Artificial Intelligence Essays Examples

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AI Camp Roderic Learning Democracy

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71559998

S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on the Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, with leftists, more highly educated and affluent persons, of the male gender showing greater interest. The U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in the political process, risk-taking as a national characteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in the process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, while political affiliation is much higher in Mexican-Americans compared with their Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant within these two groups. But White Americans specifically tend to equate democracy with liberty, while Mexican-Americans adopt these attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In short, some attitudes and patterns of behavior, the study found, are more open to socialization and change and others are not.… [Read More]

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AI Weiwei

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53607114

Chinese Artist AI Weiwei

"Truth, No Matter the Power: China government's aggressor."

This presentation will provide you with an introduction to Ai's life and work, including his personal background, some of his greatest works of art and their significance as well as the controversies they have caused in his native China.

Although AI has faced tremendous opposition from the Chinese government, he is a force to be reckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awareness about human rights abuses in China. His international fame has made him a global voice for China's 1.3 billion people.

First, I will provide you with a brief background as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known for his conceptual art, art that emphasizes ideas over aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an artist is more about a lifestyle and attitude than producing an artistic product. His early, seminal influence was his father, Ai Qing, a poet sent to a labor camp in 1958 for his criticism of the Chinese government.

Ai was able to taste freedom when he lived in New York from 1981-1993, creating art and studying at Parsons School of Design. During this time, Ai took over…… [Read More]

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Rur and AI More Human

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69929903

Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.

The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).

It is the contention of this author that the creations are not content to be the alteregos of their creators. The creators of the androids enslave their creations to control and bury their own fears and emotions. Such fictional tales are the cathartic release of a society that is suspicious of machines and…… [Read More]

References:
Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.

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Evaluation of Appreciative Inquiry AI

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33389504

Appreciative Inquiry (AI)

Appreciative Inquiry

The concept AI (Appreciative Inquiry) is a participatory approach that energizes organizations, and engages people actively in order to create successful changes, capture positive experience among stakeholders and stimulate successful changes. Typically, appreciative inquiry has become an effective tool to enhance organizational effectiveness using clients' relationships, business partnering, team work and effective communication. Part of the business objectives of the project management are to solve business problem as well seizing opportunities using the collaborative relationships and partnerships. Moreover, the project management objective is to facilitate achievements in order to achieve desired results and outcomes. (Mathiassen, & Napier, 2013). The appreciative inquiry is a traditional problem to solve problem, identifying possibilities and generate collective image in order to develop a better future.

The appreciative inquiry model involves the following phases:

Phase I: Learning and Discovery

Phase II: Envisioning Results

Phase III: define and committing

Phase IV: Delivering outcomes.

The AI application approach is as follows:

Start with a rapport building question

Focusing on inquiry topics that include decision making, communication and teamwork.

Creating an appreciative question to explore the topic

Conducting an inquiry interview, and Creating commitment statements as well as action plans.

For example, a…… [Read More]

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Social Networking AI Internet Is Technology Making Us Dumb

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32263431

Technology has both enlightened and darkened the souls of humanity. It has connected people from all walks of life and it has also divided people. With the invention and proliferation of the internet, knowledge is just a web result and click away. With articles discussing Google, social networking, and the creation of smarter than human computers, is technology truly a blessing, or ultimately a curse?

In an article titled "Is Google making us Stupid?" by Nicholar Carr, the writer discusses the increase in internet usage and the perhaps increased decline in overall intelligence. While writers like Carr gain incredible ability to research quickly and with ease in the comfort of home, there is also more chances for people to go online to entertain themselves, skim text, and avoid actually reading. Yes, it is more convenient than going to the library and looking up physical copies of information, but most people that go online do not go for educational purposes, they go to indulge in escapism.

Another article titled "OMG: TWEETING, TRENDING, AND TEXTING (SUMMARY AND REFLECTION)" discusses the phenomenon of people absorbed into their mobile devices versus living their lives. Several videos and articles have remarked on this stating this…… [Read More]

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Artificial and Human Identities in Literature

Words: 2610 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20785751

Artificial Intelligence / Robotics

Robot Outline Name: Complitar (aka the LoveBunny 3000).

Personal Statement: Greetings, human. I am the LoveBunny 3000, and I offer advice on relationships and also sex. You are here gazing at my glass containment because you are troubled in your relationship, or you seek advice for how to drive your lover wild, or perhaps you just need concrete advice for how to find a lover -- although in these days of social media and nonstop connectedness, if you can't find someone to sleep with you, you're doing it wrong. And that's where I come in. You can ask me any question pertaining to the relationship genre.

My form is that of a classic automaton -- a spooky sort of robotic doll that performs certain functions within a limited and circumscribed physical field. Some may recognize my appearance from a standard fairgrounds type fortune-teller or more specifically from the movie Big starring Tom Hanks, one of my favorites. My creator, with a nod to the creator of Zoltar from Bigu, gave me a softer look as a rabbit. But if you have seen the Stanley Kubrick / Steven Spielberg joint project A.I. -- the story of a…… [Read More]

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Criminal Intelligence Analysis

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30034119

Crime Intelligence Analysis:

To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals

Corrections/Police -- Intelligence

Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.

Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. Rachel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.

The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income background and live in the high crime areas of the city. In the 1940s, intelligence analysis was developed in law enforcement. This was done to tackle organized crimes. A good example of this is Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO). I was a very large local law enforcement agency. Initially…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.

Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
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Congress Toward Coordination of Intelligence

Words: 1895 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31714684

The international human relations together with global policy-making processes have led to intensification of wars in various part of the world.

The justification of war is something that has taken root in the industrialized globe. Massive undertakings exist in the strategies and plans of many nations like the U.S.A., Afghanistan, Russia, and even in Germany. Moreover, justification of war has led to increase in simple crimes among individual nations. Global trends as applied in marketing have shifted to terrorism. Some cold war occurring without the interrupt of the global needs to have a globalized and universal world (Nassar, 2005). Evidently, the existence of the social media has also sought to advance many terrorist operations because of the enhance coordination. Such incidences of globalization have seen the growth of many terror groups because of the enhanced communication and ability to disguise the footsteps that might expose their operations. The aspect of globalization of terrorism has also seen their advanced ability in executing their propaganda strategies and reaching the global audience within the shortest possible time.

The internalization of globalization of terrorism has also seen almost everyone being a victim of such activities. Unlike previously where terrorist targeted the western nations and…… [Read More]

Resources:
Han, J., Kamber, M., & Pei, J. (2012). Data mining: Concepts and techniques. Amsterdam:

Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann.
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Human and Machine Intelligence the Similarities and

Words: 936 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86323159

Human and Machine Intelligence

The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?

The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of another color that might actually be next to the first. The process of putting the colors together into a single vision became the focus of whether there was one or more persons in the understanding of what it means to be an intelligent human, and laid the ground work for…… [Read More]

References:
Zadeh, L. (2009). Toward Human Level Machine Intelligence -- Is it achievable? The need for a paradigm shift. AIA International Advanced Information Institute. International Journal of Advanced Intelligence. Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 1-26.

SAMPLE OF WHAT CHAPTERS SHOULD LOOK LIKE:

Booth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K.A. (2009). Child-parent attachment relationships, peer relationships, and peer-group functioning. In K.H. Rubin, W.M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
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Machine Learning Intelligence

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97462383

Machine Learning

It should be noted that there is a marked paucity of research material and scholarly articles existent, from the past three years, regarding the usage of intelligence tests that are deemed mainstream (i.e., not the Turing Test and more frequently utilized assessments such as any variety of the Wechsler tests or the Stanford-Binet assessment) to assess machine intelligence or that of expert systems. Machine intelligence such as IBM's Watson and even certain expert systems are still relatively novel, which is why the vast majority of research material pertaining to these purported types of intelligence utilize the Turing Test, which was explicitly designed to determine the intelligence of computers or machines.

Nonetheless, the first document examined within this assignment is van der Maas et al.'s "Intelligence is what the intelligence test measures. Seriously." This article sheds a good deal of insight on the g factor and its importance within the framework of mainstream intelligence tests. Specifically, it utilizes an alternative for the g factor, the mutualism model. The principle difference between the latter and the former is that in the mutalism model the g factor is not causal and is an index variable (van der Maas et al., 2014,…… [Read More]

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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

What is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

What is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company FuziWare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products used as management decision support systems for other off -- the shelf applications (Barron 111).

In order to tell that AI is present, we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. For a relative scale of reference, large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
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Story About Real World Issues Events

Words: 510 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28451822

Artificial Intelligence

There is much ado about artificial intelligence today and this is reflected in the article published in the Science Daily entitled "New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom." The report states that the computer software is such that is senses the emotions of students and responds to the cognitive and emotional states of students including those of frustration and boredom. This computer program was developed by Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Sidney D'Mello, along with Art Grae3sser from the University of Memphis and another colleague from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

A New Technology

Reported as a new technology "which matches the interaction of human tutors, not only offers tremendous learning possibilities for students, but also redefines human-computer interaction." (Science Daily, 2012) The software program is named "AutoTutor" and "Affective AutoTutor" and can be used to measure the level of knowledge of students through "asking probing questions; analyzing the student's responses to those questions; proactively identifying and correcting misconceptions; responding to the student's own questions, gripes and comments; and even sensing a student's frustration or boredom through facial expression and body posture and dynamically changing its strategies to help the student conquer those…… [Read More]

Resources:
New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom (2012) Science Daily -- Science News. 2 Mar 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120302132546.htm
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879



As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives

Aim

To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

Research for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Each answer from EQ testing, Thibodeaux and Bond (2006) contend, reflects emotional intelligence's concept.

Emotional Intelligence embodies:

Empathy for others

An individual standing up for what he/she believe in a tactful, respectful manner

Refraining from jumping to conclusions; obtaining…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm.
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Location of the City of

Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42429749



Harris, Brown and Moore (2000) explain that in the instance depicted in Joshua 8:9, where Joshua again sent out his army, Joshua's attitude has changed. He has realized that he needed to take the threat of the enemy seriously; that to win he had to plan in accordance to and had to adhere to God's directives "on the west side of Ai" (Joshua 8:9 (NKJV) (Blue Letter Bible 2010).

Joshua's neglect of prayer, according to Rick Grieve (2009) in the book, On the Way, proved to be the beginning of his downfall, noted in Joshua 7. "In this second battle plan, Joshua did not hear from God…. At Jericho[,] Israel won because their leader listened to the directives of the Lord and followed through. Absolute obedience brought absolute victory. Yet before the skirmish against Ai no such meeting occurred" (Grieve, p. 86). With Joshua's prayerlessness, he basically told God, that he thought he could handle Ai; that he did not need God's help in this battle. The failure to prayer, Joshua later learned, led to failure.

Mack (2010) explains:

As a consequence of the sin of Achan…, the Israelites were routed in the attack upon the town; but after confession…… [Read More]

Sources:
Wood, B. 2010. "The Mystery of Joshua's Ai Solved?." Biblical Archaeology Review.

http://digs.bib-arch.org/digs/khirbet-el-maqatir.asp
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Technological Changes & Advancements Affect

Words: 5785 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5194837

In a descriptive syllabus for a graduate seminar in AI professor Donald gives insight into the form that AI research is taking and the bottom line is that internal brain functioning, switching, neurotransmissions, and patterns are being dissected to give the student a greater sense of the workings of the human mind so these same students may go forwards and attempt to recreate, decidedly small scale (likely single or minimally multiple) functions of human thought to create action. It is therefore not difficult to imagine that these same students will be a part of the future with regard to the development of life-like interactive toys or tools. (Donald NP) the point being made is that research developed to recreate a person in an artificial form is being done on real human science and characteristics. Science is attempting to map and dissect the whole of human physical and mental potential to both understand it better and create imitations of it for science and potentially to better the human condition. Many of them com at it as if they are designing better toasters, even though it is far greater than that. They are designing elaborate toasters that can learn from humans and…… [Read More]

References:
Cohen, Eric. "Conservative Bioethics & the Search for Wisdom." The Hastings Center Report 36.1 (2006): 44.

Cranford, Ronald E. "The Persistent Vegetative State: The Medical Reality." The Hastings Center Report 18.1 (1988): 27.
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Ethics and Technology

Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14324895

Ethics and Computing in Computer Science

EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY

Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences

Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. Blunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other problems, which can injure users and lead to financial loss. And these are not isolated or infrequent incidents. They happen as a consequence of encouraging programmers to produce large programs in haste and despite the awareness of the strong probability of these errors and hazards (Jacky).

Computing hazards include a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
McChesney, R.M. (2013). Digital disconnect: How Capitalism is turning the internet against democracy. Democracy Now: Creative Commons Attribution. Retrieved on March 22, 2014 from http://www.democracynow.org/2013/4/5/digital_disconnect_robert-_mcchesney_on_how

Tech Target (2005). Turning test. WhatIs.com? Computing Fundamentals. Retrieved on March 22, 2014 from http://whatis.techtarget.com.com/definition/Turning=test

Yudkowsky, E. (2008). Artificial intelligence as a positive and negative factor in global risk. "Global Catastrophic Risk," Bostrom, N. And Cirkovic, MM., eds. Machine Intelligence Institute: Oxford University Press. Retrieved on March 22, 2014 from http://intelligence.org/files/AIPosNegFactor.pdf
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Art Analysis ART21 After Reviewing the Artists

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25242092

Art Analysis: Art21

After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in Romance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well be an expression of change. The paper will perform analyses and provide insight into the intention & meanings of their works. The installations of these very different artists are similar in that they communicate to the audience with subtlety and pluralism.

This is not a time for dreaming by Huyghe…… [Read More]

References:
Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from:  http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.

European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/. 2012 July 11.
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Amnesty International

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67878309

Amnesty International or AI is a worldwide, non-governmental organization, which campaigns for internationally recognized human rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards (Amnesty International 2005). In particular, AI campaigns to free all prisoners of conscience, ensure fair and prompt trials of political prisoners, abolish the death penalty, torture and other cruel treatment of prisons, end political killings and forced disappearances, oppose all kinds of human rights abuses and increase awareness of human rights abuses all over the world (Wikipedia 2005). In the pursuit of its goals, AI sends research teams to investigate claims of human rights abuses, publicizes its findings and mobilizes its members to lobby against the abuses by writing to the government officials concerned, protests, demonstrates, organizes fund-raisers, educates the public about the offense and, often, all of these. Working primarily on the local level, Ai notifies each of its more than 7,000 local groups and more than 1 million members, including 300,000 in the U.S. alone, in 150 countries. These members write protest letters to the concerned government officials. Ai observers a neutrality policy called the "country rule," which forbids members from becoming active in their own…… [Read More]

Sources:
5. Fergusson, Andrew. Machiavelli's "The Prince," 2000. http://www.princeton.edu/~fergusson/adw/index.htm

6. Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Bantam Classics, 7th printing. New York: David Campbell Publishers, Ltd., 1992

7. Wikipedia. Amnesty International. Media Wiki, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/Wiki/Amnesty_International
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IT Professional Must Become the 'Renaissance Person'

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55348617

IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice

Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.

However, the greater ubiquity of technology in business and academic organizations means that the educations of IS/IT staff and thus IS/IT practice must be more holistic. Technical development staff must be informed of the needs and paradigms present in other areas of study, in the social and natural sciences and humanities.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy

Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.smthacker.co.uk/customer_relationship_management_CRM.htm
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Organization Social Capital Ngos the

Words: 2611 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94145882

Among them, the article notes that more than half of all executions have occurred in the three states of Texas, Oklahoma and Virginia. This geographical bias, the article notes, is indicative of some degree of inconsistency in a system that determines the right to take the lives of its subjects. Another issue that is even more disturbing is the inherent racial bias that underscores the American judicial system. According to the article, "Studies have shown that race plays a part in who receives the death penalty in the U.S.A., with murders involving white victims more likely to result in death sentences than those involving black victims. 'Race, geography, electoral politics, local finances, jury composition, and the quality of legal representation are all problematic factors in capital cases in the U.S.A. Being tried for a capital crime is like taking part in a lethal lottery, and it should have no place in any justice system,' said Widney Brown." (AI3, p. 1).

The AI article resolves with the assertion that the day in which the United States does finally declare a moratorium on judicial executions will be one in which it can begin to have a more markedly positive impact on this…… [Read More]

Resources:
Amnesty International (AI). (Feb. 2006). EU-IRAN: NUCLEAR DISPUTE MUST NOT OVERSHADOW HUMAN RIGHTS. Amnesty.org.

Amnesty International (AI1). (Oct. 2008). Poverty and the death penalty in Nigeria. Amnesty.org.
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Can Computers Think

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8268540

Computers think final

Can Computers Think

Like the debate for and against marijuana, the computer is also a subject of discussion among people. Man has not yet settled if computer can actually think or not. The computers have a brain that has memory but it is until now under discussion whether this brain helps in keeping and processing information alone or does it also help in decision making process. The process of thinking may be defined as method by which an entity considers and create ideas based on opinions and reasoning. While some think that the computers can not only think but also tell right from wrong, there are others that believe that role of computers is only to make choice between available options. The "cannot think" opinion holders argue that a computer is useless without the operating system and programs designed by the programmers and coders (O'Regan, 2012). The performance and capacity of computers is limited to the boundaries set by codes and the codes define parameters of work of the computers; they themselves cannot decide what to do and how to do it in a perfect manner. They propose that intelligence of a machine is subset of intelligence…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
I. Ahl, DH, & Green, B. The Best of Creative computing. Morristown, N.J: Creative Computing Press. (1976)

II. Buytendijk, F. Can Computers Think? BeyeNETWORK. Retrieved from  http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/16771 , (2012)
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China and the Reform Era

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53996109

Chinese lives within the context of modern Chinese history

Communist China has undergone a profound change over the past fifty years regarding its economy: from a primarily controlled and planned state it has shifted to what is, in effect, capitalism in everything but in name only. This marks a major change from the ideological purity demanded during the Maoist era. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire nation was subjected to an ideological cleansing. Intellectuals and people deemed 'counterrevolutionary' in their ideology were sent to work in the countryside to be reeducated. This seems a far cry from the modern Chinese landscape, which is largely dominated by signs of capitalism spanning from name brand clothing to fast food establishments.

However, although economically China has undergone a great deal of progress, politically it is very repressive of those who would defy the dictates of the state. Dissents such as the artist Ai Weiwei are repressed and stifled just as they were during the pre-reform era. Thus, while much has changed in China, much has also stayed the same. There are young entrepreneurs but also individuals such as Ai who have not seen an appreciable improvement in their lives. Young, modern Chinese must…… [Read More]

Sources:
Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry. PBS. 16 Dec 2013. 14 Dec 2013.

http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/ai-weiwei/film.html
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Sleep Deprivation Effects on Adolescent

Words: 2228 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73073470

(Harvard School of Public Health, 2013, p.1)

Energy expenditure is decreased due to sleep deprivation because there is a decrease in physical activity as well as the body temperature being lowered. (Harvard School of Public Health, 2013, p.1)

Summary of Literature

The literature reviewed in this study has informed the study that children who sleep less hours each night are at a higher risk of becoming obese than children who sleep more than 12 hours each night. In a different study it is reported that infants sleeping less than 12 hours per night are twice as likely to be obese by age three. A study reported that followed children from birth to age 32 states findings that reduced sleep results in a 50% higher risk of obesity. More than nine million children over six years of age in the U.S. are obese. Sleep deprivation results in risks for cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, as well as other health problems. Thermogenesis is held as a conceptual framework for studying obesity in adolescents. Leptin and Gherlin levels are affected by reduced sleep, which in turn affect eating choices and patterns resulting in obesity. Irregular snack intake, reduced physical activity and reduced sleeping…… [Read More]

References:
AI-Hafian, K. (2008). Sleep, Obesity, and the Adolescent Population: A Literature Review. A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Nursing. Washington State University

Chaput, J.P., Brunet, M., Tremblay, a. (2006). Relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood overweight/obesity: results from the "Quebec en Forme' Project. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1080-1085.
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Creativity Gardner and Csikszentmihalyi's Perspectives

Words: 2386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42368278

Other neuroscientists instead stress processes: like macros for the brain.

Neuroscience, in elucidating specific brain structures for different thought processes and types of intelligence, can help scientists develop more sophisticated systems of artificial intelligence. Similarly, neuroscientists can possibly promote the development of pharmaceutical or natural interventions that aid cognitive processes like mathematical or musical ability. If neuroscientists can discover ways to increase conscious awareness of the structures of the brain involved in particular intelligences it may be possible to increase human intelligence on an individual if not a collective or evolutionary basis. Moreover, neuroscientists can use information about specific brain structures and possibly also hormones and brain chemicals to help people increase mathematical ability or overcome learning disabilities.

7. Programs designed to "think" in a specific way such as to play chess or poker cannot rightly be called creative. They exhibit human-like creativity but only directed at specific tasks. Beyond what they are programmed to do, applications like Deep Blue, Fritz, and Rybka could not actually create anything. The parameters of their reasoning is limited and restricted.

A more truly creative or intelligent computer program would be one that could create works of art or music. If software developers create…… [Read More]

Resources:
1. University of Southern California. "Enhance Your Well-Being Through Creativity." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/assist/article/enhance-your-well-being-through-creativity/

2. "Friedrich Nietzsche and his philosophy of the Superman." Retrieved Aug 8, 2008 at  http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/philosophy/nietzsche_philosophy.html 
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Flowers for Algernon

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19719841

Flowers for Algernon:

The Pursuit For Artificial Intelligence

Daniel Keyes science-fiction novel Flowers for Algernon, first published in 1966, relates the story of Charlie Gordon through a diary (a collection of "progress reports") written by Charlie, a mentally-challenged man who via experimental brain surgery evolves into a genius. Although many scientist and researchers in today's highly technological age are striving for ways to increase the mental capacities of human beings through biological and artificial means, when Flowers for Algernon first appeared, such ideas were pure science-fiction. Yet despite Charlie's tragic outcome in the novel, it seems a wise idea to continue to pursue any and all means to increase the mental abilities of human beings, due in part to the need for highly-intelligent men and women who will confront unimagined conditions in the distant future.

At the beginning of the novel, the reader is introduced to Charlie in the first-person narrative, for he writes, in the language of a very simple-minded and obviously uneducated person, that "Dr. Strauss says I should rite down what I think. . . I don't no why but he says its important. . . I hope they use me becaus. . . maybe they can…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Keyes, Daniel. Flowers for Algernon. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1987.

FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON
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Netflix Strengths Weaknesses and Recommendations to This

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35721407

Netflix: Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations

To this juncture, Netflix has been extraordinarily successful based on its singularity within the industry. Currently, Netflix relies on its more than 26 million subscribers, who have had access to video rentals and unlimited streaming movies beginning at just $8.99 a month. As the first service provider of its kind, Chiu (2007) reports, Netflix was able to establish industry partnerships that give it unique access to content and advertising channels. Chiu reports that "from the very beginning of its entry into the market, Netflix understood the importance of making partner- ships with the movie industry, the electronics industry, and retailers[1]. Netflix's name was spread widely through promotions with complementary products, such as DVD players and movie websites.

Its immediate success and its greatest strength would be based on the nature and convenience of its service, which has given users access to a wide range of titles from the comfort of their own homes. Certainly, Netflix would help to directly contribute to the disappearance of home video stores like Blockbuster. For most of its subscribers, this was seen as a far superior model for accessing video media.

Perhaps the biggest weakness in the Netflix strategy relates…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chiu, R.; Doroudi, S.; Haussler, T.; Khosla, A. & Mattingly, S. (2007). Netflix: Entering the Video on Demand Industry Through Providing Streaming Movies. Stanford University.

Liedtke, M. (2011). Netflix Bracing For Slowdown in Subscriber Rates. Huffington Post.
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Ethics in Technology

Words: 1965 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70350510

Ethics in Technology

Business - Management

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.

Ethics in Technology

We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion in this paper. The definition of ethics is 'Ethics are standards of moral conduct. Personal ethics guide one's personal life; business ethics provide the standard of conduct guiding business decision, and computer ethics provide the standards of conduct with respect to computers and computer use (Morley & Parker, 2009).

The…… [Read More]

References:
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
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Security Risks Associated With Mobile Banking When

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72482923

security risks associated with mobile banking?

When it comes to mobile banking, the most significant security risk is being hacked. People do occasionally try to hack into bank computers, but it is often easier to hack wireless devices and networks. When a person does his or her banking on a mobile device, the potential for people to be able to hack into it is greater than it would be on a more secure device, such as a home computer. Additionally, the places where mobile devices are used makes them vulnerable when it comes to banking. For example, using a mobile device at home on your personal network with password protection is a relatively safe thing to do. Using a mobile device on an open Wi-Fi connection in the local coffee shop is much more dangerous, because these types of networks are not protected and it is easier for people to get your information as you transmit it back and forth on an unsecured network.

There are other risks, however, and one of those is simply allowing people to see your personal banking information because you're inputting it on a device that is out in the open. Many people who are…… [Read More]

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Role Metaphors Play Helping People Understand Concept

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6906613

role metaphors play helping people understand concept artificial intelligence? Do agree brain a -called meat machine? What metaphors applicable function human brain

There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of intelligence and the way that it influences individuals. In order to assist the masses in getting a better understanding of intelligence, the human brain, and the relationship between them, society has come up with a series of metaphors. Present-day technology has made it possible for individuals to interact with tools that work similarly to the human brain, thus making people think that the brain actually works as a very advanced computer that has a certain amount of storage space, a particular processing speed, and that is overall more or less capable of performing certain tasks.

Metaphors are sometimes used as a means to address the masses, considering that they are more likely to gain a better comprehension of some concepts if they are presented with the opportunity to associate it with an idea that they are familiar with. People are basically presented with the fact that the computer functions similar to the brain and vice-versa. Individuals who are experienced in domains concerning the human mind are likely to express…… [Read More]

References:
Gossin, Pamela, "Encyclopedia of literature and science," Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Krader, Lawrence & Levitt, Cyril, "Noetics: The Science of Thinking and Knowing," Peter Lang, 2010.
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Shortest Path Using Antnet Routing

Words: 2742 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36568755

An agent-based state engine also alleviates the need for frequent database queries and the use of time-consuming pointers that drastically drag down ms access times and erase any optimization gains from first defining the network. The antnet agent-based engine only on exception writes back to a database and instead keeps its own table-based approach to mapping the network while synchronizing the key elements suggested for inclusion to antnet agents within this section.

Taxonomy creation algorithms and shared intelligence approaches to ensuring all ants have perfect knowledge of the network's structure (taxonomy). This is critical as antnet routing needs to include the ability not just map, but learn specific networks' characteristics and either equate the network structure and behavior to previously-learned models, or quickly create one through a series of network definition routines that scope, classify and optimize the network structure.

Support for Directed Diffusion data elements. Included within an antnet agent there also needs to be descriptors of each node to further add intelligence to the definition of the taxonomy. This includes the type of node, distance, location (also IP address if available), intensity and confidence (measures of reliability of the node) and timestamps. Directed diffusion also assumes that networks'…… [Read More]

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Bioinformatics Machine Learning Snp Mutation

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52608325

Machine Learning Method in Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics involves an integrated approach involving the use of information technology, computer science to biology and medicine as professional and knowledge fields. It encompasses the knowledge associated with information systems, artificial intelligence, databases, and algorithms, soft computing, software engineering, image processing, modeling and simulation, data mining, signal processing, computation theory and information, system an d control theory, discrete mathematics, statistics and circuit theory. On the other hand, machine learning entails a sub-division of artificial intelligence and operates with technical skills to permit computers to adapt to certain responses and initiate actions (Zhang et al., 2009). Machine learning entails a range technical knowledge that looks at the scientific application of search engines, natural language processing, bioinformatics, medical diagnosis and cheminformatics, analysis of the stock market, game playing and computer vision.

The development of machine learning has been as a matter of necessity given the fact that, current knowledge that needs some levels of sophistication and technological advancement has been on the consistent growth. These are included in the revolution in the genomic field that entails amino acid sequencing and nucleotide sequences. To accomplish the possibility of storing these essential informati0on, machine learning has been imperative has…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1. Pavlov, Y.L. (2000). Random forests. Utrecht: VSP.

2. Maindonald, J.H., & Braun, J. (2010). Data analysis and graphics using R: An example-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Business Select a Particular Web

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29433220



An expert system that takes into account the constraints of schedules, previous commitments to training and programs that the post office employees must participate in on a periodic basis would all need to be taken into account. A constraint-based expert system would be able to optimize the staff levels, where a rules-based expert system would continually need to be updated to reflect the latest status and schedule of each person.

A c.

Identify potential criminals in an airport.

The use of an advanced AI system would be required specifically for this application as the many attributes, factors, variables and weightings of these specific data elements would need to be analyzed in conjunction with one another.

A d.

Investing in the stock market.

Actually these are systems in each of these categories specifically used for investing in and forecasting various aspects of the stock market. From decision support systems that can accumulate and analyze thousands of data feeds and factors to the development of expert systems that use constraint models to create scenarios, to the use of advanced AI systems that take all relevant factors into account in an attempt to both predict an index value in addition to a specific…… [Read More]

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Turing and Searle Response

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26305934

Turing and Searle Response

(a) Alan Turing would answer the question as to whether or not Amy should punish her child for insulting the intelligence (quite literally) of Siri by stating that she should punish the child. There are two principle reasons as to why Turing would advocate this point-of-view. The first is that Turing believed that computers and machines were capable of intelligence. In fact, he posited the viewpoint that one of the points of confirmation of the intelligence of these types of inanimate objects is whether or not they could pass his Turing test, in which an interrogator decides which of two sources, one a person and the other a computer, is an actual human (and therefore capable of intelligence). This assignment states that Siri is able to pass such a test, which greatly implies that Turing would ascribe a significant degree of intelligence to that machine and warrant Amy's child to issue an apology. In this respect, the apology is issued for the specific insult that the child made to Siri -- which is that Siri is a stupid idiot. Because Siri would have been able to demonstrate its intelligence by passing the Turing test, such a…… [Read More]

References:
Cole, David. "The Chinese Room Argument." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/#5.3 

Hodges, Andrew. "Alan Turing." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web. http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=turing
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Chinese Room Properly Translating the Chinese Room

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7030312

Chinese Room

Properly Translating the Chinese Room

John Searle's thought experiment concerning the "Chinese Room" attempts to disprove that so-called "strong-AI" (artificial intelligence that demonstrates "true" thinking and "understanding") could ever possibly exist. The argument is relatively straightforward: Searle imagines a computer running a program that allows it to communicate in written Chinese -- the program is capable of recognizing Chinese characters that are entered into it and of formulating a response in written Chinese that makes sense and appears conversant. This program is so perfect that it can convince a native Chinese speaker that the responses, generated solely through a series of complex rules or algorithms that the computer/program uses to react to the Chinese characters it receives as input, are coming from an actual human Chinese speaker. Next, Searle imagines that if he were placed in a room with this computer and if written Chinese communications were slipped under the door, he would be able (through use of the computer) to deliver appropriate responses to these communications without ever understanding a word of Chinese. As the human respondent (in this case Searle) is delivering Chinese responses without any understanding, he concludes that the computer program is working similarly,…… [Read More]

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Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes

Words: 2392 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60330211

Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes

Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.

Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where the value of stimulus and external information cannot compute to directly absolute true or false connotations. Rather, there is a middle ground that is ambiguous in nature. This ambiguity can also be seen as the fuzzy area, where individuals have to use intuitive decisions and critical thinking to apply commonsense…… [Read More]

References:
[1] Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at  http://ingenieria.udea.edu.co/investigacion/fuzzycon/FuzzyLogic/FuzzyLogicinAppliances.pdf 

[2] Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.