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The increase in juvenile crime related arson is particularly troubling. One theory suggest that undiagnosed and untreated conduct disorder in early childhood may be the progenitors in the creation of an arsonist:
From a diagnostic perspective, firesetting is a strong predictor of the continuation of conduct disorder and, in field trials, was found to be the fourth most discriminating behavior for this diagnosis among 14 diagnostic criteria, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. On clinical measures, psychiatrically referred firesetters have been found to exhibit more pronounced delinquent and hyperactive behaviors more extreme externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression) associated with conduct disorder, fewer internalizing symptoms and less social skill than their nonfiresetting peers, although some studies have not reported differences in aggression or general psychopathology (Kolko 191)
However, it has been noted that many children who have started fires do not always show any signs of…
Abrahamsen, David. The Psychology of Crime. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
Arson." U.S. Fire Administration. 2007. FEMA. 12 Nov 2007 http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/statistics/arson/ .
Grolnick, Wendy S., Robert E. Cole, Loretta Laurenitis, and Paul Schwartzman. "Playing with Fire: a Developmental Assessment of Children's Fire Understanding and Experience." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 19.2 (1990): 128-135..
Kolko, David J. "Aggression and Psychopathology in Matchplaying and Firesetting Children: a Replication and Extension." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 20.2 (1991): 191-201.
Fire is dangerous and can start in many different places. Fire causes much damage and risks causing much death if it's power is not properly respected and taken into consideration. Arson is a crime dealing with illegally setting fires. Fires are started all time by humans with no intent of hurting or harming anyone making the crime of arson hard to prove and difficult to fully understand. Destroying other people's property and livelihoods to the use of fire should be discouraged at all times and investigating crimes of arson would certainly help to eliminate and ultimately eradicate all of these types of crimes.
In any investigation it is important to understand what is at stake. When investigators first stumble upon a suspected case of arson and there are certain things that they should look for. Cafe & Stern (1989) created elementary rules and looking for clues of arson that…
Cafe, T & Stern. W. (1989). Is it an accidental fire or arson? Chemistry In Australia Magazine, April 1989. Retrieved from http://www.tcforensic.com.au/docs/article3.html
Engber, D. (2006). Did he start the fire? How arson investigations work. Slate 3 Nov 2006. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/id/2152795/
Arson investigators require a great deal of care, attention to detail and skill, because there are numerous problems that are not similar to the majority of other crime scenes. Unlike other crime scenes, which the most is done to keep the situation as found, the preservation of an arson scene is very difficult. efore the investigators get their, firefighters, onlookers, police and even the owners of the property may have already been on the crime scene.
Explosions due to explosives and emulsions complicate the issue even more, since there are so many different forms and applications that continually change with technology. Dynamite has been used for centuries, but has increasingly been replaced by other propellants. Thorough processing of the crime scene following an explosion may give investigators the opportunity to determine what caused the devise to go off. This helps develop leads that may find the suspects (everidge, 1998)
Beveridge, a. (1998) Forensic Investigation of Explosions, NY: CRC Press
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reports Retrieved on January 6, 2008 http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm
Fisher, B. (2003) Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation NY: CRC Press
Such determination is the goal of any arson investigation.
The advantages of accurate and thorough fire investigations should be obvious. All fifty states statutorily allow public investigations of all fires in an effort to determine their origins and causes. This process, however, is not without complications and, too often, the cause and origin are left as unresolved and identified as undetermined causes.
Some fires are the result of complex events whose origins and cause are not immediately obvious. The investigation may require the gathering of extensive data so that the investigator is not guessing at the cause or is basing his decision on the circumstances surrounding the event. This procedure may take considerable time and may never render any definable evidence as to the cause and origin. This is the essence of arson investigation.
Fire investigation is also complicated by the fact that the destructive power of the fire often…
County of Solano v. Delancy, 264 Cal. Rptr. 721, 724 (Californa Ct. Of Appeals 1989).
Daubert v. Merrill Dow, 509 U.S. 579 (U.S. Supreme Court 1993).
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1994). Arson Prosecution: Issues and Strategies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Frye v. U.S., 293 F. 1013 (D. C. Circuit 1923).
In a unanimous opinion, delivered by Justice uth Bader Ginsburg, the Court held that an owner-occupied residence not used for any commercial purpose does not qualify as property "used in" commerce or commerce-affecting activity, such that arson of such a dwelling is not subject to federal prosecution under section 844(i). Justice uth Bader Ginsburg wrote for the Court that "[w]ere we to adopt the Government's expansive interpretation of section 844(i), hardly a building in the land would fall outside the federal statute's domain." (Supreme Court Case; "Oyez Project -- Jones v. United States."
Trends and Conclusions -- in each case over the last two decades that has reached the Supreme Court with an element of arson attached, we note that it is the nature of the arson that seems to trip the balance from slightly serious to quite serious. The high court takes arson very seriously, likely due to a…
Clay v. United States. (2003). Cornell University Law School. Cited in:
Decker, J. And B. Ottley. (2009). Arson Law and Prosecution. Carolina Academic Press.
Ford, J. (2005). Explosives and Arson Investigation. Mason Crest Publishers.
So, if they witnessed someone else accidently start the fire, they could also still be charged with manslaughter as they were in their trial.
A person's mental state is important because we should know if a defendant knows right from wrong, or if he or she is competent. When a defendant is on the witness stand or sitting in a courtroom, we usually have no way of knowing their mental state. A person can look perfectly normal, but have big problems.
Their mental state must be a factor in determining whether or not they are guilty. There are serious mental illnesses that people suffer from that are real and that affect their mental capacity to make normal decisions.
Though most of us don't like the idea of someone getting away with a crime because they are found "insane" or "mentally incompetent," in some cases it is reality. And,…
Commonwealth vs. Thomas S. Levesque. No. 436 Mass. 443. Supreme Judicial Court. 29 March 2002.
Murray, G.V. "Tragedy in Worcester." 20 September 2000. firehouse.com. 18 July 2009 .
Introduction to Fire Science
Some fires are started for the purpose of terrorism. Terrorism is arson, but with a specific motive that is typically related to “social protest against an individual or group”. A string of arsons, therefore, may qualify as domestic terrorism, if there is a definable pattern with respect to the victims of the arson. Often, a group will actually claim responsibility, since creating fear is one of the ultimate objectives of terrorists.
In January 2012 in Los Angeles, a string of arsons occurred, totalling 52 separate fires. A German man was eventually charged with 37 counts of arson relating to this spree. The fires were arson because they were started with an accelerant, and this is also typical of arson committed for terrorism purposes. In this spree, the arsonist was accused of setting the fires out of hatred for Americans. The arsonist even shouted obscenities relating to…
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front: http://earth-liberation-front.com/
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism
Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org: http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.
This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.
Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes.…
Borer, Keith. Forensic Chemistry.
Keith Borer Consultants Limited. 22 March 2003. http://www.borer.demon.co.uk/chemistry.htm
The Role of Forensic Scientist in Detection of Crime. http://assampolice.com/art2.htm
BSC Forensic Science.
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed…
NBC News. (2007). Worst U.S. shooting ever kills 33 on Va. campus. NBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18134671/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/worst-us-shooting-ever-kills-va-campus/ . 2013 June 25.
Shen, A. (2012). A Timeline of Mass Shooting in the U.S. since Columbine. Think Progress, Web, Available from: http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/12/14/1337221/a-timeline-of-mass-shootings-in-the-us-since-columbine/?mobile=nc . 2013 June 25.
Toppo, G. (2009). 10 years later, the real story behind Columbine. USA Today, Web, Available from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-04-13-columbine-myths_N.htm?POE=click-refer . 2013 June 25.
Kennedy v State of Georgia
Read and brief the case of Kennedy v. State, 323 S.E. 2D 169 (Ga. App. 1984). Your case brief should follow the format below:
Title of the selected case
Kennedy v State of Georgia
172 Ga. App. 336
S.E.2d. 169 (1984)
Facts: Summary of the events, court timeline, evidence, and so forth
Appellant Henry Xavier Kennedy appeals the guilty verdict in a jury trial for the crime of first degree arson in the September 23, 1981 fire which leveled his log cabin. He claims that the jury charges, or sometimes called instructions to the jury by the judge, were erroneous in several different ways and that there was not enough evidence to convict him of the charge.
Kennedy's building business was slow, and he had two mortgages on the cabin which was the building in question. He had renewed an insurance policy on the building…
summer of 1976 to the end of summer 1977, a reign of murderous terror gripped New York City - it was the year of the Son of Sam. David Berkowitz would eventually be arrested, tried, and convicted for the series of gun-attacks that left six people dead, seven wounded, and an entire city in fear. When caught, while there existed a potential for his being determined to be insane, Berkowitz pled guilty to the six murders and, under the sentencing rules of the time, was given twenty-five years to life. David Berkowitz comes up for parole next year.
The Son of Sam, while in jail, turned his crimes into profit by writing and authorizing books to be written about him.
Outrage against this led to the "Son of Sam Law" which now disallows criminals in jail from profiting from their crimes while behind bars.
Berkowitz has become an icon in…
Chesler, A. & Robb. A. (1996). Criminal Quotes. New York: Visible Ink Press.
Glaeser, E.L., Sacerdote, B. & Scheinkman, J.A. (May, 1996). Crime and Social Interactions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111. n2. p507(42).
Hollin, C.R. (Winter, 1994). Multiple Murder: A Review. British Journal of Criminology, 34. n1. p1(14).
2002). Michael J. Codd, New York City police commissioner Announces arrest of Son of Sam suspect. www.HistoryChannel.com.Online. Internet. Avail: www.historychannel.com/speeches/archive/speech_341.html. Info Acc: Nov 26, 2002. n pag.
This element is necessary to determine whether or not the offense can be considered to be aggravated sexual assault.
Explain why locating the point of origin is so important in arson investigation.
Determining the point of origin of a fire is a crucial first step in any investigation. This step is so important because it may illuminate the cause of the fire, and further identify whether the fire was criminal in nature. Fire investigation is difficult, due to the fact that evidence is often destroyed by the blaze. Before the cause of a fire can be determined, the point of origin must be identified. Often the point of origin of a fire is known, but the cause is not, and sometimes the reverse is true.
List and describe the several stages of a burglary investigation.
There are five main activities used by the authorities to respond to burglaries of dwellings…
Archambault, J., Faugno, D.K. (2001). Overcoming a consent defense to sexual assault. The Journal of Emergency Nursing, 27, 204-8.
Coupe, T., Griffiths, M. (1995). Police investigations into residential burglary. The British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, 1, 18-21.
Jukanin, T.J. (1996). Model guidelines and sex crimes investigation manual for Illinois law enforcement. Illinois Law Enforcement and Training Standards Board. Retrieved 6/11/2007 at http://www.ptb.state.il.us/publications/sexassualt.pdf.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Another case illustrates how important proper investigation can be to the outcome of a case. Various authors cite the case of a fire in a home that killed two children. The children's mother had left them in the care of her boyfriend, who left them alone and left the residence. A small fire was seen burning outside the home after he left. The authors note, "The suspect was arrested and charged with arson and murder. Law enforcement authorities claimed that accelerant was detected on the suspect's clothes and in fire debris sampled outside the dwelling" (Various authors, 2003, p. 127). In fact, the accelerant found outside the home was completely different from that found on the suspect, (which was gasoline), and eventually the charges were dropped. The defendant worked as an automobile mechanic, which explained the presence of gasoline on his clothing. This indicates how a botched investigation can lead…
Bellilse, M. (2007). Moore avoids death penalty with plea bargain. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20070119/NEWS/70119007 .
Drake, J. (2001, February 20). Arson unit's powers stripped. The Washington Times, p. 1.
Editors. (2009). Arson. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Insurance Information Institute Web site: http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/test1/ .
Lynch, P.A. (2007). Michigan court recognizes rule that arson cases can be proven. Retrieved 24 Feb. 2009 from the Interfire.org Web site: http://www.interfire.org/features/legalview.asp?date=12142007 .
I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.
II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.
Roe v. Wade
From a constitutional perspective,…
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
He was looking to face life in prison if he had not committed suicide. One of his many conflagrations was not confined to mere destruction and damage in California's wildlife areas, but actually caused property damage to someone's home. There is no telling how great of a financial burden such damage was to the owner of the home, if he or she happened to have any sort of homeowners insurance specific to fires, and how much of a burden it may have been to finance the deductible if such insurance did indeed belong to the owner. Lastly, it should be noted that arsonists were responsible for $173 million in direct economic damage between 2000 and 2006, which cost tax payers millions more to extinguish. Hough, in keeping with this sort of company by committing similar actions, definitely had a noxious effect upon the property and finances of the residents of…
Furthermore, while fire starters may actually be innocuous, Hough's deeds were definitely harmful and fairly costly, at that. The final fire that he willfully started on the day of his arrest, the Colby Fire, consumed 168 acres of wildlife, took $1.3 million for the Forest Service to eventually extinguish, and closed down a state highway for three days. The money required to put out that fire is being paid by taxpayers, many of whom are overworked and underpaid. There is no telling how much inconvenience and turmoil the lack of access to state highway 32 may have caused during that three day period, which could have potentially separated people from their jobs or homes, or severely affected their abilities to access both of those important locations. There can be no doubt that Hough's efforts, which he himself could not explain, whimsical as they may have been, caused a considerable amount of pecuniary damage and destruction in general.
Further evidence that confirms the fact that Hough was no mere fire starter and was, in fact, a full-fledged arsonist can be found in the fact that he was arrested as a serial arsonist on what was initially nine felony counts and had bail set at over two thirds of a million dollars. He was looking to face life in prison if he had not committed suicide. One of his many conflagrations was not confined to mere destruction and damage in California's wildlife areas, but actually caused property damage to someone's home. There is no telling how great of a financial burden such damage was to the owner of the home, if he or she happened to have any sort of homeowners insurance specific to fires, and how much of a burden it may have been to finance the deductible if such insurance did indeed belong to the owner. Lastly, it should be noted that arsonists were responsible for $173 million in direct economic damage between 2000 and 2006, which cost tax payers millions more to extinguish. Hough, in keeping with this sort of company by committing similar actions, definitely had a noxious effect upon the property and finances of the residents of the state of California. Due to this effect, there can be little doubt that he was no mere fire starter, but was a serial arsonist whose capture may have prevented untold amounts of further financial and property damage throughout the state.
The vast majority of cases involving arson are classified as property crimes, for the simple fact that arson is one of the most effective means of destruction known to man and that the damage to property that it may cause is oftentimes considerable (as a casual look at Hough's efforts indicates). Furthermore, formal arson is always a felony, typically due to the amounts of property damage that it incurs. There are lesser offenses for fire-related crimes, such as malicious burning. But arson itself is always a felony and usually considered a crime of property damage.
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…
Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
These types of programs should provide refresher courses each year for the purpose of reminding firefighters what they should remember fighting and documenting the fire. The incendiary fire is one that is highly unpredictable because it does not follow the natural progression of a fire due to having been intentionally set and possibly accelerated with some type of flammable substance that may be highly toxic. The high incident of incendiary fires in institutions can only be addressed through cooperative and collaborative efforts with these types of institutions. In relation to Incendiary fires due to cooking equipment, the fire department should initiate campaigns by which to provide public information concerning prevention of these types of fires.
2. Incendiary Fires: Documentation and Evidence
Secondly, in the case of scene and evidence documentation it is stated that the investigation must by "systematic and technically sound" and that: "One of the most common mistakes…
City of Yakima - Budget Strategy Team (2004) Online available at http://www.ci.yakima.wa.us/services/finance/minutes/2004minutes/09-10-04%20Notes.doc
Incendiary Fires (2007) LSU Fire & Emergency Training Institute Glossary. Online available at http://feti.lsu.edu/glossary/browse.php?letter=I
Gilliam, Jason W. (2006) Structure Fires and Fire Deaths within the Jurisdiction of the Farmington, Missouri Fire Department. Online available at http://www.ci.farmington.mo.us/publicworks/forms/Fires.pdf,
Burnette, Guy E. Esquire (2007) Documentation of the Fire Scene: A Legal Perspective. interfere online available at http://www.interfire.org/res_file/docscleg.asp .
aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).
The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…
Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)
Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data
Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
defendant, D, had the requisite intent to burn the building (commit arson) when he started a fire in Smith's wastepaper basket in the classroom; whether D. had the requisite intent to steal Sue's wallet and money when he found it; whether D. had the requisite intent to steal Chester's $10 when it was offered him for the purpose of purchasing dance tickets; whether D. had the requisite intent to steal Chester's additional $20 when it was offered him for pictures.
Arson is defined at common law as the malicious burning of the dwelling house of another.
Theft is defined as the "physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently" (Bernard, 2006).
• Jim set fire to the wastepaper basket
• Jim picked up Sue's wallet and hid…
Bernard, T. (2006). Theft. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/theft
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
ildfires in California
In the United States in the states of California, there have been many wildfires. A wildfire is defined as uncontrolled fire in an area where vegetation such as trees and grasses made the fire even more dangerous. These yearly occurrences have led to the deaths of many people and also thousands of homes which have been lost to fire and the aftermath. The situation has only gotten worse in the last decade with global warming and climate change making fires all the more dangerous and more easily spread. ildfires in California have also increased pollution and left devastation for animal wildlife. Unless the wildfires of California are somehow put into control, then the situation will continue to worsen and many more people will die and find themselves without homes. There are many reasons which cause California wildfires and they must each be dealt with to solve the…
Bonnicksen, T. (2009). Impacts of California wildfires on climates and forests: a study of seven years of wildfires (2001-2007). The Forest Foundation: Auburn, CA.
CNN Wire Staff (2012). Residents evacuate as hundreds of firefighters battle California wildfires. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/13/us/california-wildfire/index.html
CNN Wire Staff (2012). Wildfires challenge firefighters in northern California. CNN. Retrieved
Fire Investigation Unit
How important is it to a city fire department to have an investigation unit? Since police departments in most cities have an investigation unit -- it seems logical given the issues related to fire and arson that fire departments should also incorporate investigation units into their programs. This paper provides positive arguments in favor of an investigation unit, arguments that the fire chief can use in his presentation to the county council.
The field of fire investigation is "…extremely specialized" and there are a very limited number of "truly certified individuals" that have the needed training and experience to conduct "thorough, competent investigations" (United Professional Fire Fighters). In other words, fire departments should hire a proven professional in this field -- or select one or more quality firefighters from the current department to be sent to a training program -- and in either case this will cost…
Flannery Associates. (2008). Section 4 -- Fire Investigation & Arson / Unit 1 -- Fire Investigation
& Fire Loss. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tglan/documents/101docs/FIS101fireinvestigation.pdf.
United Professional Firefighters of Contra Costa County. (2010). Fire Investigation Unit.
Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://www.iafflocal1230.org .
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…
Clery, Connie and Howard. (2001). What Jeanne Didn't Know. Security On Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/aboutsoc/didntknow.html
Security on Campus. (2004). Campus Crime Statistics Summary. http://www.securityoncampus.org/crimestats/index.html
2002). What to Do If You Become a Victim of Campus Sexual Assault. Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.og/victims/campussexualassault.html
United States Congress. (2001). Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights. Higher Education Amendments of 1992.Victim Assistance: Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/victims/billofrights.html
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
But just because they had no intent to hurt anyone does not mean that their actions did not contribute to the hurting of another.
After looking at all of the facts that were presented in both of these cases a reasonable person sitting on any jury would have to conclude that the defendants were guilty of contributing to the deaths of the victims. Their deliberate actions led to both accidents and thus all deaths relating to those accidents. The defendants in both of these cases were all over the age of 18 and should have been aware that their actions could lead to serious harm or even death of another person. Just because they were out having fun and did not intentionally mean to hurt anyone should not excuse them from the fact that their actions did lead to deaths, and for these reasons they should be held accountable and…
Clary, Mike. "The Felled Stop Signs: Two Cases of Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City,
"Revelry and Mischief in Utah." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 805.
"The Law on Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 809-811.
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…
1) David Weigel, (Nov 2005), 'When Patriots Dissent: Surprise: Standing up to the Patriot act can be good Politics', Reason, 37(6), pp. 32-38.
2) Ken Olsen, (2007), 'Patriot Act's Wide Net', Nation, p. 8, 2007, September 24
3) Cole D & Lobel J, (2007) ' Why are we Losing the War on Terror', Nation, 285, 11-18.
4) Dalgaard -- Nielsen A (2004),'Civic Liberties and Counter Terrorism: A European Point-of-View', Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2004
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
Since ownership of the building had not changed recently, there was no requirement to upgrade to a sprinkler system, and combined with the building's historic status, this was never done. There were also problems with water pressure and receiving water during the fire, which they recommended should be addressed.
In conclusion, the Mizpah fire was a tragic fire that did not need to occur. Had the building been equipped with a sprinkler system, the tragedy and damages could have been avoided. The City of eno has begun inspections as a result of the fire, and there have been some changes in procedure. The entire building was eventually demolished, and the site is empty today. Twelve victims might be alive today if a working sprinkler system had been installed in the building, and it is a lesson for other fire departments across the nation. They need to make it easier to…
Ockershausen, J. And Cohen, H. (2008). Twelve-fatality hotel arson: Reno, Nevada. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the USFA Web site: http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr_164.pdf .
O'Malley, J. (2007). Deaths in Mizpah fire rise to 12 as investigators sift through ruins. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20061108/NEWS06/101190030/0/NEWS .
Powers, L. (2008). Chief: Mizpah justifies checks. Report: firefighters saw mattresses less than an hour before blaze. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20081115/NEWS/81115032&OAS_sitepage=news.rgj.com%2Fbreakingnews .
Turner, Laura. (2007). Firefighters use hotel for training. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the High Beam Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-163865675.html .
"Forecasts by Moody's Economy.com now use a 20 percent drop in median
existing-home prices from their 2005 peak as a baseline, with prices
weakening through at least mid-2009" (Shinkle, 2008, p. 44). Moody's
director of housing economics Celia Chen, states in the same report that
the 20% decline is the good news and that the bad news is that it could
easily be more than that. The worst-case scenario is a lot more than that.
"You want the darkest? Forty percent, she says. There's your apocalypse"
(Shinkle, p. 45).
Websites that track foreclosures indicate that "the US-wide total of
loans foreclosing was running at 2.5 million in 2007, up by 70% from about
1.5 million in 2006" (Dumas, 2008, p. 23). The problem is that the teaser
rates that were initially set in 2006 will reach their peak in 2008,
ultimately affecting another approximate 1.5 million mortgages, with
Aldrich, P.; (2008) UK banks preparing to access BoE's emergency liquidity
scheme, Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group Limited 2008, accessed May
18, 2008 at
Altfest, L.J.; (2008) What the subprime mess means to you, Medical
Economics, Vol 85, No. 2, p. 24
Whether a probable existing advocate of slavery could offer satisfactory reasons is a decision that is not neutral and unqualified but joined to the background of individual's modern standards. In the same way, the adequacy of the reasons specified by pro-choice or pro-life supporters is relative to the literary context in which an individual judge it. The literary climate nowadays makes the reasons given by pro-choice supporters seem sensible, even though, they are primarily incorrect. Although it gives confidence about respecting for these sensible reasons and for those who place them onward, just as slavery today is seen as not carried by any satisfactory reasons, in the same way, years from now, people will see abortion as not carried by any satisfactory reasons. This entails that pro-life supporters are previously aware of the unacceptability of the causes of pro-choice advocates. (Amy Gutman, Dennis Thompson).
If a person expands it point-of-view…
Alan R. Fleischman. The Pro-Life Maternal-Fetal Medicine Physician: A Problem of Integrity. 1995.
Amy Gutman, Dennis Thompson. Democracy and Disagreement. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
Simona Goi. Agonism, Deliberation and the Politics of Abortion. 2005.
That means they have to know how to locate evidence that can be traced, but they also need to know how to test it and preserve it so it can be used at a later date. They have to guard against contamination, and make sure they collect enough evidence to tie it to a perpetrator.
Ultimately, investigators at a crime scene have one purpose and goal, to solve the crime and find the perpetrator. Trace evidence is a key ingredient in solving the crime, and investigators know this, so they are always on the lookout for any type of evidence they can find. Sometimes investigations take years, but with the right crime scene collection and preservation, the trace evidence left behind can lead to conviction, and that is the ultimate purpose of the time and energy that goes into collecting trace evidence.
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
Group 2 -- The Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
Membership Demographics (Ethnicity, eligion, etc.)
The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) is an organization whose purpose is the economic sabotage of organizations that are guilty of destroying the Earth's ecosystem and the organisms in the biosphere (ELF, 2009). The ELF membership is highly diverse and without any dominant ethnicity or religion, primarily because it is a global organization that is leaderless and highly decentralized by specific design to thwart law enforcement efforts.
The ELF engages in acts of terrorism such as arson attacks against automobile manufacturers that produce SUVs, vandalism and destruction of building sites constructing laboratory facilities, and (increasingly) cyber-attacks against their IT systems perpetrated in the online medium.
The geographic influence of the ELF is global, largely because the organization actually consists of a large number of otherwise independent, autonomous, and unaffiliated groups, including solitary so-called "lone…
Earth Liberation Front. (2009). The Evolution of ELF after "Operation Backfire."
Retrieved, July 12, 2011 from: http://earth-liberation-front.org/
Horsley, N. (2011). Understanding the Army of God., Retrieved, July 12, 2011 from:
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…
Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.
The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.
The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
This is because our authority figures are tainted by the same prejudices and discrimination that affect everyone. Thus, preventing these events would have only been possible if the police in the odney King instance didn't act in this manner toward an African-American, and in the Chicago instance, if the police would have arrested the white rock thrower in the first place.
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. etrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). ace, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keyes, . (2006). The quote verifier: Who said what, where, and when. New York: St.
Kwong, P. (1992). "The First Multicultural iots," in Hazen, D. (ed.) Inside the L.A. riots:
What really happened- and why it will happen again. San Francisco: Institute for Alternative…
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. Retrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). Race, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"
This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.
I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…
1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21
2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html
3. Expert Law. On the Internet at http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16
This is not to say there are not challenges associated with rebuilding a community. Medoff & Sklar point to a number of challenges confirmed by other supporters of community based initiatives. Among the more common challenges faced by communities include allotting the time needed to plan, implement and evaluate a program, determining methods for including low income citizens in a beneficial way, dealing with conflicts that inherently exist among professionals involved in planning and addressing economics and politics associated with initiatives (Messinger 535). As Medoff & Sklar point out however, there is hope even in the worst case scenario. While the community rebuilding process may be a long one, in the end most initiatives will pay off for citizens and the public at large.
Streets of Hope is truly an inspirational work that lends support for community based initiatives in inner city communities. Medoff & Sklar offer urban inner…
Ewalt, Paul. L. The revitalization of impoverished communities. Social Work, 47(5):
Medoff, Peter and Sklar, Holly. Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban
Neighborhood. Boston: South End Press, 1994.
Prostitution is sex between two willing adults and one of the adults pays the other adult for that sex.
While it is illegal to be the prostitute or the John it shouldn't be. Both are adults, that is not illegal, both are engaging willingly is sex, that isn't illegal, and one hands the other one money. If the John handed the prostitute money without getting sex, he would not be breaking the law. If the prostitute slept with one man, called him her boyfriend and the only thing he asked is that she maintain her figure and be available for Friday night visits, and in exchange he paid all of her bills it would not be illegal. But if that same woman decides to sleep with a dozen men a month and let them each contribute to her bill fund that makes her a criminal. The bottom line is one…
Eggen, Dan (2003) Major Crimes Rose Slightly, FBI Reports; Incidents Up in Suburbs, Down in Cities. The Washington Post
Marshall, Gordon (1998) victimless crime
Dictionary of Sociology
Walker, Bruce (2002) Reparations, Moral Crimes, and Real Justice (accessed 7-30-06)
Oshinsky, "orse Than Slavery"
David Oshinsky's history of "convict labor" in the Reconstruction-era American South bears the title orse Than Slavery. The title itself raises questions about the role played by moralistic discourse in historiography, and what purpose it serves. Oshinsky certainly paints a grim picture of the systematic use of African-American prisoners at Parchman Farm -- the focus of his study -- and throughout the South after the Civil ar. I would like to examine the system that Oshinsky describes, while incidentally paying attention to the rhetoric he employs in doing so. But ultimately I wish to call attention to, and question, the validity of Oshinsky's title. The title is provocative, and therefore can only be termed responsible historiography if indeed his purpose is to provoke further questions. Chief among these must be the question of what it actually means to declare that what he describes in the book…
Oshinsky, David. Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press, 1997. Print.
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminolology today: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Truman, J.L. & Planty, M. (2012, October). Criminal victimization, 2011. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv11.pdf
"Uniform crime reports." (2012, October). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/index-page
The author of this report has been asked to assess a brief and fairly simple case study. Basically, the author is theoretically at the scene of an arson. At the scene of the arson is a computer with a ten gigabyte hard drive. The author is in the process of creating an image of that hard drive. However, the fire has apparently rekindled and there are only a few minutes to get the hard drive's data to safety. The author of this report has been asked to offer options as to what can be done to save the data before it is too late. While there are not a ton of options given the situation involved, there are indeed a few and at least one of them (if not more) should be viable.
The first option, if possible, would be to let the image complete. However, there is…
The United States of America's PATIOT Act (formally the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Interpret and Obstruct Terrorism Act) was a hurriedly created legislation against terrorism reacting to the terror attack on September 11, 2001. Little debate and oversight was given to the large, complex law by the Congress and President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 26, 2001. PATIOT offers sweeping surveillance, and search to both domestic officers and foreign intelligence agencies and removes many checks and balances that initially gave the courts the chance to make sure that the powers were never abused. The developing PATIOT and follow-up legislation (Gouvin, 2003) threaten the basic rights of most Americans.
The United States of America PATIOT Act, also known as USAPA brought in several legislative amendments that had a significant increase on the investigative and surveillance powers of…
Condon, S. (June 2, 2015). NSA surveillance reform bill now law. CBS News. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/senate-passes-nsa-reform-bill-the-usa-freedom-act / on 22 March 2016
Gouvin, Eric J. (2003). Bringing Out the Big Guns: The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, Money Laundering and the War on Terrorism. Baylor Law Review 55: 955.
Liu, Edward C. (2011). Amendments to FISA Extended to 2015. Congressional Research Service.
Michaels, C. William. (2005). No Greater Threat: America Since September 11 and the Rise of the National Security State. Algora Publishing.
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…
Oreto, 37 F.3d 739 (1st Cir. 1994). The 2st Circuit rejected the defendant's claim that requiring two predicate acts for conviction under one theory of liability but only one act for conviction under "loan sharking," violated equal protection.
Due Process. The forfeiture provisions of RICO have been criticized for violating the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Numerous cases have rejected this criticism including U.S. v. Nichols, (10th Cir. 1994).
Tenth Amendment. Arguments that RICO unconstitutionally intrudes upon state sovereignty in violation of this Amendment have all been summarily rejected. U.S. v. Thompson, 685 F.2d 993-1001 (6th Cir. 1982).
Most experts agree that RICO has been abused since its first effective use against the Mafia in the 1980s. For certain, it has virtually destroyed the Mafia -- lakey's intended goal and its only intended purpose at the time. However, even prior to the first Mafia convictions under its statutes,…
AJFL. (2004). Divorce law determines how much property forfeited under RICO. American Journal of Family Law (AJFL), 175(3). Gordon, M. (2002). Ideas shoot bullets: How the RICO Act became a potent weapon in the war against organized crime. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from Villanova.edu: http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2003/Gordon%20Formatted%20Paper.htm
Harvard Law Review Assoc. . (2008). Ninth circuit holds that RICO enterprise need not have any particular organizational structure. Harvard Law Review, 1652(8).
Holt, M., & Davis, K. (Spring 2009). Racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations. (Twenty-fourth annual survey of white collar crime). American Criminal Law Review, 975+.
Jacobs, J., & Peters, E. (2003). Labor racketeering: The Mafia and the unions. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 229-282.
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…
Gopal & Anand (2009 December 1).Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge is Wrong Strategy.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online.wsj.com/article/SB125960550353170023.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop.
Robert G, (2009). Rethink Afghanistan. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/23/movies/23gree.html .
Robert, (2008, August, 26). Taliban was "Underestimated." Retrieved April 2, 2010 from www.jihadwatch.org/2008/08/taliban-was-underestimated.html
(J. Frank Norris -- Everything on).
Norris' Controversial Side
Norris admits to a lot of behavior that he may not have been able to get away with in today's politically correct climate. Admittedly, in the 1930's, Norris campaigned vehemently against Al Smith, a Catholic, whom was running for President. Norris used his power to wage a campaign against him so as to protect the other candidate whom was a member of the Klu Klux Klan, a known white supremicist. Additionally, Norris advocated in favor of placing people on trial for allegedly supporting communism or taking part in communist activities. In fact, he adamantly wrote to the anti-American committee and volunteered to testify against members of the Southern Baptist Convention. On many occasion, Norris openly praised Joe McCarthy for his anti-communist work. Moreover, Norris' own friends have stated that Norris always loved a fight; and, Norris himself admits that at first…
"J. Frank Norris - Everything on J. Frank Norris (information, Latest News, Articles,...)." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Enriching the Mind, Inspiring the Heart. Arlington Baptist College. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Enriching the Mind, Inspiring the Heart. Arlington Baptist College. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. .
"J. Frank Norris." Expert Archive Questions. Allexperts.com. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. .
Second, as public sector employees, it appears that merit and character have little impact on the process. Throughout the aforementioned case, the character of the employee (a long time worker, a retired Veteran) did not matter in the case. hat did matter were the process and the adherence to Article 16.
This is not to suggest that labor relations in the private sector are better. Indeed, it can seem to some employees, particularly those working in low wage jobs, there are little job security and little opportunity for help and support when problems arise. As stated previously, with the unemployment rate in the double digits, employees must be careful to keep existing jobs. One should be careful in his or her behavior on and off the job.
Private sector employees are just as likely to be held accountable for their actions outside of work. Most companies, large and small, do…
Grandey, and Diamond. "Interactions with the Public: Bridging Job Design and Emotional Labor Perspectives." Journal of Organizational Development 31.2-3
(2010): 338-50. Print.
Labor Relations Striking a Balance. McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print.
Silver, Isidore. Public Employee Discharge and Discipline. New York: Aspen, 2001.
The data grid showing the various crimes in raidsonline.com entails columns for the class, incident, crime, date/time, location, address, distance, accuracy and distance. Crimereports.com has its data grid having the date when the event was entered, the event location, event type and the identifier. Crime reports is said to be the largest and highly comprehensive.
On the other hand, raidsonline.com is said to be the highly advanced public crime mapping. Crime mapping is described as the network in the world that is not yet sophisticated but a key component in crime analysis. In the raidonline.com the various crimes can be viewed by use of an integrated feature that has a street map, a sophisticated data grid as well as an analytics dashboard. In addition to this, in this site, crimes can also not only be filtered but also queried by use of several features for instance, the type of crime,…
It appears to have become popular in the early 1990's by advocates and not police officers. Prior to those in charge telling the police what they are doing incorrect, they must outline it for themselves first. Criminologists are still trying to figure out how much profiling really goes on. It is very hard to measure since there is no set definition been determined. It has been suggested that the police are more probable to look for minorities because they commit an uneven amount of crimes. According to statistics in 2001, blacks were twelve percent of the nation's population but accounted for twenty seven percent of all sexual-assault convictions, sixty six percent of all robbery convictions and thirty eight percent of all fraud and embezzlement convictions.
If one sets aside the numbers and goes back to Cincinnati. In 2001, riots exploded following a white officer shooting and killing a black man…
Cloud, John. (2001). What's Race Got to Do With it? Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Time
Web site: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
The nature of the juvenile justice system may be adversarial at times, but unlike the adult criminal system it is not necessarily so. Agreement is the goal. In fact, depending on the nature of the offense, a juvenile case may be dismissed or dealt with in an informal hearing, rather than subject to formal proceedings at all.
The purpose of the juvenile system is almost always to rehabilitate the offender, rather than to enact social retribution. Given that our society believes that a child usually does not have the moral or cognitive capacity to judge the wrongfulness or rightness of his or her own actions like an adult, there seems to be a need for two systems of justice. For example, a child who burns down a building because he is playing with matches is unlikely to deserve the same type of sentence or treatment as an adult who commits…
Champion, Dean J. (2006). The Juvenile Court System: Delinquency, processing and the law.
Klan politics are eerily being played out in modern conservative movements such as the Tea Party. While the Tea Party does not officially endorse the KKK, the two groups share many common objectives including the mistrust of new immigrants. Today's Klansmen are basically "unhappy about the social politics of America's post-industrial, pluralistic society" and they "feel left out."
The official stance of the KKK resembles much of conservative America in that the group claims to espouse "Christian morality" and "eschews violence."
The Klan's own Web site claims that the group is "ringing a Message of Hope and Deliverance to White Christian America! A Message of Love NOT Hate!"
ecause of this misleading message, the KKK has the potential to woo new recruits and influence public discourse: neither of which can be tolerated.
Anti-Defamation League. "About the Ku Klux Klan." Retrieved online: http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
ullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan. Southern…
Anti-Defamation League. "About the Ku Klux Klan." Retrieved online: http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan. Southern Poverty Law Center, 1996.
Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americanism. Duke University Press, 2003.
Gitlin, Martin. The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009
For example, ordinarily, a citizen may not be stopped and questioned by police merely because of the fact that he is Caucasian, bald, and in the immediate vicinity of a predominantly African-American church primarily because of 14th and 4th Amendment protections. However, in light of previous incidents of white supremacist-inspired arson against black churches establishing a credible threat, the same individual may be justifiably detained temporarily for police investigation. The current situation in airport screening justifies law enforcement profiling for the purpose of identifying subjects for secondary screening in the same way, and without violating constitutional rights any more than in other tactical situations where credible circumstances justify specific investigatory interest in a particular subject.
Likewise, it would be possible to improve counterterrorism efforts, particularly in the area of intelligence collection, if the U.S. government established a civilian intelligence agency to perform many of the functions now performed by law…
S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines. The banditos use "puppet" or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf.
In the modern era, widespread crackdowns and joint operations initiated by state and federal law enforcement authorities and legislative tools such as the federal acketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations (ICO) Act have greatly reduced the influence of the Italian Mafia/LCN in American society but organized crime still persists, even if on a much smaller scale than half a century ago. However, whereas the power and reach of LCN has been greatly reduced, a significant influx of newer criminal enterprises has filled much of the gap vacated in…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
September 2007: 1-7.