Artificial Intelligence Essays (Examples)

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AI Camp Roderic Learning Democracy

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71559998

S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on te Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, wit leftists, more igly educated and affluent persons, of te male gender sowing greater interest. Te U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in te political process, risk-taking as a national caracteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in te process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, wile political affiliation is muc iger in Mexican-Americans compared wit teir Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant witin tese two groups. But Wite Americans specifically tend to equate democracy wit liberty, wile Mexican-Americans adopt tese attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In sort, some attitudes and patterns of beavior, te study found, are more open to socialization and cange and oters are not.… [Read More]

Democracy is not a static or trans-cultural concept. Rather, it is a complicated cultural construction that is highly dependant upon an individual's national origin and heritage, as well as his or her personal values and some attitudes towards democracy are more apt to change than others. These are the findings summarized in Roderic Ai Camp's article "Learning Democracy in Mexico and the United States," which examines the attitudes of Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican-Americans in a cross-national attitudinal study. Some of the findings were surprising, such as the high value placed upon education as a vehicle of improvement amongst all three groups, despite the significant differences between the three groups in terms of access. Others were more predictable, such as the tendency for Americans to be more centrist in their affiliations, while Mexicans are more concentrated at the polarized ends of the spectrum, which reflects the more economically stratified nature of Mexico.

As typical of another class-bound society, that of Great Britain, political affiliations and levels of interest seemed to be passed on from parents to children in Mexico, in contrast to the U.S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on the Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, with leftists, more highly educated and affluent persons, of the male gender showing greater interest. The U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in the political process, risk-taking as a national characteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in the process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, while political affiliation is much higher in Mexican-Americans compared with their Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant within these two groups. But White Americans specifically tend to equate democracy with liberty, while Mexican-Americans adopt these attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In short, some attitudes and patterns of behavior, the study found, are more open to socialization and change and others are not.
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AI Weiwei

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53607114

Chinese Atist AI Weiwei

"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."

This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.

Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.

Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…… [Read More]

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Rur and AI More Human

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69929903

Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.

The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).

It is the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.

Horakova, Jana. "The (Short) Robot Chronicle. On the 20th Century Cultural History of Robots.." Proceedings (2006): pp. 241-248. Web. 3 Nov 2010. .

Capek, Karel. R.U.R . Gloucestershire, Great Britain: Echo Books, 2009.
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Evaluation of Appreciative Inquiry AI

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33389504

Appreciative Inquiry (AI)

Appreciative Inquiry

The concept AI (Appreciative Inquiry) is a participatory approach that energizes organizations, and engages people actively in order to create successful changes, capture positive experience among stakeholders and stimulate successful changes. Typically, appreciative inquiry has become an effective tool to enhance organizational effectiveness using clients' relationships, business partnering, team work and effective communication. Part of the business objectives of the project management are to solve business problem as well seizing opportunities using the collaborative relationships and partnerships. Moreover, the project management objective is to facilitate achievements in order to achieve desired results and outcomes. (Mathiassen, & Napier, 2013). The appreciative inquiry is a traditional problem to solve problem, identifying possibilities and generate collective image in order to develop a better future.

The appreciative inquiry model involves the following phases:

Phase I: Learning and Discovery

Phase II: Envisioning esults

Phase III: define and committing

Phase IV:…… [Read More]


Kloppenborg, T. (2011). Contemporary Project Management. Cengage Learning.

Mathiassen, L. & Napier, N.P. (2013). Exploring Win-Win Contracts: An Appreciative Inquiry into IT Project Management. Journal of Information Technology. Theory and Application. 14(3): 5-29.
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Social Networking AI Internet Is Technology Making Us Dumb

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32263431

Technology has both enlightened and darkened the souls of humanity. It has connected people from all walks of life and it has also divided people. ith the invention and proliferation of the internet, knowledge is just a web result and click away. ith articles discussing Google, social networking, and the creation of smarter than human computers, is technology truly a blessing, or ultimately a curse?

In an article titled "Is Google making us Stupid?" by Nicholar Carr, the writer discusses the increase in internet usage and the perhaps increased decline in overall intelligence. hile writers like Carr gain incredible ability to research quickly and with ease in the comfort of home, there is also more chances for people to go online to entertain themselves, skim text, and avoid actually reading. Yes, it is more convenient than going to the library and looking up physical copies of information, but most people…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bostrom, Nick. "Nick Bostrom: What Happens When Our Computers Get Smarter Than We Are?." Singularity Weblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

Carr, Nicholas. "Is Google Making Us Stupid?." The Atlantic. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.

Sentow, Manuel. "OMG: Tweeting, Trending, And Texting (Summary and Reflection)." themanuelsantosblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
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Artificial and Human Identities in Literature

Words: 2610 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20785751

Artificial Intelligence / Robotics

Robot Outline Name: Complitar (aka the LoveBunny 3000).

Personal Statement: Greetings, human. I am the LoveBunny 3000, and I offer advice on relationships and also sex. You are here gazing at my glass containment because you are troubled in your relationship, or you seek advice for how to drive your lover wild, or perhaps you just need concrete advice for how to find a lover -- although in these days of social media and nonstop connectedness, if you can't find someone to sleep with you, you're doing it wrong. And that's where I come in. You can ask me any question pertaining to the relationship genre.

My form is that of a classic automaton -- a spooky sort of robotic doll that performs certain functions within a limited and circumscribed physical field. Some may recognize my appearance from a standard fairgrounds type fortune-teller or more specifically…… [Read More]

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Criminal Intelligence Analysis

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30034119

Crime Intelligence Analysis:

To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals

Corrections/Police -- Intelligence

Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.

Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.

The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…… [Read More]


Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.

Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. (accessed June 3, 2012).

Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
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Human and Machine Intelligence the Similarities and

Words: 936 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86323159

Human and Machine Intelligence

The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?

The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…… [Read More]


Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.

Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.

Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.

Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at
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Machine Learning Intelligence

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97462383

Machine Learning

It should be noted that there is a marked paucity of research material and scholarly articles existent, from the past three years, regarding the usage of intelligence tests that are deemed mainstream (i.e., not the Turing Test and more frequently utilized assessments such as any variety of the Wechsler tests or the Stanford-Binet assessment) to assess machine intelligence or that of expert systems. Machine intelligence such as IBM's Watson and even certain expert systems are still relatively novel, which is why the vast majority of research material pertaining to these purported types of intelligence utilize the Turing Test, which was explicitly designed to determine the intelligence of computers or machines.

Nonetheless, the first document examined within this assignment is van der Maas et al.'s "Intelligence is what the intelligence test measures. Seriously." This article sheds a good deal of insight on the g factor and its importance within…… [Read More]


Brostoff, M. (2015). A Turing Test for disability studies. Situations: Project of the Radical Imagination. 6(1), 33-51.

Van der Maas, H.L.J., Kan, K-J., Borsboom, D. (2014). Intelligence is what the intelligence test measures. Seriously. Journal of Intelligence. 2(1), 12-15.
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Story About Real World Issues Events

Words: 510 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28451822

Artificial Intelligence

There is much ado about artificial intelligence today and this is reflected in the article published in the Science Daily entitled "New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, oredom." The report states that the computer software is such that is senses the emotions of students and responds to the cognitive and emotional states of students including those of frustration and boredom. This computer program was developed by Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Sidney D'Mello, along with Art Grae3sser from the University of Memphis and another colleague from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

A New Technology

Reported as a new technology "which matches the interaction of human tutors, not only offers tremendous learning possibilities for students, but also redefines human-computer interaction." (Science Daily, 2012) The software program is named "AutoTutor" and "Affective AutoTutor" and can be used to measure the level of knowledge of students…… [Read More]


New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom (2012) Science Daily -- Science News. 2 Mar 2012. Retrieved from:
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879

As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives


To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…… [Read More]


Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006].


Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
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Location of the City of

Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42429749

Harris, rown and Moore (2000) explain that in the instance depicted in Joshua 8:9, where Joshua again sent out his army, Joshua's attitude has changed. He has realized that he needed to take the threat of the enemy seriously; that to win he had to plan in accordance to and had to adhere to God's directives "on the west side of Ai" (Joshua 8:9 (NKJV) (lue Letter ible 2010).

Joshua's neglect of prayer, according to Rick Grieve (2009) in the book, On the Way, proved to be the beginning of his downfall, noted in Joshua 7. "In this second battle plan, Joshua did not hear from God…. At Jericho[,] Israel won because their leader listened to the directives of the Lord and followed through. Absolute obedience brought absolute victory. Yet before the skirmish against Ai no such meeting occurred" (Grieve, p. 86). With Joshua's prayerlessness, he basically told God, that…… [Read More]


"Ai." 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica.

Blue Letter Bible. "Book of Joshua 7 - (KJV - King James Version)."

Blue Letter Bible. "Book of Joshua 8 - (KJV - King James Version)."
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Technological Changes & Advancements Affect

Words: 5785 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5194837

In a descriptive syllabus for a graduate seminar in AI professor Donald gives insight into the form that AI research is taking and the bottom line is that internal brain functioning, switching, neurotransmissions, and patterns are being dissected to give the student a greater sense of the workings of the human mind so these same students may go forwards and attempt to recreate, decidedly small scale (likely single or minimally multiple) functions of human thought to create action. It is therefore not difficult to imagine that these same students will be a part of the future with regard to the development of life-like interactive toys or tools. (Donald NP) the point being made is that research developed to recreate a person in an artificial form is being done on real human science and characteristics. Science is attempting to map and dissect the whole of human physical and mental potential to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, Eric. "Conservative Bioethics & the Search for Wisdom." The Hastings Center Report 36.1 (2006): 44.

Cranford, Ronald E. "The Persistent Vegetative State: The Medical Reality." The Hastings Center Report 18.1 (1988): 27.

Donald, Bruce R. "Graduate Seminar in Artificial Intelligence: Fall 2005." April 16, 2008 from:

Edsinger, Aaron, O'Reilly, Una-May, Scassellati, Brian, Scarpino, Chris and Breazeal, Cynthia "Current Research:the Lazlo Face Project" ND, April, 18, 2008 from:
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Ethics and Technology

Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14324895

Ethics and Computing in Computer Science


Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences

Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…… [Read More]


Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.

Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."

Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014

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Art Analysis ART21 After Reviewing the Artists

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25242092

Art Analysis: Art21

After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…… [Read More]


Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: . 2012 July 10.

European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: 2012 July 11.

Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: 2012 July 12.

Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.
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Consciousness in the Annual Review of Neuroscience

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91212682

Consciousness" in the Annual eview of Neuroscience, John Searle questions the philosophical and epistemological accuracy of the paradigm that has defined the language and study of consciousness for centuries. His contention is that the study of consciousness must be guided by the idea that consciousness is not the "airy-fairy and touch-feely" phenomenon that many assume it to be (558), but rather is a concrete result of certain biological processes in the brain known as neurological correlates of conscious state (NCCs). While his argument is soundly presented and consistent with itself, I believe that Searle avoids certain questions and considerations of consciousness in order to maintain the assumption at the center of his argument.

Critical to his theory is the concept of subjectivity. Consciousness, Searles argues, only exists subjectively in that it relies on the existence of a subject as part of its definition. This is somewhat related to the famous…… [Read More]


Levy, D., Bayley, P., Squire, L. (2004) The anatomy of semantic knowledge: medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2012 from 

Searle, J. (2000) Consciousness. The Annual Review of Neuroscience, Vol. 23, p. 557-578.

Stock, O. And Strapparava, C. (2008) Ironic expressions and moving words. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1045-1057.
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Amnesty International

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67878309

Amnesty International or AI is a worldwide, non-governmental organization, which campaigns for internationally recognized human rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards (Amnesty International 2005). In particular, AI campaigns to free all prisoners of conscience, ensure fair and prompt trials of political prisoners, abolish the death penalty, torture and other cruel treatment of prisons, end political killings and forced disappearances, oppose all kinds of human rights abuses and increase awareness of human rights abuses all over the world (Wikipedia 2005). In the pursuit of its goals, AI sends research teams to investigate claims of human rights abuses, publicizes its findings and mobilizes its members to lobby against the abuses by writing to the government officials concerned, protests, demonstrates, organizes fund-raisers, educates the public about the offense and, often, all of these. Working primarily on the local level, Ai notifies each…… [Read More]


1. Amnesty International. About Amnesty International, 2005.

2. -- . Current Campaigns.

3. -- . Campaigning Networks.

4. Brians, Paul et al., eds. "The Way Princes Should Keep Their Word." Reading About the World, vol I Harcourt Brace Custom Publishing, 1998.
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IT Professional Must Become the 'Renaissance Person'

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55348617

IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice

Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.

However,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy

Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at
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Organization Social Capital Ngos the

Words: 2611 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94145882

Among them, the article notes that more than half of all executions have occurred in the three states of Texas, Oklahoma and Virginia. This geographical bias, the article notes, is indicative of some degree of inconsistency in a system that determines the right to take the lives of its subjects. Another issue that is even more disturbing is the inherent racial bias that underscores the American judicial system. According to the article, "Studies have shown that race plays a part in who receives the death penalty in the U.S.A., with murders involving white victims more likely to result in death sentences than those involving black victims. 'Race, geography, electoral politics, local finances, jury composition, and the quality of legal representation are all problematic factors in capital cases in the U.S.A. Being tried for a capital crime is like taking part in a lethal lottery, and it should have no place…… [Read More]

Works Cited:


Amnesty International (AI1). (Oct. 2008). Poverty and the death penalty in Nigeria.

Amnesty International (AI2). (Oct. 2008). NGOs warn poor countries neglected in financial bail-outs.

Amnesty International (AI3). (Oct. 2010). USA increasingly isolated as the world turns against death penalty.
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Can Computers Think

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8268540

Computers think final

Can Computers Think

Like the debate for and against marijuana, the computer is also a subject of discussion among people. Man has not yet settled if computer can actually think or not. The computers have a brain that has memory but it is until now under discussion whether this brain helps in keeping and processing information alone or does it also help in decision making process. The process of thinking may be defined as method by which an entity considers and create ideas based on opinions and reasoning. While some think that the computers can not only think but also tell right from wrong, there are others that believe that role of computers is only to make choice between available options. The "cannot think" opinion holders argue that a computer is useless without the operating system and programs designed by the programmers and coders (O'Regan, 2012). The…… [Read More]


I. Ahl, DH, & Green, B. The Best of Creative computing. Morristown, N.J: Creative Computing Press. (1976)

II. Buytendijk, F. Can Computers Think? BeyeNETWORK. Retrieved from , (2012)

III. Cooper, S.B., & Leeuwen, J. The selected works of A.M. Turing: His work and impact. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. (2012)

IV. Egnor, M. Can a Computer Think? Evolution News and Views. Retrieved from , (2011)
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China and the Reform Era

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53996109

Chinese lives within the context of modern Chinese history

Communist China has undergone a profound change over the past fifty years regarding its economy: from a primarily controlled and planned state it has shifted to what is, in effect, capitalism in everything but in name only. This marks a major change from the ideological purity demanded during the Maoist era. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire nation was subjected to an ideological cleansing. Intellectuals and people deemed 'counterrevolutionary' in their ideology were sent to work in the countryside to be reeducated. This seems a far cry from the modern Chinese landscape, which is largely dominated by signs of capitalism spanning from name brand clothing to fast food establishments.

However, although economically China has undergone a great deal of progress, politically it is very repressive of those who would defy the dictates of the state. Dissents such as the artist Ai…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry. PBS. 16 Dec 2013. 14 Dec 2013.

Young and Restless in China. PBS. 14 Dec 2013.
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Creativity Gardner and Csikszentmihalyi's Perspectives

Words: 2386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42368278

Other neuroscientists instead stress processes: like macros for the brain.

Neuroscience, in elucidating specific brain structures for different thought processes and types of intelligence, can help scientists develop more sophisticated systems of artificial intelligence. Similarly, neuroscientists can possibly promote the development of pharmaceutical or natural interventions that aid cognitive processes like mathematical or musical ability. If neuroscientists can discover ways to increase conscious awareness of the structures of the brain involved in particular intelligences it may be possible to increase human intelligence on an individual if not a collective or evolutionary basis. Moreover, neuroscientists can use information about specific brain structures and possibly also hormones and brain chemicals to help people increase mathematical ability or overcome learning disabilities.

7. Programs designed to "think" in a specific way such as to play chess or poker cannot rightly be called creative. They exhibit human-like creativity but only directed at specific tasks. Beyond…… [Read More]


1. University of Southern California. "Enhance Your Well-Being Through Creativity." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at

2. "Friedrich Nietzsche and his philosophy of the Superman." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at 

3. "Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man." Museum of Science. Retrieved Aug 8, 208 at

4. Chamberlin, J. (1998). Reaching-flow? To optimize work and play. APA Online. Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at
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Netflix Strengths Weaknesses and Recommendations to This

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35721407

Netflix: Strengths, eaknesses and Recommendations

To this juncture, Netflix has been extraordinarily successful based on its singularity within the industry. Currently, Netflix relies on its more than 26 million subscribers, who have had access to video rentals and unlimited streaming movies beginning at just $8.99 a month. As the first service provider of its kind, Chiu (2007) reports, Netflix was able to establish industry partnerships that give it unique access to content and advertising channels. Chiu reports that "from the very beginning of its entry into the market, Netflix understood the importance of making partner- ships with the movie industry, the electronics industry, and retailers[1]. Netflix's name was spread widely through promotions with complementary products, such as DVD players and movie websites.

Its immediate success and its greatest strength would be based on the nature and convenience of its service, which has given users access to a wide range of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chiu, R.; Doroudi, S.; Haussler, T.; Khosla, A. & Mattingly, S. (2007). Netflix: Entering the Video on Demand Industry Through Providing Streaming Movies. Stanford University.

Liedtke, M. (2011). Netflix Bracing For Slowdown in Subscriber Rates. Huffington Post.
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Ethics in Technology

Words: 1965 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70350510

Ethics in Technology

Business - Management

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.

Ethics in Technology

We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…… [Read More]


Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.

Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from
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Security Risks Associated With Mobile Banking When

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72482923

security risks associated with mobile banking?

When it comes to mobile banking, the most significant security risk is being hacked. People do occasionally try to hack into bank computers, but it is often easier to hack wireless devices and networks. When a person does his or her banking on a mobile device, the potential for people to be able to hack into it is greater than it would be on a more secure device, such as a home computer. Additionally, the places where mobile devices are used makes them vulnerable when it comes to banking. For example, using a mobile device at home on your personal network with password protection is a relatively safe thing to do. Using a mobile device on an open Wi-Fi connection in the local coffee shop is much more dangerous, because these types of networks are not protected and it is easier for people to…… [Read More]

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Shortest Path Using Antnet Routing

Words: 2742 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36568755

An agent-based state engine also alleviates the need for frequent database queries and the use of time-consuming pointers that drastically drag down ms access times and erase any optimization gains from first defining the network. The antnet agent-based engine only on exception writes back to a database and instead keeps its own table-based approach to mapping the network while synchronizing the key elements suggested for inclusion to antnet agents within this section.

Taxonomy creation algorithms and shared intelligence approaches to ensuring all ants have perfect knowledge of the network's structure (taxonomy). This is critical as antnet routing needs to include the ability not just map, but learn specific networks' characteristics and either equate the network structure and behavior to previously-learned models, or quickly create one through a series of network definition routines that scope, classify and optimize the network structure.

Support for Directed Diffusion data elements. Included within an antnet…… [Read More]

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Bioinformatics Machine Learning Snp Mutation

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52608325

Machine Learning Method in Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics involves an integrated approach involving the use of information technology, computer science to biology and medicine as professional and knowledge fields. It encompasses the knowledge associated with information systems, artificial intelligence, databases, and algorithms, soft computing, software engineering, image processing, modeling and simulation, data mining, signal processing, computation theory and information, system an d control theory, discrete mathematics, statistics and circuit theory. On the other hand, machine learning entails a sub-division of artificial intelligence and operates with technical skills to permit computers to adapt to certain responses and initiate actions (Zhang et al., 2009). Machine learning entails a range technical knowledge that looks at the scientific application of search engines, natural language processing, bioinformatics, medical diagnosis and cheminformatics, analysis of the stock market, game playing and computer vision.

The development of machine learning has been as a matter of necessity given the fact that,…… [Read More]


1. Pavlov, Y.L. (2000). Random forests. Utrecht: VSP.

2. Maindonald, J.H., & Braun, J. (2010). Data analysis and graphics using R: An example-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3. Gurney, K. (2003). An introduction to neural networks. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

4. Zhang, Y., & Rajapakse, J.C. (2009). Machine learning in bioinformatics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Business Select a Particular Web

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29433220

An expert system that takes into account the constraints of schedules, previous commitments to training and programs that the post office employees must participate in on a periodic basis would all need to be taken into account. A constraint-based expert system would be able to optimize the staff levels, where a rules-based expert system would continually need to be updated to reflect the latest status and schedule of each person.

A c.

Identify potential criminals in an airport.

The use of an advanced AI system would be required specifically for this application as the many attributes, factors, variables and weightings of these specific data elements would need to be analyzed in conjunction with one another.

A d.

Investing in the stock market.

Actually these are systems in each of these categories specifically used for investing in and forecasting various aspects of the stock market. From decision support systems that can…… [Read More]

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Turing and Searle Response

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26305934

Turing and Searle Response

(a) Alan Turing would answer the question as to whether or not Amy should punish her child for insulting the intelligence (quite literally) of Siri by stating that she should punish the child. There are two principle reasons as to why Turing would advocate this point-of-view. The first is that Turing believed that computers and machines were capable of intelligence. In fact, he posited the viewpoint that one of the points of confirmation of the intelligence of these types of inanimate objects is whether or not they could pass his Turing test, in which an interrogator decides which of two sources, one a person and the other a computer, is an actual human (and therefore capable of intelligence). This assignment states that Siri is able to pass such a test, which greatly implies that Turing would ascribe a significant degree of intelligence to that machine and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, David. "The Chinese Room Argument." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web. 

Hodges, Andrew. "Alan Turing." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web.
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Chinese Room Properly Translating the Chinese Room

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7030312

Chinese Room

Properly Translating the Chinese Room

John Searle's thought experiment concerning the "Chinese Room" attempts to disprove that so-called "strong-AI" (artificial intelligence that demonstrates "true" thinking and "understanding") could ever possibly exist. The argument is relatively straightforward: Searle imagines a computer running a program that allows it to communicate in written Chinese -- the program is capable of recognizing Chinese characters that are entered into it and of formulating a response in written Chinese that makes sense and appears conversant. This program is so perfect that it can convince a native Chinese speaker that the responses, generated solely through a series of complex rules or algorithms that the computer/program uses to react to the Chinese characters it receives as input, are coming from an actual human Chinese speaker. Next, Searle imagines that if he were placed in a room with this computer and if written Chinese communications were slipped…… [Read More]

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Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes

Words: 2392 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60330211

Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes

Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.

Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…… [Read More]


[1] Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at 

[2] Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.

[3] Dewy, Douglas. (2013). Fuzzy Logic. Omega Engineering. [Online]. Available at 

[4] Emami, Sarmasti, "Fuzzy Logic Applications in Chemical Processes," The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, 1(4), 339-348.
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Supplement Evaluation

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36232677

vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.

The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…… [Read More]


Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: . [2013, July 9]

A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: [2013, July 9]
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Forward -- Choosing Revolution Chinese

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21554549

Like many women, reflecting the new egalitarianism of her background, she was a true soldier, caring for the sick, hauling supplies, and providing vital services to the Red Army.

Xianren undertook her mission with a clear sense of ideological motivation, but for many other women, their choice was less conscious. hile it was true that the famine was epidemic in China at the time, given the gradual shift to commercialized agriculture that deprived so many peasants of their livelihood, there is little doubt that it was far more difficult for girls. omen such as Ma Yixiang led far bleaker lives. Yixiang came from abject poverty and was blamed for the death of her siblings by her superstitious mother. She was forced to work off her father's debt as a child (Young 83). Yixiang was 'sold' for a year and a half to another family and mistreated so badly she ran…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pruitt, Ida. A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman.

Martino Fine Books, 2011.

Young, Helen Praeger. Choosing Revolution: Chinese Women Soldiers on the Long March

Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
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Frankenstein Terminator 3

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 674407

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and James Cameron's Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines have come to occupy similar positions in American popular culture -- largely, for their iconic appeal -- but they are also comparable in more subtle ways. Specifically, each tale depicts the emergence of human nature within entities that superficially seem nonhuman. Frankenstein's monster and the T-101 both come forward as compelling and sympathetic characters because they learn and express themselves in terms that human beings are able to understand. The T-101's apparent progression from a methodical killer into an unwavering companion within the Terminator movies is mirrored by the monster's progression from an infantile murderer into a sensitive literature aficionado. Additionally, it is significant that both are brought into creation through clandestine scientific practices; thus, similar themes surrounding the T-101 and the monster make themselves apparent. Essentially, both characters represent the volatile nature of too much knowledge: they…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

2. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines. Feature film. WGA, 2003. 109 min.
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Individual Evaluation of the Completed Process by

Words: 1838 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59006306

Individual Evaluation of the Completed Process by Answering the Following Questions:

Catchball is a concept called Hoshin Kanri. After the Second World War, Hoshin Kanri was a system to create policy management in Japanese companies. 'Hoshin' is a Japanese word that means pointing the direction and 'Kanri' means control. (Ten Step, 2003) The process is complex in the sense that the management creates the policy or attempts to create a goal. In this case it was to create the 'electronic housemaid'. This requirement often translates to many actions from all participants and thus the peers in the team throw a 'catch-ball' to the staff or various participants who then respond to these questions or propositions and the analysis of the response evinces further questions and so on until all issues are sorted out. This method was used in the project which was a software project to create an artificial intelligence…… [Read More]


Business Process Excellence. (2008) "Applied Strategy Execution: Strategy Deployment and Execution Guide for Sustainable Business Improvement" Business Process Excellence LLC.

Cowley, Michael; Domb, Ellen. (2012) "Beyond Strategic Vision"


Harvard Business Essentials. (2006) "Decision Making: 5 Steps to Better Results"
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Technology Decision Making Effect of Technology Decision

Words: 2527 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72232227

Technology Decision Making

Effect of technology decision making

Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making…… [Read More]


Bahamonde L., DuMouchel W, Shea S . (2003). A meta-analysis in16 randomized controlled trials for evaluating computer-based clinical reminder systems in preventive care for ambulatory setting. J Am Med Inform Asso. c;3:399-409

Greenes R.A. (2009). Informatics and a health care strategy for the future -- general directions. Studies In Health Technology AndInformatics [Stud Health Technol Inform], Vol. 149, pp. 21-8; PMID: 19745469

Hart J. K, Newton B. W, Boone S.E. (2010).University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic healthrecord and medical informatics training for undergraduatehealth professionals. Journal Of The Medical Library Association: JMLA [J Med Libr AssocVol. 98 (3), pp. 212-6.

Kampov J. (2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States. Journal of Medical Library Association.
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Consciousness There Are Numerous Technical Intricacies to

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27035821


There are numerous technical intricacies to neurobiological research. The human brain is a completely intricate mechanism and holds numerous neurons. This creates problems in studying consciousness particularly in comprehending how brain processes trigger human consciousness, and how the brain realizes consciousness. The major aspect of perception is that for every conscious condition, people experiences some qualitative disposition to that state of being consciousness. In this regard, this paper assesses the disparity amid semantic and syntactic knowledge. The paper also highlights the disparities between knowledge content and form, and ascertains the effects of knowledge content and form when evaluating the intelligence of a machine.


Consciousness refers to the state of being responsive towards ones setting. It is the state or condition of wakefulness where one is able to recognize some inner thoughts or feelings or external objects. Scores of philosophers have tried to understand the temperament of consciousness and…… [Read More]


Palmer, D.E. (1998). Searle on Consciousness: or How not to be a Physicalist. Ratio, 11(2),

Tallis, R. (2010). Consciousness, not yet explained. New Scientist, 205(2742), 28-29.

Jinchang, W. (2010). Some Philosophical Thoughts on Machine Consciousness. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 266-270.

Searle, J.R. (2000). Consciousness. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 557.
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Impediments to Integration of Business Analytics With

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84633006

Impediments to Integration of Business Analytics With Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management Data

Business Analytics

Impediments to Integration of Business Analytics

The consumer is out to emphasize that 'he is the king'. Accordingly, his demands for enhanced quality and timely deliveries of the products' order by them has revolutionized the management gurus to evolve new business strategies to enhance the intensity of coordination and communication between the seller and the consumer. Two key business strategies that have evolved from this exercise are business intelligence and knowledge management, which have contributed effectively to the progression of new and competent management strategies. Great benefits have also been achieved in for form of cost reduction, thereby increasing the sales and profitability of the organization.

Information routing is a critical link between the production department up to the client and the optimal course of production steps are directly related to business intelligence and knowledge…… [Read More]


Kathe, H. (2008). Research Paper Article: Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management, Retrieved from   , 2008-11-21.

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Ron, K; Neal, J.R.;Evangelos, S. (2002). Emerging Trends in Business Analytics, Retrieved from, Volume 45, Number 8, Aug 2002, and pages 45-48.

Ron, K. & Foster, P. (2001), Applications Of Data Mining To Electronic Commerce: Data Mining And Knowledge Discovery, 5(1/2), 2001, Retrieved from http://robotics.Stanford.EDU/users/ronnyk/ecommerce-dm.
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Social Technological Bi in the Organization

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43451857

Network and usiness Intelligence: Discussion Locus and Political Hotbed

The objective of this study is to examine why the implementation of I in an organization in the context of total social-technical system is more efficient and effective than the traditional way of implementing I in the context of social subsystem alone.

usiness Intelligence is reported to as a professional discipline to "prescribe organizational and technological interventions aimed at providing timely, accurate information to the right people, at the right times, to enable and improve business decision making." (Clark, nd, p. 1) This is reported to be situated "firmly within the domain of decision support systems (DSS) and scarcely an academic paper or vendor sales-pitch fails to mention I's power to impact decision-making." (Clark, nd, p. 1) However, there is still little comprehension of how the tools and strategies of I impact decision making.

Components of usiness Intelligence

It is reported…… [Read More]


Clark, JW (nd) Business Intelligence and Decision Making: Understanding B.I. As a Theory-Performing discipline of Decision Improvement. Sprouts Working Papers on Information Systems. Retrieved from:

Is Your Business Intelligent? The 4 Modes of Intelligence (2011) RightPoint. Retrieved from:
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Effects of the Internet Computers on Life

Words: 1731 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19479505

Internet on Life

hy the Internet is the Most Useful Invention of our Generation

The Internet is the most useful invention of our generation. The accumulated effects of the Internet include significant contributions in the areas of education, the creation of jobs and furthering of professions, and an exponential increase in the amount and variety of entertainment for leisure time. It is the intent of this paper to evaluate the pros and cons or advantages and disadvantages of the Internet in the areas of education, professional and leisure activities.

Advantages of the Internet in Education

There are a myriad of contributions the Internet has made to education, in addition to the many innovations occurring today in the context of individualized instruction. The development of e-learning management systems for example, which can unify an entire semesters' worth of work together into a sequential, well-defined series of steps, has shown significant potential…… [Read More]

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Bernoff, Josh, and Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-so-Social Web." MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42.

Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Kentaro Nobeoka. "Creating and Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing Network: The Toyota Case." Strategic Management Journal 21.3 (2000): 345-67.

Henry, Paul. "E-Learning Technology, Content and Services." Education & Training 43.4 (2001): 249-55.
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Can Computers Think

Words: 1688 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32880143

Computers Think

Computers are programmed to think

Thinking is defined as the ability to make sense, represent, model, or interpret the world a person experiences. Thinking also allows humans to make predictions in regards to their world. To an organism that has needs, desires, and objectives', thinking is helpful as it enables the organism to make plans in order to accomplish these goals. Using this definition we can see clearly that computers are not organism and, therefore cannot posses the ability to think. Computers have the capability to make predictions, but the predictions made by computers have been programmed by humans. Humans who required equipment that can assist in analyzing their thoughts and predictions developed programs to be used by computers. Without human intervention, the computers would not be able to model, represent, or interpret any information.

It is assumed by a majority of people that computers have the capability…… [Read More]

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Hiring the Right People for the Job

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79961977

Human Resources is an important part of any organization: it serves as the oil that helps the business's engine come to life. he parts all depend on the guidance, training, foresight, initiative, and diligence that HR staff exercise. HR is responsible for new hires, making sure the right persons are placed in the right roles, overseeing training, and providing assistance to employees seeking to discuss issues at the workplace. HR puts a human face and human touch on what can otherwise seem like a mechanical, highly impersonal and formalistic business world. Stress can be caused by impersonal factors -- such as disconnect between workers and management, or multigenerational outlooks that conflict and lead to negative feelings and will. However, stress does not have to been as an obstacle because it often points to underlying issues that need to be addressed, and in this sense should be viewed as an opportunity…… [Read More]

This study focuses on the effect that bad leaders can have in a workplace when they are not exercising emotional intelligence. It demonstrates that negative leadership can strip an organization of its productivity and lead to decay from within.

Stewart, J., Oliver, E., Cravens, K., Oishi, S. (2017). Managing millennials: Embracing generational differences. Business Horizons, 60(1): 45-54.

This study highlights the positive role that Generation Y workers can bring to an organization and how they can work together with older generations, such as X and Baby Boomers to effect a tighter and more efficient workplace. The study is helpful for showing that generational conflict can lead to real opportunities for organizational growth.
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Is it Moving to Fast

Words: 3276 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83645485

Technology: Is it Moving Too Fast?

Technology is reshaping the way people live their lives today in profound and sometimes unexpected ways. Indeed, the concept of using something new is always frightening for some people, and even the proponents of technological solutions caution that they can actually do more harm than good when they are not used in appropriate and meaningful ways that justify the investment required to apply them in the workplace. Nevertheless, the trend is unmistakable and the spread of technology is growing, and many businesses may "leap before they look" in order to avoid behind left behind on the race for success on the Information Highway. In order to achieve the best return on investment in technology, then, it is important to understand just what it is and how it can help the ordinary individual or business become more successful. To this end, this paper provides an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aouad, G., Kagioglou, M., Cooper, R., Hinks, J. And M. Sexton. (1999). Technology management of IT in construction: a driver or an enabler? Logistic Information Management, 12(1/2) 130-137.

Ballantine, J.A., Galliers, R.D., and S.J. Stray. (1994). Information Systems/Technology investment decisions -- the use of capital investment appraisal techniques in organizations. Proc. 1st European conference on IT investment evaluation, 1994, 148- 166.

Bell, B. (1998). Investigate and Decide Learning Environments: Specializing Task Models for Authoring Tool Design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(1), 71.

Bradley J.H. And F.J. Hebert. (1993). Expert Systems Development in Small Business: A Managerial Perspective. Journal of Small Business Management, 31(3), 23.
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Cosmic Order Design Our World Result Super-Human Intelligent Ordering

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29518747

Cosmic order Design "Our world result super-human intelligent ordering." Defend dispute reference: ostrom,

Prior to determining an argument for whether or not the world at present is the result of some sort of super-human intelligence (which could take many forms and different manifestations), it is important to denote just what is indicated by the concept of a super-human intelligence. Namely, it is vital to indicate that such an intelligence does not refer to the ecclesiastical or to theology in any sort of way. Although virtually any layman might consider super human intelligence to be a synonym for God, this entity is generally referred to as a force and an eternal, omniscient being beyond human comprehension. The term intelligence, however, distinctly pertains to man and functions at the organism level, and may be used to refer to other species of creatures (such as chimpanzees, aliens, etc.). Once supernatural factors are omitted…… [Read More]

Burns, M. (2013). Heisenberg on the delusion of Scientism. Retrieved from 

Danaher, J. (2012). Bostrom on superintelligence and orthogonality. Philosophical Disquisitions. Retrieved from 

Sutherland, J. (2006). The ideas interview: Nick Bostrom; John Sutherland meets a transhumanist who wrestles with the ethics of technologically enhanced human beings. The Guardian. Retrieved from
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Value of Training Employees in an Organization

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80528587

Training Development: Evolution of the Design

Training Development: Evolution Desing

Training Development: Evolution design

Training Development: Evolution design

Training and development of employees is an activity that is performed by the Human resource. It is aimed at enhancing the performance of groups and individuals in an organizational setting. Training is focuses on evaluating the performance of an individual while carrying a given task (Brown, 2002). Training and development is the practice of providing workshops, mentoring, coaching, training and other learning opportunities to workers so as to inspire, motivate and challenge them to perform tasks assigned to them. Training and development provide workers with tools of enhancing their professional developments and effective working with families. This increases their knowledge and building the personnel capacity to carry out tasks associated with the positions assigned to them in the organization. This report endeavors to explain about the evolution of training and development as…… [Read More]


Brown, J. (2002). "Training needs assessment: A must for developing an effective training. Public Personnel Management December 2002 31: 569-578,

Harris, E. & Fleming, D. (2005) "Assessing the human element in service personality formation: personality congruency and the Five Factor Model," Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 19 Iss: 4, pp.187-198
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Apocalypse Concerning the Apocalypse in Art of the Technological Era

Words: 4255 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44389119

Apocalypse of Art in the Tech Era

Modern Apocalypse Art and Technological Aspects

The purpose of this paper is to examine modern art, in particular that which is referred to as "apocalypse art" and further to examine the interactions between art and technology. Specifically this paper will look at the new dimensions that technology has contributed to the rendering of art as well as what contribution or impact that art has rendered to technology.

The methodology for this study is through examination of several of the artists as well as scholars who are in some way interconnected in this process of producing apocalypse art.

The question that seems to weigh on the minds of those who view the modern "apocalypse" art exhibits asks:

Has this artist attempted to achieve the effect of shock or is the artist attempting to convey some deeper truth?"

London's Art Gallery featured an exhibit entitled…… [Read More]

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Tour Operator Agency Database

Words: 849 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69292912


Databasing Inquiries

Design a data model that will conform to the following criteria:

• Propose an efficient data structure that may hold the tour operator's data using a normalization process. Describe each step of the process that will enable you to have a 2nd Normal Form data structure.

The database in question provides sufficient data for operational consistency but the redundancy of certain data impedes the general efficiency of the system in place. Therefore, normalization is a major priority for the tour operating company. Specifically, the database is overburdened by duplicate customer records, each of which is created at the time that a new tour is booked. This denotes that the system is decidedly inefficient in presenting data on the whole of our customer base.

First, we propose the use of framing as a data structure as a way of refining the representation of data. According to the text…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chapple, M. (2009). Normalizing Your Database: First Normal Form (1NF). About Databases.

Minksy, M. (1974). A Framework for Representing Knowledge. MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306.
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Expert Systems and Neural Networks

Words: 5427 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89110827

Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social

Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.

Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration

Review, 58(4):293.
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Duality of Love the Principle

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18907266

But it was from the difference between us, not from the affinities and likenesses, but from the difference, that love came: and it was itself the bridge, the only bridge, across what divided us" (Le Guin).

The "love" referred to in this quotation that arose between the female Estraven and Ai stemmed from distinctions of gender, since it originated due to the attractive nature of Estraven as a woman and of Ai as a man. However, this love actually transcends mere gender, which is evinced by the fact that the love is not sexually consummated in a physical form, but is rather consummated in an unconditional form of love that is the basis of the "friendship" that arose between Ai and Estraven. This love is perhaps the ultimate expression of the loyalty and fidelity that Estraven always demonstrated towards Ai, and which now is finally reciprocated by the latter. So…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jordison, Sam. "Back to the Hugos: The Left Hand of Darkness by Usula K. Le Guin." The Guardian. 2010. Web.

LeFanu, Sarah. "The King is Pregnant." The Guardian. 2004. Web.

Mahoney, Simon. "Le Guin, Left Hand of Darkness." The Future Fire. 

Thea. "Book Review: The Left Hand of Darkness." The Book Smugglers. 2010. Web.
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Voice Technologies the Past Standards

Words: 3907 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66034963

Currently, all the traffic among the different units passes via the novel centers and because of this Grant Thornton was also capable of reducing most of the fixed point-to-point circuits which had linked nearly all of its units. The savings made throughout its 50 units was a phenomenal $300.000 annually for the entire company. Besides, with the complete elimination of the long-distance costs, Grant Thorton was able to make a savings of $30,000 on a monthly basis. (Understanding VoIP: Leveraging Technology for a Competitive Edge)

The importance of Voice Internet Protocol technology is appreciated all over the world throughout huge as well as middle level companies and embracing of Voice Internet Protocol is just an issue of time. A short analysis of the oadmap as well as Heat index data evolved from the Wave 2 of a Networking research has spawned certain exciting findings regarding the technology preferences of the…… [Read More]


Boney, James. Cisco IOS in a Nutshell.

O'Reilly. 2001.

ClickZ Stats Staff. Investment in Voice Technology Increases. October 2, 2001.

Collins, Daniel. Carrier Grade voice over IP.
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Home and Community-Based Waiver Services

Words: 3924 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65042012

The majority of communities in Alaska are separated by vast distances and the distance from many communities to the nearest medical facility is equivalent to the distance from New York to Chicago (Indian Health Service Alaska Area Services, 2011).

A study funded by AOA examined issues affecting access to home- and community-based long-term-care services among AI/ANS. Study results indicated that home healthcare was one of the most frequently needed services among AI/ANS. Further, 88% of the services sometimes, rarely, or never met the need, and 36% of services were rarely to never available (Jervis, Jackson & Manson, 2002). Only twelve tribally operated nursing homes exist in the U.S., and these rely predominantly on funding from Medicaid and tribal subsidies. Many tribes would like to have nursing homes but are blocked by state certificate-of-need requirements, Medicaid licensing requirements, and lack of commercial financing. The lack of alternate medical resources, whether private…… [Read More]


Alaska Area Indian Health Service. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.

Goins, R.T. & Spencer, S.M. (2005). Public health issues among older American Indians and Alaska natives. Generations, 29(2), 30-33.

Indian Health Service Alaska area services. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from
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Cross Culture Perspective

Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93053476

Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International

Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives," and that human rights -- though they must be protected whenever that is possible -- are often difficult to secure in a culturally diverse world (Ayton-Shenker, 1995). Every human being has the right to his or her culture, including, according to Ayton-Shenker, the right to "…enjoy and develop cultural life and identity"; however the right to one's culture is "limited at the point at which it infringes on another human right."

This paper delves into how Amnesty International approaches cultural issues -- the internationally recognized moral right every culture has to practice its political, religious, and social traditions -- through its interactions with many governments and cultures outside the United States.

Amnesty International -- Cultural Issues it Inquires Into

Amnesty International…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amnesty International. (2013). A Life Lost in Pursuit of the Truth. Retrieved September 9, 2012,

from      .

Amnesty International. (2013). Our Work / Our Mission / About Us. Retrieved September 6,

2013, from
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Watson the Philosophy of Watson

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3182249

This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…… [Read More]

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Robotics How Close Are We to Creating a Bionic Man

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1231835

Robotics: How Close Are e to Creating a Bionic Man?

hile the creation of a 'bionic man' similar to the Six Million Dollar Man of the 70s television series or the gun-slinging robot of estworld may still be the realm of popular sci-fi, technology has developed to a stage where we are closer to such a possibility than ever before. Some of these technologies include robotics, the development of organic polymers that could be used as artificial muscles, nano-technology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper we will review the latest developments in the relevant technologies to find how close we are to developing a 'bionic man.'

Apart from the availability of the required technology, one of the factors that would eventually determine if (or how soon) we are able to develop a bionic man is -- the urgency or need for such a development. This is because technology does…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnes, Peter. "Bionic Limbs for Amputees." September 23, 2002. Tech TV Website. October 1, 2002.,24195,3400267,00.html

Battles without Troops." Article in Newsweek International: Special Issue. December 2001-February 2002. pp. 38-40

Bekey, George A. "Robot." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.

McCarthy, John. "What Is Artificial Intelligence?" Stanford University: Computer Science Department Website. July 20, 2002. October 1, 2002.
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Robots Can Have Consciousness and

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47754429

That being said, until a robot or computer has the capability of adding to its information on its own (or learning and developing without the aid of human interference), the idea of artificial intelligence is fictional.

David Chalmers writes in his paper ("How Can We Construct a Science of Consciousness?") that it has become possible to think that we are moving toward a genuine scientific understanding of conscious experience. In the paper, Chalmers compares both third-person data and first-person data and talks about how both need some sort of explanation. Based on this paper and others I've read by Chalmers, I believe he would be in support of robotic consciousness to a certain extent. Chalmers often remains subjective in his findings and in the information he presents.

Australian Philosopher David Armstrong, however, strongly defends the identity of mental events and argues the objective of reality in relation to scientific realism.…… [Read More]

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Robotics the Popular Concept of Robots Has

Words: 4545 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5604902


The popular concept of robots has been colored by stories of mythical mechanical beings dating back to antiquity, and fictional robots (remember "R-2 D-2?") depicted in popular science fiction movies such as the Star ars. Robotics, however, is a serious technology that deals with the design, construction and operation of robots that are used in numerous applications ranging from industries that require accurate and repetitive tasks (such as the car and computer manufacturing industries), dangerous tasks such as diffusing of bombs, and other chores that cannot be performed by humans, e.g., carrying out research on far-away planets, or walking inside live volcanoes. These present-day applications of robotics are bound to grow in future with the development of state-of-the-art technologies such as ever-faster computers, artificial intelligence (AI) and nanotechnology. In this essay we shall examine the subject of robotics in detail. hile doing so we shall see what robots are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Battles without Troops." Article in Newsweek International: Special Issue. December 2001-February 2002. pp. 38-40

Bekey, George A. "Robot." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003. CD-ROM Version.

Dowling, Kevin. "What is Robotics?" 1996. Robotics: Frequently Asked Questions. February 24, 2003.

Nanotechnology." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003. CD-ROM Version.
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Filmmaking and the Influence on Society

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25718468

films, there are a series of genres and themes which are used to tell a larger story. It focuses on a number of different areas to include: romanticism, mystery, reality, sex and horror. This provides the audience with another avenue of entertainment that is different from the status quo. These views are challenging conventional practices by offering an alternative form of filmmaking. To fully understand how this shaped contemporary cinema requires focusing three different movies and tracing their influences. Together, these elements will underscore the effects this is having on modern day moviemaking.

Three Films and the Influences of French Nouvelle Vague, the ritish New Wave/Kitchen Sink Realism, the New German Cinema and the New Latin American Cinema

There are several different disciplines which are impacting the creation of films. The most notable include: French Nouvelle Vague, the ritish New Wave / Kitchen Sink Realism, New German Cinema and New…… [Read More]


Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry. Directed by Alison Klayman. Perf. Danqing Chen, Ying Gao and Changwei Gu. Independent. 2012. Film.

The Wave. Directed by Dennis Gansel. 2008; Berlin: Rat Pack Film Production, 2008. DVD.

The Internship. Directed by Vince Vaughn. Century Fox. 2013. Film

Nochimson, Martha. World on Film: An Introduction. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
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Enterprise Risk Management Alumina Inc Henceforth Being

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50882732

Enterprise isk Management

Alumina, Inc., henceforth being referred to as AI, is an aluminum-based company. AI is at the center of focus in the Business egulation Simulation that was studied for the purpose of this paper. This paper will identify a significant tort that was committed by AI in regard to the legal issues and their corresponding principles as drawn from the simulation (Harb, 2008).

Negligence is the greatest tort committed by AI in the legal issues realized from the simulation. The first and most delicate legal issue arising from negligence by AI is the threat of a destructive lawsuit being forwarded by a 38-year-old lady, Kelly Bates. The lawsuit accuses AI's continual role in polluting Lake Dira's water that ended up affecting her 10-year-old daughter by contracting leukemia. The other legal issues that AI faced were the threat of defamation regarding AI's responsible in safeguarding human welfare, which also…… [Read More]


Lam, J. (2003). Enterprise Risk Management: From Incentives to Controls. New York: Wiley.

Harb, T. (2008, June 17). 7 Essential Elements of ERM and the Role of Internal Audit. Retreived

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Mind Freedom and Konwledge

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53706534

Mind, Freedom and Knowledge

Descartes argued that that all humans had both a body and mind, and that the mind was eternal while the body was subject to physical and material laws. The universe was divided between the mind and matter, and the physical world could be explained by mathematical and scientific laws. Hobbes, Locke and other political and philosophical theorists of the 17th Century were also influenced by the new scientific thought of Descartes, Galileo and William Harvey to one degree or another, and had to incorporate them into philosophy (Ryle, p. 251). Ryle denied that any "ghost in the machine" existed, of that the immortal soul somehow operated the physical body. He admitted that explaining the link between bodies and minds was very difficult, although behaviorists had come to understand that expressions indicate moods and emotions, while vision, hearing and motion are all based on sensory inputs being…… [Read More]

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Electronic Collectivism and the Matrix

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38932991

In that regard, non-human animals could be farmed and harvested for their biological, thermal and electrical energy much more easily without any need to worry about their subjective perception, leaving the artificial intelligence entities with the option of simply eradicating human life altogether. Finally, it is never explained who is responsible for maintaining the working telephone lines in the real world without human activity and telephone companies.

Philosophical Analysis

Naturally, the plight of human beings in Matrix seems horrific from the perspective of autonomy and free will. However, beyond that level, their suspension in a convincing reality may not necessarily be as bad as it is depicted and assumed to be. Philosophers have realized for many centuries that there really is not objective way to prove that our reality is any more real than the reality of the human beings suspended in aqueous solution in Matrix. It could be that…… [Read More]