Art Nouveau Essays Examples

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Art Influence of Japanese Art on Western

Words: 3463 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42452259

Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd Wright and Madeleine Vionnet. What did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. When Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the Western world. As author Emile Zola once said,

It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light

This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at Walt Disney Company what country dominates the field of animation. Very simply, the same answer: Japan.

The Walt Disney Co. is used to creating its own animated movies, not importing them. That changed when "Toy Story" creator John Lasseter persuaded the studio to take a chance on the Japanese anime film Spirited Away…… [Read More]

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L'esprit Nouveau Pavillon De L'esprit

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5673892

Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveaue was most essentially a statement to that effect, deliberately upsetting accepted aesthetic modes (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998).

Critics and colleagues saw the "machine for living" that Le Corbusier created as an installation at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris, 1925, as an abandonment of aesthetic principles and roundly shunned both the structure and Le Corbusier (Gronberg 1992). Seeing modern life more as an extension of the efficiency and productivity of the office rather than the personalization and decorations of a traditional home, the living space that Le Corbusier presented was very minimalist and truly belonged more to the school of modernism -- which hadn't even really solidified -- than Art Nouveau (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998). As striking as this departure was, the backlash from critics is somewhat understandable.

The stance that was taken against Le Corbusier and the vehemence with which he and his work at the Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau is also understandable for another reason; namely, Le Corbusier's aggressive and passionate personality. More precisely, it was not that fact that Le Corbusier had such passion or aggression, but really the fact that this passion and aggression were aimed against much…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gronberg, T. Designs on Modernity: Exhibiting the City in 1920s Paris, Manchester University Press, 1998.

3) Gronberg, T. 'Speaking Volumes: The Pavillon de l' Esprit Nouveau', Oxford Art Journal, 1992, Vol.15, no. 2, pp. 58-69
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Analyzing the Total Work of Art Charles Renee Mackintosh

Words: 3712 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79229004

Total Work of Art: Charles Renee Mackintosh

Born on June 7, 1868, in Glasgow, Mackintosh, worked as an apprentice under one of the local architects named John Hutchison, however, he changed to the more stable and established Honeyman and Keppie city practice in 1889. As a way of complementing his architectural apprenticeship, Mackintosh got enrolled into evening classes at the school of art in Glasgow, where he partook in a number of drawing programs. While in the art school, Mackintosh in the company of Herbert MacNair, his friend and colleague, ran into the famous artist sisters, Frances and Margaret Macdonald. These four talented artists formed a group and specialized in furniture designs, illustration and metalwork, and developed several weird-looking images, which were very distinctive. Such images included abstracted female images and certain metamorphic lines that reminded one of Aubrey Beardsley. They got to be known as the spook school, a nickname they earned as a result of their unique style. However, in certain places like England, their works were received with a level of suspicion due to the decadent influence their works had on Continental Art Nouveau (The Glasgow School of Art). Here, under the keen eyes of Francis Newberry,…… [Read More]

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Milton Glaser Man of Art

Words: 1153 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64567763

Another favorite is the Dylan poster that is, again, not complicated in its appearance. The silhouette of Dylan is topped off with a mass of hair that is in the form of thick curly lines in bright colors. This image is one that is difficult to forget once it is seen. These images are iconic and they remain with us because they grab our attention without being overdone. The Saratoga Performing Arts Center poster is another design that is a favorite because Glaser has taken what we consider everyday elements and turned them into something that is recognizable but different enough to garner a second or third look. I enjoy the School of Visual Arts poster because it captures what artists do with a few words and what appears to be a simple image. Glaser's style is one that cannot be defined in a few words but, like most real and genuine art, we recognize it when we see it. From the very simplistic to the daring and edgy, Glaser's style is completely his own. His life is a tribute to graphic design if not the definition of it.

Glaser is an excellent role model for students of any age…… [Read More]

Barnicoat, John. "Poster." Oxford Art Online. Information Retrieved 29 Jan. 2009.

Glaser, Milton." Oxford Art Online. Information Retrieved 29 Jan. 2009.
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Post World War II Art

Words: 2450 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79520631

Artists Since 1945

What are the influences and events that caused Abstract Expressionism to develop? What are the two modes of Abstract Expressionism? Compare and contrast these two modes and specially discuss the work of two artists from each mode. Share why you chose these four artist.

During and after World War II, artistic expression was destroyed in Europe. This is because, the onslaught of the Nazis created an environment of persecution. In some cases, these activities were based upon artists using their expressionism as a form of criticisms and social critiques. While at other times; a host of individuals were persecuted because of their race or nationality. The result is that they fled to locations such as New York to be able to continue with their work. This played a major role in determining how Abstract Expressionism developed by taking a different approach that questioned and challenged the status quo. These shifts occurred in locations where there was a sense of openness and creativity. (Adams)

Moreover, European artists after World War I became interested in Abstract Expressionism to discuss unique ways of representing colors and depicting ideas differently. In Germany this became a form of German Expressionism in 1919.…… [Read More]

Adams, Ellen. After the Rain. Ann Arbor: Proquest, 2007. Print.
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French Influence Upon Catalan Modernists

Words: 3751 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83082708

Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.

Catalan Artists

Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered this to them.

The artists at the forefront of the new Catalan painting were Ramon Casas (1866-1932) and Santiago Rusiol (1861-1931). The two artists' Paris work, such as Plein air (c. 1890-1), by Casas, and Laboratory in La Galette (c. 1890-1), by Rusiol, is naturalistic in character, dispensing with the…… [Read More]

2000. Catalan Masters. Available at" Accessed on 9 January 2005.

2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at Accessed January 2005.
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Designers During the Second Half

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48330697

New theories and esthetic visions brought a violent change in popular taste, bringing a fascination for the fantastic, the mythical, the exotic, taking inspiration from eastern civilizations (Japanese, Islamic), naturist ornamentation such as flowers and vegetal designs, waving lines that would induce motion and symmetry. The new art style became a commercial kind of work, since it was aimed towards the masses and the every day life. The industrial design was dictated by fashion and the public taste, that was rapidly changing as the speed of modern life brought new ideas almost constantly and commercial tools, such as films and advertising, influenced in that change.

The difference between the Arts and Crafts and the Art Nouveau movements was mainly the approach towards the creation itself. While the Art Nouveau was promoting the use of mechanical techniques to create art objects that would be used in common life, the Arts and Crafts movements rejected the machinery in the creative process, concentrating on the value of human talent. What both movements had in common was the inclination towards the socialization of art, and the ideas of including art pieces into the houses of the people as regular part of their lives. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Art Nouveau, available at: 

Howard, J., 1996, Art Nouveau: international and national styles in Europe, Manchester
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Rodin David it Is Amazing

Words: 1199 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90039297

The bronze cools and the plaster mold is broken. The sculpture is cleaned, ground and welded to blend the surface texture. Finally, the bronze sculpture is treated with chemicals and heat to give it color or "patina" when it reacts with the air (Hatcher 72-74). Now one can easily see all the creativity, time and resources that went into this sculpture.

How different from Rodin's sculpture is this second piece of art, "The Oath of Horatii" by Jacques-Louis David. In about 1781, very early in his career as artist, David started thinking about the Horatii from a play dealing with Ancient Roman history: The Roman Horatii (named after legendary triplets) and the Alban Curatii were chosen to fight each other to death in order to determine the stronger town. The two families fighting were related by marriage, so it would be a tragedy no matter who was victor. Horatii won the battle, returned from combat, and was met by his sister Camilla, who cursed him for killing her lover. Horatii became very angry and killed Camilla, but was acquitted on an appeal by his father to the people of Rome. David originally thought of painting the slaying of Camilla, then…… [Read More]

Calvet, Arlette. Unpublished Studies for "The Oath of the Horatii" by Jacques-Louis David. Master Drawings, (1968) 6.1: 37-42, 81-90.

Chilvers, Ian. Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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Botticelli Sandro Botticelli Alessandro Di

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71253868

This may also be an indication of the struggle within the artist. (Botticelli, Sandro: The Mystical Nativity)

The works of Botticelli were to become less fashionable and popular with the development of the Renaissance. He was to die virtually unknown in the art world. However in the 19th century Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites once again recognized his genius and his paintings again assumed a prominent position in the history of art. (Sandro Botticelli:Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)

Works Cited

Adoration of the Magi. 1475, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. May 25, 2006.

Botticelli, Sandro: Biography. May 27, 2006.

BOTTICELLI, Sandro. May 27, 2006.

Botticelli, Sandro: The Mystical Nativity. May 27, 2006.

Primavera, 1482, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. May 25, 2006

Renaissance. May 25, 2006.

Sandro Botticelli: 1445-1510. May 25, 2006.

Sandro Botticelli:Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. May 27, 2006.

Sandro Botticelli. May 27, 2006.

The Adoration of the Magi. May 26, 2006.

The Birth of Venus, 1484, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. May 27, 2006.


Figure 1: The Birth of Venus (1484-1486) - Tempera on canvas, 184,5 x 285,5 cm, Uffizi, Florence


Figure 2: La Primavera. c. 1482. Tempera on…… [Read More]

Adoration of the Magi. 1475, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. May 25, 2006.

Botticelli, Sandro: Biography. May 27, 2006. 
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Michelangelo and Rodin Thinking Outside

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20062182

Jean-Baptist Carpeaux and Augustus Saint-Gaudens improved sculpting but Rodin introduced many new ideas and styles that left lasing impressions. He "modified" the Realism movement by implementing several styles into his work including Impressionism and Symbolism and in the process created a personal style that "anticipated twentieth-century Expressionism" (1011). Rodin attempted to look beyond what was being taught in art schools in his day. His studied Michelangelo and Puget and desired to express the "existential situation of modern man, his inability to communicate, his despair" (1011). The Thinker is Rodin's most famous piece of art. Rodin put much care and consideration into this piece, noting that what makes the thinker so spectacular is the fact that the thinker expresses the "effort of thought through the contraction of each and every muscle" (Neret 35). Deborah Silverman notes that while the thinker might be "inactive but not at rest" (261). Thinking is not what we consider a physical activity, but Rodin displays how it is such. The Kiss demonstrates Rodin's style as well. He captures a moment in time, just as Michelangelo does. It is a moment of great anticipation. These works, as moments of anticipation reveal Rodin's Realist influence with their anatomical…… [Read More]

Neret, Gilles. Auguste Rodin: Sculptures and Drawings. Cologne: Taschen Publishers.1994.

Silverman, Debora . Art Nouveau in Fin-de-siecle France: Politics, Psychology, and Style.
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Compare Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910

Words: 2497 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75167778

Vienna and Paris

in the Decade 1900-1910

Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910

Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the World. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the World's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also exerted worldwide magnetism on artists such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, who already were or eventually became household artistic names. Parisian music also flourished during this time in the Art Nouveau-engendered form of "Impressionism," notably represented by Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. In sum, the literary, cultural and artistic…… [Read More]

Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Web site: 

Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
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Influences of Gaudi's Works

Words: 3787 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73446654

Gaudi's Works

Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty of the city and have become a huge tourist attraction. Many people at time thought that the works of Gaudi do not actually belong in Barcelona because they went against and argued with the current conventions of that time. (Cline, 2011)

Even since Gaudi was a child, he was fond…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chandler, W. (2002). Antonio Gaudi: Telling a Story with Brick and Mortar. School Arts, Iss. 5.

Cline, E. (2011). The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudi and Barcelona, Spain. Senior Honors Theses, 24 Retrieved from: [Accessed: 2 December 2012].
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Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52701244

The open space invites you to dwell on the mysterious and contemplate the interior life -- away from the crowded, stacked-up world just beyond the walls: "deliberately placed…beyond the limits of control" (Witcombe).

The Guggenheim, therefore, takes you out of your element: it transports you into another time, another place -- a time and place that never existed and has yet to come into existence: a sanctuary where modern art and naturalism merge into an architectural act of creation. Are these false impressions? Or is the Guggenheim nothing more than a Kandinskian cross between "fashion" and "fine art" (Johnson 666)?

There is nothing absurdist about Wright's architecture. It is sincere and always quiet. Yet something about the Guggenheim is so unlike Robie House -- so bursting -- so NYC and modern -- that it amazes, calls attention to itself and yet does not play the fool. It is as if nature, electrified by the city life of Manhattan, crawled its way out of the waters in Central Park and evolved in a sudden awakening of energy into a concrete structure -- the fruit of the vine of 5th Avenue: a pine cone inversion dangling upwards toward the sky.

In conclusion,…… [Read More]

"Frank Lloyd Wright Biography." Web. 24 July 2011.

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003.
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Twentieth Century Designers

Words: 468 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78457482

20th Century Fashion and Designers

According to Tara Maginnis of, the prominent silhouette for a woman in (in Western cultures) was a thin-waisted shape created by a tightly-laced corset. She writes "The Hourglass shape of the woman of the 1890's transformed after 1897 into the "S" curve of 1897-1908. This change came from longer lined "health" corsets that supported the spine and abdomen, especially when they were over-laced by the fashionable. Fashionable women in this period seem to be leaning into a wind." As mentioned above, this "S" shape was a slight change from the hourglass shape favored prior to 1897, and it was highly influenced by Art Neaveau illustration.

One particularly influential designer of the time was Spanish designer Mariano Fortuny, who was working in France at the time. According to his biography on the Fortuny company website, He is most famous for designing the "Delphos Gown," which was inspired by Greek sculpture and innovative in design and comfort. He also designed textiles that are still manufactured today. His designs, particularly the "Delphos Gown" were fluid and emphasized movement, which made them favored by dancer Isadora Duncan. An example can be seen below:

Public domain image, available from…… [Read More]

Maginnis, Tara. (2008). "The Turn of the 20th Century." Web. .

Fortnuy Company. (2010). "Legacy." Web. < > .
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La Belle Epoque Also Known

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40412314

In addition to pieces for piano solo or violin and piano, the Belle Epoque was famed for its large inventory of songs. The Italians were the greatest advocates of this type of song, its greatest supporter being Francesco Paolo Tosti. Though Tosti's songs were never completely off the list, salon music in general fell into a period of darkness. During this period singers were afraid to sing them at serious performances. During this period, waltzes also prospered. Operettas were also at the peak of their fame, with composers such as Johann Strauss III, Emmerich Kalman, and Franz Lehar. It was during this period that motion pictures were developed, although they did not become widespread until after World War I (Belle Epoque, 2010).

When looking at the Belle Epoque there is no doubt that it concerns a period somewhere between 1871 and 1914 (Introduction to the Belle Epoque, n.d.). After French-Prussian, war was over Europe entered a new era known as the Beautiful Era or the Belle Epoque. This timeframe is known for many series inventions like the automobile, phonograph, telephone, and cinematograph. World Fair in Paris demonstrated impressing inventions of the technique and technology achievements. Such misfortunes as Dreyfus Affair…… [Read More]

"Belle Epoque." 2010. Web. 15 August 2010, < >

"Introduction to the Belle Epoque." n.d. Web. 15 August 2010,
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Architecture of Happiness Why Ideals

Words: 3301 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48710322

The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves. Another reason could have been the onset of the sexual revolution. This thin look has remained an attraction or desire for many women even today" (Cox, 2006). Regardless of what the exact reasons were, one can argue that the changing aesthetic for women revolved around the changing values of society,…… [Read More]

Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from

Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
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Scandinavian Architecture the Evolution of Vernacular

Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67761252

Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution of Vernacular

All types of art are normally influenced by both the social and the political factors within a geographical region. These social aspects are reflected in the designs of the time and most of the inspiration that the designers get is from history. In Scandinavia, it is easy to define the style as straightforward. The logic behind the simplicity of this was due to the limited resources which emphasized saving and proper utilization (Pile, 335). It is also democratic in the manner that its main intention was to please, the masses. Architects in Scandinavia share an inherent bond with nature and the natural landscape. When studying the geographical locations of these nodes and, therefore, cross referencing their localities to similar cultural conditions a trend is found. It is the intention of this research to research just how the natural landscape is invited into the manmade structures that in most cases humbly penetrate the earth. Starting with early modernist-Scandinavian architects such as Eliel Saarnen and ending with contemporary projects such as BIG's mountain dwellings in Copenhagen, this survey will zoom into what exactly makes up the components of Scandinavian design.

From the old methods of creating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:

An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de
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Common Themes of Humanities Love

Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54162450

Love is a universal theme, and can be found in multiple art forms including painting, poetry, and music. One of the most common romantic expressions and symbols of love is the kiss. In 1907, Gustav Klimt painted "The Kiss," perhaps his most famous painting characterized not only by its subject of a man kissing a woman but also its use of gold paint and Art Nouveau style. In 1939, poet Stephen Dunn published "The Kiss," which conveys a similar type of eroticism as Klimt's painting. Finally, in 1986, Prince produced one of his most famous songs and videos, "Kiss." All three of these kiss themed works of art convey the theme of erotic and sensual love, which is a common theme in the humanities.

The earliest of these three works of art is Gustav Klimt's painting "The Kiss." This painting is unique because it almost appears like a collage, the way the couple seems superimposed upon a gold background. One of the striking visual elements of this painting is the way the shape of the two bodies of the man and the woman blend together. There is no distinct line between them, suggesting that the man and woman have "become…… [Read More]

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Desire to Attend MIT Why I Desire

Words: 3046 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2307410

Desire to Attend MIT

Why I Desire To Attend MIT

"Life's challenges are not supposed to paralyze you, they're supposed to help you discover who you are" (Reagon, 2010, ¶ 1).

Challenges in life have helped me not only discover who I am, as the introductory quote by Reagon (2010), an American historian and musician, asserts. They also strengthen and help me realize who I can become; a person who actively approaches life with a positive, optimistic attitude: an individual who discovers opportunities in life's challenges. During this essay, I recount a number of my life's challenges and the ensuing lessons that have helped shaped me and my life. I also relate reasons as well as the rationale for my desire to attend MIT. Growing up as a Palestinian in Jerusalem, challenging opportunities regularly presented experiences which helped me to change for the better as I learned more about myself. These experiences also left treasured imprints in my heart for life. Learning to deal with several different languages at a young age proved to be one primary challenge I consider as primus inter-pares. This challenging opportunity evolved from having a Palestinian-Muslim father and a Polish-Christian mother. My father spoke Arabic,…… [Read More]

Fallon, S. & Williams, N. (2008). Paris: City guide . Oakland CA: Lonely Planet.

Gates, B. (2011). Why MIT matters. Retrieved July 16, 2011, from
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Poster Design

Words: 2441 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29733676

Posters have always carried with them the ability to communicate in a unique way. With the right message, posters can inspire and motivate people to think about things in new ways and perhaps do things they might otherwise never do. Posters can reflect culture, as well as alter it. When combining art with other interests, posters can become powerful tools of communication.

It wasn't until the late nineteenth century, with the advent of the lithographic process that posters became recognized as the type of art they are today. Though the movement began in Paris with superb poster designers such as Cheret, Toulouse-Lautrec, and Cappiello, it wasn't long before the art spread Holland, Belgium, London, and America (Fusco xiii). Famous American poster designers include Bradley, Parrish, and Hardy.

This new art movement became known as Art Nouveau, which was the leading international decorative style of the early nineteenth century. Art Nouveau posters featured a flowing line which was inspired from nature. The style of this movement was all-encompassing, gathering influence from architecture, graphics, and furniture. Art Deco became the leading international decorative style after World War I and maintained popularity until World War II. Art Deco is best described as a…… [Read More]

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New Reference Is Not Required

Words: 5917 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7879314

It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.

Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that population increased in urban areas, creating congestion and the rise of a new type of city. As a cultural force, urbanisation required new forms of uniform housing that demanded quick and cheap construction. They needed to be able to house numerous people as well. Thus, much of architecture was driven…… [Read More]

O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
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Renaissance Building Projects Their Relationship

Words: 4215 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37559270

In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.

The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. " the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's is a clear reflection of social values and scientific philosophy in late-17th-century England" (462).

The style implemented by Wren also ensured that the interior was just as ornate and imposing as the exterior. This accentuated the sense of opulence and grandeur of the building, and increased its religious and national…… [Read More]

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Adolf Loos 1870-1933 Is Considered

Words: 2176 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49036565

However, his work was not always well accepted and the there was a public outcry at the minimalist and bare design of this building.

Another aspect of his designs that should be mentioned was his fondness for the use of natural materials in his buildings. He "...skillfully manipulated classical materials including marble, onyx, wood, and mirror, into a careful composition of visual patterns" (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos). Other important constructions by this architect were, the Tzara House in Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller in Vienna (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz in Prague (1931-1932) as well as the Khuner Country House at Payerbach in lower Austria. (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos)

Conclusion: criticism, deconstruction and evaluation

There is little doubt that Adolf Loos had a profound impact on many modernist architects and artists. For example, many European architects were particularly influenced by his style and theory. This can be seen in that Frank Lloyd Wright "....credited Loos with doing for European architecture what Wright was doing in the United States" (Adolf Loos -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia). However, there were also many criticisms of his work. As has been referred to, many people objected to his stark and austere style. Possibly the most…… [Read More]

Adolf Loos. (Accessed April 22, 2008).

Adolf Loos -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. (Accessed April 21, 2008).
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Louis Sullivan Form Follows Function

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1054199


His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the Breuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.


In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty Building is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make the structure as aesthetically appealing to the human spirit as possible. In Sullivan's eyes, form had function -- and that function was to ornament.


Kaufman, Mervyn. Father of Skyscrapers: A Biography of Louis Sullivan. Boston:

Little, Brown, 1969.

Korom, Joseph. The American Skyscraper, 1850-1940: a celebration of height. Boston:…… [Read More]

Kaufman, Mervyn. Father of Skyscrapers: A Biography of Louis Sullivan. Boston:

Little, Brown, 1969.
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Antoni Gaudi's Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71813230

(Antonio Gaudi) it should also be noted that his works draw inspiration from many disciplines and from the input of artists, engineers and sculptors. The first commission that Gaudi was awarded was for the lampposts for the Plaza Real in Barcelona. (Antonio Gaudi)

This was followed by various commissions, which included furniture and alter pieces. An early work was the villa El Capricio at the resort area of Comillas. (Antonio Gaudi)

Initially, many of the works and his unique architectural style were criticized by some of his contemporaries. However, with the support of allies like Eusebi Guell and others, he achieved a national and then international status as an architect. A major part of his fame was based on his questioning of convention and his interrogation or deconstruction of classic architectural styles. " His deconstruction of classic architecture, refusal to use straight lines and organic shapes lent his buildings a surreal air that clearly wasn't to the tastes of his more traditional peers" (Resources - Antoni Gaud'.February 15, 2008). It should also be borne in mind that this questioning of convention and classic styles and perceptions did not take place in a vacuum, and there were many artists, architects and…… [Read More]

Antonio Gaudi. February 15, 2008. 

BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI. February 15, 2008.
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Foreign WWI Propaganda From Dutch Neutral Perspective

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74625101

perceptions of World War One propaganda from the Dutch, neutral perspective. The reception of this foreign propaganda can be measured in a number of different ways: via the culling of contemporary newspapers with editorials reacting to the propaganda, and with counter-propaganda materials such as pamphlets. Special attention will be given to pamphlets, posters, and other propaganda describing the 1914 invasion of Belgium by Germany, known colloquially as the Rape of Belgium.

Historical context will comprise the background section of the research report. It is necessary to highlight the specific issues that the propaganda material were designed to address in the public consciousness. The propaganda material will be analyzed in terms of its symbolism and composition, and there will be some mention also of the prevailing artistic sensibilities that influenced the artwork -- which cannot be taken out of its historical context. For example, many of the sketches used for the propaganda posters are visually akin to the socialist art prevalent at the time.

However, there was more to the artistic rendering than just the appropriation of socialist imagery. There was also the deliberate infusion of sexual imagery that corresponded with the verbal reference to the German invasion as the Rape…… [Read More]

Abbenhuis, Maartje. The Art of Staying Neutral. University of Chicago Press.

Army Heritage Center Foundation. "Soldier Stories: Remember Belgium." Retrieved online:
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Living Memory Disappears Having Read the Second

Words: 2382 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53276837

Living Memory Disappears

Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?

The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.

Question 2

Belle Epoque and World War I

If you had lived during the Belle Epoque period, how would the different innovations and aspects of this period have influenced your life, which do you think would have influenced your life the most: the new monuments (Eiffel Tower, Grand Palais, Alexander III Bridge, the Garnier Opera, the reparations to Notre Dame…… [Read More]

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Role That He Outlines for

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17602731

Good design "today" is more random, and as such is unable to contribute to broader social goals; it only contributes to sales.

Bennett's article counters Ewen's by illustrating an example where design can be used to pursue broader social goals. She cites the case of AIDS posters in Kenya. For such posters to be effective, they must reflect the local society. This requires professional graphic design talent. From the project studied in the article Bennett shows how design can still have a positive function in society. It is not merely to sell product, but can be used to sell a message as well. The "then" design sold certain messages about the direction of society; this "now" design serves the same function. The AIDS posters therefore represent an evolution in the role of design, where modern selling principles are incorporated into historical socio-political messages to sell ideas, such as…… [Read More]

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Grammar Word Choices Richard Who

Words: 491 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83355537

Part a: Commas

Fortunately, Albert's determination has not been erased. He knows that yes, his work experience is of questionable value in the real world, but that won't stop him! The voice of his mother, who died recently, seems to be urging him forward: "Don't be pessimistic, Al. Whenever the going gets rough we have to put our noses to the grindstone!" That voice, its enthusiasm never waning, shields Albert from despair.

Part B: Semicolon

1) Driving in a rainstorm is always stressful; driving in a blizzard can be terrifying.

2) it was rainy and very chilly outside, but Marina decided to walk to work anyway.

3) in what seemed like a paradox to him, David was afraid of heights; however, he liked to fly.

4) Train travel isn't just for the faint of heart; it is also for those who enjoy the beauty of unfolding landscapes.

5) During the summer, Michelle has fun hosting parties for her visitors: various friends, family, and guests from both in town and afar.

Part C: Colon

Up and down Main Street, Albert passes five kinds of establishments: restaurants, massage parlours, used-car dealerships, pharmacies, and provincial offices. Albert enters a pharmacy, noticing lots of…… [Read More]

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Seagram Building by Mies Van Der Rohe

Words: 2747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25149120

Seagram Building by Mies Van Der Rohe

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to Berlin. Berlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, Bruno Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. By the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter Behrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by 1921, Mies was able to open his own studio in Berlin. (Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, 1886-1969:

This was the time of the World War I, and soon after the War, Mies began to get interested in the study of skyscrapers, and he thereafter designed two novel and innovative…… [Read More]

Barcelona, Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion. Available From ; Internet;
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John La Farge Is Often Referred to

Words: 2566 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42960394

John La Farge is often referred to as one of the most "innovative and versatile American artists of the nineteenth century" and "the most versatile American artist of his time," a true Renaissance spirit that was not afraid to experiment in different areas of paintings and with different techniques. One look at works such as "The Great Statue of Amida Buddha at Kamakura, Known as the Daibutsu, from the Priest's Garden," painted during his trip to Japan, will gives us the impression of a personality that transcended boundaries, approached new cultures and civilizations and remained an icon for art in the 19th century.

Born in New York City, in 1835, John La Farge studied with William Morris Hunter at the beginning of his career as a painter. In 1856, he benefited from a trip to France, where he familiarized himself with the most notable artists in art history. Visiting the Louvre, John La Farge began to draw reproductions of renowned painters and to study modern color theories

The Japanese culture and art began to influence him in the late 1850s and 1860s, as he married Margaret Perry, niece of the Commodore who had opened Japan to Western civilization and trade.…… [Read More]

1. John La Farge. On the Internet at

2. JOHN LA FARGE. On the Internet at
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History of Modern Design

Words: 426 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8707353

De Stijl (The Style) movement of was founded in 1917 by a group of young Dutch architects, among whom the most important are Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Bart Van Der Leck. In the magazine they founded ( De Stijl), they first displayed their paintings, sculpture, and architectural design. They were eager that their new aesthetic conceptions should embrace everything from city panning to applied arts and philosophy. The main ideas around which they worked (based closely on Mondrian's theory of Neo-Plasticism) highlighted simplicity of line, form and color. Straight lines, primarly colors, and reduced forms were emphasized. Art was viewed as a collective project, and therefore the romantic conceptions of the "personal" artwork were downplayed in favor of a more impersonal approach. It will be seen that the De Stijl ideas had a major influencce on the Bauhaus style in Germany.

While Constructivism cannot be considered as a specifc movement, it did have associated ramifications in painting, archeticture, applied arts and sculpture. When the Russian Vladimir Tatlin visited Picasso and Braque in Paris (1913), he adopted their aesthetic outlook into his sculpture: making works without a particular subject or narrative, but rather letting the work sit in its…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Raizman, David. History of Modern Design . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2004.
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Model Resting

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43151121

artworks subject matter, the artist (Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec), and the art movement. Look for information on the context found most relevant to the artwork (I think which should be biographical). Consider how a visual description and an analysis of the work, using Elements of Art and Principles f design supports discussion of context. In addition, discuss how initial interpretation from assignment 1 was challenged, changed, and/or supported by the research process.

The Artist and his style of painting

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (24 November 1864 -- 9 September 1901), a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, was a colleague of Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin, and was one of the great artists of the Post-Impressionist period .

Physically handicapped (with child-size legs and an unknown genetic disorder, that may have been pycnodysostosis) and constrained by his physical limitations, Lautrec threw himself in his art becoming a lithographer, are nouveau illustrator, and famous Post-impressionist painter. His paintings serve to chronicle much of the way of life of 19th century Bohemian Paris.

Lautrec's most famous poster was the Mouline Rouge.

Lautrec, unfortunately, had a difficult life aggravated by his handicap that caused him to have sexual deficiencies. He became an alcoholic, was briefly…… [Read More]

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New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination European

Words: 7020 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96921841

New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective

The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European Community. Additionally, the treaty also aimed to attain "ever closer union" between all of the member states and the masses from within the European Community (Wim Kok, 2004).

To be able to exceed a customs union and go ahead and take steps essentially to eradicate nontariff, behind-the-border obstacles towards the…… [Read More]

Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper,

Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
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Le Corbusier Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris

Words: 2415 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370910

(ibid) His ideas and design were extremely influential after the Second World War.

The rational logic of Le Corbusier's designs also led many critics to accuse his architecture of being too 'cold' and having little 'humanity' about them.

His rationalism is the aspect through which Le Corbusier has most often been introduced to the public. For a large number of his critics, 9 sympathetic or otherwise, he remains the theoretician who perfected a rigorous system and whose works are subjected to a cold, standardizing logic and an uncompromising functionalism.

Choay 14)

However, for Corbusier there was a sense in which a revolution in the arts and architecture had began in the early years of the twentieth century. "A great age has begun, guided by a new spirit, a spirit of construction and synthesis, guided by a clear concept. So began Le Corbusier's first article. In rapid order, this new spirit was briskly spelled out. It was to be seen in industrial production and in the machine. "

Jones 33)

On this basis Le Corbusier developed the foundation of modern architecture. Among the essential elements that he saw as fundamental to the creation of a new and more socially functional form…… [Read More]

Britain-Catlin, Timothy. "Le Corbusier and the Concept of Self: Corbusian Societies." The Architectural Review Feb. 2004: 96. Questia. 3 Jan. 2005.

Brownlee, David B., and David G. De Long. Louis I. Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1991.
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Stravinsky Fountain Is Near the George Pompidou

Words: 2229 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70777514

Stravinsky fountain is near the George Pompidou Centre, called the most Avante Garde building in the world. The Pompidou Centre is named after Georges Pompidou, a French president who hoped that Paris would have a center so that people could join together and admire all types of art, including sculptures. The Centre was created in 1977.

The Stravinsky Fountain or La Fountaine Stravinsky, faces the southern side of the Centre. It is located just over the center's music department. The fountain is a humorous and whimsical depiction of Stravinsky's compositions. Artists Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phale created the sculptures in the fountain in 1983. In all, 16 sculptures make up the fountain.

The fountain represents Stravinsky's work and composition style. Some of his work was represented by his mentor, Rimsky-Korsakov. His music was traditionally very straightforward and to the point. Some of tones were dull. A classification of his work includes, what is called, The Enfant Terrible. These pieces are light and vibrant. They include names such as The Firebird, The Rite of Song and the Rite of the Nightingale. The melodies could be best described as harsh and brash, though colorful and alluring.

Another category of music represented…… [Read More]

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Vacation in Brussels Belgium Belgium

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94932515

A restaurant for dinner is selected having consulted the Michelin guidebook (Travel pp). Then back to the hotel to refresh and stroll to the Square for drinks (Travel pp). After breakfast on Wednesday morning, most of the day is spent touring the Government buildings, then back to the hotel to relax and consult the guidebook for a dinner restaurant (Travel pp). Thursday is spent at the Heysel Exhibition Park and the Atomium, which is called the Eiffel Tower of Brussels (Travel pp). After the tour, then it is back to the hotel to refresh and again a low-key night on the Square. After breakfast Friday, the day is spent at the Museum of Modern Art near Royal Square (Travel pp). A restaurant is chosen to dine for dinner before returning to the hotel.

Saturday, the 24th, is spent at the Sablon Square, where there are hundreds of antique shops and art galleries, as well as a weekend flea market which is at the Vossenplein/Place du Jeu de Balle in the adjacent Marolles area, and dozens of good restaurants and cafes, not to mention the Wittamer, which is the most exclusive pastry maker in Brussels (Travel pp). Sunday is spent sightseeing…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Introduction to Belgium. Accessed June 02, 2005 from the Official Site of the Belgian Tourist Office in The Americas. 
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Waste Land French Lieutenant the

Words: 4164 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35242335

(Eliot, 1971).

The Subjective over the Objective

Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).

Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (Baym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience of the individual in a hostile, disconnected, and dehumanized world.

The Wasteland is not characterized by one particular style or rhyme scheme. Some would type the poem as free verse, but it is not totally unstructured. Rather, the Wasteland was a pastiche of different literary conventions. Eliiot uses famous styles…… [Read More]

1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.

2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
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Emotional Drivers of Consumer Toward Swarovskis Brand

Words: 5791 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39300258

Emotional Drivers Swarovski

The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.

The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance may be the dominant buying motive in collectivistic societies such as the emerging Asian markets of China, Russia and India. Hence, the buying motive here may be the expression of status or social class.

This is an important point for Swarovski if it wants to enter the large markets for…… [Read More]

Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.

De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
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Williamsburg as Our Region With

Words: 1871 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63196220

Larry Tee, for instance, an inhabitant who started the Berliniamsburg club in Williamsburg, which is credited with popularizing Electroclash, one of the neighborhood's best-known cultural exports explained that: "Six months ago, Williamsburg was terminally hip. Now it's become designated as a safe space for nice people who have boring 9 to 5 jobs." 11

Urban Golf can redo some of that mustiness whilst fusing Bohemianism with funkiness. Artists used to love the grittiness of Williamsburg. Youth used to revel in its charm and trendy flavor. Now deep-pocketed developers are starting to develop the city and Williamsburg, as it was then, is starting to close aside from the fact that the different communities are moving further apart rather than closer together. Urban Golf could be sustainable by attracting diverse people into the area and turning the residence into a useful place. The Urban Golf concept has helped diverse social groups meet each other by providing relaxation and a common ledge of interest. It could do the same here.


DAILY SLOPE,| Park Slope Neighborhood, Brooklyn, NY "Does "Hipster" automatically equal Brooklyn?"

Ferguson, Sarah. "Hipsters Defend Brooklyn." Village Voice. 29 March 2005

Haddow, D. "Hipster: The Dead End of Western…… [Read More]

DAILY SLOPE,| Park Slope Neighborhood, Brooklyn, NY "Does "Hipster" automatically equal Brooklyn?"
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School for Scandal Title How

Words: 3054 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39731888

The lack of self-respect in particular characters in the play, like Lady Sneerwell and Joseph, sends the message that some people have higher priorities than self-respect. Lady Sneerwell's deep desire to gain Charles to marry her leads her to a chain of unrespectable acts of intrigues and backbiting, in the process, conspiring with equally dubious characters like Joseph and Snake who also follow selfish and destructive agendas of their own. Forming a derogatory School for Scandal all alone speaks against self-respect as against all of those perpetuating that School. While it seems outwardly pleasurable to prey on other people's mistakes, misfortunes and weaknesses, perpetrators of scandals and hypocrisy do not gain the superiority they want among themselves. Lady Sneerwell, Sir and Lady Backbite, Mrs. Candour and Joseph may share a common objective of destroying relationships and reputation but this destructiveness does not build them up in the real sense, but creates distrust in one another, aware of one another's insincerity.

Still another message is the overwhelming influence of society towards its members. Lady Sneerwell's School has been founded on luxury and a false sense of superiority before Sir Oliver comes into the scene to smash the illusion. For some time,…… [Read More]

Cordner, Michael, editor. The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Oxford World Classics: Oxford University, 1998.

Creasey, Beverley, reviewer. Charming "School for Scandal." The Theater Mirror, 2000.
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Charles Dickens the Nineteenth Century

Words: 3154 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94771742

His clothes were untidy, but he had a commanding short-collar on." (Charles Dickens (1812-1870): (, David's first wife, expires and he marries Agnes. He seeks his vocation as a journalist and later as a novelist. (Charles Dickens (1812-1870): (

GREAT EXPECTATIONS in 1860-61 started as a serialized publication in Dickens's periodical All the Year Round on December 1, 1860. The story of Pip or Philip Pirrip was among Tolstoy's and Dostoyevsky's preferred novels. Pip, an urchin, lives with his old sister and her husband. He comes across a runaway convict named Abel Magwitch and assists him against his wish. Magwitch is summoned up and Pip is taken care of Miss Havisham. He falls in love with the merciless Estella, Miss Havisham's ward. With the help of an unknown supporter, Pip is correctly educated, and he becomes a snob. Magwitch turns out to be the supporter; he dies and Pip's great expectations are damaged. He works as a clerk in a trading company, and marries Estella, Magwitch's daughter. (Charles Dickens (1812-1870): (

The novels of Dickens have in it cruelty and enchanted dream; quick, sensible, actual detail and fable, mockery, and melodrama; the ordinary and the strange. They vary through the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Benson, Kenneth. Charles Dickens: The Life of the Author. New York Public Library. Retrieved at Accessed on 1 March 2005

Charles Dickens. May 6, 2002. Retrieved at . Accessed on 1 March 2005
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Organizational Health Educational Institutions Generally Approach Organizational

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11719523

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in the country is this: Advanced mathematics and science are necessary if students are to be disciplined learners with refined capacity for scientific analysis and application of their learning once they enter the world of work. In this paper, I discuss this premise, its effect on the establishment of curricula, and…… [Read More]

Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.
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English Literature the Great Gatsby

Words: 1507 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3789537

Great Gatsby


F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" is set against the backdrop of 1920's Long Island. It explores multiple themes about the human condition as experienced through the actions of the story's lead character, Jay Gatsby, and the narrator, Nick Carraway.

I have selected three such themes from the book as the basis for this paper. Each of them revolves around Fitzgerald's core assessment of class differences that existed between the have's and the have not's in the society of excess and indulgence which emerged after America's participation in World War I. The first theme I will examine relates to the promise, pursuit and subsequent failure of the American dream; specifically, the expectation that the acquisition of enough money can buy one's way into all of the right circles and hearts. The second theme is that of the superficiality of the upper classes and how their worth as human beings is measured by the quantity of their possessions, not the quality of their souls. Last of all, I will discuss how the obsessive desire to rewrite one's past in anticipation of a more favorable outcome is more often than not an exercise in futility, owing to the individual's…… [Read More]

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Vanity and Unethical Action of a Human Being

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37592057

Tono-Bungay diverges from the author's more popular science fiction (Costa 89). Tono-Bungay is ripe with social commentary, and many literary critics have gone so far as to describe the novel as a "galvanic fictional chronicle of the intellectual and moral history of England at the close of the 19th century," (Costa 89). Indeed, Wells does capture prevailing trends in political, economic, and social thought, as well as currents in English history. A preoccupation with issues related to social class status and capitalism permeate the Edwardian novel. Although Wells deftly refrains from overtly didactic or pedantic moralizing, Tono-Bungay cannot be understood without reference to the author's message related to ethical egoism, vanity, and human behavior within a capitalist system.

One of the overarching themes of Tono-Bungay is upward social mobility, and the ethical tradeoffs taken to achieve a boost in social status. George's upward social mobility takes place on a weak foundation, but ironically, George describes his rise in power, wealth, and status slowly and over the course of almost half the novel. Tono-Bungay is divided into four books. The first book establishes the setting and theme of upward social mobility by describing George and the rest of the Penderovo family…… [Read More]

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Luxury the Consumer Describe Briefly

Words: 365 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40162479

Today's consumers act more en masse rather than as individuals, and so, marketing must show them why the "must" have the newest trendy items, or why they have to continue to need those items. Consumers still have personal choices, but they tend to shop for what is "hot" right now and making an item or service hot is what marketing is becoming. Today, people value things not for what they do, but what they say about them as consumers, and how they show they have "taste" and "class." Things are valued because they are expensive, rather than functional, and that is a very different side of marketing as well. Consumers are bound by expense today, and it is no wonder quality is becoming a thing of the past - perhaps it will end up being the real "luxury" in our consumerist society.


Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."… [Read More]

Needing the Unnecessary: The democratization of luxury."