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After World War I, the nation state of Germany under the direction of architect Walter Gropius created a "consulting art center for industry and the trades" (Bayer 12). Called Bauhaus, "house for building," the school combined the role of artisans and craftspeople and included everything from architecture to theater to typography. When the school was forced to close during the Nazi regime in 1932, many of its artists moved to the United States to find freedom to pursue their own artistic expression. Here, Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der ohe among others, helped to spread the Bauhaus ideology. Gropius consulted with educator John A. ice, who opened Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Based on John Dewey's principles of progressive education, the school became home of many of the most progressive and innovative artists. Josef and Anni Albers, also from Bauhaus, combined ice's progressive educational theories with their own…
Bayer, Herbert, ed. Bauhaus, 1919-1928. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1976.
Bowles, John. "Return to Black Mountain - Book Review - Black Mountain College: Experiment in Art." Art in America. [electronic version] September, 2003.
Dawson, Fielding. Black Mountain College Book: A New Edition. Rocky Mountain, NC: North Carolina Wesleyan, 1991.
Etlin, Richard, ed.. Art, Culture and Media Under the Third Reich. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002.
Community Art Education
The objective of this study is to answer the question of what are the conservative, liberal, and progressive philosophies undergirding the current (1990-present) debates in community arts education? Specifically, this study will address whom is and whom is not advocating for Arts education and why.
Timeline of Arts Education in the United States
The progressive era was a time involving political reform and social activism during the period between 1890 and sometime in the 1920s. The Progressive movement intended to purify the government through elimination of corruption in the government. Government was monopolized by mafia bosses and political machines. In addition, prohibition was supported by the majority of Progressive movement members. (Timberlake, 1970, paraphrased) The art teacher during the 1920s is reported to have been "contrarily imbued with the ph8ilosophy that creative work called for considerable freedom on the part of the individual." (Logan, 1955) The students…
Timberlake, JH (1970) Prohibition and the Progressive Movement 1900-1920.
Logan, Frederick M . Growth of Art in American Schools, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.]
Amburgy, Patricia M. "Culture for the Masses." In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education, eds. Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz, Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, 1990.
Efland, A. (1990) Art Education in the Twentieth Century: A History of Ideas." In Framing the Past: Essays on Art Education, eds. Soucy, Donald, and Mary Ann Stankiewicz, Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, 1990.
The Importance of Digital Technology Fitting into High School Art Education Classroom in a Latino Culture
Fuller, B., Lizárraga, J. R., & Gray, J. H. (2015). Digital media and Latino families: New channels for learning, parenting, and local organizing. New York, NY: Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
Digital knowledge is an essential tool for strengthening expertise in a community. Children are now more than before exposed to a wider array of digital media and information. As the digital divide closes and digital blitz emerge integral to our everyday lives, exploring the usage and social dynamics of the digital media in advancing learning is instrumental. The study by Fuller et al (2015) identifies a close in the digital gap of access to critical devices such as smartphones, laptops, and tablet among the Hispanic community compared to the white middle-income American class. The widening access and the versatility…
Creswell, J. W. & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fuller, B., Lizárraga, J. R., & Gray, J. H. (2015). Digital media and Latino families: New channels for learning, parenting, and local organizing. New York, NY: Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
Habibullah, P., Rafique, M., Shumaila, M., Ali, R. K., & Illahi, B. (2018). A Critical Review of Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory in Second Language Acquisition. International Journal of English Linguistics, 1923- 8703.
Ili?, V., Stojanovi?-?or?evi?, T., & Šikl-Erski, A. (2018). ICT and art education. Technics, Technology, and Informatics in Education, 32-37.
Katz, V. S., & Levine, M. H. (2015). Connecting to learn: Promoting digital equity among America’s Hispanic families. New York, NY: Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
Levinson, M., & Barron, B. (2018). Latino Immigrant Families Learning with Digital Media across Settings and Generations. Digital Education Review, 150-159.
Marrapodi, M. (2016). Transmedia meets the digital divide: adapting transmedia approaches to reach underserved Hispanic families. Journal of Children and Media, 276- 284.
Turgut, G. (2012). A Case Study on Use of One-to-One Laptops in English as Second Language Classrooms. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 3(4).
mounting effort for educators, researchers, and policy makers to fuse seemingly disparate subjects into complementary units of study. Much research reveals positive effects on learning when integrated curricular activities are regularly presented and explored throughout students' educational careers. Educators, administrators, parents, community members, and students themselves applaud such endeavors as they witness firsthand the endless benefits from these research-based revolutionary instructional methodologies. Naturally, art teachers are among the professionals who are implementing into their classrooms such findings. Already, there are numerous examples of integration of art into science, mathematics, and the performing arts.
Science is traditionally perceived as unrelated to art. Whereas science involves generation and manipulation of factual data and observable phenomena, art resides completely in the realm of subjectivity and creativity. This is the conventional line of reasoning. However, new explanations state that science and art are in fact intimately connected. Following this reinterpretation of art and science,…
Armstrong, Thomas (1996). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Virginia:
Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Prince, Eileen S. (2002). Art Matters: Strategies, Ideas, and Activities to Strengthen
Learning Across the Curriculum. Chicago: Zephyr Press.
Teaching Across the Curriculum
The textbook explains many ways art can be worked into the larger curriculum. Such integration of art into the larger curriculum would do more than validate art as a field of study. It would greatly enrich the broader curriculum as well. It is hard to imagine talking about early humans but not about cave drawings, or about Egypt but not Egyptian art. One reason we know as much as we do about ancient Egypt is that the Egyptians told stories by painting images on walls. Even Egyptian writing was based on drawings -- pictographs that stood for words.
This approach, of working art into the rest of the school's curriculum, could be greatly enhanced by making use of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1995). For instance, students in a history class might learn about ancient Egypt. In geography they could study the effects of…
Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandrai, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2000.
Gardner, Howard. 1995. "Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages." Phi Delta Kappan, November.
Van Tassel-Baska, Joyce. 1998. "The development of academic talent: a mandate for educational best practice." Phi Delta Kappan, June.
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training via art, worldwide popular culture, 21st-century abilities, social justice, art evaluation, cultural diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches.
Teaching Literacy through Art
According to Moody-Zoet, art-teaching offers distinctive and useful intellectual behaviors and skill sets which aid in the learning of other academic disciplines. The following skills are introduced, cultivated and honed by arts education: craft creation capacity; task involvement and determination when it comes to task completion; envisioning, expression, and seeking of a vision for oneself; observation; reflection; stretching; exploration; and understanding of the art community/world. Arts education represents a vital component of every learner's holistic scholastic literacy. The arts, after all, are entrenched in representation and cognition, in addition to be profoundly involved in the way education expands as well as…
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…
Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.
Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
(Mulcahy and yszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these…
Art Program Promotes Self-Esteem, Self-Expression." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24
Feb. 2006: 1.
The Importance of Art to Education. Arkansas River Valley Arts Education (2007)
Art Practice in the Past and Present
A skill or mastery that stimulates the process of thought, amusement, and emotions is called an art. It is also defined as a special quality used by many people to express their feelings, approach and position. Dating back to 50,000 years ago, art has various forms that ground itself from sculptures, rock paintings, wall craving to modern paintings. Countries like Egypt, Persia, India, Europe and America have great foundations of ancient civilizations that developed their own way of expressing their work and teaching it to their future generations. These teachings started with simple body signs for expressing there need to using brushes, knifes and other tools to explain there work. As a result of these teachings, the art present today expresses an urbanized form of historic art.
Similarities and difference of past and present art
Artists today are very similar in…
Bolin, Paul E (2009). Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education, 50(2): 110-123.
Comunian, Roberta (2009). Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, 39(3): 200-220.
Gaiger, Jason (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(2): 178-194, 17p.
Keizer, Joost (2011). Art Bulletin, 93(3): 304-324, 21p.
The same thing can be said of painting and other forms of aesthetic art. Art allows us to feel. For example, when we look at DaVinci's Last Supper, we feel something. Claude Monet's ater Lilies provides us with another example of how art can make us feel something. It is important to note that these feelings can be almost anything. They do not have to be positive or negative - it all depends on the artist and the audience.
Art allows us to feel. Tom Anderson maintains that we make art to "make sense of things, to give meaning to our existence" (Anderson). Anderson also states that another reason why we make art is to "communicate something that counts to someone else" (Anderson). "Making art is an attempt to bring order into being, to create something meaningful where nothing existed before" (Anderson). He contends that the "artist's goal is to…
Anderson, Tom. "Why and How We Make Art, with Implications for Art Education." EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed February 14, 2008. http://www.searchepnet.com
Anthony Hughes: "Buonarroti, Michelangelo." Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Site Accessed February 14, 2008. http://www.groveart.com.ezproxy.harford.edu/
Galef, David. "The Art of Art. Southwest Review. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed February 14, 2008. http://www.searchepnet.com
Arts and Education
Lack of Arts in School Curriculum affects learning and interest in learning
School leaders and policymakers pay little attention to arts despite the experience that, allowing young people to participate in arts and culture can influence their development tremendously. The major problem lies with the fact that very few people bother to carry out a research, and record the far-reaching effect arts and culture can have on students. Instead, schools, researchers, and policymakers spend more time focusing on what is easily and commonly measured: reading and math success. This has led art proponents into trying to establish a connection between arts and higher reading and math grades -- a claim that still lacks scholarly, scientific evidence. For other advocates of arts, there is no need and no way to measure the benefits (Greene, et al., 2014).
In recent years, most attention with regards to education have been…
Greene, J. P., Kisida, B., Bogulski, C. A., Kraybill, A., Hitt, C., & Bowen, DH (2014, December 2). Arts Education Matters: We Know, We Measured It. Education Week.
Hudziak, J., Albaugh, M., Ducharme, S., Karama, S., Spottswood, M., Crehan, E., & Botteron, K. (2014). Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: Health-promoting activities shape brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(11), 1153-1161.
Johnson, C., & Memmott, J. (2006). Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results. Journal of Research in Music Education, 54(4), 293-307.
This is a method of indirect instruction, an important component of art education, as noted in Mary E. Thompson's chapter on "Art for Students with Special Needs." Having a rebus charts with pictures illustrating the steps of the project also helps students follow directions, and for students with attention deficit issues, these students can refer to the chart to reorient themselves if they lose focus on the project.
Teachers should strive to minimize self-consciousness. For children in a wheelchair, the classroom should be physically accessible, not simply with wheelchair ramps, but also with a wide, clear path to the art center. Some art tools may need to be used in different ways, depending on the children's physical limitations. The teacher should have a wide range of adaptive art tools, like fat bingo markers, chunky crayons, large markers, double-handed ambidextrous scissors and glue sticks, which may prove less frustrating than a…
Thompson, Mary E. (1997). "Art for Students with Special Needs." Chapter 13 from An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. Edited by Linda L. Dunlap MA: Allyn & Bacon.
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Education is one of the critical aspects in the society especially in the case of the United States. The success of education relates to the ability of the relevant authority to adopt and integrate effective and efficient educational policy with the aim of addressing goals and targets in relation to elements of the society such as economy, politics, and social spheres. One of the critical federal educational policies is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). This is the most recent iteration in relation to the context of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). It reflects one of the major federal laws essential in facilitating federal spending on relevant programs with the aim of supporting K-12 schooling. NCLB educational policy should focus on integration of new qualification standards for teachers, concentrate on the improvement of schools, as well as include higher-thinking and problem-solving skills.
Tavakolian, H., & Howell, N. (2012). The Impact of No Child Left Behind Act. Franklin
Business & Law Journal, (1), 70-77.
Daly, B.P., Burke, R., Hare, I., Mills, C., Owens, C., Moore, E., & Weist, M.D. (2006).
Enhancing No Child Left Behind -- School Mental Health Connections. Journal Of
Throughout the course of history, art has been used as a form of expression and to define social customs / traditions. In some cases, this is occurring with it serving as a symbol of the larger ideas that are most important to specific ethnic groups, religions, nationalities and gender. The result, is that each work will be interpreted differently, depending upon the perspectives that are taken. This means that there are techniques which influence the way someone sees specific works and how they are interpreted. In the case of gender and Western society, there are different interpretations about what it means to be a man or woman. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at a number of artists and their interpretations. Together, these elements will illustrate how they are influencing art and the attitudes embraced inside the different works. (Barniskis, 2013) (Malossi, 1999) (Woolfolk, 2010)
Adams, E. (2007). After the Rain. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest.
Barnes, R. (2002). Teaching Art to Young Children. New York, NY: Springer.
Barniskis, S.C. (2013). Teaching art to teens in public libraries. Teaching Artist Journal,
11( 2), 81-96
I come from a mixed background, and my culture has been influenced also by various normative elements in American society. The Cuban side of my family has stressed the importance of frequent cultural gatherings and a strong emphasis on food, drink, and other social elements of celebration. The German side of my family has less of an emphasis on overt expressions of culture, and provides an interesting and educational counterpoint. Taking together with the elements of the dominant American culture and its predilection toward creating homogeneity, the various elements of my cultural identity converge in unique ways that I can explore in the classroom. Working with children, I can also incorporate evidence-based practices to teach about the relevance and importance of music and the arts.
Personal eflection (Part I)
Cuban culture values art, music, and dance to the extent of it being technically impossible to separate these elements from…
Bucek, L.E. (2013). Children's dance-making. Dissertation retrieved online: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view-acc_num=osu1366147483
Campbell, L.H. & Simmons, S. (2012). The heart of art education: Holistic approaches to creativity, integration, and transformation. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
Perkins, et al. (2014). The benefits of early music education for language acquisition among Head Start students. ASA Conference Session.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…
Acidini, Luchinat Cristina. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale UP in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. Print.
Adams, Laurie. Italian Renaissance Art. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. Print.
Barter, James. Artists of the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.
Bartlett, Kenneth. The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance. Toronto D.C.
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry…
National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,
from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm .
Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A
Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…
Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.
European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/ . 2012 July 11.
Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28weiwei.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 12.
Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…
1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).
2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/michelan/biograph.html
4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: http://wwar.com/masters/movements/renaissance.html .
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.
"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011.
http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano Bugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
Art as Political tatement
It is almost impossible to completely separate art from the social and political context in which it originates. When considering art works from a variety of contexts and situations, it is clear that artist as often as not ignored and embraced politics as either inspiration for their work, or indeed treated it as a force to be shunned for its destruction of the creative spirit. Both acceptance and defiance of the political arena, it will be shown below, constitute a form of political statement in terms of art.
Expressionism began its evolution during the early part of the 20th century. This movement contrasted with impressionism in that it did not aim to reproduce, but rather to impose its views of objects in the world. When taken from a political context then, the political agenda is not always clear, as the artist is attempting to represent…
Andre Derain." 2004. http://psych.fullerton.edu/psych466/psantiago/derbio.html
Hughes, Robert. "Henri Matisse." 2004. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/matisse.html
Pioch, Nicolas. "Expressionism." 2002. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/expressionism/
Pioch, Nicolas. "Henri Matisse." 2004.
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
According to Sayre (2009), the four roles of the artist are keeping a historical record, giving form to intangibles, revealing the hidden, and showing the world in a new way. In "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian," James McNeill Whistler fulfills the role of historical record keeper. The depiction of the Andalucian captures the style, attitude, and culture of the subject. In this sense, "Mother of Pearl and Silver: The Andalucian" is a historical reference. Although the fashion is not quintessentially Spanish, the subject in the painting does capture the mood of the late nineteenth century, when Whistler painted. Whistler depicts the fashion and attitudes of the era in this painting, which also show how globalization was becoming a reality for many Americans and Europeans. An American painter depicts an American model wearing Continental clothes and a Spanish hairstyle.
In "A Burial at Ornans," Gustave Courbet also paints…
"Gustave Courbet (1819-1877): A Biography." Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved online: http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/courbet-dossier/biography.html
"James McNeill Whistler (artist)." (n.d.). National Gallery of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/tinfo_f?object=12197
"Reading Art: Understanding Iconography." Retrieved online: http://corptrain.phoenix.edu/sites/art101r4/index.html
Sayre, H.M. (2009). World of Art. Prentice Hall.
Art Museum: Case Study
This case study involves a campus art museum that for many years had a competent director, but a relatively staid presence on campus. The last director had a far more populist orientation. He tried to bring schoolchildren into the museum on a regular basis, and bring in traveling art exhibitions that were of interest to the larger public. But he seemed more interested in advancing a radical political agenda than truly supporting art. Because the art museum is seen as connected to the graduate school, there is a great deal of anger amongst faculty members, who believe that the museum should serve the interests of the school, specifically the graduate students studying for PhDs. In the future, the evaluation committee must have a more systematic process for evaluating candidates. The mission of the art museum must be clearly defined. And the past qualifications, necessary skills, and…
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, as the old trope goes, and that phrase holds true even when encountering some of the world's "great" art, as I saw in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The Museum itself is massive. It holds more than 450,000 works of art and a recent expansion added 28% more space with an expansion of 133,000 square feet (Dwyer). ithin its walls there are naturally pieces of art that fall outside of specific people's taste. For me, there were three works of art in the museum that struck a chord -- two that I loved and one that I disliked intensely.
Unfortunately, the piece of art I liked the least in the museum is also one of the most prominent. The sculpture is a massive green glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly that sits in the entrance of the Boston MFA. The…
Barlow, Deborah. "Chihuly at the MFA." Slow Muse. 10 April, 2011. 8 June, 2011.
Benfrey, Christopher. "A Certain Slant of Light" Slate 13 November 1997. 8 June 2011.
"Dance at Bougival." 8 June, 2011.
Delmar, John D."Oskar Kokoschka: Early Portraits from Vienna and Berlin 1909-1914." The City Review. 2002. 8 June, 2011.
The basis of collage with is associated with humor and entertainment forms its captivating content, an element for passing its information. Materials that are used for collage are normally readily available old objects that have been disregarded. Use of new materials in the art is not restricted but again not considered to add value to the collage work. It is thus a considerably less expensive process as compared to other artistic communications avenues such as painting that requires newly acquired materials that consequently calls for extensive financial commitment. Its relative affordability together with its captivating elements makes collage a good avenue for communication especially in social campaigns. This becomes specifically effective if the entire society is integrated in the collage representation (Learning, 10).
Other collage artists
There are a number of collage artists that have also been significantly felt because of their contribution in collage. Apart from Michael Anderson, Oliver…
Anderson Michael. (2006). Monthly statements; Retrieved from: http://www.accumulationproject.org/anderson/index.html
Bemstein Mark. (2003). Collage, composite, construction; Retrieved from: http://www.ht03.org/papers/pdfs/18.pdf
Endtorture. (2010). Well-known collage artists. Retrieved from:
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…
Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michael Angelo," Kidney International, no. 57 (2000): 1190 -- 1201.
Lavoy, Michael. "The Digital Michael Angelo Project," Modern Art, no. 10 (1999): 2 -11.
Oremaland, Jerome. "Mourning and its Effect on Michael Angelo," Annual of Psychoanalysis, no. 8 (1980): 317 -- 351.
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…
Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.
3. London: Thames and Hudson.
Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Houses are being bought and sold on an ongoing daily basis, and there is also a strong market for collectors of artwork that could lead to offering more title services to those people as well. A drawback to the career could be, if the person seeking such a career would put all the eggs in the artwork basket. There currently does not seem to be a high enough demand for artwork title services that would allow for individuals to easily or quickly find employment in this field. Rather the same individual would probably be more likely to find employment in the real estate area and have it grow from there.
One area touted by AXA Fine Art Services is that of educating art dealers and collectors to the various dangers and pitfalls of owning and protecting fine art. Each year, this insurance company sponsors an exhibition of fine art that…
AXA Art at Tefaf Maastricht: Leading Fine Art Insurance Company Warns of Water Damage, (2006)
http://www.axa-art.co.uk/nws/nws005.pdf, Accessed June 25, 2007
Chubb Group Insurance, (2007)
http://www.chubb.com/personal/collector_services.jsp , Accessed June 25, 2007
Art vs. Science in Education
Teachers and other educators have been debating what makes an effective teacher for as long as the profession has been recognized. Certainly in the last century, the topic of what makes a good teacher, and what comprises good teaching, has been an important topic in colleges of education. ecause the role of a teacher is so important, the topic of what constituted good teaching has been looked at philosophically, from the viewpoint of pedagogy, and through empirical research. The result has been a large supply of books and articles written about how to teach, how students learn, what techniques teachers should use and what makes for the best teaching materials.
Into this mix must be included the personal qualities an individual must possess if he or she is to be an effective and compassionate teacher (anner & Cannon, 1997). On top of everything else, teachers…
Ayres, Lynn. 2000. "Marriage in the Middle: The Art and Craft of Teaching Early Adolescents." Childhood Education, June 22.
Banner, James. M. Jr., and Cannon, Harold C. The Elements of Teaching. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. 142 pp.
Bellanca, James. 1998. "Teaching for intelligence: in search of best practices." Phi Delta Kappan, May.
Jimerson, Shane R.; Ferguson, Phillip; Whipple, Angela D.; Anderson, Gabrielle E.; and Dalton, Michael J. 2002. "Exploring the Association Between Grade Retention and Dropout: A Longitudinal Study Examining Socio-Emotional, Behavioral, and Achievement Characteristics of Retained Students." The California School Psychologist, Vol. 7.
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
The concept of color value may be better illustrated by impressionist artists like Renoir. In "The Skiff," Renoir depicts a boat on a placid pond using different shades, or values, of blue:
Capitalizing on color value in this case adds considerable depth and nuance to the painting, as well as texture.
Texture: Texture is most obvious in three-dimensional and especially in multimedia artwork. Sculptor Giacometti molded metal, preserving its naturally bumpy texture as in the following depiction of a man walking:
One of the distinguishing features of Giacometti's work is his use of texture. Instead of smoothing the metal to create a more realistic sculpture, the artist lets the texture become an essential defining element of the artwork. Multimedia artist Louise Nevelson sometimes carved niches into wood, thereby achieving the same type of textural experience:
In fact, the Nevelson piece also illustrates the visual function of Pattern.…
Here, the discus thrower is using the space around his body. The sense of motion is palpable, even though the image is wholly static it seems as if the discus thrower is moving through space. In two-dimensional art, space is created using visual illusions. The following panel of Hieronymous Bosch's "Garden of Earthly Delights" depicts some figures in the foreground and some in the background extending toward the horizon:
The result is the sense of depth and space, which are not actually present on the canvas.
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
They organized their needs, chose students to complete each step and worked on it until it was done.
This activity benefited me in several ways. The first way is that I now know this activity is age appropriate. I also know that students this age are able to handle a complex, multi-step project and break it into steps.
The children learned that they were able to delegate responsibilities and work together as a team to produce an end result. They discussed each of their strengths, weaknesses, and desires as they determined who would be best suited for what step of the project.
The benefits the project provided for the students included building confidence because they were able to see it through from start to finish, developing a better understanding of plot structure and flow, and it helped them learn to work together as a group for a single goal.
Kate is said to have escaped the romance with Albert Sampite by fleeing Cloutierville to go and live with her mother in St. Louis. Marianne also refuses to be dependent of any man after "having been someone else's other for so long" and, as such, "she now rejects any realm of patriarchal dominance and chooses, instead, herself." (Martin 73-74). It is possible that Chopin would have wanted the same thing. However, we know she sold her home in Cloutierville only many years after she moved with her mother, so chances are she might have gone back to meet with Sampite throughout the years. But there really is no conclusive evidence to support such a fact.
hat we can observe is that Kate Chopin's characters often seem to resemble her own desire for personal freedom anticipated in a journey that starts right from the moment when women are able to set…
Chopin, Kate. Kate Chopin's Private Papers. Ed. Emily Toth. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998. Print.
Green, Suzanne Disheroon, and David J. Caudle. Kate Chopin: An Annotated Bibliography of Critical Works. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.
Martin Wesson, Jana. Never Too Late to Be: Women's Yearnings for Self -- realization. Dissertation, Capella University. Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI, 2008. (Publication No. 3297018.). Print.
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Education of the Heart, Soul, And Mind
This paper explores the personal meaning of an education of the heart, mind, and soul.
An Education of the Heart, Mind, and Soul: Personal Meaning true education is so much more than simply learning certain facts and figures. While such rote information is useful and has its place, a true education is enriching for the entire person. All five senses are engaged and enlivened, the mind is opened up to a universe of ideas and possibilities, and the emotions are touched in many subtle, magic ways. A true education is not one of merely learning, but one of enrichment for the heart, mind, and soul. When an educational experience engages and uplifts the heart, mind, and soul, it affects the whole person in ways limited only by the imagination.
Music, art, and drama need to be included in this type of whole-person education.…
The definition of an educated person has no doubt altered over time. Certainly, many people have tried to formulate the ultimate definition of what an educated person is, and what achieving that state might entail. In my earliest thoughts about the subject, I probably thought an educated person was probably my grandmother; she seemed so wise, and certainly, I never asked her anything for which she didn't have an answer, and a good one at that. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time. hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. I wanted to wallow in misery. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…
Drucker, Peter F. "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993.
Glickman, Carl D. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001.
Parker, Lynette. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
Even if a student has low grades, if they want to attend college, they should have the opportunity. Many students do better in college because they are more interested in their courses and in learning, and so, even if they had lower grades in high school they should have the opportunity to attend college.
Higher education prepares the students for the "real" world of work and family, but it can make a true difference in a person's life, as well. Just two examples of many that exist are Oprah Winfrey and Barack Obama. Winfrey grew up poor, was shuttled between relatives, and was molested by members of her family when she was young. She managed to attend college, and it prepared her for her career in broadcasting, which began when she was 17. "She attended Tennessee State University, where she majored in Speech Communications and Performing Arts" (Editors). She began…
Archibald, Robert B., and David H. Feldman. "Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs." Journal of Higher Education 79.3 (2008): 268+.
Clausen, Christopher. "The New Ivory Tower: America's Higher Education Complex Is a Behemoth of Mass Production. But What, Exactly, Is Coming off the Assembly Line? A Veteran Professor and Administrator Looks Inside the New Ivory Tower." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2006: 31+.
Editors. "Oprah Winfrey Biography." Academy of Achievement. 2009. 9 March 2009. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/win0bio-1 .
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)
In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…
Science Standards. (2013). NJ. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.gov/education/cccs/standards/5/
Hannah, D. (2012). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Act. American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2013/04/08/59542/5-ways-no-child-left-behind-waivers-help-state-education-reform/
Rich, M. (2012). U.S. Students Still Lag. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/education/us-students-still-lag-globally-in-math-and-science-tests-show.html?_r=0
Wandberg, R. (2000). Communication. Mankato, MN: Life Matters.
Community colleges are well suited to provide many of these basic courses, both for students who will later leave for a larger college and those who attend community college for other reasons.
When it comes to who decides what courses should be offered at the community college, college administrators and teachers are better suited than students in the matter. Educators and administrators have a greater view of what students need to succeed in a job and at other schools. They are more likely to understand the trends within certain fields. Additionally, as advisors and educators, they have a responsibility to turn out graduates who are able to successfully find jobs based on their skills. While students may feel like they understand what they are doing and where they are going, many students simply do not have the perspective needed to guide their own educations.
While community colleges must offer courses…
Ever since fashion has evolved, we have an observed a significant relationship with art and fashion. It is seen that both the disciplines encourages, inspires and somewhat competes with each other. (Duggan, 2001) It is observed that artists and fashion designers creativity is exchangeable and their main objective is somewhat the same. Duggan (2001) also emphasized on the role of media and education in blurring up the boundaries between art and fashion. As we observe, just like art changes throughout the time, fashion change with time as well. Just as the atmosphere around a certain place changes, so does the fashion of that time. With technology becoming really prevalent these days, techno Fashion has emerged out as the new thing.
Fashion designers are therefore looking into the possibility of Techno fashion. This is basically the ability to incorporate tech item into the clothes a person is wearing. The…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Bhabha, Homi. "DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation." Nation and Narration: 291-322. 1990.
Bhabha, Homi. The location of culture. London: Routledge Press, 1994.
Craik, Jenny. "The face of fashion: Cultural studies in fashion." London: Routledge, 1993.
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…
Bell, Susan G. Women: from the Greeks to the French Revolution. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1973. Print 181-209
Rice, Eugene F., and Anthony Grafton. The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Print. 77-109
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
Education is the central component in forming a society that is affluent in every way. Educators make education an obtainable goal. The purpose if this discussion is to explore the personal philosophy of an educator. We will investigate; how the educator believes children learn, how his beliefs are demonstrated through hid teaching and classroom concepts, and how his teaching techniques are based on the philosophies are based on the research of various theorists.
The philosopher John Dewey said the following of education,
Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. All reforms which rest simply upon the law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile.... ut through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to…
The John Dewey Society.. http://cuip.uchicago.edu/jds/links.htm
The Educational Theory of Thomas Jefferson. New Foundations www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Jefferson.html2002
Howard Gardner. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.html
The Educational Theory of John Dewey (1859-1952). New Foundations
However, it is possible to write in a way that reveals an understanding of what a person reads or what they hear during lecture. Lecture in the classroom provides an ideal opportunity for learners to reflect on what they have learned in previous sessions and to decide how they will use that knowledge to further their understanding, or to help them make decisions related to the content they have learned.
As I plan to become a history teacher I now realize how important reading and writing skills are to the student's comprehension of the content covered in lecture and in class. Students learn in many different ways. One reason that Nathan may not be doing well in both reading and in writing is because he simply does not understand the content or the context in which information is presented in the classroom. While he may not understand much from lectures,…
Freeman, F., Ghiso, M.P. & Hamayan, E. (2006). Authentic Accountability for ELL's Reading and Writing Development. Available: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/resabout/research/ira06_freeman.pdf
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Education mirrors life. And, life follows from education. Both entities are inextricably linked. This is a salient point that most teachers and students must recognize. And by teachers, one also means students of a particular domain -- even if that domain is global and extensible to every aspect of life -- since the process of learning never stops. In developing a philosophy of education, one must also be able to dissociate education from literacy -- the latter being far more important. The crux of this essay will be to show that since each individual -- and this is common knowledge -- is different, then the process of education should not devolve into a one- size-fits-all groupthink straitjacket. How should education then be defined? As a mode of instruction that leaves avenues open, into which, aspects of a student's (or teacher's) life experiences and richness of talents and culture might be…