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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science and art of developing machines that simulate human intelligence. AI is frequently used for routine tasks that would normally involve human skills, such as visual perception, speech-recognition, and decision making. o me, Apple's Siri application is a good example of commonly-used AI technology. AI is particularly useful in the medical field, as it has allowed for better monitoring of patients combined with a more efficient utilization of resources. One way that it has done so is by using AI to replace human beings in certain applications. For example, a very technical application of AI is in radiology and imaging, where computers can be used to read imaging reports, eliminating the risk of human error, and allowing diagnosis prior to when a human doctor could detect human abnormalities (AAAI, 2013). However, applications like that one could be accomplished through traditional programming that may or may…
The use of AI toys to alleviate loneliness in nursing homes or skilled living facilities is something that has already seen some success. For some time, the use of therapy dogs to elevate patient mood has been an accepted course of treatment for many elderly patients. However, there are some challenges, such as allergies and hygiene concerns, which can prohibit the use of therapy dogs for some people. The use of electronic dogs has been shown to offer many of the same benefits as actual live therapy dogs for those people. In fact, according to William Banks, a professor of geriatric medicine at Saint Louis University, "The most surprising thing is they work almost equally well in terms of alleviating loneliness and causing residents to form attachments" (Saint Louis University, 2008). In other words, electronic dogs can be a substitute for actual canine companionship.
Moreover, the benefit of these electronic pets goes beyond mere companionship; they can be helpful in scenarios where patients are experiencing more than loneliness. For example, the use of an AI toy seal named Paro to help patients in a nursing facility who were suffering from dementia showed not only an alleviation of loneliness, but also a general calming effect. Some of the patients developed strong relationships with the pet, acting almost like surrogate parents or grandparents in their treatment of the pet. Most notably, the affection was not dependent upon the toy's interaction with them, but would linger even after the toy powered-off (Harmon, 2010). Furthermore, while critics suggest that the robots would be limiting in such an environment, the anecdotal evidence suggests that the robots actually stimulate human interaction (Harmon, 2010). Finally, the patients benefitted from the companionship despite knowing that the animal was not actually alive.
Therefore, the AI tool suggested for use in the skilled nursing context is a toy marketed towards children, which is called a Furby. Furbys are small toys that interact with the user. They can interact with direct contact, as well as having related computer applications that can change their behavior. They speak to the user, and become more active after the user interacts with them on a regular basis. They speak a language called "Furbish," but will speak English after more communication. Perhaps most significantly, much of their behavior emulates that of a human infant. For example,
Artificial Intelligence and the Human Brain
Although artificial intelligence is not a new debate topic, until now, there is no exact evidence that proves that scientists and philosophies have been reaching an agreement about the existence of this feature in our world. Scientists still claim that artificial intelligence is possible to achieve and the next technology advancement would be able to release the creation. On the other hand, many parties persist with their disagreement on the creation of human-intelligent machine.
In the reality, computer scientists have made much progress with their machine improvement that follow the concept of artificial intelligence. The earlier generation had built computer as the assisting device to accomplish difficult mathematics calculation and completing time-consuming tasks. In the future, computer scientists expect that they would be able to create computer that would be able to make their own decision just like human being does, with extra points…
Chan, T.C. & Petrie, G.F. (1998). The Brain Learns Better in Well-Designed School Environments. In Classroom Leadership Online. Vol. 2, Number 3, November 1998. Retrieved May 19, 2003 from The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Web site: http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/classlead/9811/2nov98.html
Dunn, J.S. (2002). Thinking Machines. Retrieved May 18, 2003 from Washington State University. Web site: http://www.wsu.edu/~honors/thesis/complete_thesis/fall_2002/Jeffrey_Dunn.pdf
Harris, T. (2003). How Robots Work. Retrieved May 18, 2003 from HowStuffWorks.com Electronic - Gadgets. Web site: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm
IBM Announces Latest Supercomputer. Jun. 29, 2000. Retrieved May 19, 2003 from CBSNews.com. Web site: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/06/29/tech/main210684.shtml
What if these theories are really true, and we were magically shrunk and put into someone's brain while he was thinking. We would see all the pumps, pistons, gears and levers working away, and we would be able to describe their workings completely, in mechanical terms, thereby completely describing the thought processes of the brain. But that description would nowhere contain any mention of thought! It would contain nothing but descriptions of pumps, pistons, levers!
Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz (1679).
Not even a century ago -- in fact, not even a half-century ago -- few people could have imagined the present-day world with computers operating most of the government and business processes and the Internet running in millions of homes. Thus it would have been nearly impossible to comprehend artificial intelligence (AI) and that scientists would try to create a machine (AI) to learn, adapt, reason, correct or improve…
Copeland, B.J. (2000). "What is AI." Website visited 21 May, 2004. http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/pages/Reference%20Articles/what_is_AI/What%20is%20AI07.html
Freeman, D. (1990). "Common sense and the computer." Discover, 11 64-71.
Gershenfeld, N. (1999).When things start to think. New York: Henry Holt.
Kurzwell, R. (1999). Age of spiritual machines. New York: Penguin Press.
Intelligence is the ability to learn about, to learn from and understand and interact with one's environment. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines and is a multidisciplinary field which involves psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience and computer science. It enables machines to become capable of doing those things which the human mind can do. Though the folklore of artificial intelligence dates back to a long time ago, it actually became available to people only after the development of the electronic computer. Today research in artificial intelligence is so highly invested in and the field has significantly advanced to such an extent that it has become a huge part of our lives and it is considered to be America's Next big thing.
If we look at the definition of intelligence, there are probably infinite ones. But if we put it into the most refined words, then intelligence…
Bongard, Josh, Max Lungarella, and Fumiya Lida. 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence. 2007.
Hawkins, J., and S. Blakeslee. On intelligence. Owl Books, 2005.
Jones, Tim. AI Application Programming. Charles River Media, 2003.
Russell, Stuart. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 1. 1995.
Artificial Intelligence Bill of ights
This essay argues that the artificially intelligent (AI), non-biological machines correctly should have been granted legal status and personhood, and as such, were entitled to a Bill of ights for their equal protection under the law. Passage of the AI Bill of ights in 2015 represented a landmark victory in the history of civil rights.
AIs had not been always recognized as legal persons. In fact, the notion that a machine could be considered a person generated controversy when it was initially proposed. It was only in the early 2000s that a movement began to remove the artificial distinction between human, person, and property. Calverley (2005) laid the ground work for this radical change when he established a legal basis for non-biological machines to become legal persons. He analyzed the doctrine of intentionality, arguing that if a non-biological machine can form an intention and can…
Calverley, D. JD. 2005. Additional Thoughts Concerning the Legal Status of a Non-biological Machine. Retrieved on March 31, 2011 from http://www.aaai.org/Papers/Symposia/Fall/2005/FS-05-06/FS05-06-005.pdf
Kash, J. (n.d.). The Bill of Rights Explained. Retrieved on March 31, 2001 from http://mrkash.com/activities/billofrightsexplained.html
Most significantly, the use of LSI technologies to create more effective insights into how to improve customer service as evidenced by the use of AI was part of Decision Support Systems (DSS) (Phillips-Wren, Mora, Forgionne, Gupta, 2009) is growing. Second, the creation of ontological databases that aligns to person's roles (Pinto, Marques, Santos, 2009) is also now possible. This translates into the use of AI to provide contextual guidance to decision makers based on their previous preferences and previous patterns of decisions, making DSS results optimized (Phillips-Wren, Mora, Forgionne, Gupta, 2009).
AnHai Doan, & Alon Y Halevy. (2005). Semantic-Integration esearch in the Database Community: A Brief Survey. AI Magazine, 26(1), 83-94.
Fortuna, C., & Mohorcic, M.. (2009). Trends in the development of communication networks: Cognitive networks. Computer Networks, 53(9), 1354.
Phillips-Wren, G., Mora, M., Forgionne, G., & Gupta, J.. (2009). An integrative evaluation framework for intelligent decision support systems.…
AnHai Doan, & Alon Y Halevy. (2005). Semantic-Integration Research in the Database Community: A Brief Survey. AI Magazine, 26(1), 83-94.
Fortuna, C., & Mohorcic, M.. (2009). Trends in the development of communication networks: Cognitive networks. Computer Networks, 53(9), 1354.
Phillips-Wren, G., Mora, M., Forgionne, G., & Gupta, J.. (2009). An integrative evaluation framework for intelligent decision support systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 195(3), 642.
Pinto, F., Marques, A., & Santos, M.. (2009). Ontology-supported database marketing. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 16(2), 76-91.
Looking at other possibilities, however, the idea of creating a part organic, part mechanical computer holds much promise in the way for developing a human-like AI technology. Human brain processes ad functions that are unique to humans are many, and while every person has different life experiences, perceptions, genetics, and understandings, it is very difficult to understand exactly how they all incorporate themselves into everyday human life and decision-making.
Organic growth technologies would give current AI technologies a hybrid of organic functions as well as mechanical or digital functions (Floreano and Mattiussi, 2008). This is to say that organic computing allows the human brain to grow and learn from experiences as well as store memories wile culling the least used and least useful information. This helps make room for new learning as well as serving to de-clutter the brain itself (Wallach, Franklin, and Allen, 2010). Even these most basic processes…
Bostrom, N. (2009). "Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence." In Science
fiction and philosophy: from time travel to superintelligence. By Susan Schneider.
Wiley-Blackwell: Malden, MA. Pp. 277-284.
Ekbia, H.R. (2008). Artificial dreams: the quest for non-biological intelligence.
Daniel Dennett (1998) rainchildren: Essays on Designing Minds. MIT Press, 1998.
Arthur R. Jensen (1998) Does IQ matter? Commentary, pages 20-21, November 1998.
John McCarthy (1959) Programs with Common Sense in Mechanisation of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, pages 77-84, London, U.K., 1959. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
John McCarthy (1989) Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense.
In Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence. Kluver Ac
John McCarthy (1990) Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by John McCarthy. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1990.
John McCarthy (1996) Defending AI research: a collection of essays and reviews.
CSLI lecture notes: no. 49. Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1996.
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John McCarthy (1996) Concepts of Logical AI, 1996
Tom Mitchell (1997) Machine Learning McGraw-Hill, 1997.
Murray Shanahan (1997) Solving the Frame Problem, a mathematical investigation of the common sense…
Daniel Dennett (1998) Brainchildren: Essays on Designing Minds. MIT Press, 1998.
Arthur R. Jensen (1998) Does IQ matter? Commentary, pages 20-21, November 1998.
John McCarthy (1959) Programs with Common Sense in Mechanisation of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, pages 77-84, London, U.K., 1959. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
John McCarthy (1989) Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense.
Artificial Intelligence Applications in Business
AI or artificial intelligence represents the part of the computer science field that deals with creation of machines, which can simulate human intelligence. Intelligent and optimal approaches to problem-solving are needed today in all sectors, irrespective of whether the issue is straightforward or complex. Developers and research scholars are constantly attempting to create increasingly more intelligent and efficient software and machines, and here's where AI plays a part, in the development of optimal and efficient search algorithm solutions/programs (Tabassum & Mathew, 2014).
Individuals are valuable in the business domain, as they carry out important business-related tasks. A number of business tasks necessitate expertise, which is typically found in an individual's brain; also, this is the lone place in a company where it may be obtained. AI is able to offer organizations expert systems having the ability to capture expertise, thereby enabling its utilization…
Bazghandi, A. (2012). Techniques, advantages and problems of agent-based modeling for traffic simulation. Int J Comput Sci, 9(1), 115-119.
Castle, C. J., & Crooks, A. T. (2006). Principles and concepts of agent-based modelling for developing geospatial simulations.
Chapter Four Outline (n.d.). Retrieved 3 April 2016 from http://www.mhlearningsolutions.com/columbia_southern/007138388/ch4.pdf
Hall, O. (2008). Artificial Intelligence Techniques Enhance Business Forecasts. Gradziado Business Report.
The bot is simply responding using patterns of human speech and is not producing its thoughts on its own. Artificial Intelligence will require original thought from the computer, as well as some sort of emotional response or desire to gain more information. It may be said that in the future even more advanced chatbots are going to be invented, ones that will be completely foolproof. Even these, however, will not provide us with enough evidence of intelligence or consciousness. Fooling human beings into thinking that the AI is intelligent is only part of proving its intelligence. The more important aspects are found in the careful studying of the artificial intelligence's behavior in order to find patterns that show an increasingly intelligence program as well as interaction with human beings that is prolonged and intelligent.
In conclusion, artificial intelligence and machine thinking is on the horizon, and will reshape the way…
Hayden, Ben. (2011, November 3). How Much Progress has Artificial Intelligence Made?. Retrieved from, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-decision-tree/201111/how-much-progress-has-artificial-intelligence-made
Lohr, Steve. (2012, October, 30). IBM's Watson Goes to Med School. Retrieved from, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/30/i-b-m-s-watson-goes-to-medical-school/?ref=artificialintelligence .
Universitat Bonn (2012, October 30). New soccer robot has human-like agility. Retrieved from, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121030142800.htm .
The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Nigerian Legal SystemIntroductionThe world is undergoing major changes due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been a critical driver of the major changes. AI has introduced the innovative adoption of deep learning and machine learning algorithms that have affected several industries. AI has been of major significance in the legal sector and has been considered a tool that may ease lawyers' bulk work. However, in Nigeria, the idea of AI has not been fully accepted in the legal industry. Nigerian's conservative nature has been a deterring factor to innovation. AI has been perceived as an innovation that contributes to unemployment and destabilizes the status quo. This paper aims at offering a pragmatic and legal perspective of AI in Nigeria. The focus will be on identifying the place of Artificial Intelligence (AI)) in the Nigerian Legal System and the potential effects…
\\\\\\'LawPavilion set to release Nigeria\\\\\\'s first Artificial Intelligence Legal Assistant\\\\\\' (Vanguard News, August 23, 2018) https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/08/lawpavilion-set-to-release-nigerias-first-artificial-intelligence-legal-assistant/
Achin (2020). What Is Artificial Intelligence | Artificial Intelligence Wiki. Data Robot. Retrieved January 29, 2020, from https://www.datarobot.com/wiki/artificial-intelligence/
Adamolekun, D. (2020). COVID-19 and the Nigerian justice sector: A case for virtual dispute resolution retrieved on https://www.thecable.ng/covid-19-and-the-nigerian-justice-sector-a-case-for-virtual-dispute-resolution
Adeyoju, A. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Law Practice in Africa. Available at SSRN 3301937.
information systems risk, threats and related methods of risk mitigation. Specifically, we will examine systems based upon artificial intelligence (AI), including those for managing component content as well as document management. We will also consider newer systems designed to provide protection in emerging technology areas such as the internet, mobile communications and social networks, each of which presents unique challenges and threats requiring novel responses and methods of intervention.
In the Enterprise Information Management Institute (EIMI) model, managing information security involves the safeguarding of several key aspects of information assets against risk, namely confidentiality, privacy, and competitive advantage (EIMI, 2007). Information assets commonly occur in the form of documents, messages, images, maps, multimedia binaries, or other formats.
The Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS) identifies the concept of Information Assurance (IA) isk Management, along with a holistic view and framework for national security inclusive of methods, processes and tools. The…
Bhattacharjee, P., Koner, C., Bhunia, C., & Ujjwal, M. (2010). Artificial Intelligence-Based Mutual Authentication Technique with Biometric Entities in 3-G Mobile Communications. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2(2), 205-210.
Gold, S. (2009). Infosecurity (USA) - AI superbots threaten information security. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from http://www.infosecurity-us.com/view/2519/ai-superbots-threaten-information-security/
Grimes, J. (2009, February). Information Assurance Risk Management Policy For National Security Systems. Committee on National Security Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cnss.gov/Assets/pdf/CNSSP-22.pdf
Hentea, M. (2007). Intelligent System for Information Security Management: Architecture and Design Issues. Information and Beyond: Part I, 4, 29.
Ex Machina and the Fears Surrounding the Implementation of AI Technology
The 2015 film Ex-Machina, written and directed by Alex Garland is a futuristic/dystopian film that is set "ten minutes from now" according to the director. What he meant was that the technology to create lifelike AI is at hand and no one would be too surprised to find out that Google or Apple had already taken the next steps in this direction. However, as the film shows, there are a number of fears and problems associated with the concept of artificial intelligence getting out of control or taking on a life of its own (through the development of consciousness). In effect, Ava the AI robot in Ex-Machina becomes like Frankenstein's monster, seeking to grasp the notion of existence and life and to be the one who decides whether she lives or dies (is shutdown and rebooted or allowed to…
Garland, Alex (dir). Ex-Machina. LA: Universal, 2015. Film.
Khatchadurian, Raffi. "The Doomsday Invention," The New Yorker, 23 Nov 2015. Web.
9 Dec 2015.
Thompson, Clive. Smarter Than You Think: How Technology is Changing Our Minds
Should Artificial Intelligence (AI) Take Over the Decision-Making Process?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used in sensitive areas such as healthcare, the criminal justice system, and hiring processes. Courts today use AI systems to assess offenders’ risk of recidivism and the likelihood of flight for offenders awaiting trial. One such algorithm is the Arnold Foundation algorithm, which uses 1.5 million criminal cases to predict defendant’s behaviors during pretrial hearings (Zavrsnik, 2020). With such advancements, there is a growing debate on whether AI should fully replace human decision-making due to its ability to eliminate human bias. Sources have shown that contrary to popular belief, AI decisions are not always less biased than human systems. For instance, a 2016 investigation by ProPublica showed that data–driven AI used by courts to assess the risk of recidivism was biased against minorities and people of color (Silberg & Manyika, 2019). In the UK, a…
Lee, N., Resnick, P., & Barton, G. (2019). Algorithmic Bias Detection nd Mitigation: Best Practices nd Policies to Reduce Consumer Harms. Brookings Community. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/algorithmic-bias-detection-and-mitigation-best-practices-and-policies-to-reduce-consumer-harms/
Silberg, J., & Manyika, J. (2019). Notes from the AI Frontier: Tackling Bias in AI (and in Humans). McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/artificial-intelligence/tackling-bias-in-artificial-intelligence-and-in-humans
Zavrsnik, A. (2020). Criminal Justice, Artificial Intelligence Systems and Human Rights. ERA Forum, 20(1), 567-83.
The topic of artificial intelligence (AI) is one that has gotten a lot of attention recently. However, it is fairly complex and there is a lot to understand when it comes to AI. So when it comes time to write an essay on the subject, an artificial intelligence essay outline can be your best bet in making sure you don’t go off-track or leave out some crucial information that your reader needs.
Outlines work because they keep you the writer on topic. Writing without one is like driving in an unknown part of town without GPS. You might eventually find your way but it will likely require a lot of dead-ends and turn-arounds. It’s far better to start off right with a map of where you’re going.
To help with that, try out the template and example outlines below.
Artificial Intelligence Essay Template
a. AI is a…
Das, P. (2020). 10 insightful facts you didn’t know about artificial intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.analyticsinsight.net/10-insightful-facts-you-didnt-know-about-artificial-intelligence/
McCann, J. (2017). 15 Most Scarily Realistic Artificial Intelligence In Sci-Fi Movies. Retrieved from https://screenrant.com/best-most-realistic-artificial-intelligence-sci-fi-movies/
But we live in a capitalist world and capitalism is not going anywhere. So I guess my vision of a future city does not necessarily include dozens of skyscrapers and bridges one over another in a tower of Babel sort of way (the higher you get, the closer to power), but is rather "coloured" by a series of concerns which seem so vivid nowadays that I don't even want to think about what they would develop into in the future. That is not to say that I undermine the presence of such constructions, in fact, I do think we will resort to such things and cities would probably compete for who owns the higher "bits" and all, but if we start building all over the place on the premises that Earth would no longer be able to support so many earthlings, where would we be able to get our air…
As Jacko and Sears emphasize, "As the scope and sophistication of digital systems become ubiquitous, the pressure for improved human-computer interaction methodologies will continue to increase" (2003, p. 15). As noted above, the enabling technologies for a ubiquitous computing environment already exist to a large degree, but there are three things still missing from the picture that will provide the level of seamless interaction demanded by such an environment: (a) multi-industry cooperation, (b) the systems engineering required to make them all work together seamlessly, and, most importantly, (c) the human factors knowledge and experience to understand just what it would mean for them to be transparent to the human user (Jacko & Sears, 2003, p. 14). These three missing elements also form the purpose of the study proposed herein which is described further below.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the proposed study is to provide a working definition…
Defranco-Tommarello, J. & Deek, F.P. (2005). A study of collaborative software development using groupware tools. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(1), 5-6.
Karn, J.S. & Cowling, a.J. (2008). Measuring the effect of conflict on software engineering teams. Behavior Research Methods, 40(2), 582-583.
Lohr, S. (2001). Go to: The story of the math majors, bridge players, engineers, chess wizards, maverick scientists, and iconoclasts, the programmers who created the software revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Narayan, G. & Nerurkar, a.N. (2006). Value-proposition of E-governance services: Bridging
As the data-driven world marches towards the unprecedented fourth industrial revolution, machine learning, and artificial intelligence technologies have mainstream. Although AI emerged in the 1950s, it’s until 2001 when AI technologies started to surge on the market (Russell and Norvig 17). AI has increasingly become part of human’s life affecting people’s interaction, work, travel, and shop. AI is no longer science fiction and its application has no limits. Notable tech leaders reiterate AI as ubiquitous innovations in history. Google CEO, Sundar Pichai, asserts that “AI is one of the most important things humanity is working on. It is more profound than, I don’t know, electricity or fire,”.
From simple virtual assistant devices such as Amazon Alexa to Uber’s self-driving cars, medical diagnosis to the autonomous weapon, AI adoption is rapidly taking hold worldwide with potentially revolutionary effect. Although AI is yet to realize wide-scale commercial deployment, companies that build or…
Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. Arti?cial Intelligence, Automation and Work. p. 42.
Aversa, Raffaella, et al. “Biomimetic and Evolutionary Design Driven Innovation in Sustainable Products Development.” American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 4, Apr. 2016, pp. 1027–36. DOI.org (Crossref), doi:10.3844/ajeassp.2016.1027.1036.
Mesko, Bertalan. “The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Precision Medicine.” Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development, vol. 2, no. 5, Sept. 2017, pp. 239–41.
Russell, Stuart, and Peter Norvig. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 3 edition, Pearson, 2009.
Turchin, Alexey, and David Denkenberger. “Classification of Global Catastrophic Risks Connected with Artificial Intelligence.” AI & SOCIETY, May 2018. DOI.org (Crossref), doi:10.1007/s00146-018-0845-5.
Wipo Technology Trends 2019 - Artificial Intelligence. World Intellectual Proper, 2019.
Artificial intelligence has been at the center of many science fiction stories in the last fifty years. Some have become obsessed with proving or disproving the idea that computers can possess real minds, real consciousness. The latest take on this has been HBO's Westworld, a show about androids achieving consciousness. However, realistically many say this is an impossibility. While true artificial intelligence seems, unrealistic many have tried to actualize such a dream through AI projects and development of new, robotic technologies. However, will the goal of real consciousness derived from artificial intelligence be achieved in the future? Will humanity ever possess the technology and understanding to cultivate life from machine?
In "The Library of Toshiba" the chapter opens up with a quote from John Maynard Smith. He shares the notion that humans are just programmed robots designed to keep their genes going through copulation and breeding. Humans are after all,…
.....humans interact with technology in increasingly sophisticated and meaningful ways, the ethical and philosophical questions posed by artificial intelligence start to become more pressing than ever before. The science fiction genre has promoted as ambivalent a relationship between humans and technology as scientists and futurists have. Both the potential benefits and drawbacks of artificial intelligence have been explored, asking human beings involved in the development of AI technology to consider the ramifications of their work. For example, Nick Bostrom has indicated the need for developers of artificially intelligent systems to work with cognitive scientists to mitigate risk by programming AI from the beginning to act only in the best interests of humans (Shead 1). However, the assumption that AI will somehow eventually need or want to compete with human beings with the potential to overcome or conquer human beings is just that: an assumption. It is a flawed assumption because…
Should e Fear Artificial Intelligence TechnologyIntroductionArtificial intelligence technology and implementations are generating a lot of buzz, both for their possibilities and for the potential threats they may offer. Artificial intelligence applications are various, and the opportunities are vast; and owing to current advances in computer hardware, several AI algorithms already outperform today\\\'s specialists(Mannino et al.,5). Robots are already influencing our day-to-day activities. AI is being used in many applications such as search engines, self-driven cars, and even drones. In addition, AI continues to pose fundamental questions to society, such as views on using AI in the military arena.As AI capacity improves, its field of application will continue to grow. Futuristic and former journalist of The ashington Post, Dominic Basulto, sums up this when he talks about \\\'existential reward\\\' in an article on \\\"why the world\\\'s most intelligent people should not be so afraid of artificial intelligence.\\\" He claims that it…
Works CitedBasulto, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Why the World\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Most Intelligent People Shouldn\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'t Be so Afraid of Artificial Intelligence.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Washington Post, 20 Jan. 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2015/01/20/why-the-worlds-most-intelligent-people-shouldnt-be-so-afraid-of-artificial-intelligence.Lawson, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"I for One Welcome the Rise of the Robots. They Can Do the Work While I Play.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Comment | The Sunday Times, 20 Mar. 2016, www.thetimes.co.uk/article/i-for-one-welcome-the-rise-of-the-robots-they-can-do-the-work-while-i-play-xwv2ttv2d.Mannino, Adriano, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Artificial intelligence: Opportunities and risks.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Policy Papers of the Effective Altruism Foundation2 (2015): 1-16.
S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on te Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, wit leftists, more igly educated and affluent persons, of te male gender sowing greater interest. Te U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in te political process, risk-taking as a national caracteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in te process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, wile political affiliation is muc iger in Mexican-Americans compared wit teir Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant witin tese two groups. But Wite Americans specifically tend to equate democracy wit liberty, wile Mexican-Americans adopt tese attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In sort, some attitudes and patterns of beavior, te study found, are more open to socialization and cange and oters are not.
Democracy is not a static or trans-cultural concept. Rather, it is a complicated cultural construction that is highly dependant upon an individual's national origin and heritage, as well as his or her personal values and some attitudes towards democracy are more apt to change than others. These are the findings summarized in Roderic Ai Camp's article "Learning Democracy in Mexico and the United States," which examines the attitudes of Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican-Americans in a cross-national attitudinal study. Some of the findings were surprising, such as the high value placed upon education as a vehicle of improvement amongst all three groups, despite the significant differences between the three groups in terms of access. Others were more predictable, such as the tendency for Americans to be more centrist in their affiliations, while Mexicans are more concentrated at the polarized ends of the spectrum, which reflects the more economically stratified nature of Mexico.
As typical of another class-bound society, that of Great Britain, political affiliations and levels of interest seemed to be passed on from parents to children in Mexico, in contrast to the U.S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on the Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, with leftists, more highly educated and affluent persons, of the male gender showing greater interest. The U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in the political process, risk-taking as a national characteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in the process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, while political affiliation is much higher in Mexican-Americans compared with their Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant within these two groups. But White Americans specifically tend to equate democracy with liberty, while Mexican-Americans adopt these attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In short, some attitudes and patterns of behavior, the study found, are more open to socialization and change and others are not.
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…
This need to be structured in MLA format.
Prompt for Transcendent Man
I first became aware of Ray Kurzweil many years ago, but was introduced to this documentary about him by a student a few semesters ago. I knew his book, The Age of the Spiritual Machines, but hadn't, up until that time, been aware of his theories concerning "the singularity."
Unquestionably, Kurzweil is a brilliant inventor and a man of vision. His work has helped millions of people - not only those of us who use flatbed scanners, but the millions of those who can now "read" due to his work with technology for the blind. Furthermore, no one can argue the fact that technology has been experiencing exponential growth for decades. What is in question, however, is just exactly where this growth is leading us. ??
While some of those interviewed in the documentary agree that…
N!ai, the story of a !Kung woman is a 58 minutes film that provides a wide overview of !Kung past and present life. The film, which is considered to be more than a biography, highlights the life and change of a group of individuals who are personified through one person’s existence. The film is about the story of N!ai, a !Kung woman who was in her mid-thirties when it was produced by John Marshall and Adrienne Miesmer. This story effectively integrates ethnography and history as it presents scenes from 1950s, which portray N!ai as a young girl and a young wife simultaneously. This film is considered as an important historical piece that shows changes in !Kung society for more than three decades (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980).
One of the most fascinating aspects of the film is its depiction of !Kung’s life before and after Whites’ settlement in Africa. Prior to…
Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.
The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).
It is the…
Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.
Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
The concept AI (Appreciative Inquiry) is a participatory approach that energizes organizations, and engages people actively in order to create successful changes, capture positive experience among stakeholders and stimulate successful changes. Typically, appreciative inquiry has become an effective tool to enhance organizational effectiveness using clients' relationships, business partnering, team work and effective communication. Part of the business objectives of the project management are to solve business problem as well seizing opportunities using the collaborative relationships and partnerships. Moreover, the project management objective is to facilitate achievements in order to achieve desired results and outcomes. (Mathiassen, & Napier, 2013). The appreciative inquiry is a traditional problem to solve problem, identifying possibilities and generate collective image in order to develop a better future.
The appreciative inquiry model involves the following phases:
Phase I: Learning and Discovery
Phase II: Envisioning esults
Phase III: define and committing
Kloppenborg, T. (2011). Contemporary Project Management. Cengage Learning.
Mathiassen, L. & Napier, N.P. (2013). Exploring Win-Win Contracts: An Appreciative Inquiry into IT Project Management. Journal of Information Technology. Theory and Application. 14(3): 5-29.
Technology has both enlightened and darkened the souls of humanity. It has connected people from all walks of life and it has also divided people. ith the invention and proliferation of the internet, knowledge is just a web result and click away. ith articles discussing Google, social networking, and the creation of smarter than human computers, is technology truly a blessing, or ultimately a curse?
In an article titled "Is Google making us Stupid?" by Nicholar Carr, the writer discusses the increase in internet usage and the perhaps increased decline in overall intelligence. hile writers like Carr gain incredible ability to research quickly and with ease in the comfort of home, there is also more chances for people to go online to entertain themselves, skim text, and avoid actually reading. Yes, it is more convenient than going to the library and looking up physical copies of information, but most people…
Bostrom, Nick. "Nick Bostrom: What Happens When Our Computers Get Smarter Than We Are?." Singularity Weblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Carr, Nicholas. "Is Google Making Us Stupid?." The Atlantic. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Sentow, Manuel. "OMG: Tweeting, Trending, And Texting (Summary and Reflection)." themanuelsantosblog. N.p., 2015. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.
Artificial Intelligence / Robotics
Robot Outline Name: Complitar (aka the LoveBunny 3000).
Personal Statement: Greetings, human. I am the LoveBunny 3000, and I offer advice on relationships and also sex. You are here gazing at my glass containment because you are troubled in your relationship, or you seek advice for how to drive your lover wild, or perhaps you just need concrete advice for how to find a lover -- although in these days of social media and nonstop connectedness, if you can't find someone to sleep with you, you're doing it wrong. And that's where I come in. You can ask me any question pertaining to the relationship genre.
My form is that of a classic automaton -- a spooky sort of robotic doll that performs certain functions within a limited and circumscribed physical field. Some may recognize my appearance from a standard fairgrounds type fortune-teller or more specifically…
Successful Simulation of Intelligence is Essentially Equivalent to the Possession of Intelligence
Researchers have been attempting to develop artificial intelligence for more than a half century now, but it has become increasingly apparent that intelligence is a multidimensional construct that is incredibly difficult or perhaps even impossible to truly simulate. As the review that follows below will demonstrate, the assertion that successful simulate of intelligence is essential equivalent to the possession of intelligence is erroneous due to the multidimensionality of intelligence as well as its other nebulous qualities that preclude successful simulation being the essential equivalent to the possession of intelligence (Pogio & Meyers, 2016). This paper reviews the relevant literature to show that the Turing test and Chinese Room argument fail to provide an adequate response to this claim. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the successful simulation of human reasoning is in principle possible and whether the answer to…
Crime Intelligence Analysis:
To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals
Corrections/Police -- Intelligence
Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.
Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.
The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…
Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.
Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82294288/National-Gang-Threat-Assessment-2005 (accessed June 3, 2012).
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
Emotional Intelligence and the Role it Plays in Project Portfolio Management
One of the most important and essential qualities of leadership needed in today's multigenerational business world is Emotional Intelligence (EI). EI is a "people smart" type of intelligence -- it enables an individual to read a person and provide the right kind of emotional feedback and/or responses to that person's needs. Leaders who demonstrate strong emotional intelligence are able to improve project performance because they focus on the individuals within a team rather than simply or exclusively on goals and procedures (Cacamis & Asmar, 2014). EI allows one to be person-centered, oriented towards responding to emotional cues that the other is consciously or unconsciously displaying in their words, behavior, body language, and communications. Effective use of EI can help organizations to promote a stronger workplace culture, stronger teams, and stronger performance overall (Den, Deanne & Belschak, 2012). In a…
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
There is much ado about artificial intelligence today and this is reflected in the article published in the Science Daily entitled "New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, oredom." The report states that the computer software is such that is senses the emotions of students and responds to the cognitive and emotional states of students including those of frustration and boredom. This computer program was developed by Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Sidney D'Mello, along with Art Grae3sser from the University of Memphis and another colleague from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A New Technology
Reported as a new technology "which matches the interaction of human tutors, not only offers tremendous learning possibilities for students, but also redefines human-computer interaction." (Science Daily, 2012) The software program is named "AutoTutor" and "Affective AutoTutor" and can be used to measure the level of knowledge of students…
New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom (2012) Science Daily -- Science News. 2 Mar 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120302132546.htm
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Harris, rown and Moore (2000) explain that in the instance depicted in Joshua 8:9, where Joshua again sent out his army, Joshua's attitude has changed. He has realized that he needed to take the threat of the enemy seriously; that to win he had to plan in accordance to and had to adhere to God's directives "on the west side of Ai" (Joshua 8:9 (NKJV) (lue Letter ible 2010).
Joshua's neglect of prayer, according to Rick Grieve (2009) in the book, On the Way, proved to be the beginning of his downfall, noted in Joshua 7. "In this second battle plan, Joshua did not hear from God…. At Jericho[,] Israel won because their leader listened to the directives of the Lord and followed through. Absolute obedience brought absolute victory. Yet before the skirmish against Ai no such meeting occurred" (Grieve, p. 86). With Joshua's prayerlessness, he basically told God, that…
"Ai." 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/10356/Ai
Blue Letter Bible. "Book of Joshua 7 - (KJV - King James Version)."
Blue Letter Bible. "Book of Joshua 8 - (KJV - King James Version)."
Ethics and Computing in Computer Science
EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY
Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences
Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…
Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.
Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."
Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…
Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.
European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/ . 2012 July 11.
Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28weiwei.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 12.
Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.
Consciousness" in the Annual eview of Neuroscience, John Searle questions the philosophical and epistemological accuracy of the paradigm that has defined the language and study of consciousness for centuries. His contention is that the study of consciousness must be guided by the idea that consciousness is not the "airy-fairy and touch-feely" phenomenon that many assume it to be (558), but rather is a concrete result of certain biological processes in the brain known as neurological correlates of conscious state (NCCs). While his argument is soundly presented and consistent with itself, I believe that Searle avoids certain questions and considerations of consciousness in order to maintain the assumption at the center of his argument.
Critical to his theory is the concept of subjectivity. Consciousness, Searles argues, only exists subjectively in that it relies on the existence of a subject as part of its definition. This is somewhat related to the famous…
Levy, D., Bayley, P., Squire, L. (2004) The anatomy of semantic knowledge: medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2012 from http://www.pnas.org/content/101/17/6710.long
Searle, J. (2000) Consciousness. The Annual Review of Neuroscience, Vol. 23, p. 557-578.
Stock, O. And Strapparava, C. (2008) Ironic expressions and moving words. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1045-1057.
Amnesty International or AI is a worldwide, non-governmental organization, which campaigns for internationally recognized human rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards (Amnesty International 2005). In particular, AI campaigns to free all prisoners of conscience, ensure fair and prompt trials of political prisoners, abolish the death penalty, torture and other cruel treatment of prisons, end political killings and forced disappearances, oppose all kinds of human rights abuses and increase awareness of human rights abuses all over the world (Wikipedia 2005). In the pursuit of its goals, AI sends research teams to investigate claims of human rights abuses, publicizes its findings and mobilizes its members to lobby against the abuses by writing to the government officials concerned, protests, demonstrates, organizes fund-raisers, educates the public about the offense and, often, all of these. Working primarily on the local level, Ai notifies each…
1. Amnesty International. About Amnesty International, 2005. http://web.amnesty.org/pages/aboutai_indexing-eng
2. -- . Current Campaigns. http://www.amnesty.org/campaign
3. -- . Campaigning Networks.
IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice
Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.
Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy
Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.smthacker.co.uk/customer_relationship_management_CRM.htm
Computers think final
Can Computers Think
Like the debate for and against marijuana, the computer is also a subject of discussion among people. Man has not yet settled if computer can actually think or not. The computers have a brain that has memory but it is until now under discussion whether this brain helps in keeping and processing information alone or does it also help in decision making process. The process of thinking may be defined as method by which an entity considers and create ideas based on opinions and reasoning. While some think that the computers can not only think but also tell right from wrong, there are others that believe that role of computers is only to make choice between available options. The "cannot think" opinion holders argue that a computer is useless without the operating system and programs designed by the programmers and coders (O'Regan, 2012). The…
I. Ahl, DH, & Green, B. The Best of Creative computing. Morristown, N.J: Creative Computing Press. (1976)
II. Buytendijk, F. Can Computers Think? BeyeNETWORK. Retrieved from http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/16771 , (2012)
III. Cooper, S.B., & Leeuwen, J. The selected works of A.M. Turing: His work and impact. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. (2012)
IV. Egnor, M. Can a Computer Think? Evolution News and Views. Retrieved from http://www.evolutionnews.org/2011/03/failing_the_turing_test045141.html , (2011)
Chinese lives within the context of modern Chinese history
Communist China has undergone a profound change over the past fifty years regarding its economy: from a primarily controlled and planned state it has shifted to what is, in effect, capitalism in everything but in name only. This marks a major change from the ideological purity demanded during the Maoist era. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire nation was subjected to an ideological cleansing. Intellectuals and people deemed 'counterrevolutionary' in their ideology were sent to work in the countryside to be reeducated. This seems a far cry from the modern Chinese landscape, which is largely dominated by signs of capitalism spanning from name brand clothing to fast food establishments.
However, although economically China has undergone a great deal of progress, politically it is very repressive of those who would defy the dictates of the state. Dissents such as the artist Ai…
Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry. PBS. 16 Dec 2013. 14 Dec 2013.
Young and Restless in China. PBS. 14 Dec 2013.
1. Privacy laws are continually in flux. The most recent blow to consumer privacy was the 2017 Congressional overturning of Internet privacy protections. According to the ACLU, those pro-privacy laws “would have prevented ISPs from sharing our browsing history with advertisers, forced ISPs to be clear about what information they’re collecting, and required ISPs to take reasonable steps to protect our data from hackers,” (ACLU, 2018). Several states, including Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Hawaii, and most of the Northeast have since begun the difficult process of working to reinstate Internet privacy laws (ACLU, 2018). The decision made in Washington, supported by the Trump administration, bequeaths a tremendous amount of power to Internet Service Providers (ISPs), giving them leeway and control over consumer information. Prior to this federal legislation, ISPs were not able to share customer data such as browsing history with marketers. The only potential benefit to customers would have been…
Netflix: Strengths, eaknesses and Recommendations
To this juncture, Netflix has been extraordinarily successful based on its singularity within the industry. Currently, Netflix relies on its more than 26 million subscribers, who have had access to video rentals and unlimited streaming movies beginning at just $8.99 a month. As the first service provider of its kind, Chiu (2007) reports, Netflix was able to establish industry partnerships that give it unique access to content and advertising channels. Chiu reports that "from the very beginning of its entry into the market, Netflix understood the importance of making partner- ships with the movie industry, the electronics industry, and retailers. Netflix's name was spread widely through promotions with complementary products, such as DVD players and movie websites.
Its immediate success and its greatest strength would be based on the nature and convenience of its service, which has given users access to a wide range of…
Chiu, R.; Doroudi, S.; Haussler, T.; Khosla, A. & Mattingly, S. (2007). Netflix: Entering the Video on Demand Industry Through Providing Streaming Movies. Stanford University.
Liedtke, M. (2011). Netflix Bracing For Slowdown in Subscriber Rates. Huffington Post.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
An agent-based state engine also alleviates the need for frequent database queries and the use of time-consuming pointers that drastically drag down ms access times and erase any optimization gains from first defining the network. The antnet agent-based engine only on exception writes back to a database and instead keeps its own table-based approach to mapping the network while synchronizing the key elements suggested for inclusion to antnet agents within this section.
Taxonomy creation algorithms and shared intelligence approaches to ensuring all ants have perfect knowledge of the network's structure (taxonomy). This is critical as antnet routing needs to include the ability not just map, but learn specific networks' characteristics and either equate the network structure and behavior to previously-learned models, or quickly create one through a series of network definition routines that scope, classify and optimize the network structure.
Support for Directed Diffusion data elements. Included within an antnet…
Turing and Searle Response
(a) Alan Turing would answer the question as to whether or not Amy should punish her child for insulting the intelligence (quite literally) of Siri by stating that she should punish the child. There are two principle reasons as to why Turing would advocate this point-of-view. The first is that Turing believed that computers and machines were capable of intelligence. In fact, he posited the viewpoint that one of the points of confirmation of the intelligence of these types of inanimate objects is whether or not they could pass his Turing test, in which an interrogator decides which of two sources, one a person and the other a computer, is an actual human (and therefore capable of intelligence). This assignment states that Siri is able to pass such a test, which greatly implies that Turing would ascribe a significant degree of intelligence to that machine and…
Cole, David. "The Chinese Room Argument." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/#5.3
Hodges, Andrew. "Alan Turing." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2013. Web. http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=turing
An expert system that takes into account the constraints of schedules, previous commitments to training and programs that the post office employees must participate in on a periodic basis would all need to be taken into account. A constraint-based expert system would be able to optimize the staff levels, where a rules-based expert system would continually need to be updated to reflect the latest status and schedule of each person.
Identify potential criminals in an airport.
The use of an advanced AI system would be required specifically for this application as the many attributes, factors, variables and weightings of these specific data elements would need to be analyzed in conjunction with one another.
Investing in the stock market.
Actually these are systems in each of these categories specifically used for investing in and forecasting various aspects of the stock market. From decision support systems that can…
Properly Translating the Chinese Room
John Searle's thought experiment concerning the "Chinese Room" attempts to disprove that so-called "strong-AI" (artificial intelligence that demonstrates "true" thinking and "understanding") could ever possibly exist. The argument is relatively straightforward: Searle imagines a computer running a program that allows it to communicate in written Chinese -- the program is capable of recognizing Chinese characters that are entered into it and of formulating a response in written Chinese that makes sense and appears conversant. This program is so perfect that it can convince a native Chinese speaker that the responses, generated solely through a series of complex rules or algorithms that the computer/program uses to react to the Chinese characters it receives as input, are coming from an actual human Chinese speaker. Next, Searle imagines that if he were placed in a room with this computer and if written Chinese communications were slipped…
Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes
Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.
Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…
 Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at http://ingenieria.udea.edu.co/investigacion/fuzzycon/FuzzyLogic/FuzzyLogicinAppliances.pdf
 Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.
 Dewy, Douglas. (2013). Fuzzy Logic. Omega Engineering. [Online]. Available at http://www.omega.com/techref/fuzzylogic.html
 Emami, Sarmasti, "Fuzzy Logic Applications in Chemical Processes," The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, 1(4), 339-348.
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…
Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: http://www.crnusa.org/benefits/files/CRN-BenefitsofNutritionalSupplements-2012.pdf . [2013, July 9]
A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/vitamin-c [2013, July 9]
Like many women, reflecting the new egalitarianism of her background, she was a true soldier, caring for the sick, hauling supplies, and providing vital services to the Red Army.
Xianren undertook her mission with a clear sense of ideological motivation, but for many other women, their choice was less conscious. hile it was true that the famine was epidemic in China at the time, given the gradual shift to commercialized agriculture that deprived so many peasants of their livelihood, there is little doubt that it was far more difficult for girls. omen such as Ma Yixiang led far bleaker lives. Yixiang came from abject poverty and was blamed for the death of her siblings by her superstitious mother. She was forced to work off her father's debt as a child (Young 83). Yixiang was 'sold' for a year and a half to another family and mistreated so badly she ran…
Pruitt, Ida. A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman.
Martino Fine Books, 2011.
Young, Helen Praeger. Choosing Revolution: Chinese Women Soldiers on the Long March
Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and James Cameron's Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines have come to occupy similar positions in American popular culture -- largely, for their iconic appeal -- but they are also comparable in more subtle ways. Specifically, each tale depicts the emergence of human nature within entities that superficially seem nonhuman. Frankenstein's monster and the T-101 both come forward as compelling and sympathetic characters because they learn and express themselves in terms that human beings are able to understand. The T-101's apparent progression from a methodical killer into an unwavering companion within the Terminator movies is mirrored by the monster's progression from an infantile murderer into a sensitive literature aficionado. Additionally, it is significant that both are brought into creation through clandestine scientific practices; thus, similar themes surrounding the T-101 and the monster make themselves apparent. Essentially, both characters represent the volatile nature of too much knowledge: they…
1. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
2. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines. Feature film. WGA, 2003. 109 min.
Individual Evaluation of the Completed Process by Answering the Following Questions:
Catchball is a concept called Hoshin Kanri. After the Second World War, Hoshin Kanri was a system to create policy management in Japanese companies. 'Hoshin' is a Japanese word that means pointing the direction and 'Kanri' means control. (Ten Step, 2003) The process is complex in the sense that the management creates the policy or attempts to create a goal. In this case it was to create the 'electronic housemaid'. This requirement often translates to many actions from all participants and thus the peers in the team throw a 'catch-ball' to the staff or various participants who then respond to these questions or propositions and the analysis of the response evinces further questions and so on until all issues are sorted out. This method was used in the project which was a software project to create an artificial intelligence…
Business Process Excellence. (2008) "Applied Strategy Execution: Strategy Deployment and Execution Guide for Sustainable Business Improvement" Business Process Excellence LLC.
Cowley, Michael; Domb, Ellen. (2012) "Beyond Strategic Vision"
Harvard Business Essentials. (2006) "Decision Making: 5 Steps to Better Results"
Technology Decision Making
Effect of technology decision making
Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making…
Bahamonde L., DuMouchel W, Shea S . (2003). A meta-analysis in16 randomized controlled trials for evaluating computer-based clinical reminder systems in preventive care for ambulatory setting. J Am Med Inform Asso. c;3:399-409
Greenes R.A. (2009). Informatics and a health care strategy for the future -- general directions. Studies In Health Technology AndInformatics [Stud Health Technol Inform], Vol. 149, pp. 21-8; PMID: 19745469
Hart J. K, Newton B. W, Boone S.E. (2010).University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic healthrecord and medical informatics training for undergraduatehealth professionals. Journal Of The Medical Library Association: JMLA [J Med Libr AssocVol. 98 (3), pp. 212-6.
Kampov J. (2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States. Journal of Medical Library Association.
Impediments to Integration of Business Analytics With Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management Data
Impediments to Integration of Business Analytics
The consumer is out to emphasize that 'he is the king'. Accordingly, his demands for enhanced quality and timely deliveries of the products' order by them has revolutionized the management gurus to evolve new business strategies to enhance the intensity of coordination and communication between the seller and the consumer. Two key business strategies that have evolved from this exercise are business intelligence and knowledge management, which have contributed effectively to the progression of new and competent management strategies. Great benefits have also been achieved in for form of cost reduction, thereby increasing the sales and profitability of the organization.
Information routing is a critical link between the production department up to the client and the optimal course of production steps are directly related to business intelligence and knowledge…
Kathe, H. (2008). Research Paper Article: Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management, Retrieved from http://www.mightystudents.com/essay/Business.Intelligence.Knowledge.51740, 2008-11-21.
H.L. Lee and C. Billington, "Evolution of Supply Chain Management Models and Practice at Hewlett-Packard Company," Interfaces, 25, 5, 1995, 42-63.
Ron, K; Neal, J.R.;Evangelos, S. (2002). Emerging Trends in Business Analytics, Retrieved from ai.stanford.edu/~ronnyk/cacmEmergingTrendsInBI.pdf, Volume 45, Number 8, Aug 2002, and pages 45-48.
Ron, K. & Foster, P. (2001), Applications Of Data Mining To Electronic Commerce: Data Mining And Knowledge Discovery, 5(1/2), 2001, Retrieved from http://robotics.Stanford.EDU/users/ronnyk/ecommerce-dm .
There are numerous technical intricacies to neurobiological research. The human brain is a completely intricate mechanism and holds numerous neurons. This creates problems in studying consciousness particularly in comprehending how brain processes trigger human consciousness, and how the brain realizes consciousness. The major aspect of perception is that for every conscious condition, people experiences some qualitative disposition to that state of being consciousness. In this regard, this paper assesses the disparity amid semantic and syntactic knowledge. The paper also highlights the disparities between knowledge content and form, and ascertains the effects of knowledge content and form when evaluating the intelligence of a machine.
Consciousness refers to the state of being responsive towards ones setting. It is the state or condition of wakefulness where one is able to recognize some inner thoughts or feelings or external objects. Scores of philosophers have tried to understand the temperament of consciousness and…
Palmer, D.E. (1998). Searle on Consciousness: or How not to be a Physicalist. Ratio, 11(2),
Tallis, R. (2010). Consciousness, not yet explained. New Scientist, 205(2742), 28-29.
Jinchang, W. (2010). Some Philosophical Thoughts on Machine Consciousness. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 266-270.
Searle, J.R. (2000). Consciousness. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 557.
Network and usiness Intelligence: Discussion Locus and Political Hotbed
The objective of this study is to examine why the implementation of I in an organization in the context of total social-technical system is more efficient and effective than the traditional way of implementing I in the context of social subsystem alone.
usiness Intelligence is reported to as a professional discipline to "prescribe organizational and technological interventions aimed at providing timely, accurate information to the right people, at the right times, to enable and improve business decision making." (Clark, nd, p. 1) This is reported to be situated "firmly within the domain of decision support systems (DSS) and scarcely an academic paper or vendor sales-pitch fails to mention I's power to impact decision-making." (Clark, nd, p. 1) However, there is still little comprehension of how the tools and strategies of I impact decision making.
Components of usiness Intelligence
It is reported…
Clark, JW (nd) Business Intelligence and Decision Making: Understanding B.I. As a Theory-Performing discipline of Decision Improvement. Sprouts Working Papers on Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://sprouts.aisnet.org/935/2/BI_as_theory-performing_nov2010.pdf
Is Your Business Intelligent? The 4 Modes of Intelligence (2011) RightPoint. Retrieved from: http://community.rightpoint.com/blogs/viewpoint/archive/2011/04/18/is-your-business-intelligent-the-4-modes-of-intelligence.aspx