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The new woman is scary for many, especially for men. Not only because she personifies a radical change, but because they no longer have the power upon her. eing independent, wise and strong she becomes an adversary, an opponent and therefore a challenge. And it's not only the male pride at stake, but also the acknowledgement that society was really changing.
A relevant example for our discussion is the literary character Eliza in Pygmalion. She undergoes a radical change, modifying not only her dress, her speech and life style, but also her goals, ideals and life perspective. From this point-of-view she can be considered a personification of the new woman ideal, despite the fact that in the transformation process she is helped by a man.
The artwork that had the most powerful impression on me was the Eiffel tower. Not only it is a technological example of successful thinking taking…
Art Nouveau, retrieved May 4,2009 from http://www.nga.gov/feature/nouveau/exhibit_intro.shtm
Guimard, Hector, retrieved May 3,2009 from http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Hector_Guimard.html
Rimbaud, Arthur, Vowels, retrieved May 4, 2009 from http://www.doctorhugo.org/synaesthesia/rimbaud.html
Symbolism, Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, retrieved may 4, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolism
It is much less an expression of breaking away with the past and norms and rules, like the Art Nouveau current was. This is mainly due to the fact that contemporary art has been an expression of the individual freedoms throughout the 20th century and the numerous experimentations during this period produced no limits to the artistic capacity of individuals. The art of the 1990s continues the anxiety expressed in art through the 20th century and adds to it elements characteristic of this decade.
More and more, the 1990s formed what is known as the Internet art, along with related segments such as information art. Internet art prefers to use the internet as the main environment of expression. From this perspective, it is less a differentiation in the notion or concept of the artistic expression and more of a different way of presenting the material and ensuring that it reaches…
Duncan, Alastair. Art Nouveau. World of Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.
To be sure, under the label Art Nouveau, there resides a long list of diverse artistic styles, from two dimensional arts to constructive and geometrical arts.
Art Nouveau was an important architectural movement, inspired by the inherent patterns of nature. For example, C.F.A. Voysey's textile prints showcase plant forms in free curves, while Christopher Dresser's design philosophy stemmed from his knowledge of botany. Aubrey Beardsley (1872-98) is famous for his style of illustration that used curving linear forms. The work of Alphonse ucha (1860-1939), of France, uses similar themes, as does Henri Toulouse-Lautree (1864-1901) and Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947). Victor Horta (1861-1947), the Belgian architect and designer, had a body of work known for embodying all the qualities that are typical of Art Nouveau design. The Tassel house in Brussels (1892) has a symmetrical row-house facade with relatively conventional architectural styles. On the inside, though, there is a staircase of complex…
Mucha, Jiri. Alphonse Mucha: His Life and Art. (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1966), 123.
6.Sayer, Derek. The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).
7. Svacha, Rostislav. The Architecture of New Prague 1895-1945. (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995).
Emile Galle and Louis Majorelle and the Art Nouveau Movement
Art Nouveau is best defined as a style in the visual arts that came to the fore in a number of European and North American cities in the early 1890s, and remained a force to be reckoned with until the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, when it faded quite speedily from view. The style emerged as a revolutionary style of art, existing as a form of protest against so-called academic art institutions and from the intense activity of a collection of movements, manufacturers, public institutions, publishing houses, individual artists, entrepreneurs and patrons. Its main areas of activity were in the decorative arts, though it affected all forms of visual culture.
The defining characteristic of Art Nouveau -- the factor that made it into an intellectually and socially cohesive force -- was modernity. It was the first…
According to Schmutlzer, "The buildings of Horta reveal the full importance of architectural initiative" (114).
In his book, a History of Modern Architecture, Joedicke (1959) reports that, "In the nineteenth century a circle of adventurous artists, known as 'Les XX,' had already appeared in Brussels, who were strongly influenced by illiam Morris and his followers. In 1893 Victor Horta, who belonged to this group, built the house in the Rue de Turin in Brussels at a period when there were still few signs of the new movement on the Continent" (44). A number of innovations can be identified for the first time in this project, as well as in Horta's the Maison du Peuple (1897), wherein iron was systematically used; prior to these pioneering efforts, iron had only be used in factories and exhibition buildings. "Iron as a building material," Joedicke enthuses, "which permitted a more open floor plan, now…
Ballantyne, Andrew. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Boyd, Andrew, Andrew Carden and H.R. Hitchcock et al. World Architecture: An Illustrated History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Cantor, Norman F. (1988). Twentieth-Century Culture: Modernism to Deconstruction. New York: Peter Lang, 1988.
Cassou, Jean, Emil Langui and Nikolaus Pevsner. Gateway to the Twentieth Century: Art and Culture in a Changing World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveaue was most essentially a statement to that effect, deliberately upsetting accepted aesthetic modes (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998).
Critics and colleagues saw the "machine for living" that Le Corbusier created as an installation at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris, 1925, as an abandonment of aesthetic principles and roundly shunned both the structure and Le Corbusier (Gronberg 1992). Seeing modern life more as an extension of the efficiency and productivity of the office rather than the personalization and decorations of a traditional home, the living space that Le Corbusier presented was very minimalist and truly belonged more to the school of modernism -- which hadn't even really solidified -- than Art Nouveau (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998). As striking as this departure was, the backlash from critics is somewhat understandable.
The stance that was taken against Le Corbusier and the vehemence with which he…
Gronberg, T. Designs on Modernity: Exhibiting the City in 1920s Paris, Manchester University Press, 1998.
3) Gronberg, T. 'Speaking Volumes: The Pavillon de l' Esprit Nouveau', Oxford Art Journal, 1992, Vol.15, no. 2, pp. 58-69
Total ork of Art: Charles Renee Mackintosh
Born on June 7, 1868, in Glasgow, Mackintosh, worked as an apprentice under one of the local architects named John Hutchison, however, he changed to the more stable and established Honeyman and Keppie city practice in 1889. As a way of complementing his architectural apprenticeship, Mackintosh got enrolled into evening classes at the school of art in Glasgow, where he partook in a number of drawing programs. hile in the art school, Mackintosh in the company of Herbert MacNair, his friend and colleague, ran into the famous artist sisters, Frances and Margaret Macdonald. These four talented artists formed a group and specialized in furniture designs, illustration and metalwork, and developed several weird-looking images, which were very distinctive. Such images included abstracted female images and certain metamorphic lines that reminded one of Aubrey Beardsley. They got to be known as the spook school, a…
Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society, Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Web. 10 March 2016. http://www.crmsociety.com/crmackintosh.aspx
Current, Karen. Greene & Greene: Architects in the Residential Style, Fort Worth, Texas: Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, 1974. Print.
Finger, Anke and Danielle Follett (eds.) The Aesthetics of the Total Artwork: On Borders and Fragments, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011. Print
Harris, Nathaniel. The Life and Works of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Bath: Lomond Books, 2000. Print.
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
Another favorite is the Dylan poster that is, again, not complicated in its appearance. The silhouette of Dylan is topped off with a mass of hair that is in the form of thick curly lines in bright colors. This image is one that is difficult to forget once it is seen. These images are iconic and they remain with us because they grab our attention without being overdone. The Saratoga Performing Arts Center poster is another design that is a favorite because Glaser has taken what we consider everyday elements and turned them into something that is recognizable but different enough to garner a second or third look. I enjoy the School of Visual Arts poster because it captures what artists do with a few words and what appears to be a simple image. Glaser's style is one that cannot be defined in a few words but, like most real…
Barnicoat, John. "Poster." Oxford Art Online. Information Retrieved 29 Jan. 2009. http://www.oxfordartonline.com
Glaser, Milton." Oxford Art Online. Information Retrieved 29 Jan. 2009.
Artists Since 1945
hat are the influences and events that caused Abstract Expressionism to develop? hat are the two modes of Abstract Expressionism? Compare and contrast these two modes and specially discuss the work of two artists from each mode. Share why you chose these four artist.
During and after orld ar II, artistic expression was destroyed in Europe. This is because, the onslaught of the Nazis created an environment of persecution. In some cases, these activities were based upon artists using their expressionism as a form of criticisms and social critiques. hile at other times; a host of individuals were persecuted because of their race or nationality. The result is that they fled to locations such as New York to be able to continue with their work. This played a major role in determining how Abstract Expressionism developed by taking a different approach that questioned and challenged the status…
Adams, Ellen. After the Rain. Ann Arbor: Proquest, 2007. Print.
Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.
Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…
2000. Catalan Masters. Available at http://www.artcult.com/na125.html" http://www.artcult.com/na125.html. Accessed on 9 January 2005.
2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/archives/2002/opparch02-281.html . Accessed January 2005.
Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at http://www.gaudialigaudi.com/A0003.htm;. Accessed 9 January 2005.
Catalan Painting. Available at http://www.mnac.es/eng/dinou/s6.htm . Accessed January 2005.
New theories and esthetic visions brought a violent change in popular taste, bringing a fascination for the fantastic, the mythical, the exotic, taking inspiration from eastern civilizations (Japanese, Islamic), naturist ornamentation such as flowers and vegetal designs, waving lines that would induce motion and symmetry. The new art style became a commercial kind of work, since it was aimed towards the masses and the every day life. The industrial design was dictated by fashion and the public taste, that was rapidly changing as the speed of modern life brought new ideas almost constantly and commercial tools, such as films and advertising, influenced in that change.
The difference between the Arts and Crafts and the Art Nouveau movements was mainly the approach towards the creation itself. While the Art Nouveau was promoting the use of mechanical techniques to create art objects that would be used in common life, the Arts and…
Art Nouveau, available at: http://artchive.com/artchive/art_nouveau.html
Howard, J., 1996, Art Nouveau: international and national styles in Europe, Manchester
Ryan, D., Art Nouveau in Europe, available at http://www.artsmia.org/modernism/e_ANE.html
The Arts and Crafts movement, available at http://char.txa.cornell.edu/art/decart/artcraft/artcraft.htm
The bronze cools and the plaster mold is broken. The sculpture is cleaned, ground and welded to blend the surface texture. Finally, the bronze sculpture is treated with chemicals and heat to give it color or "patina" when it reacts with the air (Hatcher 72-74). Now one can easily see all the creativity, time and resources that went into this sculpture.
How different from odin's sculpture is this second piece of art, "The Oath of Horatii" by Jacques-Louis David. In about 1781, very early in his career as artist, David started thinking about the Horatii from a play dealing with Ancient oman history: The oman Horatii (named after legendary triplets) and the Alban Curatii were chosen to fight each other to death in order to determine the stronger town. The two families fighting were related by marriage, so it would be a tragedy no matter who was victor. Horatii won…
Calvet, Arlette. Unpublished Studies for "The Oath of the Horatii" by Jacques-Louis David. Master Drawings, (1968) 6.1: 37-42, 81-90.
Chilvers, Ian. Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Eitner, Lorenz. An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David through Cezanne. New York: Westview Press, 1992.
Hatcher, Evelyn Payne. Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art.: Westport, CT.: Bergin & Garvey, 1999.
Vienna and Paris
in the Decade 1900-1910
Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…
Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Historyhome.co.uk Web site: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/3rd-rep.htm#dreyfus
Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.
George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.
Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…
Chandler, W. (2002). Antonio Gaudi: Telling a Story with Brick and Mortar. School Arts, Iss. 5.
Cline, E. (2011). The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudi and Barcelona, Spain. Senior Honors Theses, 24 Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/honors/24 [Accessed: 2 December 2012].
Descharnes, R., Pre-vost, C., & Pujols, F. (1982). Gaudi?, the visionary. New York: Viking Press.
Duffy, J.H. (2003). Signs and designs: Art and architecture in the work of Michel Butor. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
In addition to pieces for piano solo or violin and piano, the Belle Epoque was famed for its large inventory of songs. The Italians were the greatest advocates of this type of song, its greatest supporter being Francesco Paolo Tosti. Though Tosti's songs were never completely off the list, salon music in general fell into a period of darkness. During this period singers were afraid to sing them at serious performances. During this period, waltzes also prospered. Operettas were also at the peak of their fame, with composers such as Johann Strauss III, Emmerich Kalman, and Franz Lehar. It was during this period that motion pictures were developed, although they did not become widespread until after orld ar I (Belle Epoque, 2010).
hen looking at the Belle Epoque there is no doubt that it concerns a period somewhere between 1871 and 1914 (Introduction to the Belle Epoque, n.d.). After French-Prussian,…
"Belle Epoque." 2010. Web. 15 August 2010,
"Introduction to the Belle Epoque." n.d. Web. 15 August 2010,
"Italian art exhibitions: La Belle Epoque & its Artists on display in Rovigo." 2008. Web.
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…
Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from galleryatlantic.com: http://www.galleryatlantic.com/Its-All-About-Art-Deco.html
Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution of Vernacular
All types of art are normally influenced by both the social and the political factors within a geographical region. These social aspects are reflected in the designs of the time and most of the inspiration that the designers get is from history. In Scandinavia, it is easy to define the style as straightforward. The logic behind the simplicity of this was due to the limited resources which emphasized saving and proper utilization (Pile, 335). It is also democratic in the manner that its main intention was to please, the masses. Architects in Scandinavia share an inherent bond with nature and the natural landscape. hen studying the geographical locations of these nodes and, therefore, cross referencing their localities to similar cultural conditions a trend is found. It is the intention of this research to research just how the natural landscape is invited into the manmade…
Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:
An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de
Gruyter, 2005. Print.
Fallan, Kjetil. Design History: Understanding Theory and Method. Oxford: Berg Publishers,
Love is a universal theme, and can be found in multiple art forms including painting, poetry, and music. One of the most common romantic expressions and symbols of love is the kiss. In 1907, Gustav Klimt painted "The Kiss," perhaps his most famous painting characterized not only by its subject of a man kissing a woman but also its use of gold paint and Art Nouveau style. In 1939, poet Stephen Dunn published "The Kiss," which conveys a similar type of eroticism as Klimt's painting. Finally, in 1986, Prince produced one of his most famous songs and videos, "Kiss." All three of these kiss themed works of art convey the theme of erotic and sensual love, which is a common theme in the humanities.
The earliest of these three works of art is Gustav Klimt's painting "The Kiss." This painting is unique because it almost appears like a collage, the…
Desire to Attend MIT
Why I Desire To Attend MIT
"Life's challenges are not supposed to paralyze you, they're supposed to help you discover who you are" (eagon, 2010, ¶ 1).
Challenges in life have helped me not only discover who I am, as the introductory quote by eagon (2010), an American historian and musician, asserts. They also strengthen and help me realize who I can become; a person who actively approaches life with a positive, optimistic attitude: an individual who discovers opportunities in life's challenges. During this essay, I recount a number of my life's challenges and the ensuing lessons that have helped shaped me and my life. I also relate reasons as well as the rationale for my desire to attend MIT. Growing up as a Palestinian in Jerusalem, challenging opportunities regularly presented experiences which helped me to change for the better as I learned more about myself.…
Fallon, S. & Williams, N. (2008). Paris: City guide . Oakland CA: Lonely Planet.
Gates, B. (2011). Why MIT matters. Retrieved July 16, 2011, from http://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/specials/mit150/Gates/
Mission and Origins. (2011). MIT Facts. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://web.mit.edu/facts/mission.html
Reagon, B.J. (2010). ThinkExist. Retrieved July 15, 2011, from http://thinkexist.com/quotations/challenge/
Posters have always carried with them the ability to communicate in a unique way. ith the right message, posters can inspire and motivate people to think about things in new ways and perhaps do things they might otherwise never do. Posters can reflect culture, as well as alter it. hen combining art with other interests, posters can become powerful tools of communication.
It wasn't until the late nineteenth century, with the advent of the lithographic process that posters became recognized as the type of art they are today. Though the movement began in Paris with superb poster designers such as Cheret, Toulouse-Lautrec, and Cappiello, it wasn't long before the art spread Holland, Belgium, London, and America (Fusco xiii). Famous American poster designers include Bradley, Parrish, and Hardy.
This new art movement became known as Art Nouveau, which was the leading international decorative style of the early nineteenth century. Art Nouveau…
Davidson, James West, et al. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 1990.
Fusco, Tony. The Official Guide to Posters. New York: House of Collectibles. 1990.
Kiehl, David W. American Art Posters of the 1890s in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, including the Leonard A. Lauder Collection. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1987.
The International Poster Gallery. 3 Dec. 2003. http:www.internationalposter.com
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
However, his work was not always well accepted and the there was a public outcry at the minimalist and bare design of this building.
Another aspect of his designs that should be mentioned was his fondness for the use of natural materials in his buildings. He "...skillfully manipulated classical materials including marble, onyx, wood, and mirror, into a careful composition of visual patterns" (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos). Other important constructions by this architect were, the Tzara House in Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller in Vienna (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz in Prague (1931-1932) as well as the Khuner Country House at Payerbach in lower Austria. (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos)
Conclusion: criticism, deconstruction and evaluation
There is little doubt that Adolf Loos had a profound impact on many modernist architects and artists. For example, many European architects were particularly influenced by his style and theory. This can be seen in that…
Adolf Loos. http://eng.archinform.net/arch/122.htm (Accessed April 22, 2008).
Adolf Loos -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/eb /article-9048917/Adolf-Loos' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the reuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.
In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty uilding is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make…
Kaufman, Mervyn. Father of Skyscrapers: A Biography of Louis Sullivan. Boston:
Little, Brown, 1969.
Korom, Joseph. The American Skyscraper, 1850-1940: a celebration of height. Boston:
Branden Books, 2008.
(Antonio Gaudi) it should also be noted that his works draw inspiration from many disciplines and from the input of artists, engineers and sculptors. The first commission that Gaudi was awarded was for the lampposts for the Plaza Real in Barcelona. (Antonio Gaudi)
This was followed by various commissions, which included furniture and alter pieces. An early work was the villa El Capricio at the resort area of Comillas. (Antonio Gaudi)
Initially, many of the works and his unique architectural style were criticized by some of his contemporaries. However, with the support of allies like Eusebi Guell and others, he achieved a national and then international status as an architect. A major part of his fame was based on his questioning of convention and his interrogation or deconstruction of classic architectural styles. " His deconstruction of classic architecture, refusal to use straight lines and organic shapes lent his buildings a…
Antonio Gaudi. February 15, 2008. http://architect.architecture.sk/antonio-gaudi-architect/antonio-gaudi-architect.php
BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI. February 15, 2008. http://studentwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~j_becker/biography.htm
Antoni Gaud' I Cornet 1852-1926. February 15, 2008. http://www.costamaresme.com/gaudi_biography.htm
Resources - Antoni Gaud' February 15, 2008. http://www.babylon-idiomas.com/eng/htm/resources-antoni-gaudi.htm
perceptions of World War One propaganda from the Dutch, neutral perspective. The reception of this foreign propaganda can be measured in a number of different ways: via the culling of contemporary newspapers with editorials reacting to the propaganda, and with counter-propaganda materials such as pamphlets. Special attention will be given to pamphlets, posters, and other propaganda describing the 1914 invasion of Belgium by Germany, known colloquially as the ape of Belgium.
Historical context will comprise the background section of the research report. It is necessary to highlight the specific issues that the propaganda material were designed to address in the public consciousness. The propaganda material will be analyzed in terms of its symbolism and composition, and there will be some mention also of the prevailing artistic sensibilities that influenced the artwork -- which cannot be taken out of its historical context. For example, many of the sketches used for the…
Abbenhuis, Maartje. The Art of Staying Neutral. University of Chicago Press.
Army Heritage Center Foundation. "Soldier Stories: Remember Belgium." Retrieved online: http://armyheritage.org/education-and-programs/educational-resources/soldier-stories/42-information/education-a-programs/170-remember-belgium
Duffy, Michael. "Battles: The Destruction of Louvain, 1914." First World War. Retrieved online: http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/louvain.htm
Jacobi, Ava Caroline. "Into the Abyss: The Legacy of the 'Rape of Belgium' Propaganda." Retrieved online: https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/555503/JacobiAvaThesis.pdf?sequence=2
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Good design "today" is more random, and as such is unable to contribute to broader social goals; it only contributes to sales.
Bennett's article counters Ewen's by illustrating an example where design can be used to pursue broader social goals. She cites the case of AIDS posters in Kenya. For such posters to be effective, they must reflect the local society. This requires professional graphic design talent. From the project studied in the article Bennett shows how design can still have a positive function in society. It is not merely to sell product, but can be used to sell a message as well. The "then" design sold certain messages about the direction of society; this "now" design serves the same function. The AIDS posters therefore represent an evolution in the role of design, where modern selling principles are incorporated into historical socio-political messages to sell ideas, such as…
Seagram uilding by Mies Van Der Rohe
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to erlin. erlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, runo Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. y the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter ehrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by…
Barcelona, Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion. Available From
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/barcelona/mies/pavilion.html ; Internet;
Accessed 18 July, 2005
Bauhaus School. Available From
John La Farge is often referred to as one of the most "innovative and versatile American artists of the nineteenth century" and "the most versatile American artist of his time," a true Renaissance spirit that was not afraid to experiment in different areas of paintings and with different techniques. One look at works such as "The Great Statue of Amida uddha at Kamakura, Known as the Daibutsu, from the Priest's Garden," painted during his trip to Japan, will gives us the impression of a personality that transcended boundaries, approached new cultures and civilizations and remained an icon for art in the 19th century.
orn in New York City, in 1835, John La Farge studied with William Morris Hunter at the beginning of his career as a painter. In 1856, he benefited from a trip to France, where he familiarized himself with the most notable artists in art history. Visiting the…
1. John La Farge. On the Internet at http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/lafarge/Html/Index.htm
2. JOHN LA FARGE. On the Internet at http://www.butlerart.com/pc_book/pages/john_la_farge_1835.htm
3. Biography-John La Farge. On the Internet at http://www.crgalleries.com/lafarge.html
4. Akiko Mabuchi. Japanese Art and Japonisme Part I: Early English Writings. Ganesha Publishing, 1999
De Stijl (The Style) movement of was founded in 1917 by a group of young Dutch architects, among whom the most important are Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Bart Van Der Leck. In the magazine they founded ( De Stijl), they first displayed their paintings, sculpture, and architectural design. They were eager that their new aesthetic conceptions should embrace everything from city panning to applied arts and philosophy. The main ideas around which they worked (based closely on Mondrian's theory of Neo-Plasticism) highlighted simplicity of line, form and color. Straight lines, primarly colors, and reduced forms were emphasized. Art was viewed as a collective project, and therefore the romantic conceptions of the "personal" artwork were downplayed in favor of a more impersonal approach. It will be seen that the De Stijl ideas had a major influencce on the Bauhaus style in Germany.
hile Constructivism cannot be considered as a…
Raizman, David. History of Modern Design . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2004.
artworks subject matter, the artist (enri de Toulouse-Lautrec), and the art movement. Look for information on the context found most relevant to the artwork (I think which should be biographical). Consider how a visual description and an analysis of the work, using Elements of Art and Principles f design supports discussion of context. In addition, discuss how initial interpretation from assignment 1 was challenged, changed, and/or supported by the research process.
The Artist and his style of painting
enri de Toulouse-Lautrec (24 November 1864 -- 9 September 1901), a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, was a colleague of Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin, and was one of the great artists of the Post-Impressionist period .
Physically handicapped (with child-size legs and an unknown genetic disorder, that may have been pycnodysostosis) and constrained by his physical limitations, Lautrec threw himself in his art becoming a lithographer, are nouveau illustrator, and…
His paintings have often been described as drawings in colored paint; his paint was applied in long thin brushstrokes with much of the canvass showing through.
A Woman Resting (1889)
We see Lautrec's style exemplified most vividly in one his image titled A Woman Resting (1889) (J. Paul Getty museum). The image painted in tempera or casein with oil is of a young woman sitting in a chair that appears to me to be draped with a white furry blanket. We see her from behind, and this viewpoint emphasizes her submissiveness and the spectator's control over subject. A part of her left breast is exposed. It could mean that she's a nude model and she's on the set of the shoot, that she's a prostitute resting from a long day at work (and Lautrec, indeed, became acquainted with one of his famous prostitutes around this time, a woman in Montmartre called Marie-Charlotte (Milner, 1992)) or it could be her way of relaxing. The row of green small round tables and chairs further indicate that she may be a prostitute and that this may be a brothel since the setting seems less of a home and
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
(ibid) His ideas and design were extremely influential after the Second World War.
The rational logic of Le Corbusier's designs also led many critics to accuse his architecture of being too 'cold' and having little 'humanity' about them.
His rationalism is the aspect through which Le Corbusier has most often been introduced to the public. For a large number of his critics, 9 sympathetic or otherwise, he remains the theoretician who perfected a rigorous system and whose works are subjected to a cold, standardizing logic and an uncompromising functionalism.
However, for Corbusier there was a sense in which a revolution in the arts and architecture had began in the early years of the twentieth century. "A great age has begun, guided by a new spirit, a spirit of construction and synthesis, guided by a clear concept. So began Le Corbusier's first article. In rapid order, this new spirit…
Britain-Catlin, Timothy. "Le Corbusier and the Concept of Self: Corbusian Societies." The Architectural Review Feb. 2004: 96. Questia. 3 Jan. 2005. http://www.questia.com/ .
Brownlee, David B., and David G. De Long. Louis I. Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1991.
Chilvers, Ian. A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Choay, Francoise. Le Corbusier. New York: G. Braziller, 1960.
Stravinsky fountain is near the George Pompidou Centre, called the most Avante Garde building in the world. The Pompidou Centre is named after Georges Pompidou, a French president who hoped that Paris would have a center so that people could join together and admire all types of art, including sculptures. The Centre was created in 1977.
The Stravinsky Fountain or La Fountaine Stravinsky, faces the southern side of the Centre. It is located just over the center's music department. The fountain is a humorous and whimsical depiction of Stravinsky's compositions. Artists Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phale created the sculptures in the fountain in 1983. In all, 16 sculptures make up the fountain.
The fountain represents Stravinsky's work and composition style. Some of his work was represented by his mentor, Rimsky-Korsakov. His music was traditionally very straightforward and to the point. Some of tones were dull. A classification of his…
Fisher, Teresa. Paris. Florida: AAA Publishing, 2000,-page 127.
Frank, Jeff. Sculptor Niki de Saint Phalle dies a 71. NC Times. May 23, 2002
Jill, Johnston. The Cyclops of Fountainebleau. Art in America; New York. June 1996.
Niki de Saint Phalle, 1930-2002. Art in America. New York; Jul 2002.
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…
1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.
2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.
4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
Emotional Drivers Swarovski
The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.
The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…
Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.
De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.
Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
Larry Tee, for instance, an inhabitant who started the Berliniamsburg club in Williamsburg, which is credited with popularizing Electroclash, one of the neighborhood's best-known cultural exports explained that: "Six months ago, Williamsburg was terminally hip. Now it's become designated as a safe space for nice people who have boring 9 to 5 jobs." 11
Urban Golf can redo some of that mustiness whilst fusing Bohemianism with funkiness. Artists used to love the grittiness of Williamsburg. Youth used to revel in its charm and trendy flavor. Now deep-pocketed developers are starting to develop the city and Williamsburg, as it was then, is starting to close aside from the fact that the different communities are moving further apart rather than closer together. Urban Golf could be sustainable by attracting diverse people into the area and turning the residence into a useful place. The Urban Golf concept has helped diverse social groups meet…
DAILY SLOPE,| Park Slope Neighborhood, Brooklyn, NY "Does "Hipster" automatically equal Brooklyn?"
Ferguson, Sarah. "Hipsters Defend Brooklyn." Village Voice. 29 March 2005
The lack of self-respect in particular characters in the play, like Lady Sneerwell and Joseph, sends the message that some people have higher priorities than self-respect. Lady Sneerwell's deep desire to gain Charles to marry her leads her to a chain of unrespectable acts of intrigues and backbiting, in the process, conspiring with equally dubious characters like Joseph and Snake who also follow selfish and destructive agendas of their own. Forming a derogatory School for Scandal all alone speaks against self-respect as against all of those perpetuating that School. While it seems outwardly pleasurable to prey on other people's mistakes, misfortunes and weaknesses, perpetrators of scandals and hypocrisy do not gain the superiority they want among themselves. Lady Sneerwell, Sir and Lady ackbite, Mrs. Candour and Joseph may share a common objective of destroying relationships and reputation but this destructiveness does not build them up in the real sense, but…
Cordner, Michael, editor. The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Oxford World Classics: Oxford University, 1998. http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0192825674/026-9
Creasey, Beverley, reviewer. Charming "School for Scandal." The Theater Mirror, 2000. http://www.theatermirror.com/sfsbtber.htm
Lipfest, David. The School for Scandal. CurtanUp Review, 2004. http://www.curtainup.com/school.html
Matthews, Julia. The School for Scandal Notes. The Fine Print, 1998. http://www.gashakespeare.org/plays/1997/scandl-notes.html
Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.
Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…
Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.
Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.
____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" is set against the backdrop of 1920's Long Island. It explores multiple themes about the human condition as experienced through the actions of the story's lead character, Jay Gatsby, and the narrator, Nick Carraway.
I have selected three such themes from the book as the basis for this paper. Each of them revolves around Fitzgerald's core assessment of class differences that existed between the have's and the have not's in the society of excess and indulgence which emerged after America's participation in World War I. The first theme I will examine relates to the promise, pursuit and subsequent failure of the American dream; specifically, the expectation that the acquisition of enough money can buy one's way into all of the right circles and hearts. The second theme is that of the superficiality of the upper classes and how their worth as…
Tono-Bungay diverges from the author's more popular science fiction (Costa 89). Tono-Bungay is ripe with social commentary, and many literary critics have gone so far as to describe the novel as a "galvanic fictional chronicle of the intellectual and moral history of England at the close of the 19th century," (Costa 89). Indeed, ells does capture prevailing trends in political, economic, and social thought, as well as currents in English history. A preoccupation with issues related to social class status and capitalism permeate the Edwardian novel. Although ells deftly refrains from overtly didactic or pedantic moralizing, Tono-Bungay cannot be understood without reference to the author's message related to ethical egoism, vanity, and human behavior within a capitalist system.
One of the overarching themes of Tono-Bungay is upward social mobility, and the ethical tradeoffs taken to achieve a boost in social status. George's upward social mobility takes place on a weak…
Costa, Richard Hauer. "H.G. Wells's Tono-Bungay: Review of New Studies." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 10, No. 2, 1967, pp. 89-96.
Dirda. Michael. "Revisiting H.G. Wells' Literary Masterpiece." Salon. 15 June, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.salon.com/2011/06/16/tono_bungay_hg_wells/
Liu, Sai-xiong. "On the Symbol Consumption of H.G. Wells' Tono-Bungay." Retrieved online: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-QQHD201106036.htm
Newell, Kenneth B. "The Structure of Wells's Tono-Bungay." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 4, No. 2, 1961, pp. 1-8.
Today's consumers act more en masse rather than as individuals, and so, marketing must show them why the "must" have the newest trendy items, or why they have to continue to need those items. Consumers still have personal choices, but they tend to shop for what is "hot" right now and making an item or service hot is what marketing is becoming. Today, people value things not for what they do, but what they say about them as consumers, and how they show they have "taste" and "class." Things are valued because they are expensive, rather than functional, and that is a very different side of marketing as well. Consumers are bound by expense today, and it is no wonder quality is becoming a thing of the past - perhaps it will end up being the real "luxury" in our consumerist society.
Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."
Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."
If just about anyone but the poorest people in America can afford what once were considered luxuries, what is there left to aspire to or hope for? The author's concept of wealth states that people acquire desirable objects to illustrate their superiority over those who cannot afford them, and their meshing with the wealthy and powerful who can. So, many luxuries are acquired as status symbols that say, "look what I can do" rather than for necessity or even personal pleasure.
I don't know if I agree with the author's conclusion that this need to acquire luxury goods could ultimately be good for the globe, and bring people closer together. This seems to simplistic to me, and too glib. He notes that many of the world's underprivileged will ever see this consumerism, and to me, it sometimes seems wasteful and unnecessary in the light of so many other important issues…
Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."