Art of War by Sun Tsu
What are the main points of the Art of War by Sun Tsu?
Sun Zi Art of War (? ) is the most well-known Chinese military treatise that is known to the Chinese as well as the western world. Written around the 4th to 5th century B.C. And consisting of only 13 chapters, its value in influencing military thinking and war strategies has seldom being questioned. What is more interesting, however, is its relevance to the corporate world of business. Increasingly, military cliches have been used in the business realm. For example, terms like price wars, product wars, battle of the corporate giants, etc. have found increasing acceptance among business writers and analysts (Wee, 2002).
Art of War is taught to students with four general rationales emerged for teaching Sun Zi:
As a tool for strategic analysis
As a potential source of ideas for…… [Read More]
Art of War by Niccolo Machiavelli
Niccolo Machiavelli understood the relationships between politics and war very well, and believed that there was a causal relationship between these two crucial pillars of society. An examination of the author's 16th century text, The Art of War, readily demonstrates as much. In Machiavelli's view, war was an essential function of politics as manifested by the state. As such, the author had very opinionated beliefs about what sort of state could optimize the function of war, what sort of effect a state had on its soldiers, and how the political virtues exemplified by the state would inherently affect its soldiers and war prospects. Within this text the author emphasizes the value of politics in terms of its effect on creating a desirable state entity, while arguing that war is nothing more than a function of the state and its politics/political agenda.
The most interesting…… [Read More]
Art of War
Antoine-Henri Jomini, the Art of War
Jomini's the Art of War is based on the authors experiences in the Crimean War and the Napoleonic Wars. War is presented as an art, and yet Jomini's emphasis is on strategy and decisiveness.
Author's Identity: Antoine-Henri Jomini was born in Switzerland in 1779. He came of age during the French evolution, and understood well the fusion between politics, diplomacy, and military tactics. Jomini served with both French and ussian armies. A large part of Jomini's career was spent as an adviser, strategist, and military scholar. He served as adviser to two ussian tsars and devoted the latter part of his career to writing and analysis.
Author's Purpose and Intended Audience: Jomini writes for an audience of his peers, including military generals, strategists, political maneuverers, and military scholars as well.
Historical Context of the Work: The author came of age during…… [Read More]
In Chapter Six "Weak Points and Strong," Sun Tzu declares that the first combatants in the field who awaits the arrival of the enemy "will be fresh for the fight," while those that arrive later will be exhausted and unable to fight properly. Therefore, "the clever combatant imposes his will on the enemy, but does not allow the enemy's will to be imposed on him." This type of advice could be used also in a business setting, whereby the first to arrive at negotiations holds the upper hand.
The remaining chapters include "Maneuvering," "Variation in Tactics," "The Army on the March," "Terrain," "The Nine Situations," "The Attack by Fire" and "The Use of Spies," all of which if used properly by military leaders and commanders on the battlefield will result in victory over the enemy. Interestingly, Sun Tzu's instructions in The Art of War have been used by many past…… [Read More]
Careful, well-considered, and disciplined application of knowledge gained from experience, observation, and study can combine to create optimal conditions for success, in war and in business.
Further, according to Sun Tzu, commitment to remaining focused on one's strategic objectives is also very important. Toward that end, attention from those strategic objectives should not be dissipated.
One should therefore avoid petty distractions from the goals and tasks at hand, or building unnecessary complexities into one's strategic tactics and operations. However, it is also important, according to Sun Tzu, to match suitability of one's strategies and tactics to the environment and atmosphere (i.e., market conditions) within which one operates. One must try to understand, and to guard against any inherent disadvantages (and there generally always are some of these) contained within every positive competitive situation. In business, an example of this might be that of a company that becomes successful enough to…… [Read More]
Sun Tsu Art of War
Sun Tzu as Confucian Scholar-Soldier
Sun Tzu and his famous book The Art of War cannot be understood apart from the Chinese cultural and historical context that produced them, although his concepts were widely borrowed and imitated over the past 2,000 years. He was a contemporary of Confucius, after all, and his assumptions about warfare were harmonized within that philosophical tradition. Warfare was an evil, a waste and cause of disharmony and disorder, especially when it was prolonged. It was a waste of lives as well as the resources of the state, and should therefore be avoided through deterrence and clever diplomacy, and only then be used as a last resort. The most brilliant commander was the one who was able to defeat the enemy without fighting battles, although if these had to be fought then they should be won quickly and decisively.
In the…… [Read More]
Sun Tzu -- Art of War
In his famous book The Art of War, Sun-zi (Sun Tzu) was evidently influenced by Confucian ideals, such as his statements about the avoiding prolonged war if possible and the most successful generals being those who could win without fighting at all. He was from the Southern, semi-barbaric state of Wu, and his book was probably written in the Warring States period or perhaps during the Han Dynasty. He never referred to barbarians at all or any ethic differences, and always stated that the greatest generals had to know themselves and the enemy. Nor did he ever demonize his opponents or call for their total destruction, but rather recommended humane treatment for prisoners of war and civilian populations. Sun Tzu relied on clever tactics, strategy and espionage rather than brute force to win victories and from beginning to end his book cast a rather…… [Read More]
Lao Tze and Sun Tzu "War"
War has been a part of the human condition since humans first stood upright thousands of years ago. Every culture and society has engaged in it, while simultaneously attempting to control and eliminate it. War destroys, injures, maims, and kills not only people but entire societies. In Chinese culture, there has been many attempts to deal with the violent aspect of humanity through philosophy. Great thinkers like Confucius, Lao Tze, Sun Tzu and countless others have, through their teachings, attempted to control the violence of humans. Each of these philosopher's teachings have certain things in common, but also major differences which have caused conflict and division over the centuries. Two of these thinkers, Lao Tze and Sun Tzu share many beliefs and ideals, but their teachings also contain vast differences. Each attempted to deal with the violence and destruction caused by war…… [Read More]
connecting the reader with the time period in which it was written. This is why the writings of the distant past, even in translation, are among the most fascinating to modern scholars. Anthropologists such as aussure, Joseph Campbell and others were seminal in uncovering mythological themes in ancient texts. As archeology supplemented legend, the literary world found evidence that the mythical worlds evidenced by the works of antiquity was in some cases based in fact. Three of the most intriguing works of antiquity are Ramayana, The Epic of Gilgamesh, and The Art of War. Each provides the reviewer with insight as to the origins of a particular culture or geographic region.
The Ramayana represents one of the oldest epic myths of world literature. As such it has been more influential in Indian culture than any other work. The Epic, which was recounted in oral tradition long before being put to…… [Read More]
Sun Tzu and Clausewitz on War
War on Terror: The elevance of Historical Perspectives on War
Sarah Miller (2012) evaluated the relevance of historical texts for explaining contemporary society's efforts to combat terrorism. The two texts chosen for her essay are On War by Carl Von Clausewitz and The Art of War by Sun Tzu, with the first published in 1832 and the second about 2,500 years ago. Miller (2012) seemed surprised that the older text appeared to be more relevant and attributes this to the philosophical lens through which Sun Tzu explained the art of warfare. By contrast, the value of Clausewitz writings is limited by his emphasis on warfare tactics relevant mainly to the time period in which he lived. Miller (2012) used these points and others to argue that Sun Tzu offered the most value for governments tasked with combating a terrorist threat, in part because modern…… [Read More]
Pre-Task Learning: Class discussion/reading of the history of the Spanish Civil War and its relationship to the approach of World War II. Continuing discussion on the specific context of the painting's creation and display, and of Pablo Picasso and his emerging and shifting abstract style of painting. Preliminary open-form discussion of possible interpretations of the painting, beginning with the more obvious macro-level signs in the painting on touching on other symbolic aspects (the Harlequin figures/patterns, animal representations, etc.).
Task Expectations: Each paper should contain personal interpretations and a reflection of personal reactions to the painting that are connected to the historical facts and larger trends discussed. Discussion of individual elements as well as the composition as a whole and the relation of the individual elements discussed to each other and to the meaning of the work as a whole should be present in all completed papers.
Grade 10 Lesson Plan…… [Read More]
Art and Photojournalism
Film and photojournalism have been extremely important aspects of war since their invention. One journalist wrote, "Photographic journalism is generally accepted as an authoritative source of visual information about our times" (Steichen 5). This is especially true of war photography, because the photographer's lens captures the horror and agony of war in a split second, and immortalizes it forever. Some of the most memorable photographs of the century are war photographs, from the sailor celebrating in Times Square with his sweetheart to the assassination of a Vietcong insurgent; the photos live on in our minds, and bring back the terror and emotion of the war experience. In World War II, film and photography brought the war home to American's doorsteps, and helped them understand just what the men were facing in Europe and Japan. Photos and film have done that for every war since they were invented,…… [Read More]
On War, Statecraft and Sustainability
As Clark (2008) points out, sustainability has been defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development as the capability of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (p. 3). Sustainability is related to the need recognized by nations to conserve finite resources so that they are not depleted for the next generation. Intertwined with environmental sustainability are economic and social goals, as indicated by Kates, Parris and Leiserowitz (2005). Commonly included as some of the social goals in a sustainable culture are equality/equitability and a high quality of public health.
However, because conflicts arise between peoples over the use of resources, war breaks out not infrequently. War is typically defined as “armed conflict” and stands as a “direct opposition to sustainability” because nothing tends to deplete resources faster than war (Clark, 2008, p.…… [Read More]
The subject of terrain is covered exclusively in one of the thirteen chapters in Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. In fact, terrain is addressed throughout The Art of War, so critical is positioning to tactical advantage and strategy. For example, the fourth chapter on “Tactical Dispositions” addresses positioning prior to Sun Tzu’s more formal “Classification of Terrain” in Chapter Ten. Whereas “Tactical Dispositions” covers defensive options, and relative positions vis-a-vis the enemy, “Terrain” demonstrates how variations in terrain impact strategy and outcome. Therefore, “Terrain” offers an unparalleled level of detail on the subject of geography that is of tremendous use to military strategists. Sun Tzu extends his discussion on the importance of terrain in Chapter Eleven of The Art of War, showing how terrain impacts the nine main possibilities for battleground formation and how to address challenges and crises by using skilful means.
Introduction: Why Terrain?
Even in…… [Read More]
Art, ritual, and religion are inseparable in the aboriginal societies of Oceania. Aboriginal myths of creation and the Dreamtime are rendered in art and permeate the various types of art found throughout indigenous Australia from bark and rock paintings to the modern renditions on canvas. Similarly, the art of Pacific Islands before 1980 is inseparable from their cultural contexts. The concept of art is different in the Pacific Islands than it is for the Europeans who colonized the region. Therefore, it is important to understand both aboriginal and Pacific Island art within their own historical, cultural, and social worldview. Art was functional, symbolic, and sacred, and was tacitly decorative.
The aboriginal Australians have populated their lands for 50,000 years, and during that time developed highly sophisticated cosmologies comprising "what anthropologists say is the world's longest enduring religion," (Kiger, n.d.). Although there is a considerable amount of diversity in the exact…… [Read More]
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…… [Read More]
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…… [Read More]
Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works of Art
Dali's Autumn Cannibalism (1936) http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/dali_retrospective/dali_pma_05_07.htm
Salvador Dali is one of the great and mercurial figures in art history. The surrealistic Spanish painter was influenced heavily by the tumultuous period of history in which he lived and by the haunting images in his own psyche. Both are on dramatic display in the 1936 piece, "Autumn Cannibalism." Here, Dali paints a depiction of the military conflict tearing his motherland apart from within, offering us this terrifying rendering of civil war as seen through the eyes of one consumed by it.
In the confrontation between the social commentary and the internal reflection that comprise this piece, Dali creates a piece that is decidedly representative of the surrealist movement both in aesthetic and motif. In spite of Dali's incredible influence, surrealism was ultimately a short-lived movement, leaving its impression on the art world through…… [Read More]
Art as Political tatement
It is almost impossible to completely separate art from the social and political context in which it originates. When considering art works from a variety of contexts and situations, it is clear that artist as often as not ignored and embraced politics as either inspiration for their work, or indeed treated it as a force to be shunned for its destruction of the creative spirit. Both acceptance and defiance of the political arena, it will be shown below, constitute a form of political statement in terms of art.
Expressionism began its evolution during the early part of the 20th century. This movement contrasted with impressionism in that it did not aim to reproduce, but rather to impose its views of objects in the world. When taken from a political context then, the political agenda is not always clear, as the artist is attempting to represent…… [Read More]
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…… [Read More]
The Narrative Tradition in Art: Evidence and Examples from the Neolithic and the Hellenistic Periods
Artists have existed since long before the dawn of civilization and the beginnings of recorded history, and the subject matter chosen for depiction in paintings has at once been highly varied and remarkably similar as civilization progressed and societies same and went. Wildly disparate styles have led some to emphasize color and the abstract while others attempted to paint exactly what was seen, and buildings dominate some paintings while landscapes dominate others; at the same time, there have been similarities in that paintings always represent the world as seen by the civilization producing the art, and thus people and certain other elements are almost always well represented. Art is a way of mirroring life, and of displaying features of importance to a given people, and representations of men and women and the objects…… [Read More]
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…… [Read More]
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…… [Read More]
I wonder if that is how he really did it.
I know the author was trying to make a point about life and death, but this work also reminds me of something that would happen during religious persecution or a war. It seems like the winner might walk around with a trophy like this, which is pretty disgusting. The piece shows the contrast between good and evil and death and life, and it is very strong and realistic. The artist used different metals to show the different stages, and hung the heads together to show that we are all equal in death. I think that this is an important piece of artwork, but I'm not really that fond of it, and I would rather find something else to view that is more pleasing and nice to look at. This is too dark and frightening to look at or think about…… [Read More]
Period/date- enaissance 1501- 1504
Location or origin- Florence Italy
Medium and size- Sculpture
Period/date- Baroque 1610
Location or origin- ome
Medium and size- Painting
The story of David and Goliath is one that transcends time. In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time. These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression. These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. The…… [Read More]
It is clear the artist wants to communicate his feelings to his audience, and the text makes this clear in using codes and thoughts to convey these feelings.
There are cultural assumptions assumed by this text, especially that everyone is familiar with the history of World War II and the Holocaust. It seems many of the images of the artist are related in ways to this, and it assumes that everyone will understand the meaning and the history, without having to ask questions. The artist, in that, seems to depart from dominant culture values, not because his work is dark and disturbing, but because somehow, the works seem to convey the dark side of life that many people want to ignore. He takes a dim view of humankind it seems, and that is not so common in cultural values, because most people want to hope for the best, and Kiefer…… [Read More]
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…… [Read More]
Art Cinema and Theatre of Absurd
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," David Bordwell provides a definition of what he believes constitutes art cinema in order to define the style as an artistic movement. In "The Theatre of the Absurd," Martin Esslin provides similar arguments about theatre as Bordwell does about film. Bordwell and Esslin both provide an analysis of the elements that distinguish art cinema and art theatre from their mainstream counterparts.
There are several factors that contributed to the rise of art cinema in the post-orld ar II era. Art cinema became to be recognized as an acceptable and appropriate vehicle of expression given the gravity of historical developments of post-II Europe.
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," Bordwell explains art cinema "as a distinct mode appears after orld ar II when the dominance of the Hollywood cinema…… [Read More]
Voice-overs allow the audience to understand what Antoine thinks and what he wants to accomplish.
Ambiguity also plays a large role in the development of art cinema. Bordwell claims that classical narrative deviations -- ambiguity -- "are placed, resituated as realism (in life things happen this way) or authorial commentary (the ambiguity is symbolic)" (Bordwell 721). The 400 Blows has an open-ended conclusion that forces the audience to contemplate what will happen to Antoine when he is caught.
The 400 Blows appears to have influenced Milos Forman's Loves of a Blonde as both films share similar art cinema characteristics, and demonstrate narrative and character parallels. The protagonist in Loves of a Blonde, Andula, appears to want to escape her life, which is set against a realistic background. She is expected to perform the same tasks day in and day out and she is not given many opportunities to escape the…… [Read More]
Art in Cultural Context
Cybele is an ancient figure who represented the mother goddess and in her was granted the ability to create and populate the world according to her desires. She was both the most powerful of the gods and also an amalgamation of the most powerful of the goddesses. In both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, cults which worshipped Cybele were established and elaborate temples were constructed in her honor which lasted throughout centuries. The woman was not just another goddess in the pantheon of deities established by the ancient empires, but was a uniquely powerful entity that people would worship and pray to in times of difficulty and suffering. She had within her the powers of many of the goddesses, including the Earth goddess Gaia, the Minoan goddess Rhea, and the goddess of the harvest Demeter, taking the role of each of these mythological mothers. So strong…… [Read More]
Godard believed that cinema should be an extension of criticism, a concept that he is able to achieve in Le Mepris through his criticism of traditional Hollywood cinema and the restrictions imposed on directors who were struggling to define their style and voice their interpretation of stories set before them. Godard is able to inject his personal interpretation of Moravia's novel by writing the script of the film and by incorporating aspects of his relationship with Karina into the film. Godard does not compromise his authorial interpretation of Moravia's novel, yet is able to stay within the parameters set before him by the producers of the film.
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," Bordwell argues that ambiguity helps to unify realism and authorial expressivity; however, Godard does not employ ambiguity and allows the film to end conclusively. Godard believes, "A story should have a beginning,…… [Read More]
The traditional estern woman would not wear the mark of the warrior, the war paint, or other decorative markings. but, in the idealized world of the advertisement, a woman can as well be a warrior for a cause, as man a soldier for that in which he believes. As well, gender is used to contrast the softness and over-refinement of a highly technological and industrial world with the rigors of everyday life in the African environment. Here also, the message is that traditional gender roles must be abandoned if we are to become one; if we are to recognize our genuine and universal heritage. This heritage is symbolized by the naked purity of the African tope.
An Ideological Description:
Beyond its gendered and Eurocentric vs. Afrocentric text, the advertisement carries a very powerful subtext about the need for all of us to recognize our "Africanness." Gwyneth Paltrow is a estern…… [Read More]
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…… [Read More]
An arguably even stronger influence, however, comes from the other side of the economic railroad tracks. Though few come out and say it, it is likely that many of the elite members of society approve of war not out of any sense of nobility or honor, but because war has direct extrinsic benefits for them. These benefits are both political and economic in nature, and tend to positively affect all of the elite -- those at the top of the economic, political, and military ladders. There is often, of course, a great overlap in these areas of power, which only makes the problem that much worse (Mooney & Knox 2007). It might at first be difficult to see how widespread death and destruction could benefit anyone, but it is actually quite simple.
The simplest and most sinister benefit is the economic one. War leads to huge increases in production and…… [Read More]
It makes sense, then, that H.G. ells once "said he would 'rather be called a journalist than an artist'" (ells qtd. In McConnell 176). If the dangers of the twentieth century would come from the way unrestricted scientific advancement coupled with self-interest results in new, terrifying methods of industrialized slaughter, then the particular mode or perspective of the artist, as an opposed to the journalist, would be insufficient or irrelevant. In other words, if both the journalist and the artist seek truth, but the artist also seeks beauty, then the journalist is actually the one better suited for a world in which beauty has been overwhelmed by death and destruction on a scale and with a swiftness heretofore unimagined.
The narrator of The ar of the orlds reflects this shift, because he tells his story with as little artifice and characterization as possible, instead opting to describe the "death […]…… [Read More]
Great Art proponents
Art is not something new that started recently. Art work has been in existence for a very long time and there are various artists who have brought an influence in this field. When looking at art in the 1960s we can see that there are various art movements as well as cultural histories which are associated with this period.
Andy Warhol was a very influential pop artist in the 1960s. He took product logos and their labels from a commercial context and displayed them as a form of art. He also went ahead to make sculptures that were identical to Brillo boxes and Campbell's soup cans. Through his work we can see that pop art posed as a challenge to traditional art through equating imagery that was mass produced in advertising with existing fine arts. This was attracted by graphical directness of advertising and consumer packing…… [Read More]
Art of the Invisible: Listening Responses
Radio as Storytelling
Like all artistic media, there are subtle and unique elements to radio which distinguish it from other forms such as the written word, TV or film. Nowhere must the radio producer be more cognizant of the uniqueness of radio than in the radio documentary. The most intriguing of this week's listening was Rudolph Arnheim's piece "In Praise of Blindness." He disputes the idea that radio should help the mind to form visual images. Instead, the entire appeal of radio is that despite a common listening experience each listener creates an entirely independent experience in their mind's eye. This is a unique feature of radio that some forms such as writing have to a lesser extent and which contemporary forms such as TV and film entirely lack. Television instead compels all its consumers to experience both the same audio and visual experience…… [Read More]
During the major battle Sir Francis Drake is quoted, "There was never anything pleased me better than seeing the enemy flying with a southerly wind to the northward" ("Elizabethan ar"). The Spanish Armada was forced to sail northward while the fleet of England was able to attack. Once the larger ships were so far out to sea as to not be a threat, the reminder crashed into the shores of Norway with a starving wasted crew. Those that survived had to surrender as many soldiers did due to the new weapon at the English army's disposal, the musket.
Queen Elizabeth helped inspire advancement in technology and science. The invention of firearms was just before the Elizabethan era but she was just the encouragement the army needed to upgrade. In 1595, all soldiers were ordered to replace their bows with a musket. The most popular one at the time was called…… [Read More]
Art, Costume, And Scenery of Major Feature Films of the 1980s
Kiss of the Spider oman. Hector Babenco, 1988.
Adapting The Kiss of the Spider oman to the cinema presented a unique challenge to filmmakers. The story is set in a jail cell, and largely takes the form of dialogue between two prisoners: Molina, a homosexual window dresser, and his cellmate, a fiery radical named Valentin. To pass the time, Molina tells his cellmate stories. The dank, dark cell where the two men wear relatively minimalistic clothing is a stark contrast with the beautiful, melodramatic films that Molina narrates. Occasionally, some brightness will intrude into the jail, such as when Molina cooks for Valentin or when he puts a scarf around his head. Molina may make an attempt at drag, but it is relatively minor given the tools at his disposal. "Hurt wears a kind of improvised drag, mostly involving…… [Read More]
ar on AIDS
Affordable retroviral drugs now!
Fighting the 'good fight' against AIDS in Africa
It's one of the most long-standing theoretical ethical debates: you know someone is dying, and will die if they do not get a certain kind of medicine. However, the medicine is prohibitively expensive. Do you steal this all-important medication? Or do you allow the person to wither and die, because stealing is wrong -- or rather, because the pharmaceutical companies 'deserve' to make a profit? Of course, you ensure that the individual has the medication, ideally by pressuring the store or company to give you the medicine for free. But although this moral impulse may seem like a 'no brainer' on an individual level, on a mass level, people are still dying in record numbers from AIDS in Africa, in a way that would be unacceptable, if it took place in the so-called developing world.…… [Read More]
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]
This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.
Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…… [Read More]
Business Before Referencing
Tzu, Sun. The Art of War. Forward by James Clavell. New York: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.,
What does an ancient Chinese classic about the nature of a now-obsolete form of warfare have to teach us, in modernity, about how to manage others and navigate the current business environment? A great deal, The Art of War's presence in many business class syllabuses would suggest. Indeed, certain aspects of The Art of War by Sun Tzu seem even more relevant today than in the past. How to combine moral authority with fierceness and tenacity in an increasingly competitive environment is a challenging question faced by many organizations.
One of the first principles stressed by Sun Tzu is the need for a leader to follow a moral law, what we might call a vision statement in modern business vocabulary. It is not enough for a leader to command and reward,…… [Read More]
nature of war is noted to be persistent and widely remains the same over time; it is violent and leads to conflicts due to clashing political perspectives, claims casualties most of whom are innocent civilians and also disrupts the societal fabric at the end of the war. Clausewitz formulated a trinity in a bid to explain what war is hinged on and why conflicts often lead to war.
Clausewitz (2006) pointed out at Passion (people), Policy (government), and Probability (Army) as the three pillars upon which war is hinged. He calls these 'the paradoxical trinity' and that they are the three magnets on which war is hinged. His emphasis was more on the romance and stressed on how the different aspects of the paradoxical trinity interact with each other.
The trinity is an interactive set of three forces that drive wars in the actual world. According to Clausewitz (2006) the…… [Read More]
military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the tenets embodied by Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…… [Read More]
There are expressed their feelings through different work of art such as filming. Through films, they used actors and actresses to manipulate the story of the film. And thus through the facial expressions and their actions people watching it can get the whole picture of what the story was all about. One of the first to sense this transformation of the actor by the test performance was Pirandello (enjamin 1937). It was through the film actor that critics understand the moral of the story. Through time, the film was enhanced, it was first a silent film where the artists acts and try to relay the message through his actions but now, there are sounds that help the actor easily and accurately relay the message. His feelings as well the manner of his delivery through the sounds can very well understand the message of the story.
Technology boomed and changes came…… [Read More]
To me, art is a concept that is impossible to define, because any definition of art necessarily limits art, and art should be limitless. I would say that art is what separates humans from other animals, because I feel like the ability to create and appreciate art is one of the defining elements of humanity, but I have seen examples of animals creating artwork, so I do not know that it is a uniquely human concept. However, whether art is unique to humans or is something shared by other highly intelligent animals, I know that art is essential to the human experience. I agree with Dr. Cornell est that, "You can't talk about the struggle for human freedom unless you talk about the different dimensions of what it means to be human" (est). Therefore, to me, art is about, not only being human, but also about creating the social…… [Read More]
Art in an Unpredictable World
The book And Then You Act: Making Art in an Unpredictable World, by Anne Bogart, is a collection of eight essays on art, theatre and the collaborative creative process that the artists who work in this medium apply to their craft. The book links each essay to the importance of action during times of difficulty, whether personal or political. Thus, the book's message is both educational and inspirational.
Bogart starts each chapter of this fantastic book with advice or insight towards a "bolder" form of art, which she illustrates with the metaphor "making music more intense." Through this metaphor, she provides the reader with a clear sense of what powerful art must mean. Bogart's bold art must thus consider the following themes: context, articulation, intention, attention, magnetism, attitude, content and time. She especially stresses the need for powerful art after the September 11 attacks, and…… [Read More]
art museum in Chicago and an exhibition held in the University of Minnesota where I happened to stay for a week's vacation.
The Art museum of Chicago
I have always been interested in art. It transports me to a different place and calms me. Therefore, I decided to select the famous art museum of Chicago as one of my places to visit.
Being philosophically inclined, the exhibit that made the greatest impact on me and had me wandering around it various times was the marble statue of a group of figures -- naked men -- eyes closed, hands gently touching the shoulder of the one in front of them. There they stood in a closed circle, connected; yet disconnected as we are in real life. This was precisely reminiscent of our experience, and it reminded me of Liebniz's monads. Each of us exists singly in the world. Perceptions come in,…… [Read More]
Such works bring to mind Freud's theory of genital anxiety, which is present in both men and women. At the same time - and this is where Bourgeois's revolt against myth occurs - what would otherwise be seen as a fetish object for men is deployed here as a weapon instead. Thus, by subverting the feminine into a weapon, Bourgeois is simultaneously responding to the psychic myths of Western civilization and transgressing them in an effort to posit a new model of the real.
Throughout the course of his career, Anselm Kiefer has attempted to unite myth and history through an immense terrain of entangled cultural references and pictorial techniques. In doing so, Kiefer has effectively attempted to bear the weight of our collective historical tragedies and redemptive hopes that many artists in the last forty years have attempted to convey. Few of them, however, do it so effectively as…… [Read More]
Henri Matisse's painting Woman efore an Aquarium, and the poem of the same title by Patricia Hampl. The also paper look at the reasons why a poet may choose to base their work on an existing work of art.
Poets sometimes choose to write about works of art for many reasons, because they become inspired by them, or repulsed by them, or maybe because they are enraged by the work of art. Further, the work of poets can also inspire artists, for much the same reasons. Many would argue that both poets and painters are artists, and that, as such, the issue of why and how poets become inspired by paintings is irrelevant; it is argued that a painting can be as much of an inspiration for a poet as a scene from nature, or a memory, or a smell, as anything that stimulates the muse to write can be…… [Read More]
Ansel Adams: An Analysis of the Importance of America's Most Popular Photographer
Of all the great black-and-white photographers, Ansel Adams was the blackest and the whitest. -- Kenneth Brower, 2002
Today, Ansel Adams is widely regarded as the most important landscape photographer of the 20th century, and is perhaps the most best known and beloved photographer in the history of the United States. As a firm testament to his talents and innovations, the popularity of his work has only increased over the years following his death in 1984 (Szarkowski 1-2). This photographer's most important work concerned the last remaining vestiges of untouched wilderness in the nation, particularly in the national parks and other protected areas of the American est; in addition, Adams was an early and outspoken leader of the conservation movement (Szarkowski 2). This paper provides an overview of Adams and his historical significance, followed by a discussion of…… [Read More]
Attn: Adrian Johnson
Letter to the Editor
In response to the recent article, eview of Abstract Expressionism, about the failures of Abstract Expressionism, it is important to remember the how American art during the 1930s embodied democratic values. In the 1930s, America was experiencing a depression that is commonly known as the Great Depression. This period was characterized by significant economic difficulties and collapse that culminated in a war. While the country was renowned as a land of opportunity and hope during this period, the Great Depression changed people's perception regarding the United States since it became a nation of despair and depression. Given the underlying economic situation in this period, artwork and the field of art in general was seemingly irrelevant as many artists were experiencing tremendous economic challenges and remained unemployed (Hittner, n.d.).
However, the series of social liberal recovery programs initiated…… [Read More]
A fixed-pie concept of mediation has been largely criticized as being too archaic and too ego-centric to actually provide a resolution which satisfies all involved (Steinel et al., 2000). Instead, more simplistic and more conducive tools can be used to improve mediation and to overcome the impasse. For instance, simply striking a deadline so that all involved have to abide by it can provide the two parties in this case with a greater level of incentive in overcoming the impasse. For the two parties involved in this highly emotional situation, establishing a more useful precedent can also be effective: in this case the precedent might involve the ethical behavior in research in general, and might seek to inspire all involved to negotiate for more livable terms.
Finally, in such a case the mediator can just push for improved communication for all around: this can be done by setting ground rules…… [Read More]
imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.
There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who…… [Read More]
art is "te creation of beautiful or tougt-provoking works" according to te World Englis Dictionary
It is wit tat definition in mind tat I argue tat teatre is most definitely an art form. Teatre can be defined as wen someone cooses to make dramatic performance (acting) teir profession muc as a dancer cooses te ballet as teir profession. Te roots of teatre can be traced as far back as te ancient Roman Empire, troug te Renaissance in Europe and finally to te 20t century, wic saw te emergence of commercial teatre suc as musicals tat are performed in suc venues as Broadway.
Witout question, acting is someting tat only select people are really great at. Likewise, few people can really draw or paint, dance, write, sing or play music. Tese are all considered art forms and te teatre is a culmination of all of tese in one way or anoter.…… [Read More]
The birds flying away in the end are representative of the freedom to love each other that Allie and Noah now have with each other. No physical bounds can restrain them. These elements became apparent on the fourth viewing. I then went back through the scenes to see if bird imagery was hiding in other scenes. Birds were found throughout the story, such as Noah providing bread for Allie to feed the birds, a mockingbird on the porch after they make love, etc. Upon closer examination, this emerged as a central tool for conveying the theme that Noah and Allie's love was as wild and free as the birds.
An analysis of "The Notebook" is a prime example of how the technique of viewing the film several times until the layers emerge can reveal deeper meanings with each viewing. In order to understand how the various elements of the film…… [Read More]
" In the context of a war poetry, this metaphor emphasizes the greatest honor a citizen of a state can embrace is to die for his land. Obviously, Owen uses this phrase in an ironical manner, circularly ending his poem by noting: "The old lie; Dulce et decorum est Pro Patria Mori."
In terms of word registry, the poem is pretty much similar to the previous ones, meaning it emphasizes the effects the war has on soldier, the misery, the pain, the blood and the injuries. Words regarding weapons do not appear in the title, but the author uses them with a high frequency. Therefore, regarding specific actions of warfare, one can identify "hoots," "distant rest," "helmets," "lime," "panes," "to gutter" and so on. By comparing all poems presented above, it seems that Owen creates the most detailed picture and atmosphere, which could be explained by the fact that he…… [Read More]
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…… [Read More]
art of illustration has changed dramatically over time. In the present moment, book illustrations can be a variety of types and styles, all of which have some historical basis in past illustrations. The period between 1929 and 1955 had two very different artistic styles in terms of aesthetic, subject matter, and technique. These two periods, known as the Pulp Era (1929-1941) and the Mid-Century Illustration (1945-1955) periods, reflected the psychological viewpoint of the American citizens who would serve as the consumers of these books, magazines, and other literary materials.
The Pulp Era has been characterized by highly stylized illustrations of women and men. Traditionally, the female characters are shown in a highly sexualized context. Usually women are in various states of undress, or their clothing is very tight and the females are buxom. Blondes are portrayed as more innocent and dark haired women are shown to be more sexually aware.…… [Read More]