente Predicts Ron Paul Can Win in 2012." 3 May 2010.
YouTube. 24 Sep 2011.
After establishing that it is conceded that African-Americans are humans, Douglass moves on to the proposition that he should not be called upon to prove that humans are entitled to liberty. He points out that Americans have already declared that man is entitled to liberty and freedom. He points out that all men resist slavery and feel it is wrong for another person to claim ownership of them. He also points out the brutal side of slavery, and argues that no person could argue that those things were somehow right including: beatings, lashings, shackling, hunting them with dogs, split out families, knocking out their teeth, selling them at auction, and starvation. He believes that it is ridiculous to expect him to argue that a system that includes all of these horrors is wrong.
Douglass' also tackles the common argument during the time that slavery was a divinely ordained condition or…
Douglass, F. (1852, July 4). The Hypocrisy of American Slavery. Retrieved February 13, 2012
from the History Place website: http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm
The Argument from Illusion -- a Description
The British philosopher George Berkeley sets forth an argument that separates the experience of the reality of an object from the object being experienced. By doing so, he suggests that things exist in different states -- not only the physical. This duality, plurality, or concurrent entity that one perceives is not the real object, or so Berkeley argues, because it has different properties than those properties one assigns to the material object. He supports his argument using several examples where the initial observation one might make has nothing to do with the reality of the object.
The Argument is not only that concerning illusion, but of hallucination and perceptual relativity. If an illusion is does not have the characteristics of the material object, then what is it? Similarly, the question is posed in terms of hallucinations for which no material object exists…
Paradaise Lost, Satan's argument to Eve possesses several fallacies. According to Laura Skye: "Satan's speeches are indeed rhetorical masterpieces that confuse and twist as much as his serpentine actions" (Slye 1). Satan does a wonderful job, up until the end of his speech, making his argument sound logical. However, he uses persuasive speech, flattery, and lies in order to convince her -- all fallacies of an argument.
Initially, Satan's actions with Eve involve little effort to convince her that he is not any evil demon that Adam told her to expect on her voyage. Of course, this is an example of one of Satan's fallacies, because he is lying -- of course he is evil; he's Satan, after all. The second type of fallacy he uses is flattery in order to gain her attention and trust, an essential objective if he was willing to destroy mankind (p. 248-249 lines 540-548):…
Thoughts in Captivity. Internet. Available Online. http://www.ebonmusings.org/atheism/thoughts.html .
Skye, Laura. Paradise Lost Novel Notes. Internet. Available Online. http://navisite.collegeclub.com/servlet/novelnotes.SummaryServlet?note=paradiselost
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
gun control, including counter arguments. Owning a gun is much more than just a statement about this country's Constitution and Second Amendment rights. Owning a gun is a measure of protection and freedom that illustrates the principles this country's founders created, and it is a right that Americans should not take for granted. Gun control is not a suitable method for controlling crime, and it has not been proven to help control violent crime.
First, it is imperative to define what "gun control" means, because it can mean different things to different people. Two experts note, "Gun control is an umbrella term covering everything from laws prohibiting the ownership of defined classes of firearms to mandating the inclusion of gun locks with every firearm sold" (Moorhouse & Wanner, 2006). Clearly, with such a broad definition, and differing meanings, gun control cannot be easily measured or understood, which is one of…
Beachler, D.W. (2003). Militias and segregationists: The politics of low turnout elections in the United States. Polity, 35(3), 441+.
Editors. (2003). Fact sheet: Stolen guns. Retrieved 6 July 2009 from the Johns Hopkins University Web site: http://www.jhsph.edu/gunpolicy/guns_theft_fs.pdf .
Moorhouse, J.C., & Wanner, B. (2006). Does gun control reduce crime or does crime increase gun control? The Cato Journal, 26(1), 103+.
Payne, B.K., & Riedel, R. (2002). Gun control attitudes and the criminal justice student: Do differences exist? College Student Journal, 36(2), 314+.
The first argument would be to point out that essentially, the right to bear arms is an individual right that can be exercised by any member of the civil society. In so doing, an individual is merely accomplishing a right that is rightfully his/hers from the beginning. The second main argument to be pointed out is that gun ownership does not necessarily translate to its improper use, posing as a threat to civil society. The legislative system has created a system that eliminates the occurrence of improper or inappropriate gun use, to prevent this threat from happening. Given these existing arguments for gun ownership, both anti-gun ownership groups and the general public would hopefully subsist to the view that indeed, exercising the right to bear arms is a privilege that will ensure the citizen of his/her safety and precaution against deviants in the civil society.
Intrinsic Value of Liberty
There can be very few doubts as to the importance of liberty to the philosophical espousing of John Stuart Mill, who even authored a treatise entitled On Liberty to underscore the amount of emphasis he placed on this particular concept. What is most interesting about the many different notions the author has in relation to freedom is the circumscriptions that are routinely placed upon it in what is the age-old conflict between the individual and the group -- the latter of which routinely takes the form of government or some other determining mechanism of society. Not surprisingly, Mill presents a number of viewpoints that contradict the notion that the morality of the state should influence the personal opinions and actions of the individual, especially when the effects of those actions only resonate within the individual himself. The two most eminent of these arguments, of…
In order to gain a more complex understanding of Novick's idea of liberty one would actually have to consider the difference principle and the effects it would have on groups of people who managed to differentiate themselves from the masses by becoming productive and by directing their attention toward making profits without hurting anyone or acting in disagreement with rights generally accepted by the social order. Rawls virtually acts in discordance with all that Novick's stands for, as the latter considers freedom as being one of the most important concepts that society has access to.
Novick would certainly be reluctant to accept living in a society where people accept the difference principle and guide themselves in accordance to it. The philosopher's book "Anarchy, State, and Utopia" is practically meant to condemn individuals like Rawls as a result of their ignorance of ideas that are very obvious. It is likely that…
Court Opening Argument
It is humbly submitted to the Hon'ble Court that this respondent as per the issues and syllabus cited submit that the issues of the litigation pertain -- not only to the law of marriage, but also to the recognition if it must be accorded to same sex marriages and unions, and whether no recognizing this social development amounts to denial of the constitutional rights of a group of citizens. It is also pertinent to question if the states in allowing adoption to opposite sex couples and denying the same to same sex couples. The question then becomes still deeper with the challenge of the validity of same sex marriages.
It is still with various states to give effect to the Defence of Marriage Act -- DOMA and the definition of marriage as per section 3 of the act makes marriage between a man and a woman alone…
Dreaming argument & Pragmatism
The Blumenfelds' argument in regards to dreaming is essentially that since we have dreams that resemble real life experiences, we cannot be certain that at this moment we are not dreaming, given that the character of our experience does not always alert us to the fact that we are in a dream state. Austen's objection to this is that simply being able to say that dreams have a 'real life' quality presumes that one knows what real life is, as distinguishable from dreams. Austen demands that there must be a particular reason to distrust one's senses and think that one is dreaming (Slides 15-16). "It is possible to recognize cases of deception only if there is a background of general non-deception" (Slide 17).
For a Pyrrhonian Skeptic, one must remain in a continual state of doubt. However, the Blumenfelds' argument suggests doubts in the ability…
It is worth considering that there may be underlying economic reasons for social standing -- at least when Veblen's argument is viewed from the present. Social standing can be a means to economic opportunity. The better one's standing, the more opportunities will be available and the fewer barriers there will be to taking advantage of those opportunities. As a result, there may have been an underlying economic reason for consumers to engage in conspicuous consumption. It may not have been irrational at all. It would be interesting to see Veblen's response to such a supposition, given that it would have run counter to his underlying views about humanity and its motivations.
However, Veblen did not view consumption that way. He viewed consumption more from the framework of a desire to "imbue experience with aesthetic unity" and that humans cooperate to shape their environments for the common good (Throntveit, 2008). Veblen's…
JRank. (no date). Thorstein Veblen biography. JRank.org. Retrieved May 9, 2010 from http://social.jrank.org/pages/3124/Thorstein-Veblen.html
Throntviet, T. (2008). The will to behold: Thorstein Veblen's pragmatic aesthetics. Modern Intellectual History. Vol. 5 (3) 519-546.
Silber's argument is that private universities and colleges, that he prefers to call 'independent', are really as much public as government-paid universities are since the public factor runs through all of their activities and manifestations. He goes on to laud the qualities of independent universities showing how they show a great record of diversity, how they contribute immensely to public education and professional contributions (in that, for instance, a majority of degrees are accorded to doctors, lawyers, and dentists), how they are careful and prudent in their activities, and, most of all, how so many of these independent institutions are becoming redundant and closing due to inability of expense to keep themselves afloat. Silber argues that in many ways they are more valuable to the public than public-sponsored universities are and that, therefore, it would be worth the taxpayer's while to keep these universities afloat.
Silber's primary fallacy -- and…
Legal esearch and Argument
To begin the research for this case and the argument that follows, one must first examine the case and determine what is essential. It is assumed that the engineer was negligent because he should have known about the circular which advised that further structural support would be required for the type of building he was constructing. It is not enough to rely upon 20 years-worth of experience in the field because situations change which may negate all of that experience. Thus, this does not seem to be a legitimate argument for the engineer. It could be argued that the engineer was not made aware of the circular and that this was not his negligence but the persons who filed the document before he had seen it. Unfortunately, this would seem to be immaterial because it is the engineer's responsibility to stay abreast of important changes within…
Brickhill v Cooke (1984) 3 NSAWLR 396.
Carosella v Ginos & Gilbert Pty Ltd. (1981) 27 SASR 515.
Hadley v. Baxendale, (1854) 9 Exch. 341, 156 Eng. Rep. 145.
Lenz, C. (2012). Guide to identification of construction defects. Retrieved from http://www.lenzmoreton.com.au/news.php?id=384&cat=general&lenz=41441761 925f2aa1e28a17500c9c2cd4
Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.
Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…
Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.
Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.
He however mentioned that the construction of the system would revolutionize the way people travel in the region. Professional Engineering (2009) mentioned that the railway system account for about six percent of total passenger kilometers that are travelled in Britain. This figure need to be higher with the need for at least trebling the figure. HS2 is noted to be important in also presented the benefits of the HS2 system over the existing line. Bluespace Thinking (2011) performed a demand forecast, economic benefits as well as the alternative options to the ail as well as oad HS2 demand forecast.
The arguments for the proposed HS2 rail system
The Department of Transport (2011) presented a series of arguments that are in support of the proposed construction of a high speed rail system, HS2. The proposed railway system is expected to slash the time of travel between cities in order to bring…
Bluespace Thinking (2011). A Review of High Speed Rail - HS2 proposals.
Else, H (2011). Transforming the way we travel. Professional Engineering
Hibbert, L (2011). Businesses back plans for a second high-speed rail line but the No campaign is vociferous.Professional Engineering
The Department of Transportation (2011)Economic Case for HS2:The Y Network and London -- West Midlands.
Toulmin-Based Argument in Support of Pet Adoptions From Shelters
More people who want pets should adopt them from shelters because many unwanted animals are being destroyed each year in favor of purebred species obtained from other sources which provide their operators with a profit. The worth of the lives of these otherwise-doomed animals, though, far outweighs the individual pet-owning preferences of owners and no animal should be destroyed in favor of one that is bred for sale. Certainly, as discussed further below, this does not mean that individual pet-owners do not have a right to choose what type of animal they want for their families, but it does mean that more emphasis needs to be placed on pet adoptions from shelters to save as many animals from destruction as possible. In fact, some American communities have gone so far as to adopt a "no kill" policy in their pet shelters…
Boks, E. (2005, May). Carrot & stick. Vegetarian Times, 331, 54.
Cherry, R. (2007, April). Puppy love. Vegetarian Times, 349, 78-79.
Fine, A.H. (2006). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Guither, H.D. (1998). Animal rights: History and scope of a radical social movement.