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NA: Nature, Structure, And External Factors Affecting Success
The National ifle Association is an organization founded in 1871, ostensibly for the purposes of encouraging activities related to gun ownership (including firearms safety and marksmanship training). It currently has a membership of approximately five million individuals, with an annual budget of approximately 231 million dollars. However, to suggest that the NA is spending its vast annual budget purely on sponsoring shooting contests and gun safety classes -- according to the original stated purpose of the organization -- is to vastly underrate what this social organization is actually engaged in. The NA's role began to shift in the latter part of the twentieth century, as issues related to gun control began to enter political discussion in the United States. At this point, by the 1960s and the 1970s, the NA began to shift into a political lobbying organization, around the same time…
Feldman, R. (2011). Ricochet: Confessions of a gun lobbyist. New York: John Wiley.
Melzer, S. (2009). Gun crusaders: The NRA's culture war New York: New York University Press.
Spitzer, RJ. (2004). The politics of gun control. 3rd edition. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Winkler, A. (2011). Gunfight: The battle over the right to bear arms in America. New York: W.W. Norton.
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.
While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.
Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…
American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.
Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.
The increasing and gruesome mass killings in schools and other public arenas is connected to military type assault rifles and hidden handguns, carrying large amounts of ammunition magazines. These artilleries of war are modeled to cause overwhelming damage within short periods without reloading (Rosenthal, 2016). There is an upcoming logical debate to convince the government to ban these artilleries among the public.
A large number of Americans prefer banning "assault weapons"; the same case applies to the majority of students who strongly support criminalizing the possession, receipt, transfer and manufacture of assault weapons. The congress of 1994 permitted the assault weapons ban. It expired in 2004. Arguments to renew the ban happen periodically and a number of federals have enacted the bans.
The Sandy Hook basics school massacre in Newtown, Connecticut, which took place in December, 2012, caused a new round of ideas in relation to banning assault weapons as…
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…
References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.
Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)
Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)
L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Scholars believe the Fifth Amendment as competent of breaking down into five separate constitutional privileges. These include grand juries for capital offenses, a ban on double jeopardy, prevention against compulsory self-incrimination, an assurance that all criminal defendants will have a just trial, and an assurance that the government will not take private property without paying fair market worth. Although the Fifth Amendment initially only concerned federal courts, the U.S. Supreme Court has construed the Fifth Amendment's requirements as currently pertaining to the states by way of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Fifth Amendment, n.d.). In this case Victor Violent would be protected from testify against himself in his aggravated assault trial because of his Fifth Amendment protections.
In all criminal proceedings, the accused has the right to a speedy and open trial, by an unbiased jury of the State and district in which the crime was allegedly…
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reaffirm restrictive gun laws since the Second Amendment was not infringed by a law that requires firearm owners to demonstrate proper cause (Nimmo par, 2).
The unanimous decision by the three-judge panel was regarded as a victory for the New York State law, the American constitution, and families throughout New York who are appropriately concerned regarding the plight of gun violence that is a major problem to all communities. There are various groups in the gun industry such as the Second Amendment Foundation and the National Rifle Association have been filing cases against cities and states throughout the country on the basis of the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The ruling re-affirming restrictive gun control laws has followed the significant increase in the number of the sale of guns.
Gun Control Laws in Other States:
Generally, crime rates associated with gun violence have…
"Banning Assault Weapons - a Legal Primer for State and Local Action." Legal Community Against Violence. Legal Community Against Violence, Aug. 2005. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Baynes, Terry, Eddie Evans, and Todd Eastham. "Appeals Court Upholds New York Gun Licensing Law." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Garrett, Ben. "New York Gun Rights - an Overview of Gun Laws in New York." About.com - Civil Liberties. About.com., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Gius, Mark. "The Effect of Gun Ownership Rates on Homicide Rates: A State-level Analysis." Applied Economics Letters 16 (2009): 1687-690. Print.
Gun Control Legislation
The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…
Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html
Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).
Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-
236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).
The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…
Case for Gun Control. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~zj5j-gttl/guns.htm
Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States, 1962-1994. Retrieved November 05 from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/firarmsu.htm
Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Statistics Web site. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/fidc9397.htm
Firearms and Crime Statistics. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S.
United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.
Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).
The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the rady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…
Box, G.E.P. And G.M. Jenkins. (1976). Time-series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. San Francisco: Holden-Day.
Campbell, R.E., Tour, O., Palmer, A.E., Steinbach, P.A., Baird, G.S., Zacharias, D.A. And Tsien, R.Y. (2002) A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 7877- 7882.
Cook, P.J. (1983). The Influence of Gun Availability on Violent Crime Patterns. In N. Morris and M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, Vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cook, P.J. (1980) Reducing Injury and Death Rates in Robbery, Policy Analysis 6: 21-45
Many see gun control as a controversial topic that has sparked much debate. This gun control essay can offer ways to examine this topic from both the pro and against sides. By detailing the pros and cons of gun control, you will be able to see the impact on society. These examples include recent changes in laws, news stories associated with gun violence, and what other countries do about this highly debated subject. Examining a topic from both sides, it offers a deeper and richer understanding that cannot be achieved from one-sided analysis.
Gun Control: Examining Both Sides
Understanding Gun Control
The Impact of Gun Control on Violence
How Gun Control Influences Gun Violence
Gun Control and the Second Amendment
Countries that Ban Guns
Gun Control and the Safety of the Public
Gun Control Laws
B. Understanding Gun Control
Tighter egulations for Buying Guns
The argument essay tighter regulations buying guns proposed. An requirements word file.
In the recent past, there have been mass shootings that have taken place in different states within the United States. These mass shootings have caused many innocent people to loose their lives, and this has led to the citizens and leaders pushing for stricter control for firearms. In 2012, there were three major shootings that prompted legislators to take action against gun control. The first was the Chardon High School shooting, where a student went on a rampage killing three students and injuring several other students. The second event was the Colorado Theater shooting. In this event, the shooter killed 12 people and injured 58 others. The final event took place in December 2012. The incident occurred at Sandy Hook Elementary School where the shooter killed six adult staff and twenty children. The…
http://www.voanews.com/content/us-gun-control/1612162.html >Dockins, Pamela. "Us Lawmakers Consider Tighter Rules for Gun Buyers." Washington, D.C., 2013. Voice Of America.
Second mendment to the Constitution of the United States can often be as prevalent and potentially divisive as the First mendment, which covers freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the establishment caused which has come to justify the perceived separation of church and state. While there are practical and common-sense applications for gun ownership and rights, there are some weapons that probably shouldn't be in the hands of normal civilians and some people should not be allowed to own guns period due to things like felonious history, mental health issues and other similar conditions.
There has always been a butting of heads regarding what the Second mendment refers to and what it does not. To be precise, the ratified version of the Bill of Rights that was signed by Thomas Jefferson stated it "a well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of…
A map that shows where concealed carry is allowed and which states allow reciprocity with others.
Washburn, Michael. "Our Favorite Weapon." The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Jan. 2012. Web. 9 May 2014. .
A profile of prolific gun maker Glock and their ubiquity in the United States gun culture and the homes of owners.
Nationwide, those who attended graduate school were 11 percentage points more likely to vote for Kerry than those without a college education.
In other discoveries, Bush supporters believed overwhelmingly (72% to 26%) that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction (still). This is despite the fact that it was categorically established that Iraq had no such weapons.
Bush supporters also believed, in comparison to Kerry supporters, overwhelmingly that Iraq was tied to Al Queda, when again it was categorically established there existed no such ties.
This article continues to establish that Bush supporters voted for an image and a set of factual inconsistencies that they either mistakenly believed or wanted to believe, whereas Kerry's supporters voted on facts.
Despite Rhetoric, Bush, Kerry Agree on Many Issues. Washington Post: May 9, 2004.
Although many people felt the 2004 election was an epic clash between two completely opposing camps, in reality, both sides…
gun control, including counter arguments. Owning a gun is much more than just a statement about this country's Constitution and Second Amendment rights. Owning a gun is a measure of protection and freedom that illustrates the principles this country's founders created, and it is a right that Americans should not take for granted. Gun control is not a suitable method for controlling crime, and it has not been proven to help control violent crime.
First, it is imperative to define what "gun control" means, because it can mean different things to different people. Two experts note, "Gun control is an umbrella term covering everything from laws prohibiting the ownership of defined classes of firearms to mandating the inclusion of gun locks with every firearm sold" (Moorhouse & Wanner, 2006). Clearly, with such a broad definition, and differing meanings, gun control cannot be easily measured or understood, which is one of…
Beachler, D.W. (2003). Militias and segregationists: The politics of low turnout elections in the United States. Polity, 35(3), 441+.
Editors. (2003). Fact sheet: Stolen guns. Retrieved 6 July 2009 from the Johns Hopkins University Web site: http://www.jhsph.edu/gunpolicy/guns_theft_fs.pdf .
Moorhouse, J.C., & Wanner, B. (2006). Does gun control reduce crime or does crime increase gun control? The Cato Journal, 26(1), 103+.
Payne, B.K., & Riedel, R. (2002). Gun control attitudes and the criminal justice student: Do differences exist? College Student Journal, 36(2), 314+.
Opponents of gun control became more proactive and in 1977 after the capture of NA leader, they began to harm the reputation of the GCA officers and executives. They aimed to scare the gun owners into thinking that they will be harassed and prosecuted for possessing guns.
Opponents of gun control pushed the Carter administration to remove the proposals which aimed at changing the execution of the laws. After this was done they became even more proactive in their campaign (Vizzard, 1993; 228-235). In 1979 and 1980, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms was called in for Hearings in the Senate after they sidestepped Congress to trigger a change in policy utilizing executive power. While the federal administration had influenced this strategy on not only the treasury but also the ATF, they rapidly backed out from the ATF and dumped the strategy as they saw strong resistance (Vizzard, 1993;…
Barber, Benjamin R. (1984). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bruce-Biggs, B. (1976). The Great American Gun War. The Public Interest. 45, 37-62.
Cobb, Roger W. And Charles D. Elder, (1972). Participation in American Politics: The Dynamics of Agenda-Building. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Davidson, Osha Gray, (1993). Under Fire: The NRA and the Battle for Gun Control. New York: Henry Holt.
In this case it was the U.S. Vs. Miller in which the court had to rule on whether a sawed off shotgun has a reasonable relationship in the preservation of a well regulated militia (Gun Politics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_politics_in_the_United_States).
As recently as 2002, the Supreme Court dealt with issues of gun control with regard to felons owning them. In that decision the court ruled that no agency or state can allow a convicted felon to ever own a firearm for any reason.
By a unanimous vote, the nine justices held that a federal district court lacked the authority to order Texas gun dealer Thomas Lamar Bean's firearms privileges restored after the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms declined to consider his request because Congress had refused to give it money to do so (Lane, 2002)."
The concept of the second amendment is at the core of any Supreme Court hearing with…
Gun Politics (Accessed 4-8-07)
Lane Charles, (2002) Supreme Court Unanimously Affirms Gun Control Provision; Federal Courts May Not Restore Ownership Right to Felons.The Washington Post | Date: December 11, 2002 | Author: Charles Lane
____(2003) Gun rights showdown / Assault rifle ban goes before Supreme Court
The latter was skeptical, referring to the device as "a pretty mechanical toy" (Harris 31) but everybody else was favorably impressed and the ar Office continued enthusiastically to support tank development. "Mother" became the basis for the Mark I tank, the first mass-produced tracked armored fighting vehicle in history. The Mark I, powered by two diesel engines, was built in two versions, "male" which mounted four machine guns and two 6-pounder naval guns in protruding barbettes, and "female" which carried machine guns only. The male version was intended as an assault weapon; the female tanks were designed to protect their male counterparts and each other by using machine guns to mow down attacking infantry who might otherwise swamp and overcome the tanks (Harris 31-2). This huge, heavy, lozenge-shaped monster became the pattern for the classic First orld ar tank, through to the Mark VIII of 1918.
The tanks were ready…
Bourne, J.M. Britain and the Great War 1914-1918. London: Edward Arnold, 1989.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War - Tanks." First World War.com: A Multimedia History of World War One. 2002. 20 Nov. 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/tanks.htm .
Harris, J.P. Men, Ideas and Tanks. British Military Thought and Armoured Forces, 1903-1939. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Reid, Brian Holden. "The Tank: Visions of Future War." History Today Dec. 1987: 36-41.
More than any phrase, memorable quote, or image, let me leave you with these statistics: 14,000 routine killings committed in 2005 with guns, to which must be added 16,000 suicides by firearm and 650 fatal accidents. The NRA says that 'guns don't kill, people kill.' Perhaps this is true, but guns certainly make it much, much easier ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007).
Full text of speech
General Subject: Gun Control
Specific Subject: Problem/Solution
General Purpose: To persuade my audience to support the strengthening of gun control laws
Specific Audience-centered Purpose: After hearing my speech, members of the audience will support the passage of gun control laws, including stricter background checks and limits upon the type of weapons that can be purchased by civilians.
A. Attention Step:
One sunny day in March, at a gun store in Virginia, a young man named Cho Seung-hui walked into a…
National ifle Association (NA) represents individuals and groups who are concerned about losing their right to own guns and as a hunter this is of utmost importance to me. They are concerned about losing the right to keep and bear arms which is guaranteed to the citizenry of the United States of America by the Second Amendment of the Constitution in the Bill of ights. In their view, they are protectors of the Constitution and almost always support the epublican party and oppose the Democratic party because they feel their issues are better supported by the politics of the epublican party. Typically, the National ifle Association's main opposition is comprised of gun control advocates (and Democrats). Currently, the National ifle Association is lobbying strongly against The Sportsmen's Act of 2012, as well as paying close attention to gun control bans, and laws regarding assault weapons (NA-ILA, 2012). Without the National…
Henigan, D. (2009, Dec. 23). Who Does the NRA Represent? Retrieved from The Huffington
Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dennis-a-henigan/who-does-the-nra-represen_b_402318.html
National Rifle Association (2012, Nov 29). A Brief History of the NRA. Retrieved from NRA
Militarization of Police
The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.
The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…
Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers
Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/
Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
However, this is a common, recurrent theme that has been injected into the public sphere by private interests. As a result, it dominates a substantial amount of discourse in the public sphere, and even people like Griffin and ostron, who believe that it is demoralizing and misleading and state those beliefs publicly, have had little success in challenging this misconception. Therefore, to have a real gun control debate in the public sphere, it is necessary to investigate whether proposed gun control laws would have had an impact on some of these crimes. In the instances of these massacre-shootings, over and over again it appears that the gunmen purchased their weapons and ammunition legally, rather than going to illegal sources for their weapons. They were not prevented from doing so by current gun-laws, but many of them had behavioral flags that may have led to gun-restrictions under more exacting laws. For…
Blendon, R., Young, J.T., & Hemenway, D. (1996). The American public and the gun control debate. JAMA, 275(22), 1719-1722.
Castells, M. (2008). The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks, and global governance. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 78-93.
Goss, K.A. (2006). Disarmed: The missing movement for gun control in America. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press.
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…
First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. 2003. Web. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5214a2.htm
Horner, William T. Showdown in the Show-Me State: The Fight over Conceal-and-Carry Gun Laws in Missouri. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2005.Questia. Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
Patrick, Ryan. Ron Paul Introduces Bill to Abolish 'Gun-Free Zones'. August 2011. Web.
There is a lot of talk about school shootings and how to prevent them—especially in the wake of the most recent shooting in Florida, where 17 individuals lost their lives. Some say that guns should be banned (Ingraham). Others say the age limit should be raised (Epstein, Dopp) and that teachers should be armed (Rucker). Others view gun ownership as an unalienable right protected by the Constitution (Peck). And while guns themselves receive a lot of attention after such incidents, they are not the only factor. Family life, drug usage, and even other elements—such as the inability of federal and local law enforcement agents to act on tips to prevent a situation from worsening (Benner, Mazzei, Goldman; Brown). The fact of the matter is that there are many variables and factors involved in every school shooting, and no two cases are alike—so establishing a plan to prevent them is much…
Attitude Change & Persuasion
Examine the functions of attitudes and use appropriate examples to support the discussion.
Mark Snyder and Kenneth G. DeBono reference "functional theories" about attitudes; they explain that the functional aspect of attitudes allows people to "…execute plans and achieve goals" (Snyder, et al., 1989). Interestingly, the functional theory often serves "…very different functions for different people" because albeit two people may have very "similar attitudes," the persuasive conditions that are needed to change those similar attitudes may "…be quite different" (Snyder, 340). That last sentence is backed up by the fact that in order to "successfully change an attitude," the specific function that is being served by that attitude must be addressed, Synder continues.
The authors provide four different functions that attitudes can perform. The first function they call "Ego-Defensive"; people protect themselves from "accepting truths about themselves" that are not desirable truths (and may be…
Hansen, Flemming Yssing, and Christiansen, Sverre Riis. (2007). Emotions, Advertising and Consumer Choice. Frederiksberg, DK: Copenhagen Business School Press.
O'Guinn, Thomas, Allen, Chris T., and Semenik, Richard J. (2008). Advertising & Integrated
Brand Promotion. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Snyder, Mark, and DeBono, Kenneth G. (1989). "Understanding the Functions of Attitudes:
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (hiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…
Harwood, V. (2011). Connecting the Dots: Threat Assessment, Depression and the Troubled
Student. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(5), 586-593.
Klebold, S. (2009). "I Will Never Know Why." The Oprah Magazine. Retrieved January
24, 2014, from http://www.oprah.com.
Television and Cultural Plagues in America
American society is both one of the most litigious and one of the most violent in the world. ut violence is not the only cultural quagmire: Sexual promiscuity -- along with the itinerant sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies -- is another cultural minefield. And of course, racism, drug use and alcohol abuse are other major, seemingly unsolvable problems.
A common thread behind these social problems is the fact that social critics and activists blame television and its centrality to American culture for all. Television's pervasiveness especially among children is the concern. Today, often with both parents working and out of the house, latchkey kids come home from school and immediately turn on the television and start absorbing its disparate and often uncontrolled and only lightly censored messages.
Consequently, activists point their finger at television for corrupting the minds of our youth and steering…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Television and the Family. http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org / .
Christenson, Peter. Substance Abuse in Popular Prime Time Television. Mediascope, Inc.: 2000.
Collins, Rebecca L., Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B. Hunter, and Angela Miu, "Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior," RAND Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 3, September 2004.
Congress can pass specific legislation to control what types of guns are sold, to whom, and how. The U.S. Supreme Court rules on whether congressional laws are in keeping with the letter and/or the spirit of the Second Amendment.
edefinitions of the problem
The current debate over gun control is so volatile because even supporters of gun control acknowledge that it cannot be 100% effective. The school shooter in Sandy Hook, for example, was able to obtain guns legally given that his mother was an avid gun collector. However, there are also examples of persons with questionable mental health histories, such as the Virginia Tech killer, who likely would have been prohibited from owning a weapon had he been forced to submit to a background check. "Seung-Hui Cho, who killed 32 people in 2007 on the picturesque Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, had been deemed mentally ill by a judge,…
Johns, Joe. (2013). Would background checks have stopped recent mass shootings? Probably not. CNN. Retrieved: http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/10/politics/background-checks-mass-shootings
Pickler, Needra. (2013). Obama taking action on gun background check system
Yahoo. Retrieved: http://news.yahoo.com/obama-taking-action-gun-background-check-system-100127550 -- politics.html
U.S. Supreme Court in D.C. v. Heller. (2004). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
Both purposes mean that they were used to kill human beings. By comparison, long guns served many purposes. Early settlers often had to hunt for their food. To take their guns would mean that they would risk starvation. They were also used for defense, and early skirmishes of the Revolutionary War were fought by militiamen - private citizens who brought their own long guns to fight the British.
One of the strongest arguments against laws restricting handguns come from those who believe there should be no restrictions whatsoever on firearms. They argue that those who argue against handguns have a hidden agenda. They argue that people against handguns actually want to ban all guns for all purposes, including for target practice and hunting. They feel that they must fight restrictions on any guns to protect their Constitutional right to bear arms. However, this argument doesn't make sense to most people.…
educing Youth Firearm Injuries and Suicides
Community Collaboration -- Gun Laws
In 2012, 9-year-old Maximos Herbert discovered a loaded and unlocked gun underneath his father's bed and a few minutes later an accidental gunshot wound to the head ended his life (Brindley, 2013). According to the prosecutor who charged Mr. Herbert with negligent storage of firearms, parents involved in such incidents are so traumatized by the death or injury of their child that rarely are they prosecuted or serve time. Yet parents continue to store loaded and unlocked guns in their homes. To make matters worse the National ifle Association (NAs) continues to promote gun ownership among 5- to 12-year-olds with similarly tragic results (DeFilippis & Hughes, 2014). In Kentucky, 2-year-old Caroline Starks was fatally shot by her 5-year-old brother minutes after he received a .22 caliber rifle for his birthday. The mother, believing the rifle was unloaded, had left…
Brindley, M. (2013, February 12). Keeping guns loaded, unlocked at home with children can be deadly. Retrieved from http://nhpr.org/post/keeping-guns-loaded-unlocked-home-children-can-be-deadly .
Center for Prevention Research and Development. (2006). Evidence-based practices for effective community coalitions. Champaign, IL: Center for Prevention Research and Development, Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois. Retrieved from http://www.cprd.illinois.edu/files/CoalitionBestPractices.pdf .
Children's Safety Network. (2013). Prevention of firearm-related injuries & death: Resource Guide 2013. Retrieved from http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/sites/childrenssafetynetwork.org/files/FirearmResourceGuide2013.pdf .
Clark, N.M., Doctor, L.J., Friedman, A.R., Lachance, L.L., Houle, C.R., Geng, X. et al. (2006). Community coalitions to control chronic disease: Allies Against Asthma as a model and case study. Health Promotion Practice, 7(2), 14S-22S.
And as to reportedly lax laws that make it reasonably easy to purchase a weapon at a gun show, Kleck asserts "...determined killers who plan their murders over a long period of time are the people least likely to be blocked from getting a gun by background checks." The perpetrators who are "most strongly motivated" and have long-range plans are also likely the "most motivated and able to evade the controls," he explains.
The bottom line for Kleck is that quick-fixes based on the emotion and passion stirred up by wall-to-wall coverage of a massacre are rarely, if ever, legitimate solutions. This is why he chose the title. In making his case as cogently and calmly as possible, he writes, "assessments of preventative measures based on a narrow focus on violent events that did occur" are "inherently misleading." The reason they are misleading is that they focus "only" on the…
Kleck, Gary. "There Are No Lessons to Be Learned from Littleton." Criminal Justice Ethics
18.1 (1999): Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics (Thompson Gale Database).
ut, even though we have the rady ill, homicides keep going up. Critics of the rady ill suggest that this means that the rady ill doesn't work and we ought to get rid of it. However, what it really means is that we need to do even more to strengthen gun control measures. For example, the rady ill ought to include sales by non-dealers as well as sales by licensed gun dealers and ought to incorporate mandatory sentences for attempted illegal purchases of guns. Organizations such as the NRA will no doubt attempt to frighten Americans into believing that they are losing their constitutional right to keep and bear arms. However, the wide-spread support of the rady ill indicates that Americans aren't that stupid. Americans want responsible sales of guns and are willing to tolerate some inconvenience to protect their safety. And, politicians have withstood the pressure of the NRA…
Anderson, J. (1996). Inside the NRA: Armed and dangerous: An expose. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Dove Books.
Brady Act background checks: The first seven months (2000, January 2). http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa010200a.htm
Brady Handgun Violence Protection Act. Wikipedia. http://www.answers.com/topic/brady-handgun-violence-prevention-act
Did Brady bill block handgun sales? (1998, June 22). Capital Hill Blue. http://www.guncite.com/bradybilljun22.html
Homegrown Terrorism by Mantri (2011) looks at the phenomenon of homegrown terrorism in the United States. It shows that the nature of the threat of domestic terrorism is not comparable to the type of existential threat that the U.S. experienced throughout the duration of the Cold War. Nonetheless, the reality of homegrown terrorism is one that has to be confronted, and the Department of Homeland Security appears to be unable to effectively confront the issue, as the recent string of domestic terror attacks indicates (Mantri, 2011). The article recommends that the U.S. "harness the innate goodwill" of Americans overseas in an effort to combat the growth of domestic radicalization and domestic terrorism (Mantri, 2011, p. 88).
The key findings and issues of the article are that radicalization and homegrown terrorism are occurring in the U.S. in spite of the efforts of Homeland Security and other government agencies. Data is gathered…
Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim
sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.
Mantri, G. (2011). Homegrown Terrorism. Harvard International Review, 33(1), 88.
Sheridan, L. (2006). Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(3): 317-336.
One of the key social problems currently being faced in the United States is the gun control issue. In the contemporary, there is considerable and contentious debate regarding whether there should be more restrictions on the prevailing process or practice of purchasing and owing a gun or not. In particular, this social issue had great significance in the everyday lives of the general public with regard to safety and security. Gun holders across the nation have been involved in incidents of shooting other individuals prompting gun violence. This paper seeks to examine the issue of gun control, delineating the cultural and structural aspects that fashion the problem, the sociological standpoint and the social change necessitated in remedying the problem.
Cultural and Structural Factors
Gun control as a social issue is influenced by cultural and structural factors. There is actual and representational importance of gun ownership for millions of…
Beckett, L. (2016). What could actually work to fix gun violence in America -- and what doesn't. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/23/gun-control-violence-what-works-what-doesnt
Henigan, D. A. (2011). Is Gun Control a Social Issue? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dennis-a-henigan/is-gun-control-a-cultural_b_219136.html
Perez-Pena, R. (2015). Gun Control Explained. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0
Speiser, M. (2015). DEAR AMERICA: Here's why everyone thinks you have a problem with guns. Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/americas-gun-problem-2015-6?IR=T#the-previous-map-bears-an-eerie-resemblance-to-this-one-which-shows-each-states-stance-on-the-concealed-carry-of-firearms-12
District of Columbia v. Heller Case Brief
Case Facts: The District of Columbia Code prohibited carrying an unregistered firearm and banned the registration of handguns through its provisions. However, the provisions granted the chief of police the liberty to grant one-year licenses for handguns. Additionally, the Code required individuals owning legitimately registered firearms to keep them unloaded and disassembled or with locked trigger unless they were in business places or being utilized for legalized recreational activities.
A special police officer in Washington, D.C., Dick Anthony Heller, was permitted to carry a handgun while on duty. He applied for a one-year registration license from the city of Washington for a handgun he wanted to keep at home. Based on the provisions of the District of Columbia Code, Heller's application was rejected. Consequently, he sued the District of Columbia on the premise that the provisions of this Code violated the Second Amendment.…
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
" It should be noted that Perriello supported a "Republican version" (House.gov) of PAYGO that supported stronger restrictions on spending. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello even posted an update on Twitter, stating that he was "very pleased that PAYGO passed the House" (Twitter.com). Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). hile still a freshman in ashington, Perriello has demonstrated…
Gibson, Bob. "Perriello Enters Race for 5th seat; Hopeful Seeks to Bring Faith, Global Experience to D.C." The Daily Progress. Charlottesville, Va.: Oct 7, 2007.
Goldsmith, Will. "Can he go the Distance? Tom Perriello hits Southside in his effort to beat Virgil Goode." Charlottesville News and Arts. < http://www.c-ville.com/index.php?cat=121304062461064&ShowArticle_ID=11800610083997492 >
Lithwick, Dahlia. "Goode Riddance." Slate Online. 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/2204124/
Mission and Vision.
Battle Analysis of the Battle of Hue City
The battle for Hue city took place over twenty-six days as part of the larger Tet Offensive, and examining this battle in particular will demonstrate some of the nine principles of war in great detail. In particular, by examining some of the problems presented to Marines in the Battle for Hue city and the ways in which they ultimately dealt with those problems will reveal how both sides of the battle enacted the nine principles of war to varying degrees of effect and success, and point out how the lack of certain principles resulted in the high rate of casualties and the length of the battle.
Before examining the particulars of the battle in more detail, it will be useful to note some aspects of Hue city itself, as a way of understanding the context of the battle. Nearly any critical work…
Cooling, Norman L. "Hue City, 1968: Winning a battle while losing a war." Marine Corps
Gazette. 85.7 (2001): 64-76. Print.
Lawler, Andrew. "The battle for Hue City." United States Naval Institute. 125.7 (1999): 92-93.
Overall, what Kleck is saying is that knee-jerk reactions that happen after the fact can, and in this case do, get falsely validated.
Second, Kleck uses solid data in the form of documented statistics to show that despite indications to the contrary on the part of the popular culture, it is a fact that gun violence has been decreasing steadily in recent years, those events of gun related violence that do occur rarely happen in schools, and also rarely involve multiple numbers of victims. Therefore, Kleck is saying that the assumption that there is a growing epidemic of mass gun murders on the part of young people against their own school populations is false.
Third, Kleck makes the point that laws passed in the aftermath of Littleton, meant to tighten control on guns, gun shows, and violent acts committed on school grounds do little to make a difference in any…
Kleck, Gary. "There Are No Lessons to Be Learned from Littleton." Criminal Justice Ethics 18.1 (1999): 2.
Beltway Sniper and the cases that are being presented against those who committed the crimes. There are several competing interests in the case including rights, responsibilities and issues. This paper attempts to determine what interests takes first place and who those interests belong too. The writer also argues that if the interests compete or clash with each other than the premium must be placed on the loss of human life, even over the federal charges about transporting guns intrastate illegally. There was one source used to complete this paper.
The nation was held in fear as the Beltway Sniper took hold. The sniper attacked again and again with little rhyme or reason as to who the next victim might be. Authorities were unable to get a handle on why the shootings were happening and what the benefit for the sniper might be. Those who lived in the area of the…
Case analysis on Beltway Sniper accessed 3-29-2003
Source: http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/jamuhammadD1.html )
Ann Richards, one of the most colorful individuals elected governor in Texas was born Dorothy Ann illis on September 1, 1933, in Lakeview, Texas (Biography Pp). She graduated from aco High School in 1950 and attended Baylor University on a debate scholarship and after graduating, earned her teaching certificate from the University of Texas at Austin (Biography Pp). She taught social studies and history at Fulmore Junior High School in Austin from 1955-1956 (Biography Pp). Richards married her high school sweetheart, David Richards, and had two daughters and two sons (Texas Pp). It was at the University of Texas where Richards first became politically active and has continued throughout her life volunteering in local and statewide campaigns and working for critical social causes (Biography Pp).
Richards campaigned for candidates such as Henry B. Gonzalez, Ralph Yarborough, and Sarah eddington (Texas Pp). She eventually entered politics herself by becoming the first…
Biography of Ann Richards
Texas State Library and Archives Commission
For anyone paying attention, it is extremely obvious that marketing pervades American society and it also has a heavy bearing on what people buy, why they buy them and even who they vote for. Whether it be cars, watches, clothes or other things, people are very much influenced or perhaps even coerced by the marketing that they are exposed to. Then there is the motley crew of celebrities that hock the wares in question, with some of them being of questionable moral character. At the same time, there is such a thing as self-responsibility, self-restraint and self-accountability. While advertising can make a product alluring and attractive, the responsibility to shop and buy wisely ultimately falls on the consumer and not the marketer.
Marketing's Influence on Society
There is a reason why people gravitate to brand names like Cadillac, Gucci and Coach. Not only are the products shown to…
Bailes, J. (2015). PR, Social Control and Revolt: An Interview with Stuart Ewen by Jon Bailes. Stateofnature.org. Retrieved 15 December 2015, from http://www.stateofnature.org/?p=5988
Insite. (2015). PR!: A Social History of Spin, Stuart Ewen - Insite. Insite. Retrieved 15 December 2015, from http://www.insiteproject.org/book/pr-a-social-history-of-spin-stuart-ewen/
Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()
In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
As one would expect, the police are aggressive, noticeable and thespian. It is easy for them to happen to be the objects and representatives of order, jeopardy, and inscrutability. They not only mark the boundaries of an urbane organization and regulation but also are the boundary markers themselves. They have vast authority over the legal resources including lethal and nonlethal weapons, specialized vehicles, adequate personnel etc. (Manning, 2008). In American society, the most significant revolution taking place in policing today is possibly associated with information technology. A majority of the police agencies are using the Internet to transmit information to the public. They are also making use of cell phones to be in touch with others while in the field. Moreover, mobile computers are also being used in order to retrieve information straight away. Nevertheless, it is crystal clear that this is just the beginning. The information technology…
Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.cdac.in/html/pdf/geom4.pdf
Manning, P.K. (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved May 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=118077707
The first world war effectively drilled into Europe and America the terror of modern rifle-based warfare. Rifles could keep people penned in their trenches, or kill anything that moved out of them. Rifle-defended trenches were highly effective at stopping invasions (a fact that the American South should have considered during the Civil War), but one could make very few advances from them. However, by the time of the second world war, the lessons of the rifles had been relatively well learned. In preparing for the next war, Germany invented "lightening strike" capacities, focusing on mobility and range and suppressive fire. "Speed, and still more speed, and always speed was the secret... And that demanded audacity, more audacity and always audacity." During that war, cover was provided for the rifle-bearing infantry by planes and tanks, and once a hole was made in defenses, infantry could pass through without running a…
Civil War Preservation Trust. "Small Arms." Civil War Preservation Trust History Center and Classroom. http://civilwar.org/historyclassroom/hc_smallarmshist.htm .(accessed 21 April 2005).
Columbia University Press. "Total War and Mechanized War." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861328.html .(accessed 21 April 2005).
Dick Weeks. "Weapons of the American Civil War." Home of the Civil War. http://www.civilwarhome.com/weapons.htm .(accessed 21 April 2005).
DDerby. "Rifle." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rifles .(accessed 21 April 2005).
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) has re-emerged among the list of most critical terrorist organizations fighting the federal government of the epublic of the Philippines (GP), America, and it is allies within Southeast Asia. Established in 1991 by Abdurrajak Janjalani, a veteran in the Afghan Mujiheddin as well as associate of Osama bin Laden, the gang rapidly rose to popularity as being a deadly terrorist group dedicated to the institution of a separate Islamic county. Together with cash from Saudi charitable organizations managed by bin Laden's relative, Mohammad Jamal Khalifa, the ASG progressed rapidly. The gang targeted its terrorist, killing, as well as kidnapping initiatives on sectarian targets. But, following a plot directed by amzi Yousef along with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to explode Eleven U.S. airliners as well as assassinate the Pope, Khalifa's and also the ASG's functions had been exposed (Laude, 2004).
Khalifa had been struggling to go back to…
Fellman, Z. (2011). Abu Sayyaf Group. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Aqam Futures Project Case Study Series.
Abuza, Z. (2005). Balik-Terrorism: The Return of The Abu Sayyaf. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi
Rodell, Paul. "The Philippines and the Challenge of International Terrorism," in Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. Ed. By Paul J. Smith, ed. New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2005.
Gomez, J. (2005). Terror Suspect Details Training, Plots, AP.
To distinguish battery from assault, the major deciding factor is whether there has been an actual touching of the victim. If so, the crime can only be battery. However, if there has been no such touching, then the act may or may not constitute an assault, depending on the circumstances and the wording of the law.
All jurisdictions include certain aggravating factors that raise a simple assault to an aggravated assault, which are typically felonies. These aggravating circumstances include using a dangerous or deadly weapon and/or having the intent to rape, maim or murder the victim.
An example of an aggravated assault, which is a felony, would be if Jack threatened to hit John with a baseball bat and came swinging at him. In the case at hand, if Sharon had missed her husband, her act would most likely be held as an aggravated assault. However, once the contact or…
Klotter, John C., and Joycelyn M. Pollock. (2006): Criminal Law. 8th ed. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
Padfield, Nicola. (2004): Criminal Law. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dix, George E. (2001): Gilbert Law Summaries: Criminal Law. Barbri Group.
Dressler, Joshua, and Frank R. Strong. (2006): Understanding Criminal Law. Newark: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase.
Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
State v. Stark (1992)
Mr. Stark was the defendant in this case which concerned her action of infecting three women with HIV sexually. He tested positive for HIV, which was then confirmed twice by doing two other independent tests. As an ordinary procedure, Stark was taken through counseling sessions to make him aware of the risk involved in handling HIV. He was informed about the risk of the disease spreading and the importance of making his partner aware before having any sexual escapades with her. However, he disregarded this advice and this came to the knowledge of the county health officer who sought a cease and desist order as allowed by the state statute. Stark did not comply. The officer then asked for judicial enforcement and later filed a police report about the matter.
The police obtained evidence in form of testimony from the three victims who confirmed that they…
"Noting the high rate at which young, black males are stopped by police and the fact that it is currently a felony to possess a concealed handgun, he said that an honest, law-abiding, young, black male would be 'nuts' to carry a concealed handgun in Illinois" (2010: 74). It cannot be denied that people living in urban areas who must defend themselves with concealed handguns have the most to gain from passing conceal and carry laws. The absent of police protection is, in general, more absent from these areas than other less-dangerous neighborhoods, which seems ironic. Lott states that in a 1982 American Housing Survey, 60 thousand households were asked if their neighborhoods had adequate police protection. lack, urban area residents were twice as likely as whites to report that they did not have adequate protection, and six times more likely to say that they had considered moving because of…
"Approve Conceal-carry Law in Illinois | Illinois, Right, People." The Telegraph. 9 Mar.
2011. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. http://www.thetelegraph.com/articles/illinois-51389-right-people.html
"Concealed Carry Legislation: An Examination of the Facts." Wisconsin Policy Research
Institute Report 19.4 (2006). Print.
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
Laws & regulations not adequate enough:
egistration & Licensing
National ifle Association (NA):
Sandy Hook and Colorado:
No need for assault rifles:
Government and Private protection:
Political and Social pressure:
Counter Argument & ebuttal:
Public will not be able to protect itself:
Hand guns and law enforcement enough for public protection:
The possession of guns is considered as a matter of tradition and heritage of the society. However the usage of automatic guns in violent crimes has initiated a concern for society to urge government for imposition of strict gun control laws. The previous laws should be changed to restrict automatic rifles possession and sales. The high powered weapons should also avoided by the public to evade unnecessary violence. United States is country that allowed its citizen to…
Bright, J.C. (2010). Violent Felonies under the Residual Clause of the Armed Career Criminal Act: Whether Carrying a Concealed Handgun without a Permit Should is considered a Violent Felony. Duq. L. Rev., 48, 601.
Carter, G.L. (2006). Gun control in the United States: A reference handbook. USA: Abc-clio, LLC.
Cook, P.J., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A.A. (2007). Underground Gun Markets*. The Economic Journal, 117(524), F588-F618.
Kellner, D. (2008). Guys and guns amok: Domestic terrorism and school shootings from the Oklahoma City bombing to the Virginia Tech massacre. USA: Paradigm Pub.
Intelligence in War: Iraq, WMDS, and the Rise of the Policymakers
In 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the UN Security Council that Iraq had mobile weapons labs and was in possession of uranium, which was being used in the country's WMD program. His testimony was based on faulty U.S. and British Intelligence: the invasion of Iraq that followed found no evidence of such labs or of such a program. Joe Wilson, husband of CIA operations officer Valerie Plame and former U.S. Ambassador to Gabon penned an op-ed for The New York Times entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa" -- a piece that described how neither he nor Ambassador Owens-Kirkpatrick had uncovered any evidence of Niger uranium sales to Iraq.[footnoteRef:1] Both Owens-Kirkpatrick and Wilson, moreover, had submitted briefings to the CIA to this point. Nonetheless, the CIA along with British intelligence stood by as the narrative…
A number of excuses are given over the course of the film. The brother and sister of one of the perpetrators said they initially assumed the killer was drunk and disoriented. Later, they say that they didn't want to be involved in something 'negative.' The girlfriend of one of the killers also said he initially sounded drunk and confused. When she discovered the body of the victim, she called 911, but refused to give much information. The mother of one of the killer's friends says she was initially told the victim was fine, and then assumed he had been taken to an area hospital after the body was discovered. When 911 was called -- twice -- the vague attitude of both of the callers caused emergency personnel to treat the call as a non-emergency.
Source: Prevos, Peter. (2006, January 3). Explanation models for the bystander effect…
This was part of Lt. Kuribayashi's plan to allow U.S. assault forces to land on the shore and to hold off attacking them until they began to move inland. As American marines advanced onto the Island, Kuribayashi's hidden machine gun nests dug into the island opened up and inflicted very heavy casualties. The interconnected bunkers enabled the Japanese forces to retreat under attack and then emerge from other bunkers behind American the lines of American advances to attack them from their rear
(Bishop & McNab, 2007; ay, 2003).
After four days of fighting since the February 19, 1945, U.S. marines captured
Mt. Suribachi, the highest point on the Island on February 23rd (Ambrose, 2001; Bishop & McNab, 2007; ay, 2003). Five marines and one Navy corpsman erected a small U.S.
flag that was immediately ordered replaced with a larger flag so that it would be visible to the entire island…
Ambrose, S. (2001). The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Bishop, C., McNab, C. (2007). Campaigns of World War II Day By Day. London, UK:
Commager, H., Miller, D. (2002). The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager. New York: Bantam
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.