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In order to understand what an art history essay is; it is necessary to understand what the term “art history” means. It refers to the academic study of the history and development of the visual arts, including painting, sculpture, and drawing. Therefore, an art history essay is any essay that involves discussion of this history and development of art, and may focus on technical details of art that make it representative of a certain historical period or movement in art history. Typical essay topics may ask you to explain how a work does or does not represent a specific type of art, and will require you to analyze different aspects of the painting such as color, line, texture, scale, contrast, size, medium, subject, technique, and the use of light to support your explanation.
The above perception of the insanity of life is not at all apparent in the second painting of Georges Seurat. While it is mystical, it gives too much quiescence that is there with the impressionistic style. This like Picasso's painting above is a happy trip and does not exhibit as much negative energy as Picasso. He also does not seem to be trying to summon any primitive energies. Rather Seurat's painting is very urban. He is obviously a product of a new city, with new sidewalks, parks and a newly affluent city where nature had been tamed, including the monkeys on the leash. While it may seem that the monkeys are almost a Darwian joke, it does seem to be in the same as the dog on the leash of the lady with the umbrella. The dog and the monkey almost seem to expensive accessories like a handbag that has…… [Read More]
Art History: The Impressionists
The word baroque has no clear origin. Some says that it came from a medieval philosophical word connoting the strange or the ridiculous, some consider it as derived from the Spanish barueco or Portuguese referring to an irregular shaped pearl. As 18th century was coming to an end baroque find its way to art criticism terminology in form of epithet leveled against art of the 17th century, though it later faced criticism that it was too strange or bizarre to merit serious study. Some of the baroque images can be viewed through this link, http://loki.stockton.edu/~fergusoc/lesson7/lect7.htm
Jakob Burckhardt among other 19th century Swiss cultural historian had a view that baroque was the decadent end of the enaissance, and so was his student Heinrich who identified the essential differences between the art of 16th and 17th century describing baroque as a fully distinct art but not a…… [Read More]
His paintings were and are provocative because, instead of using personal confessions (like Dali), he uses irony and wit and intelligence to make his point hear. "The Treason of Images" is controversial in the sense that it makes the viewer question art and language and the meaning that we apply to objects. Magritte questions the assumptions made by people about the world, changing the scale of objects and defying the laws of gravity
Picasso, Dali and Magritte were all controversial artists of the early 1920s who expressed their fears, their guilt and fantasies as well as their question through their works of art. All of the artists had a major influence on other artists to come as well as a major impact on society during that time. hile some may have considered these artists a threat to society, their works express a heightened sense of reality and an awareness.
Surrealism,…… [Read More]
The clouds gleamed gloriously, as if they were smiling to greet newcomers to heaven Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti. The two artists sat rather impatiently in the heavenly waiting room, and they refused to pick up any of the literature that lay strewn on the gilded coffee table before them.
This is ridiculous," grumbled Leonardo, who in spite of his age lacked no luster in his eyes. "I am not accustomed to waiting for so long. Indeed, I myself made the King of France, Francis the First, to wait for me. Now, if I am able to keep a mighty monarch..."
Indeed," interrupted Michelangelo. "If you were able to keep the mighty King of France waiting for you, why indeed should you not have to wait at heaven's gate. hosoever can know the timetable of the angels?"
The angels keep perfect time, I am sure," replied Leonardo,…… [Read More]
The transition from the Baroque to the Rococo style in sculpture and painting was attended by a concurrent shift in European power relations, as the cultural and political hegemony of the Roman Catholic Church gave way to secular institutions of power. Comparing a work produced during the height of either style demonstrates this shift implicitly, because the Rococo style contains a playfulness in both theme and visual content hinting that its intended audience and patron were far less concerned with grandeur and religious imagery than they might have been a century before, during the Baroque era. Furthermore, comparing and contrasting Gian Lorenzo Bernini's Ecstasy of Saint Teresa with Jean-Honore Fragonard's The Swing will make this implicit cultural shift stand out more dramatically, because although both works include some of the same stylistic features that link the Baroque and Rococo, the playful, almost deliberately blasphemous thematic and literal content…… [Read More]
Art History Of the Western World
Raphael's Madonna of the Meadow is from the High Renaissance period, which lasted from the 14th Century to the 16th Century. The Italian term "Madonna" is a medieval term for a noble or important woman, but in Western art it has come to specifically refer to work that depicts the Virgin Mother Mary. iblical subjects such as the Madonna were very important to Renaissance painters and other artists. Other subjects of importance were the Holy Family and the Passion of the Christ. Raphael was very much creating exemplary work of the Renaissance period -- other Renaissance artists such as Da Vinci and Michaelangelo have also become renown for their depictions of the Madonna. Two of the most popular moments in the life of the Virgin Mary that were chosen for depiction in Madonna art were the Virgin with the Child, and the Pieta.
During…… [Read More]
Art History Of the Western World
Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa, also known as La Giconda, is one of the most well-known paintings of the High Renaissance period. Painted between 1503-1506, it was done with oil paints on wood. Part of the reason it has so haunted people is because of Da Vinci's unique ability to capture expressions and facial subtleties that are lost in works by other artists. Da Vinci used a combination of idealizing and humanizing his subjects that gave them a realistic and surrealistic feel. The Mona Lisa has so many feelings expressed in the face that her smile has become legendary in and of itself for being completely mysterious. There are rumors that Da Vinci hired clowns and singers and other performers to amuse the model for his Mona Lisa so that she would enjoy her time posing for him, which is one theory as to…… [Read More]
Art History - High Renaissance
The contextual knowledge of the era of High Renaissance and Mannerism is important as its integral to any study of work emerging from the period. The Renaissance movement took place in Europe from the early 14th to late 16th century, which witnessed a revival of interest in the values and artistic styles of classical antiquity especially in Italy. Early in the movement, the concept of Renaissance or revival emerged as a consequence of contemporary efforts in the period to imitate the poetic and painting styles of the ancient Greeks and Romans. ut as the movement progressed the word Renaissance came to represent a distinctive cultural and intellectual movement characterized by the growth of secular values and the rise of scientific and geographical exploration of the natural world. While Early Renaissance artists sought to create art forms consistent with the appearance of the natural world and…… [Read More]
Art History -- High Renaissance
raphael, da vinci & MICHELANGELO:
THE SUPREME MASTERS OF THE HIGH RENAISSANCE
Within a thirty year span, beginning approximately in 1495, the city of Rome replaced Florence as the Italian seat of artistic pre-eminence. A series of powerful and ambitious popes, most notably Julius II and those associated with the rich and powerful De Medici family run by Cosimo De Medici and later on by Lorenzo De Medici, created a new papal state with Rome as its capitol and artistic center of Europe. These popes embellished Rome with great works of art and invited artists from all over Italy to take on some very challenging tasks. In its duration, the "High Renaissance" (ca. 1492 to 1520) produced works of such authority and magnitude that later generations of artists were forced to imitate it in order to compete with the growing competition within Italy and northern…… [Read More]
The 'Self' Concept in Abstract Expressionism Movement
Throughout many years, movements concerning approaches on different works of art often reflect principles that appeal to the utility and social function of artworks, which is the primary characteristic of Socialist art movement. Moreover, Cubism as an art movement subsists to creating ambiguous sense of space and use of geometric shapes to flatten the objects and subjects of the painting. Figures, objects, and subjects are broken into fragments and are overlapped with each other.
These are examples of important movements in art history that, somehow, deal with artworks as creations or products of an individual's conscious being, since these artworks have specific interpretations, functions, and purposes. But what if artworks cannot be easily interpreted, and have no specific functions and purposes?
The above-mentioned characteristics are illustrated in artworks created through the Abstract Expressionism movement. In this movement, there is a spontaneous…… [Read More]
War Imagery in Ancient and Contemporary Art
Considering the backdrop of politics and war is an important part of understanding ancient and contemporary art (Stockstad, 2003, p. 468). Historians can tell a lot about the actual events and feelings that occurred during wartime by looking at the rat of the time.
As the twentieth century dawned, many European and Americans had an optimistic outlook on life, believing that human society would advance through the spread of democracy, capitalism and technological change. Thus, during this time, artwork was relatively positive and upbeat. However, the competitive nature of both colonialism and capitalism created greater instability in Europe, and countries banded together in rival political alliances.
World War I started in 1914, pitting ritain, France and Russia against Germany and Austria. War imagery was created by many artists and often was used as propaganda. The United States entered in 1917 and…… [Read More]
Their uneven edges contrast with the stark, sharp, straight lines of the canvas itself. Correspondingly, Rothko uses the canvas to its maximum space, extending the blue background all the way to the edges. The blue is neither bright nor dull; it is a calm blue like the one that just follows dusk or precedes dawn. Such a naturalistic blue matches the earthy red and green used for the rectangles.
Furthermore, Rothko uses some shadow and nuance, creating slightly darker blue lines around the rectangles. The red rectangle floats above the green one. The green rectangle can be experienced as a giant field of grass, or as a forest scene from a distance. Like the blue field in the background, the green is not a solid block of color. There are nuances and shades within the green. Likewise, the red appears darker in some spots than in others, especially around the…… [Read More]
The dress is refined, but oversized and ill-fitting as befits a young boy. Here too, an Americanism is no doubt being added. Rather than make Henry Pelham appear too formal, as the scion of some great house in a European portrait, Copley reminds us that his subject is quite young and probably wearing hand-me-downs, or else some cost-saving garment into which he will eventually grow. It is a budding American disregard for class - a break with both the limners and the European masters. Copley's half-brother is both a young man of a good family and of a certain standing in society, and also any boy of the same age and similar means. In many ways, Henry Pelham comes across as a typical schoolboy. The way he holds string in his hand makes it appear like a pencil or pen that he is absent-mindedly twirling in his fingers as an…… [Read More]
Marxism: Principal Ideology in Russian Constructivism and Mexican Mural Movement
In the history or political philosophy, Karl Marx has revolutionized the social structure of the society by introducing in his discourse, The Communist Manifesto, the concept of modern Socialism, more popularly called as Socialism. In his discourse, Marx posits that in the course of human history, there is the ongoing struggle between the oppressed and the oppressor, which he termed the proletariat and bourgeois societies, respectively. Marx argues that this continued oppression of the proletariat by the bourgeois class will eventually lead to social revolution, where the proletariats will be the new dominant social class, and social order is ruled by the proletariats. A distinct characteristic of Marx's concept of socialism is that it promotes state ownership, control of means of production and distribution, and reconstruction of the capitalist and other political systems through peaceful and democratic means.…… [Read More]
The Functions and Dysfunctions Mass Media advertising and Elitist vs. Popular Art in John Berger's "ays of Seeing"
The emergence of the Industrial Revolution gave birth to numerous movements that influenced contemporary culture and society at the turn of 20th century. The increase in production and distribution of goods and services, and the production of surplus of these goods and services gave birth to advertising. Consequently, advertising, in order to attract and entice consumers to buy their products or subsist to their services, came up with creative concepts on advertising their products and services -- through art and the mass media. Thus, popular culture was created, where mass communicated media messages are extended to consumers in visual, audio, print, and, nowadays, in multimedia forms.
Advertising is an essential factor that propagates two interrelated elements in today's capitalist world: popular culture and consumption. These two are interrelated because what…… [Read More]
Client paid for This sculpture is from Cambodia, in the Angkor period. The statue is 22.75 inches high, which is just under two feet. The majority of the statue is made from bronze, but it is ornamented with inlaid silver. The tiny Amitabha Buddha is seated within the topknot of hair on the Bodhisattva's head.
Although the posture is erect with a very straight back, the Bodhisattva is not well muscled: there is a curvature to the hips and a smooth femininity to the arms. The posture of "Royal Ease" indicates a relaxation and informality.
The Bodhisattva's right hand is missing (broken off). (There also seems to be some damage to his skirt and to the base of the statue on which he sits, but it is impossible to tell if some ornament is missing in these portions.)
This bottle shape was favored in northern Peru for 3,000…… [Read More]
C.E.), a large underground chamber with massive capitals supporting a slanting and beamed ceiling. In tombs like this and in many others, the walls were usually covered with paintings in the form of murals, mostly drawn from Greek legends. Most of the time, these murals provide scenes of banquets, feasts and revelry, such as in the Tomb of the Leopards in Tarquinia, Italy. This tomb is decorated with a banquet scene and groups of dancers and musicians. These wall paintings are similar yet different from those of other ancient societies, for in ancient Roman, the murals were more focused on the family and familial ancestry; Minoan murals also express the daily lives of the Minoans, celebrating at banquets, sporting events and religious ceremonies; Egyptian murals, however, usually expressed religious activities, especially those of the gods and goddesses, such as Osiris and Isis, and with Greek murals, those of the Etruscans…… [Read More]
Art History - Survival Research Labs
Survival Research Laboratories (SRL) is the brainchild of Mark Pauline, and was founded in 1978. SRL has the following Mission Statement "SRL is an organization of creative technicians dedicated to redirecting the techniques, tools, and tenets of industry, science, and the military away from their typical manifestations in practicality, product or warfare. Performances consist of a unique set of ritualized interactions between machines, robots, and special-effect devices, employed in developing themes of sociopolitical satire." On its web site: (http://www.srl.org),SRL claim to "produce the most dangerous shows on Earth," and SRL has gained a cult following, due to its anarchic gut-wrenching machine performances, which have been described as "theatrical displays which blend high and low technology and transform junkyard, industrial and avant-garde aesthetics into explosive socio-political satire....which draw attention to everyday technological violence" (Lucas, 1995).
Since its foundation, SRL has performed over 45 mechanized presentations,…… [Read More]
Structuralism and Semiotics in Advertising
Modern culture in the 20th century characteristically subsists to techniques of structuralism and semiotics, which introduces a new scientific rigor to art criticism. This is because both fields of study provide systematic and detailed analyses of images and texts. Structuralism and semiotics also borrows from various disciplines, such as linguistics, anthropology, psychology, philosophy, and other social sciences in the analysis of these images and texts.
Structuralism is the study of various code functions within a single structure, which may be in different forms. Through this discipline of image and text analysis, structuralists can scientifically, i.e., objectively create concepts or ideas embedded within the unit of analysis. Semiotics, on the other hand, is the study of symbols, representation, and signs. Thus, both are essential in the study of codes (which can be words, images, sounds, odors, and objects that are encountered through sensory experience)…… [Read More]
The poem shows him as a harsh ruler, very rude to people and a lady's man. This behavior stirs the gods against him and god Aruru creates Enkidu, a wild creature, to be the rival of Gilgamesh and punish him for all his bad deeds. The two characters fight, but in the end, they become friends. On a deeper analysis of the text of this poem, Enkidu may be perceived as the human part of Gilgamesh, and their fight as an inner fight between mortality and immortality. In the end, mortality is accepted and poise is re-established.
Enkidu appears like an innocent and humble creature, ready to follow his friend in the most dangerous fights. He is very courageous, ready to sacrifice. Even from the beginning, there is a very powerful bond between the two. Despite the fact that they are different, they create a whole new being together, this…… [Read More]
The rococo ethos symbolized this coming together of worldly knowledge and artistic accomplishment. It was a world of the few and the privileged, but in its promotion of careful inquiry and insightful debate, it was laying the groundwork for another era.
The works of the philosophes quickly turned to an out and out criticism of the status quo. Men like Voltaire and woman like Madame de Stael, pursued avenues of thought that lead directly, in their most extreme versions, to revolution. Diderot's Encyclopedie, and Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, were examples of the strongly rational spirit that was emerging. Much as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and other Classical thinkers had sought to probe and to understand the mysteries of the natural and human world, so too did the leaders of the Eighteenth Century hope to create a civilization that was based on rational principles and scientific investigation. Turning to examples…… [Read More]
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…… [Read More]
Patterned after the old cathedral at Reims, the abbey church displays a similar set of volumes with east and west transepts with crossing towers; an especially large western apse balancing a triple apse at the opposite end.
The massing of the towers around the main structure of the nave, and the rows of round arched windows set high in the walls are typical Romanesque features. The overall affect is one of fortress-like magnificence - a fitting setting for an abbey in a world that was still heavily plagued by violence, and in which the learned were as yet required to turn inward. Symbolically, too, it represents the introspection of religion, the commitment of the devout to purge themselves of sin, and to create a pure space within themselves, one that is walled off from all external temptations. The interior plan, as well, is simple and straightforward, a two-aisled nave that…… [Read More]
Each quadrant contains different shapes, forms, and combinations of color but all four quadrants interact harmoniously.
The balanced composition of "Woman 1" offers counterpoint to what would otherwise seem simply like chaotic brushstrokes and jagged lines. While de Kooning paints the woman's hooves with relative clarity, her hands are blurred. They blend in seamlessly with the remainder of the canvas, again suggesting that she is in motion. The blurred hands are also unsettling, symbolizing the unearthly and even unnatural or supernatural female image.
However, the woman's ample bosom forms the main foreground of "Woman 1." The large bosom represents an earth mother. The largest solid blocks of color on the canvas, the breasts are mostly white. The bright white adds shadow and creates a sense of depth in the composition. White also symbolizes breast milk. Moreover, the white in the breasts balances the black on the hooves and head as…… [Read More]
A romanticism that was rooted in the legendary European past served well to bring comfort and a sense of place in space and time to people who might otherwise have felt rootless and adrift. In its eclecticism the Richardsonian Romanesque house gave visible expression to the deepest needs and of an age.
Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
Roth, Leland M., ed. America Builds: Source Docs in American Architecture and Planning. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1980.
Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History, and Meaning. 1st ed. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1993.
Alan Gowans, Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression (New York: Icon Editions,…… [Read More]
Art (History Art ages) Discussion question 1 page long follow directions carefully youtube lectures provided
There is no denying the fact that one of the hallmarks of embrandt's works of art is his copious usage of elements of light, dark and shadow to great effect. This sort of tenebrism is deployed by the artist initially to give a sense of contrast to his works. Light and dark are antipodes of one another, and by involving both of these elements the painter was able to create striking counterpoints within his works of art. This fact is seen quite prominently in his self-portrait circa 1629. Not only does the artist use both light and dark elements to illustrate his face and the brimming future which he saw in front of himself as an artist, but this portrait is also characterized by loose brushwork which is distinct from the crisp strokes of the…… [Read More]
Art History ime ravel
Our first stop will be the eighteenth century, where we will investigate Neoclassical painting. We will be visiting Sir Joshua Reynolds, as he works on his 1770 oil on canvas "Portrait of a Black Man" -- and we will be asking if the heroic structure of the painting is meant to contain some sort of ideological message, for example asserting the humanity of his subject against the evils of slavery (which was then still common). We should also find out if indeed the portrait is of Dr. Samuel Johnson's servant Francis Barber, as Johnson's progressive attitude in opposing slavery (and his generous treatment of Barber, to whom he left his estate) might explain why this figure is treated heroically in the painting. hen we will visit Jacques-Louis David, as he works on his stark 1793 Neoclassical oil on canvas depiction of "he Death of Marat." We…… [Read More]
An examination of "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist" by Jacopo del Sellaio, 1480-85 and "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy omen" by Nicolas Regnier (called Nicolo Renieri) 1615-1626 reveal the differences between early and later Renaissance painting in Italy. Jacopo del Sellaio's word dates to the late fifteenth century, and Renieri painted more than a century after that. The historical context of their work also signals the differences between Sellaio and Renieri. Sellaio studied under Fra Filippo Lippi and his style inevitably reveals his connection with the Lippi school. Sandro Botticelli studied under Lippi at the same time; Renieri and Botticelli influenced each other and this is especially evident in "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." For instance, Botticelli's style is evident in Sellaio's work "in such traits as the texture and color of hair, the tilt of the Virgin's head and the elongation…… [Read More]
From this point-of-view, on Protestant art, the effect of Reformation is a releasing effect, with the former conceptualization into iconic figures of saints and Christ being transformed in the more relaxed imagery of peasants simply enjoying their time together.
On the other hand, Reformation had a different impact on Catholic art. Especially through its Counter-Reformation process, the Catholic Church wanted to impose a continuance of tradition even in terms of culture and art. This obviously meant, among others, a preservation and exacerbation of icon and religious imagery use in everyday paintings.
One good example of this is a painting of the lamentation by Scipione Pulzone. A traditional image in Catholic art, the act seems greatly increased in intensity in Pulzone's case. Despite the portrayal of a town in the background (as was the tradition during the 14th to 16th centuries), this remains not only lost in the background, but almost…… [Read More]
Over the course of time, this gave many, the ability to express ideas from: Chinese mysticism and culture. Guang is the classic example of this, where a mysterious dragon is resting on a base. This is signifying, the belief in East Asian ideals and what they have tied to these different views (such as dragons). Where, the subject is depicted to be: powerful and larger than life creature (even though they are not real). ("China and Korea 1729")
The Neighing Horse
The use of stoneware, allowed artists the ability to be able to: create real depictions of actual people and things. This helped artisans to design a real life representation of their subjects. They would then paint these images, to illustrate the emotions and feelings that were being experienced. This is important, because it helped to create new ways that artists could be able to: represent their subjects and the…… [Read More]
Narrative in Asian Art History
Exporting Buddhism's Moral Authority
Whether or not one accepts Hayden White's assertion that the will to narrativize history is inseparable from a will to impose moral authority in a specific social reality, a brief survey of the artworks of several important Asian religious sites shows that there were narrative works. A further look reveals that those narrative works took as their subject matter the most significant entity in the region, the Buddha.
In addition, the fact that the Buddha and the ideas of the Buddha were exported to sites beyond the Indian subcontinent, to Jakarta, Indonesia for example, does indicate that perhaps White is correct. Perhaps by exporting the ideas attributed to the Buddha, those who commissioned the artworks were attempting to impose their own moral authority on a specific social reality, as well as reinforcing it at home.
Author Jean Johnson of New York…… [Read More]
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…… [Read More]
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
As a result, both works of art share this similarity, as they want to instill the audience with a sense of awe and respect for this person. (Stokstad, 2011)
When you step back and analyze both statues, it is clear that Donatello as well as Michael Angelo is trying to impress upon the audience a sense of: strength and respect for their statues. This is illustrated by the way they are using his physique, to underscore his physical strength and sexual prowess. However, both artists have different interpretations about what this character should look like. As far as Donatello is concerned, he is highlighting these momentous changes that are occurring (through a graphic depiction of the aftermath of the battle). Where, he shows David posed victoriously, with his foot on top of Goliath' severed head. This is important, because Donatello is trying to instill in the audience a sense of…… [Read More]
As the various are works are depicting the two as a perfect match. A good example of this can be seen in the painting the Meeting of Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. Where, Rubens is showing the two in heaven, looking down on themselves when they were younger riding lions. This is important, because the image of them in heaven is highlighting how they are God's match. While the lions are an illustration, of how they are from the same kind of background. As a result, a sense of mysticism is embraced with: heaven and the lions. While reality is depicted by: showing the two people as they actually appeared in real life. Therefore, the aroque style is illustrated through the use of: mysticism and realism that are connected to one another. ("Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon," 2011)
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.)…… [Read More]
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…… [Read More]
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…… [Read More]
Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…… [Read More]
Please take a close look at two paintings of storms: Watteau's the Storm
Watteau's the Storm and Delacroix's the Sea of Galilee
The two paintings in question refer to different time periods in art history and more importantly, to different views about art and life. These views are also reflected in the style and the technique of the two paintings. Art is often a reflection of the times in which it is created. The social values and perceptions as well as the dominant religious and philosophical ideas of the time tend to be represented in art during a certain period. The following two paintings will be compared and contrasted in terms of their unique qualities, as well as in terms of the way they reflect the era and the dominant ethos of the time period in which they were created.
Comparison of Two Paintings
The development in…… [Read More]
Art Museum: Case Study
This case study involves a campus art museum that for many years had a competent director, but a relatively staid presence on campus. The last director had a far more populist orientation. He tried to bring schoolchildren into the museum on a regular basis, and bring in traveling art exhibitions that were of interest to the larger public. But he seemed more interested in advancing a radical political agenda than truly supporting art. Because the art museum is seen as connected to the graduate school, there is a great deal of anger amongst faculty members, who believe that the museum should serve the interests of the school, specifically the graduate students studying for PhDs. In the future, the evaluation committee must have a more systematic process for evaluating candidates. The mission of the art museum must be clearly defined. And the past qualifications, necessary skills, and…… [Read More]
Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works of Art
Dali's Autumn Cannibalism (1936) http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/dali_retrospective/dali_pma_05_07.htm
Salvador Dali is one of the great and mercurial figures in art history. The surrealistic Spanish painter was influenced heavily by the tumultuous period of history in which he lived and by the haunting images in his own psyche. Both are on dramatic display in the 1936 piece, "Autumn Cannibalism." Here, Dali paints a depiction of the military conflict tearing his motherland apart from within, offering us this terrifying rendering of civil war as seen through the eyes of one consumed by it.
In the confrontation between the social commentary and the internal reflection that comprise this piece, Dali creates a piece that is decidedly representative of the surrealist movement both in aesthetic and motif. In spite of Dali's incredible influence, surrealism was ultimately a short-lived movement, leaving its impression on the art world through…… [Read More]
Art Museum Visit
This particular piece of art is a limestone statue, which in all likelihood, originally was a painted piece. Limestone was a precious mineral, and would have most likely been honed and by prepared by a servant or slave for the artisan to work with. This statue is considered to be sculpture in the round as there are no additional supports required (Barnet 113). A great deal of detail is carved into the headdress, and because of the realism qualities, the statue is of a woman. A number of these statues were designed in small decorative forms; however, many were crafted in life size and even larger forms. The proportions seem to be to scale. The Egyptian use of proportions is a method that depicts the human figure in a consistent way, using measurements derived from the observation of real bodies and related to Egyptian metrology (Baines 9).…… [Read More]
History Of Dada Art Movement
There is a long list of movements that were begun for the sake of art, for instance cubism and surrealism. These two movements experienced grave criticism as they touched nihillism. On the other hand, movements like Dada have been admired and honored by the majorities (Mobileeference).
If truth be told, the early 20th century brought a turbulent and disorderly change in the world. The First World War and the ussian evolution tainted people's understanding of their worlds in an overwhelming manner. This new mind set of people was strongly reflected in the early twentieth century art movements as well. They were all, if seen in technical terms, were boldly modern and groundbreaking. In order to look into and explore the structure of realization, these movements moved further than the unruffled surface of traditional painting. However, perhaps Dada must be looked for its most compelling explorations…… [Read More]
Race and gender might have always been rigidly determined social categories, but class was more mutable when it came to access to cultural emblems like the visual and literary arts (Levine).
In "Cartoon and Comic Classicism," Smooden argues that scholars are deeply conflicted about the boundaries between high and low art. Cartoons, and the analysis of cartoons, are a perfect example of how, when, and why the boundaries between highbrow and lowbrow become blurred. Cartoons are artistically discreet modes of visual culture, and they often convey social and political commentary that is far more in depth than canvases hanging on the walls of art museums. Some mass-produced popular art carries with it an element of subversion, buried beneath the surface and only visible as satire by those keen enough to notice it -- whether high or low on the social ladder. Artists like Mark Ryden embody lowbrow, popular art and…… [Read More]
The function of the work of art would be to stand before the city, and to show the city as wisdom personified, and by implication show that the wisdom came from the works and power of the Medici. It would make an analogy between the city-state of Florence and the ancient city-state of Athens. Because Athens was a genuine republic, it might even deflect some criticism from the Medicis, who were technically supposed to be residents of a republic, even though they ruled from behind the scenes. The setting of the sculpture, next to David, outside the city gates would act as a powerful warning of the city's power (with the violence of the anvil and David's shotgun) as well as strike a balance between Classical representations of learning and the still-important tenants of the Catholic faith that must be honored in a world still dominated by the clergy.
The…… [Read More]
Houses are being bought and sold on an ongoing daily basis, and there is also a strong market for collectors of artwork that could lead to offering more title services to those people as well. A drawback to the career could be, if the person seeking such a career would put all the eggs in the artwork basket. There currently does not seem to be a high enough demand for artwork title services that would allow for individuals to easily or quickly find employment in this field. Rather the same individual would probably be more likely to find employment in the real estate area and have it grow from there.
One area touted by AXA Fine Art Services is that of educating art dealers and collectors to the various dangers and pitfalls of owning and protecting fine art. Each year, this insurance company sponsors an exhibition of fine art that…… [Read More]
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.
"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011.
http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Passion: overwhelming erotic love. Passion: zeal, intense interest in a thought, ideal, belief, person, or activity. Passion: anger, rage, fury. Passion: suffering. Perhaps most commonly used in reference to romantic, erotic love in modern culture, the word passion actually evokes any strong, overpowering emotion. Mel Gibson's recent film The Passion of the Christ reminds viewers that in Christian thought, passion refers explicitly to Jesus's suffering. Christian passion is frequently depicted in the visual arts, but so too is the passion of romantic love, the inexplicable force drawing one person to another. Often mythological figures are employed to convey the archetype of passion; mythic figures suggest that passion is immutable, universal, and timeless. That which the gods can feel is by definition divine in nature. Titian's "Venus and Adonis" especially exemplifies a painter's rendering of archetypal passion onto the canvas. A Renaissance-era artist, Titian uses imagery from classical mythology to invoke…… [Read More]
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…… [Read More]
All of these examples show that there is no linear narrative of art, rather the construction of even so-called periods between different nations and periods lies in the mind of the beholding academic, not in some universal truth of what is art's history. Critics also have their own abysses, and their own sands of what seems familiar and unfamiliar. Even art periodization is subjective as art, it is not a science, and thus periods should not be taught as absolute standards and markers of art history.
Furthermore, other nations such as China have had different histories and different conceptions of what constitutes making art altogether, as well as different forms of periodization as a result. Western art's periods have been much more dynamic, and more characterized by seismic revolutions in aesthetics, as opposed to other nations. There is more blurring between what art is, and what has a practical religious…… [Read More]
Roman mosaics were more frequently used to adorn the floors, and thus used less glass, gold, and elaborate materials. Perhaps the most famous Byzantine mosaics are those found in the Hagia Sophia, the most famous church in Eastern Christianity. On the South Gallery or Catechumena is displayed a depiction of Christ, Mary, and St. John the Baptist known as the Deesis. Christ's "face is strikingly realistic and expressive…All [figures] are set against a golden background" ("Byzantine art," Art Lex, 2010). Of almost equal fame are the glittering, gold mosaics of Ravenna's holy buildings. "Ravenna's most famous Byzantine mosaics are of an emperor, his empress and their retinues. On one wall of the choir of San Vitale in Ravenna, built for Justinian and consecrated in AD 547, the emperor stands with crown and a golden halo" (Gascoigne 2001). Although the ostensible purpose of the structure is a holy one, the Emperor…… [Read More]
Saddling them with the idea that every work must have some kind of recognizable theory that speaks to the viewers may be too much for some artists to manage, and it could shut down their creative process. As another critic notes, "[I]n Western culture, after all, art is associated with the free expression of a unique vision or the pleasurable cultivation of individual tastes" (Williams 2004, p. 3). Thus, by branding a theory on a piece of art, the artist is pigeonholed into a certain genre, which reduces their "free expression," and the viewer is not as apt to enjoy the art according to their "individual tastes."
In conclusion, it is fine to have a theory when creating or admiring art, but that theory challenges creativity and the enjoyment of the piece. If a viewer or an artist is so busy attempting to figure out the theory of a piece…… [Read More]
Mull over the relationship between art and popular culture since 1950. Focus your discussion on 3 or 4 artists.
The world of art has seen two distinct trends in recent decades since the mid-20th century. On one hand, high art has become less central to most people's lives. Other, more visceral forms of popular media have claimed the attention of the public in the incarnations of photography, film, and television. There is no longer a reliance upon visual representations such as sketching and painting to commemorate historical and personal occasions. But as a result of this divide between popular and high culture and the increasing significance of pop culture, high art has begun to adopt many themes and even the visual style of many popular works to justify its existence. As pop culture becomes part of every person's framework of reference, the elements of pop art have been co-opted and…… [Read More]
Artistic works are often referenced in categorized by their particular genre or style. For example, in painting there are a number of different genres such as Abstract, Impressionism, Modernism etc. (Harrison, 2009). The term "history paintings" or sometimes called "historical paintings" refers to a particular genre of painting where the genre is defined by the subject matter as opposed to the artistic style of painting (Wolfflin, 2012). The distinction between "history paintings" and "historical paintings" is a fine one; however, historical paintings are typically considered to be scenes from secular history, whereas history paintings can include depictions from history, mythology, or can simply contain allegorical material. Thus, most of the works of art that would be classified as his store coal paintings most likely are subsets of history; however, history paintings are not limited to the depiction of historical scenes. The term "history painting" has been traced back to the…… [Read More]
Color Me Three
The use of color by artists depends on both personal predilections as well as environmental and social circumstances. This paper will use the works from three well-known artists to illustrate the assumption that the use of color and the style of each artist is combination of these various factors. An important issue that will be dealt with is the artistic climate and the predominant view on art and art theory at the time. Another important aspect is the artist's personal creative aims and views as they relate to color and art in general.
The use of color is part of the artist's creative process and forms an important part of the works of the following three artists: Claude Monet, Pierre onnard and Paul Signac. Specific woks by these artists will be referred to in this discussion.
Color, while not the only element that constitutes their works is…… [Read More]
Giotto and Duccio
The Arena Chapel (Scrovegni) of Giotto (1303) and Duccio's Maesta (1308) are both masterpieces of medieval European art. The Arena chapel contains the fresco cycle and is indicative of the movement towards a more humanistic view of religiosity, while the maestro is a large altarpiece that includes multiple images. Both have a similar subject but were constructed with divergent intentions and distinctive artistic styles.
Giotto di Bondone was a late Middle Age painter and architect and contemporary of the famous writer Dante (The Divine Comedy). Historians comment on his importance as a leader in style and subject matter for generations of artists after him. From an art history perspective, he is important because he broke with the Byzantine style that was so prevalent in his time. In fact, may consider him to be a clear forerunning of the Italian enaissance style of painting, with less stylized figures,…… [Read More]
While the beaker is elegant, the vessel is beautiful to look at and would seem at home in a modern kitchen, which sets it apart from the beaker. Its design is timeless and useful, and it probably enjoyed everyday use in the Egyptian home. It does not seem to carry the same symbolic meaning as the beaker; it is simply a beautiful piece of decorative but useful glass to use in the home, while the beaker is clearly meant for more than a drinking beaker. Both works use detailed decoration as the basis for their design, and both designs are simple and yet elegant in their style and function. Both created around the same time, they show two very different sides of ancient artworks.
2007). Beaker with birds and animals. In Timeline of Art History. etrieved from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/hod_47.100.88.htm26 July 2007.
2007). Four-handed…… [Read More]
History of Japanese pop culture
Very often society's views of men and women and their roles in society are reflected in TV and the movies. Television can in fact be considered a medium against which people identify, develop and revise their perceptions of their role as a man or women (Gossmann, 207), and the extent to which they identify with gender roles in society. In Japanese media, gender roles have significantly changed over time, and this change has been for the most part accurately reflected within the media, most notably in the theatre and in television dramas. The most significant shift has been recognition of the need to portray more independent women who is interested in life outside of the home.
Identification and elaboration of gender roles is very evident in Japanese media, particularly television and the movies. Many Japanese women view television as a means to learn…… [Read More]