158+ documents containing “arson”.
The increase in juvenile crime related arson is particularly troubling. One theory suggest that undiagnosed and untreated conduct disorder in early childhood may be the progenitors in the creation of an arsonist:
From a diagnostic perspective, firesetting is a strong predictor of the continuation of conduct disorder and, in field trials, was found to be the fourth most discriminating behavior for this diagnosis among 14 diagnostic criteria, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. On clinical measures, psychiatrically referred firesetters have been found to exhibit more pronounced delinquent and hyperactive behaviors more extreme externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression) associated with conduct disorder, fewer internalizing symptoms and less social skill than their nonfiresetting peers, although some studies have not reported differences in aggression or general psychopathology (Kolko 191)
However, it has been noted that many children who have started fires do not always show any signs of significant disturbance….
Abrahamsen, David. The Psychology of Crime. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
Arson." U.S. Fire Administration. 2007. FEMA. 12 Nov 2007 http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/statistics/arson/ .
Grolnick, Wendy S., Robert E. Cole, Loretta Laurenitis, and Paul Schwartzman. "Playing with Fire: a Developmental Assessment of Children's Fire Understanding and Experience." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 19.2 (1990): 128-135..
Kolko, David J. "Aggression and Psychopathology in Matchplaying and Firesetting Children: a Replication and Extension." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 20.2 (1991): 191-201.
Fire is dangerous and can start in many different places. Fire causes much damage and risks causing much death if it's power is not properly respected and taken into consideration. Arson is a crime dealing with illegally setting fires. Fires are started all time by humans with no intent of hurting or harming anyone making the crime of arson hard to prove and difficult to fully understand. Destroying other people's property and livelihoods to the use of fire should be discouraged at all times and investigating crimes of arson would certainly help to eliminate and ultimately eradicate all of these types of crimes.
In any investigation it is important to understand what is at stake. When investigators first stumble upon a suspected case of arson and there are certain things that they should look for. Cafe & Stern (1989) created elementary rules and looking for clues of arson that included:
Cafe, T & Stern. W. (1989). Is it an accidental fire or arson? Chemistry In Australia Magazine, April 1989. Retrieved from http://www.tcforensic.com.au/docs/article3.html
Engber, D. (2006). Did he start the fire? How arson investigations work. Slate 3 Nov 2006. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/id/2152795/
Arson investigators require a great deal of care, attention to detail and skill, because there are numerous problems that are not similar to the majority of other crime scenes. Unlike other crime scenes, which the most is done to keep the situation as found, the preservation of an arson scene is very difficult. efore the investigators get their, firefighters, onlookers, police and even the owners of the property may have already been on the crime scene.
Explosions due to explosives and emulsions complicate the issue even more, since there are so many different forms and applications that continually change with technology. Dynamite has been used for centuries, but has increasingly been replaced by other propellants. Thorough processing of the crime scene following an explosion may give investigators the opportunity to determine what caused the devise to go off. This helps develop leads that may find the suspects (everidge, 1998)
Such determination is the goal of any arson investigation.
The advantages of accurate and thorough fire investigations should be obvious. All fifty states statutorily allow public investigations of all fires in an effort to determine their origins and causes. This process, however, is not without complications and, too often, the cause and origin are left as unresolved and identified as undetermined causes.
Some fires are the result of complex events whose origins and cause are not immediately obvious. The investigation may require the gathering of extensive data so that the investigator is not guessing at the cause or is basing his decision on the circumstances surrounding the event. This procedure may take considerable time and may never render any definable evidence as to the cause and origin. This is the essence of arson investigation.
Fire investigation is also complicated by the fact that the destructive power of the fire often includes any….
County of Solano v. Delancy, 264 Cal. Rptr. 721, 724 (Californa Ct. Of Appeals 1989).
Daubert v. Merrill Dow, 509 U.S. 579 (U.S. Supreme Court 1993).
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1994). Arson Prosecution: Issues and Strategies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Frye v. U.S., 293 F. 1013 (D. C. Circuit 1923).
In a unanimous opinion, delivered by Justice uth Bader Ginsburg, the Court held that an owner-occupied residence not used for any commercial purpose does not qualify as property "used in" commerce or commerce-affecting activity, such that arson of such a dwelling is not subject to federal prosecution under section 844(i). Justice uth Bader Ginsburg wrote for the Court that "[w]ere we to adopt the Government's expansive interpretation of section 844(i), hardly a building in the land would fall outside the federal statute's domain." (Supreme Court Case; "Oyez Project -- Jones v. United States."
Trends and Conclusions -- in each case over the last two decades that has reached the Supreme Court with an element of arson attached, we note that it is the nature of the arson that seems to trip the balance from slightly serious to quite serious. The high court takes arson very seriously, likely due to a….
Clay v. United States. (2003). Cornell University Law School. Cited in:
Decker, J. And B. Ottley. (2009). Arson Law and Prosecution. Carolina Academic Press.
Ford, J. (2005). Explosives and Arson Investigation. Mason Crest Publishers.
So, if they witnessed someone else accidently start the fire, they could also still be charged with manslaughter as they were in their trial.
A person's mental state is important because we should know if a defendant knows right from wrong, or if he or she is competent. When a defendant is on the witness stand or sitting in a courtroom, we usually have no way of knowing their mental state. A person can look perfectly normal, but have big problems.
Their mental state must be a factor in determining whether or not they are guilty. There are serious mental illnesses that people suffer from that are real and that affect their mental capacity to make normal decisions.
Though most of us don't like the idea of someone getting away with a crime because they are found "insane" or "mentally incompetent," in some cases it is reality. And, given, that they….
Introduction to Fire Science
Some fires are started for the purpose of terrorism. Terrorism is arson, but with a specific motive that is typically related to “social protest against an individual or group”. A string of arsons, therefore, may qualify as domestic terrorism, if there is a definable pattern with respect to the victims of the arson. Often, a group will actually claim responsibility, since creating fear is one of the ultimate objectives of terrorists.
In January 2012 in Los Angeles, a string of arsons occurred, totalling 52 separate fires. A German man was eventually charged with 37 counts of arson relating to this spree. The fires were arson because they were started with an accelerant, and this is also typical of arson committed for terrorism purposes. In this spree, the arsonist was accused of setting the fires out of hatred for Americans. The arsonist even shouted obscenities relating to Americans in….
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
This analysis will provide a background on eco-terrorism followed….
Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front: http://earth-liberation-front.com/
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism
Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org: http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective of….
unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.
This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.
Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes. Forensic science….
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse….
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Kennedy v State of Georgia
Read and brief the case of Kennedy v. State, 323 S.E. 2D 169 (Ga. App. 1984). Your case brief should follow the format below:
Title of the selected case
Kennedy v State of Georgia
172 Ga. App. 336
S.E.2d. 169 (1984)
Facts: Summary of the events, court timeline, evidence, and so forth
Appellant Henry Xavier Kennedy appeals the guilty verdict in a jury trial for the crime of first degree arson in the September 23, 1981 fire which leveled his log cabin. He claims that the jury charges, or sometimes called instructions to the jury by the judge, were erroneous in several different ways and that there was not enough evidence to convict him of the charge.
Kennedy's building business was slow, and he had two mortgages on the cabin which was the building in question. He had renewed an insurance policy on the building for $40,000 just days before. Kennedy had told….
summer of 1976 to the end of summer 1977, a reign of murderous terror gripped New York City - it was the year of the Son of Sam. David Berkowitz would eventually be arrested, tried, and convicted for the series of gun-attacks that left six people dead, seven wounded, and an entire city in fear. When caught, while there existed a potential for his being determined to be insane, Berkowitz pled guilty to the six murders and, under the sentencing rules of the time, was given twenty-five years to life. David Berkowitz comes up for parole next year.
The Son of Sam, while in jail, turned his crimes into profit by writing and authorizing books to be written about him.
Outrage against this led to the "Son of Sam Law" which now disallows criminals in jail from profiting from their crimes while behind bars.
Berkowitz has become an icon in the study….
Chesler, A. & Robb. A. (1996). Criminal Quotes. New York: Visible Ink Press.
Glaeser, E.L., Sacerdote, B. & Scheinkman, J.A. (May, 1996). Crime and Social Interactions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111. n2. p507(42).
Hollin, C.R. (Winter, 1994). Multiple Murder: A Review. British Journal of Criminology, 34. n1. p1(14).
2002). Michael J. Codd, New York City police commissioner Announces arrest of Son of Sam suspect. www.HistoryChannel.com.Online. Internet. Avail: www.historychannel.com/speeches/archive/speech_341.html. Info Acc: Nov 26, 2002. n pag.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest….
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Another case illustrates how important proper investigation can be to the outcome of a case. Various authors cite the case of a fire in a home that killed two children. The children's mother had left them in the care of her boyfriend, who left them alone and left the residence. A small fire was seen burning outside the home after he left. The authors note, "The suspect was arrested and charged with arson and murder. Law enforcement authorities claimed that accelerant was detected on the suspect's clothes and in fire debris sampled outside the dwelling" (Various authors, 2003, p. 127). In fact, the accelerant found outside the home was completely different from that found on the suspect, (which was gasoline), and eventually the charges were dropped. The defendant worked as an automobile mechanic, which explained the presence of gasoline on his clothing. This indicates how a botched investigation can lead….
Bellilse, M. (2007). Moore avoids death penalty with plea bargain. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20070119/NEWS/70119007 .
Drake, J. (2001, February 20). Arson unit's powers stripped. The Washington Times, p. 1.
Editors. (2009). Arson. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Insurance Information Institute Web site: http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/test1/ .
Lynch, P.A. (2007). Michigan court recognizes rule that arson cases can be proven. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Interfire.org Web site: http://www.interfire.org/features/legalview.asp?date=12142007 .
(Prins, Fire-Raising) The increase in juvenile crime related arson is particularly troubling. One theory suggest that undiagnosed and untreated conduct disorder in early childhood may be the progenitors in…Read Full Paper ❯
Arson Fire is dangerous and can start in many different places. Fire causes much damage and risks causing much death if it's power is not properly respected and taken into…Read Full Paper ❯
Arson investigators require a great deal of care, attention to detail and skill, because there are numerous problems that are not similar to the majority of other crime…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Such determination is the goal of any arson investigation. The advantages of accurate and thorough fire investigations should be obvious. All fifty states statutorily allow public investigations of all…Read Full Paper ❯
In a unanimous opinion, delivered by Justice uth Bader Ginsburg, the Court held that an owner-occupied residence not used for any commercial purpose does not qualify as property…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
So, if they witnessed someone else accidently start the fire, they could also still be charged with manslaughter as they were in their trial. Mental State A person's mental state…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction to Fire Science Some fires are started for the purpose of terrorism. Terrorism is arson, but with a specific motive that is typically related to “social protest against an…Read Full Paper ❯
ELF Earth Liberation Front (ELF) ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.) Eco-Terrorism Overview Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups The Earth Liberation Front If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation…Read Full Paper ❯
The common characteristics of all property crimes Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In…Read Full Paper ❯
unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Kennedy v State of Georgia Read and brief the case of Kennedy v. State, 323 S.E. 2D 169 (Ga. App. 1984). Your case brief should follow the format below: Title of…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
summer of 1976 to the end of summer 1977, a reign of murderous terror gripped New York City - it was the year of the Son of Sam.…Read Full Paper ❯
Crime Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even…Read Full Paper ❯
Another case illustrates how important proper investigation can be to the outcome of a case. Various authors cite the case of a fire in a home that killed two…Read Full Paper ❯