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life of a patient dealing with the chronic disease, rheumatoid arthritis. heumatoid arthritis is a type of arthritis that can cause redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, stiffness, and abnormality of numerous joints of the body. For patients that are dealing with this type illness, each day's activities can present a lot of trials. In this patient case, there were a lot of simple activities, which we people take for granted, can model a major problem for a patient that is dealing with rheumatoid arthritis.
Social, Financial, and Personal Effects
Donna is a 44-year-old wife and mother of two children and have had severe rheumatoid arthritis now for closely 14 years. Her husband is understanding and helpful. The disease has caused malformation of her feet and hands. The patients fingers are identifiably knotted and have bumps, known as nodules. Her wrists have practically bonded so that I can move them actually just…
Akil, M.A. (2012). Rheumatoid arthritis. British Medical Journal, 34-67.
Binning, M. (2011). Modern drug treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis. Australian Nursing Journal, 32(12), 12-23.
Dessein, P.J. (2005). Effects of disease modifying agents and dietary intervention on insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 112-124.
Pisetsky, D. & . (2012). Progress in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 24(11), 2787-2791.
On the other hand a diet that is high in fruit and vegetable intake has also been found to increase the absorption of antioxidants and vitamins that help to manage the symptoms of this disease. Pineapples have been found to be effective in the control of inflammation in arthritis, as they contain bromelain enzymes. ".... bromelain enzymes block the prostaglandins that play a part in swelling. These enzymes have been used with dramatic success to treat rheumatoid arthritis and to speed tissue repair." (Goldstein, and Goldstein 113)
Degenerative diseases such as arthritis have been linked the damage caused by free-radicals. Foodstuffs that counter the effect of free radicals have also been shown to have a positive effect on arthritis management. The inclusion of vitamin E in one's diet has also been found to be conducive to good general health and is particularly effective in the treatment of arthritis. (Emanoil 5)…
Arthritis. 24 February, 2007. http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Family/arthritis/whatis/whatis.html
Don't Take Arthritis Lying Down. 24 February, 2007. http://www.acatoday.com/content_css.cfm?CID=62 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001774859
Emanoil, Pamela. "Vitamin E-How Much Is Enough?." Human Ecology 28.2 (2000): 5. Questia. 27 Feb. 2007 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5001774859' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
As well as several reports relating diseases and mood, mental status has also been reported to affect immuno-regulatory systems. Chronic depression or chronic stress conditions lead to immuno-suppressive status and imbalance in corticotrophin-releasing hormone, which induces cancer and hyperthyroidism. It has been reported that depressive states induce suppression of mitogenic reaction in lymphocytes, decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells and decreases the production of interferon." Sadamoto, Ogawa, Ogura and Saito, 2006) the work of Gray (nd) entitled: "What Feature of Rheumatoid Arthritis are Hard to Cope with Psychologically and What Strategies Might be Helpful in Coping?" identifies the features of RA which are hard to psychologically cope with and explores the relationships between those features and negative psychological outcomes. The following figure shows the percentages of the disease symptoms and how the ability of those with RA are affected in coping.
How Severely Individuals with…
Crosby LJ. Factors which contribute to fatigue associated with rheumatoid arthritis. J Adv Nurs 1991;16:974 -- 81.
Dickens C, McGowan L, Clark-Carter D, Creed F: Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review of the Literature With Meta-Analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 64:52 -- 60 (2002)
Disability/Condition: Rheumatoid Arthritis and Exercise (2007) NCPAD. Online available at: http://www.ncpad.org/disability/fact_sheet.php?sheet=131&view=all
Gray, H. (nd) What Features of Rheumatoid Arthritis Are Hard to Cope With Psycholgocially and What Strategies Might Be Helpful in Coping. Online available at: http://www.waht.nhs.uk/nsacademy/mdemo/Documents/previous_projects_and_posters/3%20psych%20features%20of%20ra.doc
What is happening to the synovium in Arletha's knees and probably her hands as well?
In all likelihood, the synovium is inflamed and is not doing its job. The synovium is meant to secret liquid that keeps the joint lubricated. If it's not present or is not doing its job at high efficiency any more, then the joints in the hands and knees will start to become damaged and broken down, thus leading to pain.
What diagnostic tests may help provide clues to the presence of rheumatoid arthritis?
There is no "single" test or symptom that leads to the diagnosis and verification of rheumatoid arthritis. However, there are about seven symptoms or tests that can lead, in whole or in part, to a rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis. These include morning stiffness in and around joints for at least one hour, swelling or fluid around three or more joints at…
heumatoid arthritis is a widespread autoimmune disease that is linked to progressive disability, socioeconomic costs, systemic complications, and even early death. In addition to having an unknown cause, the disease also has a guarded prognosis. In the past few years, there have been several attempts to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, which have resulted in the creation of new therapeutics with enhanced outcomes (McInnes & Schett, 2011, p.2205). As a result of this progress, the current treatment strategy for the disease involves initiating aggressive therapy immediately after diagnosis and increasing the therapy. This process is carried out through an evaluation of the disease activity in order to achieve medical remission. While various unmet needs remain, rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by synovial inflammation, systemic attributes, autoantibody production, and cartilage and bone destruction.
Despite being common in the environment, Acinetobacter bacteria are rarely a medical threat to healthy and…
Dugdale, D.C. & Chen, Y. (2011, February 28). Transfusion Reaction - Hemolytic. Retrieved from U.S. National Library of Medicine -- National Institutes of Health website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001303.htm
Eldridge, L. (2013, April 28). Benign vs. Malignant. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://lungcancer.about.com/od/Biology-of-Cancer/a/Benign-Vs-Malignant.htm
"Gastrointestinal Symptoms." (2012, March 21). Above Stress. Retrieved November 8, 2013,
Juvenile Arthritis accounts for a comparatively small number of patients suffering from juvenile arthritis (JA). This paper discusses the clinical manifestations that are considered unique among the subsections of juvenile arthritis, and explores those studies of cytokine profiles that suggest differences between the fundamental mechanisms of the different forms of these diseases. Systemic-onset juvenile arthritis may, in reality, be better classified as differentiated from other subtypes of juvenile arthritis. However, new biologic agents such as the cytokines interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, are presently being licensed or tested, and these look to be promising in treating systemic-onset juvenile arthritis. By comparison, anti-tumor necrosis-factor therapy has proven to be not very effective, if effective at all, in treating this subgroup of JA.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described by The Merck Manual as "a group of rheumatic diseases that begins at or before age 16." (2014, p. 1) Juvenile idiopathic arthritis…
Alexeeva, E.I. (2011). Efficacy and safety of repeat courses of rituximab treatment in patients with severe refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clinical Rheumatology, 30(9), 1163-
Benedetti, F.D. (2012). Two Randomized Trials of Canakinumab in Systemic Juvenile
Idiopathic Arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 23(7), 1-11. BEUKELMAN, T. (2011). 2011 American College of Rheumatology Juvenile Idiopathic
Women and Arthritis
The health issue selected for this assignment is arthritis. The population which arthritis affects is women (CDC, 2011). There are more women affected by arthritis than there are men affected by this condition. As such, arthritis is a social problem for this population because it is not uncommon for women -- particularly older women -- to experience symptoms pertaining to this condition. There is a substantial amount of the population of women that is inflicted with arthritis. In fact, this health issue is a problem for such women because the symptoms predominantly relate to feelings of pain experienced in joints. It is possible for those with arthritis to feel these symptoms of pain in their backs, hands, knees, and other areas of the body in which their joints are. Additionally, arthritis is a particular social problem for women because there are a number of different varieties of…
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (2008). United States Bone and Joint Decade: The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011).Rheumatoid arthritis. www.cdc.gov Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/rheumatoid.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Arthritis in general. www.cdc.gov Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/general.htm
The text authors note it is an "autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues" (Tortora and Derrickson 285). In fact, the joint can even become misshapen. It can have longer-lasting affects than osteoarthritis, but it can also have flare-ups and remissions, which osteoarthritis does not have. Osteoarthritis is degenerative, while rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease. It affects two to three times more women than men. Symptoms are different from osteoarthritis, and include inflammation and swelling of the joints, pain, warmth, and pain or stiffness in the morning or after long periods of rest. In addition, rheumatoid arthritis is usually symmetrical, meaning it will affect both wrists, both knees, etc., although this is not always the case. The disease can also lead to a low-grade fever, a general feeling of tiredness, and affect other parts of the body, such as the heart lining.…
Editors. "Answers you Can Trust." Arthritis.com. 2006. 15 Nov. 2006. http://www.arthritis.com/
Fischman, Josh; Hobson, Katherine. "Agony in the Bones." U.S. News & World Report 138, no. 24 (Jun 27, 2005): p. 42-52.
Tortora, Gerard J. And Derrickson, Bryan. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology.
The Arthritis Foundation (AF) was founded in 1948 and is a non-profit organization that is dedicated to addressing the needs of individuals living with arthritis in the United States. There are an estimated 300,00 children, as well as 50 million adults, living with arthritis and this condition represents one of the nation's leading causes of disability in the U.S. The AF works to assist people with arthritis through multiple channels in order to mitigate some of the everyday struggles that people who live with this condition commonly endure. The foundation improves the lives of patients first by offering them the relevant information about their condition, which can sometimes be life changing for clients by itself. However, the AF also provides many other essential resources that are managed internally, such as providing resources, improving the access to care, facilitating research efforts, and building community relationship. For example, the AF,…
Johnson, T. & Stahl-Moncada, S. (2008). Medicaid Prescription Formulary Restrictions and Arthritis Treatment Costs. Am J Public Health, 98(7), 1300-1305.
Lin, W., Bharel, M., Zhang, J., O'Connell, E., & Clark, R. (2015). Frequent Emergency
Department Visits and Hospitalizations Among Homeless People With Medicaid:
Socio-Ecological Assessment of Women With Arthritis
Public health intervention is one of the critical factors to manage diseases since prevalence of diseases are increasing in the society daily because of the ecological and social problems. Arthritis is one of the health problems associated to different type of joint disorders leading into inflammation of joints. While there are more than 100 different types of arthritis diseases, the most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis that leads to a degenerative joint disease. The pain from the arthritis is from inflammation that occurs in the body joint due to tear of joint, disease in the joint and muscle strain. Several risk factors are associated to arthritis, which includes age, gender, obesity, infection, and occupation. While arthritis increases with age, however, arthritis is common in women than men. Typically, 60% of people suffering from arthritis are women. In the United States, over 52.5 million…
CDC.(2015).National Statistics NHIS Arthritis Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Institute of Medicine (2012). Living Well with Chronic Illness: A Call for Public Health Action. The National Academies Press; Washington, DC, USA.
Luong, M.N. Cleveland, R.J. Nyrop, K.A.et al.(2012). Social Determinants and Osteoarthritis Outcomes. Aging health. 8(4): 413 -- 437.
University of Buffalo (2015).Health Information Arthritis. Aging and Technology Research Center.
Doctors or nurses can pre-load the pillbox if necessary. The alarm ceases after the pillbox is turned upside-down.
An early dose feature is available, and there is an opportunity for seniors to program the device to take multiple medications at different times of day. The pill dispenser locks with a key for convenience and safety. Available on the e-pill Website at: http://www.epill.com/medtime.html, the Med-Time XL Automatic Pill Dispenser might not be the only such product on the market, but it is one of the most affordable and easy to use.
Posit's InSight Software
WiiFit is a product marketed to the general public that can also be used by seniors to stay fit and healthy. Because many seniors are sedentary and do not get enough exercise, the introduction of fitness technology like Wii into the household can be a boon for overall health and well being. Just as WiiFit can help…
BigKeys Keyboards. Retrieved online: http://www.bigkeys.com/default.asp e-pill. Retrieved online: http://www.epill.com/medtime.html
Posit Science: InSight. Retrieved online: http://www.positscience.com/our-products/insight
According to the latest from WebMD there are a large number of individuals suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (A) that seek to relieve their symptoms by alternative means including supplements and natural cures touted as the 'latest' in treatment for arthritis sufferers (WebMD, 2011). esearch provided by WebMD shows that not every treatment deserves the recognition it may receive as a cure or as a pain reliever for those sufferers. The website maintained by WebMD provides a comprehensive list of many of the so-called treatments and discusses each ones effectiveness or lack thereof.
Having read through the WebMD material, I made my way to the local nutritional store to interview the person there about the various natural supplements for joint arthritic pain. My objective was to discern how much knowledge the person had, and what he/she would recommend to an elderly individual suffering joint pain associated…
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2011) Questions and answers: NIH glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial primary study, accessed on April 8,
WebMD (2011) Arthritis diets and supplements: Do they work? Accessed at: http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/arthritis-diets-supplements on April 8, 2011
Freda smith a 64-year woman referred local hospital community Health centre ongoing care. Freda discharged home 2 days ago. She diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis 10 years ago chronic heart failure 5 years ago.
Freda smith is a 64-year-old woman who has been referred by the local hospital to the community Health centre for ongoing care. Freda was discharged home 2 days ago. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis 10 years ago and chronic heart failure 5 years ago.
She also has a cataract in her left eye which will be removed in 3 months.
During her recent hospital stay she has been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and commenced on insulin, her regular BGL have been high ranging from 18.5 to 25.6 mmol/L.
Freda lives with her husband John in a 2 bedroom second storey unit.
There is lift access within the building,.John works full time as a builder and…
Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…
Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis
THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS
Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.
Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…
Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843
Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580
Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
Patient, Mr. D., is a 74-year-old male Caucasian, married and retired. Mr. D. complains of dizziness and weakness. Type-2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1994, hypertension in 2002, and arthritis in 2007. Mr. D. is currently taking 20mg Lipitor/daily; 81 mg Aspirin/daily; 333mg Calcium/daily; 5mg zinc/daily, and 500mg Vitamin C/3X day. He denies any drug or herbal use, and uses 650 mg of Tylenol for pain as needed. He has no known food allergies, does not use tobacco or illicit drugs, but has a family history of diabetes and heart disease with both mother and father. His general health acuity is strong (bowels, urinary, etc.), but has occasional slurred speech, weakness in right lower limb, syncope, vertigo, and vision fluctuations. Mr. D. reports that his wife complains he asks the same question repeatedly within a short time period.
Areas for Focused Assessment- The combination of syncope, vertigo, vision, and memory issues…
Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView
Ezzo, J., et.al. (2001). Is Massage useful in the Management of Diabetes? Diabetes Spectrum -- The American Diabetes Association. 14 (4): Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/14/4/218.full
Madden, S., Loeb, S. (2009). An integrative literature review of lifestyle interventions for the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(2), 2243-56.
Polin, B. (2011). Why Water Aerobics is Good Exercise. Diabetic Lifestyle. Retrieved from: http://www.diabeticlifestyle.com/exercise/why-water-aerobics-good-exercise
Internet Information Quality
hitehouse.gov vs. hitehouse.net
hitehouse.gov, under first impressions is accurate, far more professional, and updated. In fact, whitehouse.net is outdated and still has George . Bush as the President. hitehouse.gov is extremely informative, but focused on the current President, Barak Obama, and his agenda. The site is divided into photos and videos of conferences, appearances, and there is a briefing room that focuses on the major issues of the day. The site is appropriate for education, it has information about the way the government worlds, and about the topics that are in the news -- immigration, gun violence, energy policy, and more. The site is current with top political news of the day, the visits, and the travel plans of the President and his staff. There is a link for email updates, contact information, and a way to receive answers back from various departments of the government. Ironically,…
Harris, R. (2007, June). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved from:
Sanchez, C., et al. (2006). ICLS 2006 Proceedings of the 7th International Condernce
Mechanisms of Aging
Mechanism of Aging
Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)
Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…
Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.
Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.
Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
High and Inside
In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.
In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…
Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek .
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.
Types of Arthritis
Causes of Arthritis
Arthritis and Athletic Activities
Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).
Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).
Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…
AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2000). Arthritis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
The Arthritis & Glucosamine Resource Center. (2002). Treating and Preventing Sports Injuries & Secondary Arthritis. http://www.arthritis-glucosamine.net/arthritis/sports-injuries-arthritis.html
Arthritis Foundation. (2002). Progress and Opportunities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. http://www.arthritis.org/research/research_program/RA/default.asp
Lewis, C. (May-June 2000). Arthritis: Timely Treatments for an Ageless Disease. FDA Consumer, 34:3.
When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.
Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000
Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…
Atkinson, Larry S. et al. Scapholunate Dissociation. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians, June 1994
Berdia, Sunjay and Shin, Alexander Y. Carpal Ligament Instability. Orthopedic Surgery. WebMD. eMedicine.Com, Inc., November 22, 2005.
Bozentka, David J. Scapholunate Instability. UPOJ. Vol 12, Spring 1999
Carter, P.B. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, September 2000
experts would likely agree with the very general statement that individuals who exercise, or who implement an exercise regime, are much more likely to lose weight and alleviate pain experienced from a variety of diseases and maladies. It would seem that much of the current literature would provide evidence of this hypothesis. This specific study, however, seeks to do more than just ascertain the results from such a general question. This study seeks to determine whether initiating an exercise regime for patients experiencing osteoarthritis can lower the level of the pain they are feeling and increase their mobility through adherence to that regime.
This study will, in essence then, take a two-pronged approach. The first is to determine whether patients with suffering from osteoarthritis can lower the level and incidence of pain they suffer by implementing a basic exercise regime. If so, this study wishes to determine just how much…
Barile, J.; Reeve, B.; Smith, A.; Zack, M.; Mitchell, S.; Kobau, R.; Cella, D.; Luncheon, C.; & Thompson, W.; (2013) Monitoring population health for healthy people 2020: evaluation of the NIH PROMIS GlobalHealth, CDC Healthy Days, and satisfaction with life instruments, Quality of Life Research, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 1201 -- 1211
Cushing, C.C. And Steele, R.G. (2014). Evidence-based obesity management for primary care. Public Interest Directorate. American Psychological Association. Retreived from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/primary-care/obesity-management.aspx?item=1
Do, B., Hootman, D., Helmick, C.G., & Brady, T.J. (2011). Monitoring healthy people 2010 arthritis management objectives: education and clinician counseling for weight loss and exercise. American Family Medicine, 9(2), 136-141. doi: 10.1370/afm.1210 Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403140
Edwards, C., Rogers, A., Lynch, S., et al. (2012). The effects of bariatric surgery weight loss on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis, 2012, [Clinical Study]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/504189
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…
Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD).
In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). He can try to get enough sleep of the right kind to ease or lessen the pain and fatigue. Although pain and fatigue may make exercise and daily activities difficult, the person should be as physically active as possible. Studies show that regular exercise is, in fact, among the most effective treatments of the condition. A patient can try walking or doing mild exercise slowly and according to the severity of his condition. He can or should also make adjustments at work, such as reducing his working hours or change to a less strenuous type of work, change some things in his work space. His diet also deserves a second look. Some persons…
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. (2004). Questions and Answers About Fibromyalgia. NIH Publication # 04-5326. http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/fibromyalgia/fibrofs.htm
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…
Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655
Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326
Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645
Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).
Stress is one of the major influences on the…
AIS (2016). Stress effects. American Institute of Stress. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://www.stress.org/stress-effects/
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Boghdan, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. Vol. 427 (22 Jan 2004) 311-312.
Pradhan, E., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A., Magyan, T., Hochberg, M. & Berman, B. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care and Research. Vol. 57 (7) 1134-1142.
Zautra, A., Burleson, M., Matt, K., Roth, S. & Burrows, L. (1994). Interpersonal stress, depression and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Health Psychology. Vol. 13 (2) 139-148.
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…
Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.
Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Cohen, Bradley. "How Does Playing Sports Affect Your Health?" LIVESTRONG.COM - The Limitless Potential of You. Demand Media, Inc., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
Weightloss Counseling and Physical Exercise
PHASE II Search Paper
Dana Delatush RN BSN ONC
"I pledge my honor that I have neither given nor received inappropriate aid on this assignment."
Abstract Comment by Patricia: Place the abstract on a separate page for your final search paper
This paper is focused on the literature search related to the PICOT question: Does weight loss counseling and physical exercise improve pain and mobility in obese patients with a BMI >25 suffering from osteoarthritis? To answer this clinical question, six databases were searched including the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, PsycInfo®, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source™. The paper describes the search methodology. Keywords: osteoarthritis, obesity, weight loss counseling, pain, mobility
Introduction to Search Strategy
I will be creating a search strategy to help me clarify what information I need, and…
Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that attacks young males. It may lead to the fusion of the spine (Sarker, 2016). The fusion can result in the spin being rigid thereby making the patient develop a hunched back. Subsequently, the patient may have breathing problems because of the posture. Other inflammatory signs may show up in other parts of the body such as the eyes (Sieper & Braun, 2010).
Etiology and Incidences
Ankylosing's etiology is still unknown but there are pointers to a genetic risk and component. esearchers have highlighted the association it has with the HLA B27 gene. They have proposed ineffective mechanisms but they are seen to be less apparent as is the case with reactive arthritis.
The prevalence of Ankylosing spondylitis in the general population is low (0.1% to 1.4%). It is more prevalent among Caucasians than in members of other races. Those suffering from chronic…
Ebringer, A., & Ebringer, A. (2012). Muscle Changes in Ankylosing Spondylitis. Ankylosing spondylitis and Klebsiella, 45-50. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-4300-0_6
Gaidukova, I. Z., & Rebrov, A. P. (2016). THE RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE DEVELOPMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (BECHTEREW'S DISEASE) AND PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: A 10-YEAR PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY. The Clinician, 10(3), 26-31. doi:10.17650/1818-8338-2016-10-3-26-31
Moon, K., & Kim, Y. (2014). Medical Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Hip & Pelvis, 26(3), 129. doi:10.5371/hp.2014.26.3.129
Sarker, H. (2016). Case-45 Back Pain and Stiffness (Ankylosing Spondylitis). Short & Long Cases in Clinical Medicine, 354-357. doi:10.5005/jp/books/12920_46
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
Muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis are complicated conditions. According to the research, muscular dystrophy is a "group of familial disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Many researchers believe that the different types are each caused by different biochemical defects. For example, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is thought t be the result of a single gene defect "thought to be caused by a deletion of a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Similarly, Becker Muscular Dystrophy is also caused by deformities in the X-link. Different types of dystrophy affect different muscle groups. There is the example of scapuloperneal Muscular Dystrophy, which affects the facial and shoulder muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular condition, caused by abnormal transmission of nerve impulses to the affected muscle groups. Normal communication is interrupted, where antibodies disrupt the flow of acetylcholine between nerves and muscles. It is also…
Injustice in the society
he tenacity of Bill's hypothesis of workplace toxins takes a clear significance when it comes to other experiences which together form the narrative reconstruction of the illness genesis that carries a political image of the social world. When it comes to both the illness and the response to it there is the suggestion that there is a world power inequality. Lot of Bill's account highlights some injustices and the world was portrayed as an environment where ordinary people were exploited manipulated and conned by some social powers including doctors, police or bureaucrats.
Reconstruction of social psychology
Bill's reconstruction left out references of his identity as he did not portray any sense of his self-identity. He did not bring out any sense of personal responsibility or any socio-psychological involvement when it comes to the development of his affliction. Social relations are a place where social identity can…
These narrative reconstructions are in attempt of reconstructing and repairing ruptures between one's body, self and the world through linking up and interpreting the different biological aspects as to realign the present, past and self with the rest of the society. For Bill illness result from working life; for Gill illnesses arises from way of life in which personal identity had been defined and constrained by important features of womanhood. For Betty, illness was seen to be residing from the realm of transcendence of the purpose tat God had.
Brown, P.(2008). "Perspective in Medical Sociology." Fourth Edition. Waveland Press. Chapters 12 & 13
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…
references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.
29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.
1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.
2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.
3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
Native American elder discussed on page 13 in the text is a peculiar one. However, the employment of the five-axis diagnosis provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides a good deal of information about what sort of issues this elderly man is dealing with. One of the facets of this manual that I would readily utilize is the capacity to use a provisional diagnosis and defer full diagnosis until later, so that I could properly gather more information than that which is provided in the text regarding his ailments.
The first axis is for clinical disorders except those pertaining to personality disorders and mental retardation (APA, 2013, p. 28). Again, based on the information at hand, I would make a provisional diagnosis that the client is suffering from clinical depression, perhaps in some part due to the fact that he was previously an alcoholic. In John…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Marszalek, J. (No date). DSM. Diagnosis and Assessment.
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it
Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:
Absence of Evidence for Link
to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders
Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Dr. Anshu Kacker
5650 including Abstracts
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…
Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009
Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.
Autism Watch (2015) http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
Chen, X., Huang, R., Huang, Q., Chu, Y., and Yao, J. (2015). Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of ZhengqingFengtongning Combined with Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015.
By definition, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a protracted general inflammatory ailment, categorized by infammation of the synovial soft tissue and mutilation to articular tendons and bone, which in turn brings about extreme incapacity, practical deterioration, and enhanced death. This ailment is the most prevalent one with rheumatism having a pervasiveness of about one percent in North America and Europe, while that of Southeast Asia is lower to some extent as it has about 0.3%. The disease is an area of major concern as it is estimated that at the present moment, about five million individuals suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. This in turn has come to be both a social and economic…
The author of this report has been asked to assess the medical condition and prognosis for John Smith. John is a sixty-eight years old and has a pretty good array of medical problems. He has had psoriasis for more than a generation and the ointments he has been using to treat it have become ineffective. Beyond that, the psoriasis is spreading to parts of his body that have not been trouble areas before. His son Patrick asserts that he believes that the psoriasis is to the point that it is contagious. While John is facing some challenges, there are things that can be done and this includes properly education both John and Patrick.
Straight off the top, the assertion by Patrick that the psoriasis is "contagious" is patently and absolutely false. Psoriasis is never contagious and there is not a chance that anyone around John will "catch" it.…
WebMD. (2015). Adult Vaccines TOC. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/vaccines/default.htm
WebMD. (2015). Causes of High Blood Pressure. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/blood-pressure-causes
WebMD. (2015). Heart Disease Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/default.htm
WebMD. (2015). Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Health Center - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/lung/default.htm
hat is a rheumatologist? It is a person who is board-certified (either as an internist or a pediatrician) and has the training and experience " ... in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones" (www.hss.edu). The training to become a rheumatologist is rigorous and lengthy.
The diseases of the joints -- and various kinds of arthritis-related health issues that rheumatologist's treat, include: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, scleroderma, musculoskeletal pain disorders, osteoporosis, gout, back pain, myositis, fibromyalgia, tendonitis, and vasculitis (www.hss.edu).
hat kind of training is required to become a rheumatologist? It includes four years of medical school, three years of additional training in pediatrics or medicine; and in addition, to become a rheumatologist, another two-to-three years (on top of the original seven years) of specialized rheumatology training is required (www.hss.edu). Once all that…
American College of Rheumatology. (2012). What is a Rheumatologist? Retrieved February
21, 2016, from http://www.rheumatology.org .
Hospital For Special Surgery. (2010). What is a Rheumatologist? Retrieved February 21,
2016, from http://www.hss.edu .
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
Charges are oftentimes leveled that geneticists are playing the role of God. One can only wonder if the geneticists are genetically disposed towards acting that way, and if so, can their behavior be changed through gene manipulation?
Aberg, K.; Sun, G.; Smelser, D.; Indugula, S..; Tsai. H.; Steele, M.S.; Tuitele, J.; Deka, .; McGarvey, S.T.; Weeks, D.E.; (2008) Applying novel genome-wide linkage strategies to search for loci influencing Type 2 Diabetes and adult height in American Samoa, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 99-123
Acosta, M.T.; Castellanos, F.X.; Bolton, K.L.; Balog, J.Z.; Eagen, P.; Nee, L.; Jones, J.; Palacio, L.; Sarampote, C.; ussell, H.F.; Berg, K.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Muenke, M.; (2008) Latent class subtyping of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid conditions, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 797-807
Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, .J.; Czerwinski, S.A.; Chumlea, W.C.; Lee, M.;…
Aberg, K.; Sun, G.; Smelser, D.; Indugula, S.R.; Tsai. H.; Steele, M.S.; Tuitele, J.; Deka, R.; McGarvey, S.T.; Weeks, D.E.; (2008) Applying novel genome-wide linkage strategies to search for loci influencing Type 2 Diabetes and adult height in American Samoa, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 99-123
Acosta, M.T.; Castellanos, F.X.; Bolton, K.L.; Balog, J.Z.; Eagen, P.; Nee, L.; Jones, J.; Palacio, L.; Sarampote, C.; Russell, H.F.; Berg, K.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Muenke, M.; (2008) Latent class subtyping of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid conditions, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 797-807
Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, R.J.; Czerwinski, S.A.; Chumlea, W.C.; Lee, M.; Demerath, E.W., Sun, S.S.; Siervogel, R.S.; Townf, B.; (2008) Genetic architecture of knee radiographic joint space in healthy young adults, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 1-9
Harmon, A,; (2008) The DNA age, The Saturday Evening Post, Vol. 280, No. 4, pp. 74-76
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
The majority of communities in Alaska are separated by vast distances and the distance from many communities to the nearest medical facility is equivalent to the distance from New York to Chicago (Indian Health Service Alaska Area Services, 2011).
A study funded by AOA examined issues affecting access to home- and community-based long-term-care services among AI/ANS. Study results indicated that home healthcare was one of the most frequently needed services among AI/ANS. Further, 88% of the services sometimes, rarely, or never met the need, and 36% of services were rarely to never available (Jervis, Jackson & Manson, 2002). Only twelve tribally operated nursing homes exist in the U.S., and these rely predominantly on funding from Medicaid and tribal subsidies. Many tribes would like to have nursing homes but are blocked by state certificate-of-need requirements, Medicaid licensing requirements, and lack of commercial financing. The lack of alternate medical resources, whether private…
Alaska Area Indian Health Service. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Goins, R.T. & Spencer, S.M. (2005). Public health issues among older American Indians and Alaska natives. Generations, 29(2), 30-33.
Indian Health Service Alaska area services. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.ihs.gov/FacilitiesServices/areaOffices/alaska/dpehs/documents/area.pdf .
e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…
Homeopathy Index." Vitacost.com. Online at http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Index/Homeo.htm.
The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today
Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…
Arocha, J.F., & Patel, V.L. (1995). Novice diagnostic reasoning in medicine: Accounting for evidence. Journal of the Learning Sciences 4(4), 375.
Patlak, M. (1991, October). 'Strep' demands immediate care. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 24.
Zamula, E. (1987, July-August). Rheumatic fever: Down but not out. FDA Consumer, 21, 26.
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
This paper examines the impact of Parkinson’s disease on elderly (65+ years of age) Caucasian males. This is an underserved population in the U.S. 1% of all elderly persons suffer from Parkinson’s and 60% of them are of this underserved population. The paper discusses risk factors that may lead to the onset of this disease but recognizes that the etiology of Parkinson’s is still as of yet unknown. It examines some of the most common health issues of this population and identifies existing barriers to care. The key factors and social determinants of health of this population are discussed and health policies and advocacy groups, such as the Michael J. Fox Foundation are examined in terms of what they bring to the discussion about regulating control and prevention of the disease. Finally, recommendations for improving existing programs and interventions for this population are identified, including: the need to increase…
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
The data gathered is subjected to statistical analysis using statistical methods of linear regression and chi square testing.
The main purpose of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that consultation with CNS or RN in a drug-monitoring clinic has a significant positive impact on the well being of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved a single blinded randomized controlled trial over a period of three years. Subjects were chosen from the rheumatology out patient setting in a district general hospital with a drug monitoring service. A total of 71 subjects who were starting out on anti-rheumatic therapy were randomly assigned to either the interventional or the control group. While the interventional group was supervised by the CNS to assess patient needs (using Pendelton's framework) alongside drug safety evaluation, the control group was seen by an outpatient staff nurse purely for drug safety concerns. oth the groups were assessed…
Teri Britt Pipe; Kay E. Wellik; Vicki L. Buchda; Carol M. Hansen; Dana R. Martyn, 2005, "Implementing Evidence-Based Nursing Practice," Urol Nurs. 25(5): 365-370, Available at, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514532
Ryan, S, Hassell, a.B, Lewis, M, & Farrell, a. (2006). Impact of a Rheumatology Expert Nurse on the well-being of patients attending a drug monitoring clinic. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(3), 277 -286.
Considine, J. & Botti, M. (2004) Who, when and where? Identification of patients at risk of an in-hospital adverse event: Implications for nursing practice. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 10: pp. 21-31
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
The first component is as follows: Net Margin = Net Income/Sales. How much profit Abbott laboratories makes for very $1.00 it generates in revenue, and the higher a company's profit margin the better. The second component is as follows: Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. The amount of sales generated for every dollar's worth of assets. This measures Abbott's efficiency at using assets, and again, the higher the number the better. The final factor of the Du Pont analysis is as follows: Leverage Factor = Total Assets/Shareholder's Equity. The higher the number, the more debt the company has. Abbott's Du Pont analysis is computed using the following equation:
In this case, for the end of 2006, Abbott Laboratories reported a net income of $717 million dollars, sales of $22,476 million, total assets for 2006 of $36, 178 million, and equity of $14,054 for 2006. Placing these figures into the equation above…
Abbott. (2007). About the Company. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.abbott.com .
Epsicom. (2007). Abbott Medical Device Company Intelligence Report. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.piribo.com/publications/medical_devices/companies/abbott_medical_device_company_intelligence_report.html .
McKinnell, H. (2003). Performance Report. Bayer AG 2003 Annual Review: 1-30.
Rogers, M. (2003). Risk Management in Real Options-Based Pharmaceutical
One of the functions of the lymphatic system is to be the body's "sewer system," drawing toxins from the cells and dumping them into the blood. The heart powers the blood system. Body movement powers the lymphatic system. Therefore, metabolic waste products cannot be completely cleared unless you are physically active. A second important reason for exercise is perspiration. The skin is a major outlet for waste products; when you perspire, you are disposing of waste products through the skin. A third benefit of an active lifestyle is to retain muscle mass. Muscle cells are where fat is burned. T he more muscle cells a person has and the stronger he/she is, the more fat he/she burns (http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1,2004).
With all facts and figures presented, it can be realized that in order to somewhat prevent more the entire America from burden of obesity thus preventing the American people from…
CDC. (2002). Overweight and Obesity: Obesity Trends among Adults -- 1985-2001. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Crane, Milton G.M.D. 2004.The Massive Problem of Degenerative Diseases. 2002.Get Healthy Get Smart, http://www.gethealthygetsmart.com/articles/degenerative_diseases.asp
Middleton, J. 2006. "Extreme obesity in women and associated risks." JAMA. 5;296(1):79-86.
Seven Key Factors that Determine Health or Illness. 2004. Connecticut Center for Health. http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1
This tendency is reflected somewhat in the anti-oppressive practice paradigm because it involves personal self-knowledge factors that can lead to change.
Write a list of all the different methods for collecting evaluation data you can think of. While doing this exercise think about individual sessions, groups or program evaluations you have been part of. Some of these methods will be qualitative and others quantitative. What does each method you identify measure best?
Different Methods for Collecting Evaluation Data
Individual behaviors within an environmental context
Locate and record a definition of formative and summative evaluation.
Formative evaluation: Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs,…
Marino, R., Weinman, M.L. & Soudelier, K. (2001). Social work intervention and failure to thrive in infants and children. Health and Social Work, 26(2), 90.
Trochim, W.M. (2006). Introduction to evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearch methods.net/kb/intreval.htm.
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
exhaustively present the personal and professional issues that I have gone through at the moment that I initially started my academic program at the University. I also address fully, my growth experience in the entire period of the course of the study personal competencies. At the end of this essay, one would be able to gain an in-depth understanding of who I am as well as my educational journey and experience with Phoenix University.
A reflection upon where I was in my personal and professional life when I started the University of Phoenix program
Some years ago, I got employed by Bank America as a Consumer Market Manager (CCM). For quite a while, I have been able to be given several awards of excellence as a result of my hard work and devoted service to the bank. As a consumer Market Manager (CMM), I report to the Consumer Market Executive,…
The choices that people make determine the shape of things to come. This observation holds true at the individual, organizational, national, and global level. Therefore, it is obvious that close attention needs to be paid to critical thinking ability or the way decisions are made. This inference can be drawn because critical thinking involves the formation of logical inferences, the development of cohesive and logical reasoning patterns, and careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment. Thus, learning critical thinking skills can help an individual to recognize propaganda, analyze unstated assumptions in arguments, realize when there is deliberate deception, consider the credibility of information sources, and think a problem or decision through in as objective a manner as possible (Halpern, cited Simon & Kaplan; Stahl & Stahl; Moore & Parker, 1996, p. 5-6). In other words, learning to recognize and avoid unsound reasoning techniques or…
Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pirie, Dr. M. Ignorantiam, Argumentum Ad. Adam Smith Institute. Retrieved Nov. 4, 2004:
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…
Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm
How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml
Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S
Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml