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Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
The function of the work of art would be to stand before the city, and to show the city as wisdom personified, and by implication show that the wisdom came from the works and power of the Medici. It would make an analogy between the city-state of Florence and the ancient city-state of Athens. Because Athens was a genuine republic, it might even deflect some criticism from the Medicis, who were technically supposed to be residents of a republic, even though they ruled from behind the scenes. The setting of the sculpture, next to David, outside the city gates would act as a powerful warning of the city's power (with the violence of the anvil and David's shotgun) as well as strike a balance between Classical representations of learning and the still-important tenants of the Catholic faith that must be honored in a world still dominated by the clergy.
Essak, Shelly. "Art History 101 - Early Renaissance Art." 2007. 20 Apr 2007. http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/early_ren.htm
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance." PBS.com. 2007. 20 Apr 2007. http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/medici/snapshots.html
Pioch, Nicolas. "La Renaissance: Italy." Web Museum Paris. 2002. 20 Apr 2007. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/renaissance/it.html
Renaissance Masterworks from the National Gallery of Art." National Gallery: Washington, D.C. 20 Apr 2007. http://www.nga.gov/press/2003/exhibitions/211/background.shtm
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk /britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
Great Art proponents
Art is not something new that started recently. Art work has been in existence for a very long time and there are various artists who have brought an influence in this field. When looking at art in the 1960s we can see that there are various art movements as well as cultural histories which are associated with this period.
Andy Warhol was a very influential pop artist in the 1960s. He took product logos and their labels from a commercial context and displayed them as a form of art. He also went ahead to make sculptures that were identical to Brillo boxes and Campbell's soup cans. Through his work we can see that pop art posed as a challenge to traditional art through equating imagery that was mass produced in advertising with existing fine arts. This was attracted by graphical directness of advertising and consumer packing…
References psychedelicadventures.com. (2010).The Psychedelic [in] Society:
A Brief Cultural History of Tripping. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://www.psychedelicadventures.com/BriefHistory.htm
Chappell, M. (2006). Art in the 1960s. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://artsconnected.org/collection/118487/art-in-the-1960s?print=true#%281%29
Sarasota Visual Art. (2012). William Pachner: Works from the 1960s. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://sarasotavisualart.com/2012/02/william-pachner-works-from-the-1960s/
This number would then be compared to the number of people who worry about having their privacy violated. Since it is presumed that more than 16% of the population worry about such items as government intervention into their daily lives, and their concern about how to keep their private information to themselves. One study stated, "protests from certain quarters prompt public-sector officials to think long and hard about how to balance open government and the right to privacy" (Douglas 2006-page 1). ith this information in mind, the study would have to lean towards the better good for most people being when their privacy is respected rather than catching individuals who are using drugs.
Other questions such as smoking after hours, and having unprotected sex can also be categorized as a right to privacy issue rather than a cost issue and as such should be left alone by employers as well.…
Douglas M, (2006) Privacy Concerns. Government Technology, January 2, 2006, http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97730, Accessed July 10, 2006
Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, and Wechsler H., (2000) Increased use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at U.S. Colleges in the 1990's: Results of Three National Surveys. Addiction, Vol 95 Issue 11, pp. 1655-67
History Of Dada Art Movement
There is a long list of movements that were begun for the sake of art, for instance cubism and surrealism. These two movements experienced grave criticism as they touched nihillism. On the other hand, movements like Dada have been admired and honored by the majorities (Mobileeference).
If truth be told, the early 20th century brought a turbulent and disorderly change in the world. The First World War and the ussian evolution tainted people's understanding of their worlds in an overwhelming manner. This new mind set of people was strongly reflected in the early twentieth century art movements as well. They were all, if seen in technical terms, were boldly modern and groundbreaking. In order to look into and explore the structure of realization, these movements moved further than the unruffled surface of traditional painting. However, perhaps Dada must be looked for its most compelling explorations…
"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.
Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .
Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
hile illiams writes of the "tingling" of the new year, the "tingling" is not merely natural, not simply the world sprouting into rebirth. It is a very human, manufactured kind of celebration of the world's bounty.
Thus to read the painting as a kind of a mockery of Icarus and the artist's desire for transcendence may not be entirely fair. Brueghel, after all could have just shown Icarus falling into the hungry sea, unnoticed by nature. The key to a more nuanced interpretation of the painting is evident in Brueghel's deliberate choice of a perspective. According to David Cole, this is a "crucial aspect" of understanding the poem (Cole 2000). "The landscape and the action are seen from above -- from the viewpoint, in other words, of Daedalus. The force of the picture is thus, I think, to move the viewer not only to recognize the unconcern for catastrophe inherent…
Cole, David. "William Carlos Williams." The Explicator, 58.3 (Spring 2000).
Excerpted April 2, 2010 at http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/williams/icarus.htm
Delahunt, Michael. "Conceptual art." Art Lex. 1996-2010. April 2, 2010.
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training via art, worldwide popular culture, 21st-century abilities, social justice, art evaluation, cultural diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches.
Teaching Literacy through Art
According to Moody-Zoet, art-teaching offers distinctive and useful intellectual behaviors and skill sets which aid in the learning of other academic disciplines. The following skills are introduced, cultivated and honed by arts education: craft creation capacity; task involvement and determination when it comes to task completion; envisioning, expression, and seeking of a vision for oneself; observation; reflection; stretching; exploration; and understanding of the art community/world. Arts education represents a vital component of every learner's holistic scholastic literacy. The arts, after all, are entrenched in representation and cognition, in addition to be profoundly involved in the way education expands as well as…
On the other hand, in the Dust Bowl evidence, photos and statistics play a very important role, because they paint a graphic picture of what was going on in the country and how people were suffering. This type of evidence plays a much more important role than in the Sacco and Vanzetti case, which was not so much about photographs and statistics, but about print documents and even the political climate. This indicates how different cases require different perspectives and the use of differing evidence.
The difference in these two historic cases also points to the use of differing evidence to study different moments in history. The Dust Bowl affected millions of people who lost their farms, left the area, and moved to places like California to find work and start new lives. There were books written about it, news stories, and everything in between. The Sacco and Vanzetti case…
Davidson, James West and Lytle, Mark Hamilton. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Volume 2, Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2004.
Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…
Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Tate.org.uk. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,
A Comparative Discussion of Modern Art Museums
The Modern Museum of Art (MoMA) in New York City and Tate Modern in London have a number of major features in common that help to define the visitor's experience. Perhaps most importantly, both are considered among the most important collections in the world and both institutions are highly regarded not just for their conservation of art but for the usability of their facilities and the considerable educational, informational, cultural and recreational resources contained there within. hat strikes one as most compelling about both collections is that they trace their respective origins to the efforts of extremely wealthy philanthropists but that each offers a collection rife with examples of resistance, protest and rejection of established values. Indeed, this is perhaps the most unifying condition defining modern art in evidence at both sites.
Founded and overseen by members of the Rockafeller family, the…
Modern Museum of Art. (2013). Homepage. Moma.org.
Tate Modern (2013). Homepage. http://www.tate.org.uk .
Contemporary and modern art has been characterized by increased focus on significant aesthetic and political work of artists across the globe. As a result, contemporary art is largely different from conventional work because of the shift in focus on elements of art. Actually, art has undergone significant changes throughout its history as a result of different influences across different time periods. Some of the major influences of contemporary and modern art include material culture, technology, consumerism, rise of graffiti, protest and posters, land art, mass media, representation strategies, political self-awareness, and expanded cinema. These influences have played major in art production in the contemporary world and contributed to new practices in art. Contemporary art has shifted from medium specificity as the organizing principle for advanced production to the concept of sites and systems because of the numerous factors that have influenced art over the years.
The Shift from…
Holert, Tom. "Art in the Knowledge-based Polis." E-flux. E-flux, Feb. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .
Hopkins, David. After Modern Art: 1945-2000. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.
Reyes-Garcia, Everardo, Pierre Chatel-Innocenti, and Khaldoun Zreik. "Archiving and Questioning Immateriality - Proceedings of the 5th Computer Art Congress." Computer Art Congress. EUROPIA Publishing, 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .
Shanken, Edward A. "Contemporary Art and New Media: Toward a Hybrid Discourse?" Hybrid Discourses Overview. Hybrid Discourses, Feb. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .
The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.
The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…
world's most famous museums and private art collectors are now grappling with a difficult problem. Multiple cases of museums and collectors have surfaced where a painting paid for and owned by them was actually stolen from their legitimate Jewish owners by Nazis or Nazi collaborators during World War II. Some current ownership has been contested; some have been challenged in court; and some artwork has been returned to the descendents of the owners who were robbed.
Two questions arise about these contested purchases: did the purchaser know the painting had been stolen, and if the purchaser did not know, should that person or museum be required to return it to people who never actually owned it?
One example of this complicated ownership is a painting by Frans Hals titled" Portrait of Pastor Adrianus Tegularius." Painted in the mid-1600's, the Nazis stole it from Frenchman Alolphe Schloss in 1943. Later, Adam…
Brinks, Jan Herman. 1999. "The Dutch, the Germans & the Jews (Dutch-Nazi Collaboration)." History Today, June.
Editors. 2001. "Heir to Vast Art Collection Recovers Old World Painting Looted by Nazis; First Painting From Famed Goudstikker Collection Returned to Family." Business Wire, May 24.
Rubinstein, Raphael. 2001a. "More Perils of Provenance." Art in America, Feb.
Rubinstein, Raphael. 2001b. "Nazi Loot Finder Sues, Hals Buyer Found Guilty." Art in America, Sept.
Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…
......starting around noon, I visited the art gallery at the Woolaroc property. The property itself is a sprawling celebration of the landscape and wildlife unique to this part of North America: there are herds of buffalo on the property although we did not get to see any when we arrived. I headed straight to the gallery, which is locally renowned for its collection of paintings from the Taos group. Many of the artists on display I had heard of before, and was eager to encounter first hand and was not disappointed. Although I relished the paintings themselves for their objective aesthetic beauty, I came away from the experience with profound mixed feelings about the way Native Americans have been appropriated for use as subjects by white artists.
The objectification of Indians in European-American art parallels their subjugation as a people. Caldwell (n.d.) points out the "longstanding history and tradition of…
Dada or Dadism is a form of art that was considered very controversial when it was created due to the political and cultural statements that it made. Dadism was a protest of the violence of human nature specifically war and its atrocities. Personally I feel that Dadism is a form of art that should be cherished, preserved and appreciated because it has a lot to offer not only in a historical and political sense but also culturally and artistically. I enjoy the liberty and style of Dadism although many times it is not aesthetically pleasing; it is interesting, provoking and enjoyable. I especially enjoy the fact that works of Dadism leave their interpretation open to the viewer due to their abstract composition. Essentially Dadism was a movement that protested contemporary politics and modern art. It was designed to be a social commentary on what Dada artist felt was wrong with…
ASCO show in Ios Angeles museum of art (LACMA)
Mind Expansion: The Art of ASCO
In many ways, the work of the defunct performance art group Asco, which is currently enjoying an art show at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art as part of the Pacific Standard Time series, can be thought of as expanding the very definition of the term art. One look at the various still images from the exhibit, which showcased the group's penchant for "no-movies" -- which involved the dissemination of visuals and postcards of scenes from movies that did not actually exist -- certainly indicates that the conventional definition of the term art does not necessarily apply to this sort of work. In many of the existing images of the no-movie stills, the various members of Asco (which include Willie Herron, Harry Gamboa Jr., Patssi Valdez and a man known as Gronk) are dressed…
Many critics consider the name Godot to be a hidden name for God. Godot in the end is a paradox. The dramatist described in his play the person at the end of the World War II. It is a person who can be characterized as master and victim of will. The characters have a will but their wishes destroy them. The characters are waiting for someone or something to save them.
From the aesthetic point-of-view the postmodernism movement pleads for an anti-narrative structure of the work. Tarantino's film, "Pulp Fiction," doesn't have a classic plot. Two stories that seem unrelated come together in a "non linear plot." The first story is about two thieves, Honey unny and Pumpkin who decide to rob a restaurant, and the second story of two hit men working for mob, named Vincent and Jules.
The novel "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce is constructed using strange…
Klages, M. 2003 "Postmodernism." University of colorado. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia, "Posmodernism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia "Waiting for Godot" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waiting_for_Godot
Wickipedia The Free encyclopedia "Finnegan's Wake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake
Increasingly, the majority of black outh Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of outh African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.
In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, outh African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…
BBC News (2007, July 25). South African Hip Hop. http://www.theworld.org/?q=node/11662
Clark, Msia Kibona (2007, July 11). South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution. Global Envision
Wright, Steve (1999, June 9). Kwaito: South Africa's Hip-Hop? CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/09/kwaito.wb
Playing in the Dark & Art on my Mind
Toni Morrison's Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination and ell Hooks' Art on My Mind: Visual Politics are both works of nonfiction that center on the idea of cultural identity and its politics related to art and literature. Hooks is, of course, a forerunner in the critique of African-American culture and Art on My Mind closely examines the world of creating art in an environment that is overly concerned with politics having to do with identity. Hooks has long been known as a writer that is deeply interested in what is happening with the black community and what struggles that community faces. She examines in her book how art can be something that is empowering for the black community, however, she is discouraged by the lack of interest by critics to non-white art. Morrison, likewise, wants to empower…
Hooks, Bell. Art on My Mind: Visual Politics. The New Press; First Printing Edition. 1995.
Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Vintage; Reprint
Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong is directed at the Hong Kong government and the police force dispensed on its behalf. It is a movement that was unofficially recognized in 2014 and started spontaneously and had a practical inspiration, as the umbrellas of protestors were used as protection against tear gas from police. The protestors were defending themselves from aggressive assault by Hong Kong police and were there to protest unfair elections. The protestors identified with earlier protestors of China, such as those at Tiananmen Square in 1989, where the Chinese government ruthlessly cracked down on protestors. In Hong Kong, which is independent in the sense that it has a special autonomy within China, the fear among the protestors was that corruption in government and politics was going to end in unfair elections, so thousands took to the streets to voice their opposition. As a result of the visual spectacle of…
AFP. "How umbrellas have become the symbol of Hong Kong's pro-democracy protests," Herald Sun, 2014, accessed 6 May 2016 from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/world/how-umbrellas-have-become-the-symbol-of-hong-kongs-prodemocracy-protests/news-story/fa1275c97de82ecfdfc04140d68dd20f
Chow, V., Phila Siu, "Creative awakening sparked by Occupy Central as sit-ins reclaim streets," SCMP, accessed 6 May 2016 from http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1610547/occupys-umbrella-statue-symbol-peace-says-artist?page=all
Dastagir, A., Brett Molina, "Key social moments of Hong Kong protests," USA Today,
2014, accessed 6 May 2016 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/09/30/hong-kong-protests/16473507
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…
Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon. Originally created 1999. Last updated 2005. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/1080_Flora.html
Flora and Pomona." Ancient Roman Mythology. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://www.crystalinks.com/romemythology.html
Ovid. Fasti. Translated by a.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000.
Pliny. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1938.
Jerrold Levinson, John Dewey, and Theodor Adorno all have differing views about the role that music should play in society or in making a good life. Levinson explains his view on the matter by trying to seek a comprehensive definition of music itself rather than what a piece of music is and how humans psychologically recognize the features of music. He then goes on to provide several possible definitions and finds faults with each one until he arrives at his conclusion. This conclusion is that music can be defined as an organization of sounds produced by humans for the purpose of providing heartening experiences to those who either listen, dance, or perform to it. The sounds are considered to be the basic components of all forms of music, except for Muzak.
Levinson's conclusive definition of music shares one striking similarity with Dewey's conclusion on the same matter. Dewey explains that…
public sphere and the culture industry: has the former been fundamentally corrupted through the latter? Are there new possibilities that the culture industry has to offer politics?
The public sphere of artistic discourse is one in which, according to Theodor Adorno, the culture industry sells its commodity goods that masquerade as truth and art. here the media and world of art should speak to a kind of anti-structured and individualistic discourse, according to Adorno, allowing the words of the artist to rally against the common and stereotyped patterns that are tempting for citizens to fall into, instead the culture industry merely reaffirms and panders to these preexisting tropes, and makes viewers feel comfortable with what they consider to be the truth, although these truths are often of a nature that 'America is good,' or 'America is beautiful.' Adorno's student Habermas, although less skeptical of the Enlightenment than his founding teacher,…
Adorno, Theodore. "The Culture Industry Reconsidered" In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
Habermas, P. "The Public Sphere." In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
"Hearts and Minds." Directed by Peter Davis. 1974
"The immature poet imitates and the mature poet plagiarizes," said T.S. Eliot. If imitation is indeed the finest form of flattery, then does it follow that plagiarism is a worthwhile pursuit? Indeed it can be. Street art, including visual art and music, is both plagiarizer and plagiarized. To imitate without paying full homage to the original creator is to fail in the ultimate pursuit of aesthetic brilliance. The art of Banksy integrates itself fully with popular culture and community. By stealing space and time, Banksy and street artists like him raise poignant political questions about the ownership of public space and the social class hierarchies that determine access to and enjoyment of the public domain. Likewise, Banksy participates in the time-honored tradition of sampling. By mixing and matching, cutting and pasting, Banksy is following in a long and venerable line of artistic genius that revels in the creative potential…
During WWI, two artists, the German Hugo all and his future wife, Emmy Hennings, emigrated from Munich, Germany, to Zurich, Switzerland. Here, they opened Cabaret Voltaire in February 1916, in Spiegelgasse, 1, in Zurich. Other immigrant artists would soon join them in their endeavor to defy art and politics and most especially, the war madness. Even if they were performing in Zurich, a hub of peace, WWI was providing more than a background for their artistic expressions. WWI and everything related to it was the evil source of inspiration the artists attempted to sublimate thorough their art.
The shows at the cabaret involved a whole array of artists from different corners of Europe. The artists were free to experiment and most especially, to create everything that could go against the conventional, the traditional, dare, amaze, arouse, make people let loose, awake every sort of emotion possible, take art away…
1. Elger, Dietmar, (2004). Dadaism. Taschen 2. Sheppard, Richard, (2000). Modernism -- Dada -- Postmodernism. Art 3. Adamowicz, Elza, Robertson, Eric, (2011). Dada and Beyond: Volume 1: Dada Discourses, Volume 1. Radopi
4. Trachtman, Paul, (2006). Dada. Smithsonian Magazine. On the Internet at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/dada-115169154/?no-ist . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
World War I: Dada
The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.
Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…
Buskirk, M., & Nixon, M. (1996). The Duchamp Effect. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Elder, B. (2013). Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Hulsenbeck, R. (1988). "En avant Dada: A history of Dadaism." In R. Motherwell (Ed.), The Dada painters and poets (pp. 23-48). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1920)
Jones, A. (2002). Equivocal Masculinity: New York Dada in the context of World War I. Art History, 25(2), 162.
Le Viol (rape) by surrealist painter Rene Magritte. The painting was done in 1934 and it was clearly meant to shock the viewer as it is a repulsive representation of a woman's face. However, instead of eyes she has breasts, instead of a mouth she has pubic hair that one assumes is covering a vagina, and instead of a nose Magritte has placed a human belly button in that spot.
There are many possible suggestions that an alert observer could present in terms of what the artist had in mind when he created this piece (it was first a drawing and later Magritte produced an oil on canvas painting from the drawing). One idea that has value is that Magritte was not-so-subtly protesting against rape. He presented a woman's face as her anatomy, as though perhaps it would be her destiny to have her breasts and her vagina be a…
Breton, Andre (1896-1966) From the First Manifesto of Surrealism.
Breton, Andre (1896-1966). From the Second Manifesto of Surrealism.
Gale Biography In Context. (1998). Rene Magritte. Encyclopedia of World Biography.
Retrieved November 29, 2012, from http://0-ic.galegroup.com.
The yzantine artists are well-known for the icon of Symeon with the Christ Child. The icon was effectively changed by yzantine artists toward the ending of the iconoclastic controversy in the ninth century. Originally the artistic protocol for the depiction has Symeon submissively approaching Mary who is holding the Christ child in her hands however the changes in the icon are of the nature that show Symeon holding the Christ child in the beginning. The first record of Symeon holding the Christ child is stated to be in the church of the Virgin of the Source in Constantinople during the restoration conducted by Emperor asil I along with Leo and Constantine sometime after 869.
Clouds and sky views often used in yzantine art are rooted in Roman art which changed from "smooth and pliable clouds" into "flattened triangles with horizontal bottoms and scalloped tops. In this odd and stylized form…
A. Cutler, 'Originality as a Cultural Phenomenon' pp. 203-16
A. Cutler, The Hand of the Master: Craftsmanship, Ivory and Society in Byzantium (9th - 11th Centuries (Princeton 1994)
A.W. Carr, 'Popular Imagery', in Glory of Byzantium, pp. 112-81
A.R. Littlewood (1986) "The Symbolism of the Apple: An Example of Kazantzakis' Debt to Byzantine Erotic Imagery" Byzantine Studies Conference. Second Annual Study Conference 12-14 November, 1976.
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…
Barbier, Jean-Paul. "The Responsible and the Irresponsible: Observations on the Destruction and Preservation of Indonesian Art."
Duffon, Denis. "Authenticity in Art." In the Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Ed. Jerrold Levinson. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2003). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.denisdutton.com/authenticity.htm .
Hamlin, Jesse. "How de Young Is Handling New Guinea Art Question." San Francisco Chronicle (4 May 2006): E1. 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/04/DDGJMIJFVO1.DTL .
Lehmann, Karl and Lehmann, Andrew. "Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea." Lost World Arts. (Maui, Hawaii: 2004). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.lostworldarts.com/new_page_2.htm .
Dadaism and Surrealism
It has been since centuries that the Art has existed in this world and has undergone various stages. In simple words, art has got its own historical periods whereby every period has its unique invention and significance. Art has acquired immense success, has reached several milestones and the reason of this tremendous development is due to the improvement in diverse historical periods. The present is always improved by taking history as a source for improvement. History narrates the earlier civilizations through which present learns for the future development. In the same way, art has continued to be the most imperative subject of all cultures; be they ancient or present. The different art periods of diverse varieties have existed since times unknown. In this essay, Dadaism and Surrealism, the two distinctive historical art periods will be elaborated along with their similarities and differences.
As mentioned in Columbia…
ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735
Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117013882
Essak, S. (n.d.). Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23). Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/dada.htm
MobileReference. (2007). Encyclopedia of philosophy for smartphones and mobile devices - free 3 chapters in the trial version. Boston: MobileReference.com. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=cHI3qGaX9DsC&pg=PT440&dq=dada+art+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hFKWT-_dA-el4gSjr9xG&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=dada%20art%20movement&f=false
women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.
Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…
Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.
2008. 24 May 2014. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Philosophical_Systems/Overview.htm
"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh. "Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial" (Turner 1969, 94).
Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" (Kurihara 1997, 38). Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored. He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…
Artaud, a. "To Have Done with the Judgment of God, a radio play (1947)." In (S. Sontag, ed.) Antonin Artaud: selected writings. Berkeley etc.: University of California Press, 1988: 570-1.
Artaud, a. (1964) Le Theater et son Double. Paris: Gallimard.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XII 218. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XV 341. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
Where the Twain Meets: Dada and Surrealism
Distinct artistic movements, genres, and philosophies, Dada and Surrealism do cross over and share considerable points of reference. Dada made its mark on the art world first, with its genesis in Switzerland during the First World War (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). In fact, Dada was never constrained by visual media, with poets and performance artists at the forefront of the largely political and reactive movement (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). To call Dada avant-garde, or progressive, would be an understatement, because Dada transformed the ways people thought about and created art. Art was no longer about creating aesthetic beauty or pleasing a patron, but about actively challenging social norms, politics, and even what it means to be human. Dada art can be provocative, but is not necessarily so, with some artists using their medium to question and even “humiliate” art itself (Rubin 11). The…
Marcel Duchamp took a urinal, called it "Fountain," put it in an art show and then defended his action on the grounds that as he was an artist and he said the urinal was art, then it was.
This is just the sort of thing that has given modern art a bad name. But why should it have? Why should that urinal not be art?
Understanding the answer to that question - whether one believes that that urinal was art or not - allows one to understand both the Dadaist movement and much of what has happened in the four generations of modern art since.
In an interview conducted for this paper, Karen Finley, a conceptual artist who was one of the infamous NEA Four, talked about the importance of that urinal.
On the one hand, me, personally, I don't like the piece because it's got all the hallmarks of…
Finley, K. (2002). Personal interview. http://www.dadaboom.com/dada.html http://www.finesite.webart.ru/shocking/dada-2.htm http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/dada-def.html
Nash, E. (1998). Frank Lloyd Wright: Force of nature. London: Todtri Productions.
Wright, F.L. And Meehan, P. (ed.). (1992). Truth against the world: Frank Lloyd Wright speaks for an organic architecture. New York: Preservation Press.
Finley, personal interview, 2002
Power Politics and Glory
Example 1: The Great Wall Of China
It is a common phenomenon for an object to be associated with the ruler or the country in question. The Great Wall of China, where not only served as a defense system, but also consolidated the image of China as a mighty power for many years. The Wall -- acted more as a psychological defense mechanism -- giving the image of China as a united nation.
The design and the emergence of the wall was only possible in the then current prevailing Political Condition of the country, when the country needed to defend itself from foreign attacks by the Mongols.
The design of the Wall was used as a medium to inspire fear and an image of a strong state -- depicted by the strong wall itself. Aesthetic consideration was not point or considering factor, as the main point…
Carlisle, Lyndsay. "Walls and their impacts in a worldwide historical Context." Mexico: National Institute Of Ecology, n.d.Web. 27th Aug 2011
Ecotourism & Adventure Specialists . "The Palace at Paleanque National Park." n.d. Web. 28th Aug 2011.
Great Wall of China. n.d. Web. 27th Aug 2011.
Iliana Papadopoulou, Anastasia Veneti. "Committed Art and Propaganda." Annual PSA Conference. Leeds: Political Studies Association, 2005: 1-16.Web. 28th Aug 2011
Thus, it would seem his work could not be considered spiritual, and yet, there is something moving and thought provoking about many of his works. The busts in his nuclear series, which often show the grisly results of a nuclear holocaust cause the reader to look inside themselves and confront their own ideas about mortality and spirituality, and there is something very moving about these works, but they are very disturbing, as well.
Arneson's work might not be considered spiritual, and yet, there is something very touching and special about some of his works. His works make viewers think about history, about their own lives, and even the politics of the world around them. That makes them look inside themselves, too, just as Arneson did when he created his self-portraits. This ability to create whimsical and yet touching works is something Arneson mastered completely, and that helps give his work…
Editors. "Robert Arneson's Eggheads." University of California at Davis. 2008. 18 March 2008. http://eggheads.ucdavis.edu/
Editors. "The Art of Robert Arneson." Verisimilitudo.com.1992. 18 March 2008. http://www.verisimilitudo.com/arneson/
Lauria, Jo and Adkins, Gretchen. Color and Fire: Defining Moments in Studio Ceramics, 1950-2000. Los Angeles: LACMA; Rizzoli International Publications, 2000.
Natsoulas, John. "Robert Arneson." John Natsoulas Gallery. 2007. 18 March 2008. http://www.natsoulas.com/html/artists/robertArneson/robertArneson.html
Many artists seek to have a powerful influence on the public through the drama and communicative elements of their work. Neo-Conceptualist artist Jenny Holzer is certainly among those artists whose strong social and moral values motivate them to speak out on important social and political issues. Holzer's background shows that the artist found her artistic calling after her first two years in college. She was born in 1950 and first pursued her education at Duke University in liberal arts before realizing what she truly wanted to achieve was an education in fine arts and painting. She was awarded a B.F.A. (Bachelors of Fine Arts) at Ohio University in 1972 and an M.F.A. (Masters of Fine Arts) from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1977, according to The New York Times "Forums." This paper delves into Holzer's themes -- in particular, her truism themes -- her materials, the…
Art History. (2003). Jenny Holzer / The Art History Archive -- Biography & Art. Retrieved
September 2, 2012, from http://www.arthistoryarchive.com .
Bertens, Hans, and Natoli, Joseph. (2002). Postmodernism: The Key Figures. Hoboken, NJ:
John Wiley & Sons.
And yet, it is also important to understand that not everyone criticized Manet, for it was also Dejeuner which set the stage for the advent of Impressionism.
Indeed, Manet emerged as something of an enfant terrible in the Parisian art scene of this era. In the same year, he would also produce Olympia, another painting featuring a female nude that would become the centre of much controversy. Olympia caused a major uproar when it was first exhibited in 1865 at the Salon in Paris. Despite the fact that it calls to mind the classical images of Giorgione (Venus Sleeping), Titian (Venus of Urbino), and Ingres (Odalisque with a Slave), the public was outraged by Manet's depiction of a common prostitute laying nude on a bed. A black female servant stares at her as she fixes the Madame's bed, while a black cat stands on edge at the end of the…
Hughes, R. 1990, Nothing if Not Critical: Selected Essays on Art and Artists, Penguin
Books, New York.
JSS Gallery 2005, Edouard Manet's Olympia, Available at http://www.jssgallery.org/other_artists/Manet/Olympia.htm#Top
Kapos, M. 1995, the Impressionists and Their Legacy, Barnes & Noble Books
Andy Warhol and the irmingham Race Riot
Andy Warhol is considered one of the most important and influential artists of the Twentieth Century. His art focused not only on creating new modes and styles of artistic expression but they also functioned as insightful social critiques and commentary. To a large extent all of his artworks are an oblique and sometimes harshly direct unveiling of modern consciousness, society and the media. He was famous for using the techniques and styles of the media to expose the harsh realities of the society around him. However it is in the directly political works and images of society's violence and discrimination that he is at his most expressive and influential as an artist.
Andrew Warhola, was born August 6, 1928 in Pittsburg. He came from a deprived background and was eventually able to attend a commercial design course at Pittsburgh's Carnegie Institute of Technology.…
Andy Warhol (1928-1987) November 1, 2005. http://www.balloon-painting.de/ewarhol.htm
Andy Warhol. October 31, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Metro/5252/warhol.htm
Lindsay T. Segregation Protests in Birmingham, Alabama. November 1, 2005 http://www.gfsnet.org/msweb/sixties/birmingham.htm
Birmingham -- 1963. October 31, 2005.
Headline: Man with a Movie Camera
In "Man with a Movie Camera" Dziga Vertov uses wonderfully original and creative cinematic techniques that had not previously been utilized, and for that reason this film has been lauded as one of the best silent films ever produced. From a basic point-of-view it is a futuristic documentary on city life in the Soviet cities of Kiev, Moscow and Odessa. From a more flexible, liberal point-of-view, what Vertov was doing was to create images that represent a city of the future, and to make people think about what they are seeing. The images of industrialization, of transportation (trolleys on many tracks crisscrossing city streets), of workers putting strong efforts into their jobs, of a woman getting dressed, and of a man making movies -- all these images relate to the city.
Video links with a News Source: hat was missing in the movie…
Burns, Rebecca. "Public Art and Community: What can we learn from the Krog Tunnel
Controversy?" Atlanta Magazine. Retrieved November 4, 2014, from http://www.atlantamagazine.com . 2014.
Seward, Zachary M. "The failure of One World Trade Center." Quartz. Retrieved November 4, 2014, from http://qz.com . 2014.
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…
Hannah Hoch was an artist most known for her work in between the wars—the Weimar period, in which the Dada Movement came to the fore to challenge the sensibilities and pretensions of the early 20th century. Dada was as much a protest against the bourgeois as it was a slap in the face of the rising Fascist Movement. Hitler despised the Dadaists and the Dadaists despised him. Hoch counted herself as one among the Dadaists during the Weimar period—a period in which art and life came into intense conflict, while the universal stage was being set for the final showdown between the new and the old in WWII. For that reason—and for the reason that Hoch’s art gets to the heart of the changes that society was undergoing during that time of upheaval—I have selected Hannah Hoch as the focus of this paper. She is important to our textbook…
The Baroque was a dramatic period in Europe: the religious unity the continent had enjoyed for centuries had come to a crashing halt with the Protestant Reformation. King was turned against King, prince against pontiff. Persecution and war were dominant themes, especially following the excommunication of Henry VIII from the Church. Bernini's David, sculpted between 1623 and 1624, represents the swirling, dramatic, grim activity of the times (Avery). It is indeed a strong manifestation of the Baroque principles and themes: David is reared back, depicted in mid-action, like a lock ready to be sprung on his foe. He is full of conviction, bent on striking, Unlike Michelangelo's Renaissance Era David, which aimed mainly for a frontal view to show off the human form and which conveyed a sense of the confidence, leisure, pride and grandeur of the Renaissance Age, Bernini's David is a figure of determination -- a…
Avery, Charles. Bernini: Genius of the Baroque. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Cunningham, Lawrence; Reich, John. Culture and Values: a Survey of the Humanities.
NY: Cengage, 2014. Print.
Goya and Redon
Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and Redon cover three centuries of thought and activity in Europe. Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823) and Redon’s The Smiling Spider (1887) both show strangeness in the extreme and depict a frightening aspect of the world that is at once nightmarish and bizarrely humorous. This paper will provide an analysis of Goya’s and Redon’s respective…
It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne (2006) reports that, "hen scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera ork defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces.... The adventure of the mind in matter... The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.' Stieglitz thus used a histlerian gloss of shadows and music to mystify the eroticism of Rodin's 'pagan' figures" (44).
The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…
Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women: Idea and Ideals in Cultural History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
Clements, Candace. (1992) "The Academy and the Other: Les Graces and Le Genre Galant." Eighteenth-Century Studies 25(4):469-94 in Lathers at 23.
Danto, Arthur C. (1986, December 13). "John Singer Sargent." The Nation 243:679.
Downes, William Howe. John S. Sargent: His Life and Work. Boston: Little, Brown, 1925.
iddiqui (p.264) defines an 'honor crime' as consisting of:
a range of violent or abusive acts committed in the name of honor, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and other controlling and coercive behaviors such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation which can end, in some extreme cases, in suicide or murder. (13)
These felonies, it is true, can happened, and do happen, in any civilized country but they are legalized, accepted (sometimes even condoned) and happen to an unimaginable extent in societies that are marked by their Islamic way of living.
The outhall Black isters, for instance, have consistently argued that men from minority cultures have often used religion and culture to justify the range of violence and humiliation that they impose upon women. We do find many cultures that have extreme views perpetuating misogyny. This includes cultures such as Mormonism, fundamentalists Judaism, fundamentalist Christianity, and…
Aslam, N. (2005) Maps for Lost Lovers Knopf, UK
Lynn Welchman and Sara Hossain (2005) Honour: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women Zed Books: UK
Siddiqui, H. There Is No Honour
Rite of Spring - Vaslav Nijinsky & Igov Stravinsky
In what ways has The Rite of Spring laid the foundations for postmodernism in art, music, and dance?
The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, laid the foundations of postmodernism in art, music and dance by promoting the ideas rooted in Kant and Nietzsche -- namely that truth exists not as an objective reality but rather as a construct of the mind -- a subjective, internalization of externalities (Knight 89). Postmodernism in the 20th century was essentially a reaction to the modernism of the 19th century and modernism's elevated belief in Reason, based on Enlightenment ideology which came about as a result of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation in Europe. The postmodernist reaction to the inheritors of the Enlightenment was to elevate irrationality and absurdity -- the idea that human beings, far from using Reason, very…
Buckle, Richard. Nijinsky. UK: Trinity Press, 1971. Print.
Griffin, G. Edward. The Creature from Jekyll Island. NY: Amer Media, 1998. Print.
Hans Richter. Dada: Art and Anti-Art. NY: Thames and Hudson, 1997. Print.
Hewett, Ivan. "The Rite of Spring 1913: Why did it provoke a riot?" Telegraph, 16
Nan Goldin: Punk Expressions
Nan Goldin captures a raw, energetic visual spirit in her photography -- images of individuals outside the mainstream, persons who live in the sub-culture of the modern day world. These people are transsexuals or drug addicts, some of whom are involved in the punk music scene, others of whom are part of the underground by virtue of their "third gender" status, which Goldin applies to them. She does not photograph them as one who is reviled but rather as one who admires them and wants to be around them. Thus, her aesthetic judgments of her subjects are never scathing or attacking: rather, she presents them as they are -- boldly, objectively, almost defiantly, with their poses, attitudes, facial expressions (the eyes staring directly into the camera and hence into the viewer's saying, "Take me as I am" as in Misty and Jimmy Paulette in a Taxi,…
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. NY: Colonial Press, 1899. Print.
Manchester, Elizabeth. "Nan Goldin." TATE, 2001. Web. 9 Nov 2015.
Live Concet Analysis
How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time
Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change
The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's
Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…
references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).
Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.
Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).
Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.
Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
" (16) In other words, since God is not completely benevolent, one must protest against God for allowing that which is not just or that which is evil to exist.
In an illustration of this strategy, oth refers to the work of Elie Wiesel, who "shows that life in a post-Holocaust world can be more troublesome with God than without him" (9). In his works, Wiesel looks at different forms of theodicies and does not accept them for various reasons. Because of his experiences, he has put together his own personal theory of theodicy that allows him to accept God while still handle his violent experiences. In his book Night, Eliezer, who, despite his young age, has studied Jewish theology, at first wonders the suffering is due to committed sins, but then changes his mind and sees it instead as something to which someone must submit.
In Chapter 3 of…
Hick, John. Evil and the God of Love. New York: MacMillan, 1967.
Kushner, Harold. When Bad Things Happen to Good People. New York: Random House, 1981.
Peterson, Michael. The Problem of Evil. Notre Dame, IND: Notre Dame University, 1992
Roth, John. "Theodicy of Protest" Davis S.T. (Ed.), Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy, Westminster: John Knox Press, 2001
local newspaper: "This past winter, 200 students from California State College traveled to the state capitol building to protest cuts in funding for various state college programs. The other 12,000 California State College students evidently weren't so concerned about their education; they either stayed on campus or left for winter break. Since the group who did not protest is far more numerous, it is more representative of the state's college students than the protesters; therefore, the state legislature need not heed the appeals of the protesting students." Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. You can also discuss, what if anything would make the argument more sound and persuasive or would help to better evaluate its conclusion.
The argument 'the bigger the better' is specious when applied to car advertisements and…
I am also very confused by the author's decision to switch over to talking about the impact a Danish publication had especially because it did not relate to music and it did not deal with issues in the U.S. While the author intended to demonstrate the power of the press, he/she should have chosen an example applicable to the U.S. Moreover, the author appears to confuse a political cartoon that deliberately sets out to polarize the audience with traditional art, which sets out to be a tool for an artist's expression of thoughts, beliefs, and experiences.
The concluding paragraph is fraught with hypocritical inconsistencies. The author began by claiming that the First Amendment gives individuals the right to free speech and yet, he/she set out immediately to determine what an artist could and could not say, and what they should and should not say. Furthermore, in this last paragraph, the…
Adorno's Negative Theology And The Religious Dimension Of Art
Religion in art can perform a variety of roles. A religious picture, literary text or piece of music can be didactic in intent, spreading knowledge of religious teachings, ideologies and practices; it can serve a commemorative purpose, reminding present generations of the significance of past episodes, or the examples of particular individuals, in shaping present religious belief and practice; it can be inspiring in an emotional or spiritual sense, acting to create a suitable emotion or feeling of a religious nature in its audience. Art with religious content or purpose can be contemplative or bombastic in character, and can convey a message that is conservative or radical in political, social or cultural terms; it can operate on an individual or a collective level, and inspire engagement with the world or withdrawal from it; it can work through great formal simplicity or…
Adorno, Theodor W., Aesthetic Theory, trans. Hullot-Kentor, Robert (London: Athlone Press, 1996).
Adorno, Theodor W., Dialectic of Enlightenment (London: Verso, 1979).
Adorno, Theodor W., Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic, trans. Hullot-Kentor, Robert (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
Adorno, Theodor W., Notes to Literature, trans. Nicholson, Shierry Weber (New York: Columbia University Press, 2 vols., 1992).
Most individuals fail to appreciate life to the fullest because they concentrate on being remembered as some of the greatest humans who ever lives. This makes it difficult for them to enjoy the simple pleasures in life, considering that they waste most of their time trying to put across ideas that are appealing to the masses. While many did not manage to produce ideas that survived more than them, others succeeded and actually produced thinking that remained in society for a long period of time consequent to their death.
Creativity is generally regarded as one of the most important concepts in society, considering that it generally induces intense feelings in individuals. It is responsible for progress and for the fact that humanity managed to produce a series of ideas that dominated society's thinking through time. In order for someone to create a concept that will live longer than him or…
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
Monkey Wrench Gang," by Edward Abbey [...] issue, where does Monkey Wrenching (the type of political activity in the Monkey Wrench Gang) fit into protest politics as a bridge to mass movement politics? Is Monkey Wrenching a part of the fabric of participatory democracy? Monkey Wrenching is clearly extraordinary politics, but does it have a place in our participatory representative democracy?
THE MONKEY WRENCH GANG
Participation in America may seem like a dying art, but every day, thousands of Americans participate in their communities, take care of others, and spout their political beliefs for the betterment of all. From grandmothers who read to children in their local library, to college student protesting the war in Iraq, citizens in America have the right to change the world, one person at a time. Edward Abbey's "The Monkey Wrench Gang" is a novel of participation at its best. The motley gang of four…
Abbey, Edward. The Monkey Wrench Gang. New York: Perennial Classics, 2000.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.