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Astrology versus AstronomyOn the one hand, astrology maintains that the positions and movements of celestial bodies exert a powerful but nebulous influence on humans in supernatural ways. While astrology has declined in popularity and hard-core believers in the United States over the past century, it did experience a brief resurgence as part of the new wave movement in the closing years of the 20th century but it never regained its status as an academic discipline which it enjoyed during the 18th and 19th centuries. On the other hand, astronomy uses a scientific approach to exploring and understanding the unimaginably enormous cosmos that surrounds the Earth. Although few people would likely claim that astronomy is a bogus enterprise, there are some issues that make this scientific discipline comparable to the limitations of astrology in the minds of some observers. To determine the facts, the purpose of this paper is to provide…
Geller, M. J. (2011). The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine. Sudhoffs Archives, 95(2), 158–169.
Hirsch, A. (1997, January 28). So long, psychic friend. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-1997-01-28-1997028045-story.html .
Kallery, M. (2001). Early-years Educators’ Attitudes to Science and Pseudo-science: the case of astronomy and astrology. European Journal of Teacher Education, 24(3), 329–342.
Survival of Zi Wei Do Shu or the Purple Star Astrology
The psychology and behavior of individuals has been studied using the astrological structured for years, however this aspect has not been evaluated and researched in detail especially in the context of the Purple Star Astrology from the Chinese Astrological Structures. This section reveals a concise, yet comprehensive review of preceding theories and researches of human behavior and psychology existent within the Chinese culture, particularly Hong Kong, based on the structures of the Purple Star phenomenon, which have had a significant influence on the study of consumer behavior and psychology within the specified region as well as the West. The aim and objective of this section is to draw a profound theoretical foundation to solve the current existence and relevance of the Purple Star Astrology (Bonaiuto et al., 2010).
esearch pertaining to human behavior and psychology has primarily focused on…
Ajzen, I. (1985). "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior." In J. Kuhi & J. Beckmann (Eds.), "Action -- control: From cognition to behavior" (pp. 11 -- 39). Heidelberg: Springer.
Bagozzi, R.P. And L. Kyu-Hyun (2002). "Multiple routes for social influence: The role of compliance, internalization, and social identity." Social Psychology Quarterly 65(3): 226.
Bouma, G.D. (2002). The research process. 4th Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brian W. Kelly. (2004). "Doing Less, Spending More. (Innovative activation, blurred lines of sponsorship, solid back-end research and measurement helped the sponsorship industry)." Promo. Taken from: www.highbeam.com.
Whenever a person planted a garden or changed a landscape in any way, it was important to be sure that this balance was taken into consideration. A second school of feng shui was developed in order to show the best places for objects. This school used a grid, compass, and square to determine where objects are in harmony with one another ("Feng Shui," 2009).
Today, it is this school of feng shui that is most often practiced and that is very popular in the West. Home designers place the bagua, an octagon shaped chart divided into eight sections, which represent the eight sections of life that must be balanced: career, marriage and relationships, family and health, wealth, helpful people, children and creativity, knowledge, and fame, as well as the four essential elements and other components. By placing this chart over the plan of a room, home designers can arrange furniture…
Discover Chinese Astrology. (2007). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Fire Pig:
Feng Shui. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Microsoft Encarta:
Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.
The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.
Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…
Smith, David. "The Nature of Science."
Augustine's main problem when it came to conceiving of the spiritual nature of God? What solution did he find?
Before answering this question, it is important to clarify what exactly is meant by "spiritual nature of God." Many things could be meant by this phrase, but for the purposes of this essay, I stipulate that it refers to "any substance... other than that which the eyes normally perceive" (Conf., VII.i.1). In many senses, Augustine was rather positivistic in his inability to imagine that things existed beyond what his physical eyes could see. He relied completely on his physical senses for information concerning the nature of reality, and was intent on describing the world around him strictly in human terms. Thus his difficulties with understanding what people meant when they portrayed God in ways that were not readily evident to his five senses:
was becoming a grown man. But the older…
One personality profile gives "a person who likes change" as one of its assessments. Scrutinizing the statement, one will see that this is likely to apply to almost everyone. First, it does not specify in what aspect in life the person likes change, making it open to personal interpretations. Second, possibility is huge that people are likely to favor change in at least one of the aspects of their lives, given that people are dynamic by nature. Check the tool's background and be not surprised if it is not rooted on solid research ground -- validity or reliability is low, sample used was not representative of the population and standardization was not strictly applied, among others.
Beware of selective perceptions. People fall for the trap of seeing vague descriptions as accurate because of the tendency to bring it down to the personal level. However, recall of personally-relevant information is subject…
MacDonald, D.J. & Standing, L.G. (2002). Does Self-Serving Bias Cancel the Barnum Effect? Social Behavior and Personality, 30 (6), 625-630.
Ulrich, C. (2004). Dissecting the Process of Reasoning. Human Ecology, 32 (2), 15-19.
Wittrock, D.A. & Foraker, S.L. (2001). Tension-Type Headache and Stressful Events: The Selective Memory in Reporting of Stressors. The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 41(5), 482-493.
He died four years before Peurbach's matriculation, leaving the University without an astronomy lecturer. However, his library and instruments were probably accessible to Peurbach.
While it is known that Peurbach travelled throughout Europe between the years 1448 and 1453, there is no record of the precise dates. At the time, he also had an international reputation as an astronomer of note, despite the fact that he had not publications at the time. He did however lecture in Germany, France and Italy.
After lecturing at Bologna and Padua, these universities offered him permanent appointments as lecturer, but Peurbach turned these down. During his travels he also met the leading Italian astronomer of the time, Giovanni Bianchini, in Ferrara. Bianchini also offered Peurbach a post at an Italian university. Peurbach however remained unwilling to be tied to any specific institution of learning and turned down the offer. In 1453, Peurbach returned to…
McFarlane, Thomas J. (2004). Nicholas of Cusa and the Infinite. http://www.integralscience.org/cusa.html
O'Connor, JJ & Robertson, EF (2006). Georg Peurbach. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Peurbach.html
O'Connor, JJ & Robertson, EF (1996). Nicolas of Cusa. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Cusa.html
Paris actually has two Chinatowns, the 13th district in the southeast and the 19th district in the northwest. Both offer a lot in terms of history, attractions, celebrations and traditions. In fact, the Chinese offer so much that even the culture-biased French are beginning to actively embrace the Chinese in their country. This paper explains why there is so much interest.
The 13th district, on the left bank, really took off in the late 1970's and early 1980's with the arrival of the boat people from Vietnam. Parisians had shunned what they considered to be the ugly and impersonal buildings constructed in that area by the Gaullist government. However, Asians found the area attractive because it offered affordable rents and lots of space. This area has become the largest Chinatown in Europe.
In the mid-1980's, less-educated peasants from rural China began moving into the 19th district, Belleville.
"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .
"Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .
"A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .
rise of Hindu Fundamentalism
At the turn of the century, religious fundamentalism has emerged as a well-known trend; a custom of mind found within religious communities and paradigmatically incarnated in certain typical individuals and activities. The harassed supporters try to protect their distinctive group identity by its expressions as a strategy. The supporters strengthen it by selective recovery of doctrines, viewpoint and practices from a sacred past, feeling that this identity will be at danger in the contemporary era. This assortment is cautiously done so that it is not only attractive to the spectators but also satisfactory. Actually, fundamentalist movements selects and chooses cautiously among inherited doctrines and practices, as well as cloaking innovations in the attire of ancient times, it maintains that selective retrieval is only reinstating the ancient ways. (eligious Fundamentalism in India and Beyond)
In a spirit of practicality these recovered fundamentals are polished, tailored and authorized:…
Amaladoss, Michael. "Hindu Fundamentalism in Contemporary India." Forum for Liberation Theologies, Annual Report 1999-2000. 9 December 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.theo.kuleuven.ac.be/clt/flt_anrep_9900_3.htm. Accessed on 02/26/2003
Ayodhya." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2004. Encyclopedia Britannica. 23 Feb. 2004 Retrieved at http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=380124Accessed on 02/26/2003
Bhambri, C.P. "Hindutva and Multi-Culturalism" The Hindu. December 06, 1998, Pg: 25: Col: a Chatterji, Angana. "For Dissent against Hindu Extremism," July 28, 2002
Astrology is a key ingredient of Kabbalah, but not the traditional astrology we think of today. The Kabbalah zodiac is based on a different calendar, and the purpose of astrology is not to understand the different astrological signs and their meanings, but to take control over the negative aspects of the signs and create outcomes that are more positive. Dreams also play a large role in the Kabbalah. The Zohar believes that dreams allow people to get in touch with negative traits in their personality and make them better. Like Hindus, the Zohar teaches that people have many incarnations in this life, and they will come back many times before they get it "right" and ascend to nirvana or heaven.
The practice ultimately represents peace and harmony, and understanding the individual so they can understand the world around them. The Web site continues, "Kabbalah teaches universal principles that apply to…
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The Golden Tradition: Jewish Life and Thought in Eastern Europe. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
De Leon-Jones, Karen Silvia. Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah: Prophets, Magicians, and Rabbis. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
Editors. "Introduction." 2010. Kabbalah.info. 1 Dec. 2010.
In contrast to bolstering the position of any specific class of society, in the Canterbury Tales Chaucer's method of story telling refuses to take sides: a tale by a knight is deflated by that of a miller, and the miller's wit is undercut by his drunkenness. hile many critics have commented upon the ironic contrast between the Chaucerian teller of the tales and their content, such as the greedy Pardoner who condemns money as the root of all evil, this irony is also evident within the pilgrim's tales, even the funny miller's tale (Spearing 2001). Those who know best are shown to know least, and the man who tries to control his wife is shown to be the most out-of-control.
Blamires, Alcuin. "Philosophical sleaze? The 'strok of thought' in the 'Miller's Tale' and Chaucerian fabliau." The Modern Language Review. 102. 3 (July 2007), 621-640.
Heffernan, Carol Falvo.…
Blamires, Alcuin. "Philosophical sleaze? The 'strok of thought' in the 'Miller's Tale' and Chaucerian fabliau." The Modern Language Review. 102. 3 (July 2007), 621-640.
Heffernan, Carol Falvo. "Chaucer's 'Miller's Tale' and 'Reeve's Tale,' Boccaccio's Decameron,
and the French fabliaux." Italica. 81.3 (Autumn, 2004), 311-324
Morgan, Gerald. "Philosophical Chaucer: Love, Sex, and Agency in the Canterbury Tales. The Modern Language Review. 102. 2 (April 2007), 477-478.
The connection between the physical world and the metaphysical world was a topic that has fascinated humans for hundreds of years. Aristotle suggested the soul was the seat of psychic activities. He also felt that activities in the physical world first have to occur in the spiritual world (Elders, 2006). This connection is the basis of modern metaphysics and the ideals that are embodied in the psychic's work. Many, such as Aristotle presented actions in the physical world as evidence of what has happened on the metaphysical plane. Since the time of Aristotle, science has abandoned the idea of self-evidence (Dougherty, 2006).
Now a new interest in the study of metaphysics has arisen. This new interest is the result of new information into the study of quantum physics. Quantum theory and cosmology are only beginning to be explored as possible explanations for psychic ability, ghosts and other manifestations of sub-atomic…
Briggs, E. & Grisaffe, D. (2010). Service Performance -- Loyalty Intentions Link in a Business-to-
Business Context: The Role of Relational Exchange Outcomes and Customer
Characteristics. Journal of Service Research, February 1, 2010; 13(1): 37-51.
Coale, S. (2006). Psychic Visions and Quantum Physics: Oates's Big Bang and the Limits of Language. Studies in the Novel. 38 (4): 427.
However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…
Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm
Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/
Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/
Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/
Specifically, as project manager, the interviewee was responsible for coordinating the contributions of all other members of the production team. In that capacity, the date of project completion for most projects depended on circumstances out of her control, because even with her following up with each team member appropriately, they still caused delays that were unavoidable on her end.
Generally, most of these projects were not required to be completed by any specific date, as the interviewee was the original source of any anticipated completion dates, based on projected time frames of completion of individual responsibilities of other team members. In virtually all cases, wherever a component task necessary for the project delayed its completion, the project managers simply adjusted the anticipated completion date for the entire project.
The interviewee's immediate supervisor had requested continual formal updates to the production schedule, which made no sense to the interviewee since no…
Saint Augustine's conversion, as recounted in his Confessions
This paper will explore the factors leading to Saint Augustine's conversion. This conversion was believed to be the result of an ultimate battle of sexual desire with spirit.
Augustine Biography Info
Augustine of Hippo was born on November 13, in AD 354, in Thagaste (modern day Souk Ahras, Algeria), and died on August 28, in AD 430, in modern-day Annaba, Algeria (then known as Hippo egius). It was in the latter city where he was named Bishop 35 years prior to his death. It is a challenge to encapsulate renowned personalities, and with St. Augustine, this task is even more difficult (Augustine of Hippo).
A theologian and philosopher, Augustine dithered between an earlier, positive Hellenistic outlook, and a pessimistic Christian outlook later on in his life. Shifting from one extreme to another, Augustine accommodated several diverse disciplines and philosophies into his comprehensive…
"Augustine of Hippo - Philosopher - Biography." The European Graduate School - Media and Communication - Graduate & Postgraduate Studies Program. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .
"Confessions Book VIII -- The Birthpangs of Conversion Summary and Analysis | GradeSaver." Study Guides & Essay Editing | GradeSaver. Web. 13 Jul 2015. .
McCabe, Joseph. "The Conversion of St. Augustine ." International Journal of Ethics. 12.4 (1902): 450-459.Web. http://luce.sunymaritime.edu:2113/stable/2376053?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=The&searchText=Conversion&searchText=of&searchText=St.&searchText=Augustine&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DThe%2BConversion%2Bof%2BSt%2BAugustine%2B%26amp%3BSearch%3DSearch%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff%26amp%3BglobalSearch%3D%26amp%3BsbbBox%3D%26amp%3BsbjBox%3D%26amp%3BsbpBox%3D&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Saint, Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine - St. Augustine. Start Publishing LLC, 2013. Ebook. .
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…
Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/
This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.
Two Guest Speakers
Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…
3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?
4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).
5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.
The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…
Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.
Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.
Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions…
Secondly, while VandenBos is dismissive of studies focusing on the effects of specific treatments upon specific types of disorders, the appropriateness of treatment important to consider in light of the fact that many psychological illnesses have a profound biological component and may be less responsive to 'talk' therapy than others mental disorders. Some complaints, such as Borderline Personality Disorder, seem to respond much better to certain types of therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, while they show little response, and may actually be negatively impacted by other types of thereby.
Much of the data cited by VandenBos comes from an earlier era in American culture and understanding of the mind, when psychoanalysis was a popular fad as well as an accepted practice, and antidepressants and other psychological medications were in a rather primitive state. For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.S. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions of efficacy (VandenBos 1996, p.1005).
Frequency of use and the helpfulness of treatment are far from the same thing. VandenBos' cited studies merely confirm the increasing cultural acceptance and interest in psychotherapy from 1957 to 1976. Given the cultural dynamic and history of America in the 1960s and 1970s, these findings are hardly surprising. A naysayer of therapy might say a similar interest and acceptance of astrology may have peaked as well. The broadness with which the term 'therapy' was defined, which included self-help groups as well as members of the clergy in the Consumer Reports survey, also may not indicate a greater acceptance of clinical therapy. And finally, how these forms of therapy were combined or not combined with psychotropic drugs in the context of different types of therapy was not surveyed, given the lack of specificity of individual's complaints and the broadness of therapeutic contexts classified as therapy.
multiverse is a line of thought that that proposes the existence of multiple universes. The hypothesis advances the notion that the set of multiple universes are what together make everything that exists physically and ever existed. These include the whole concept of space and time and all the elements in the universe together with all the laws of physics and the constants that govern the laws. The multiple universes can also be referred to as the parallel universes. The relationship in a particular multiverse and its constituent universes within it depend on the certain multiverse hypothesis that is taken into consideration.
The hypotheses that explain multiverse are from various areas of study. Ranging from astrology, physics, philosophy, cosmology, and fiction. The word multiverse however, was coined by William James a psychologist in 1895. Other referrals have been derived to mean the same as multiverse.Such words include alternative timelines, alternative universes,…
Aurelien Barrau. "Physics in the Multiverse"
David Deutsch. "The Structure of the Multiverse."
Hawkin, Stephen. "The universe in a Nutshell."
(Hall, 1974) Wings are additionally attributed to "Father Time, the winds and Opportunity, who all pass swiftly." (Hall, 1974) It is clear that wings when used in religious art are used in symbolic representations of beings that are divine, heavenly, or directly connected to the heavens and its creator. Wings are representative of heavenly beings, gods, or messengers of gods, or beings that are endowed with powers not of the realm of the earth. Wings also are symbols of protection and sheltering and this is particularly true in Egyptian art. While few studies exist in relation to wings and winged beings in ancient Peru, it is very likely that the representation of these in art symbolism is much akin to artistic representations in other cultures and since ancient Peruvians have been found to be buried with feathered garments it is likely that these individuals viewed wings and winged beings to…
Hall, James (1974) Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. Westview Press 1974.
Curtis, J., Tallis, N. And Andre-Salvini, B. (2005) Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. University of California Press, 2005.
MacKenzie, Donald A. (2003) Migration of Symbols. Kessinger Publishing 2003.
Perrot, G. And Chipiez, C. (1892) History of Art in Persia: from the French of Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez. Chapman and Hall, limited 1892 University of Michigan digitized 12 Dec 2007.
The Experience of the Temple
hen the worshiper enters the temple, they are passing through a doorway where the world is left behind. By entering the building, they are becoming a part of the energy field that is the temple (Kumar). As the field enclosures and pavilions are symbolic of the phases of the journey that man must pass through to attain enlightenment (Kumar). As the worshiper enters the space, they symbolically begin a journey that will lead them to the center of the universe, and ultimately to the physical center of the temple. As one passes through the gate of the temple, they are greeted by a multitude of figures on the outer walls. These first images represent the material world (Kumar).
As one works to the center of the temple, the figures become mythical. This stage is meant to take the worshiper from the material world and into…
Kumar, N. The Hindu Temple - Where Man Becomes God" May 2003. Exotic Indian Art. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/hindutemple / (Accessed November 5, 2008).
Kumar, P., Rao, P., & Parthasarathy, R. A Synthesis of Styles Spanning Over Thousand Years. SSVT. http://www.ssvt.org/about/Architecture1.asp (Accessed November 5, 2008).
Sriselvamsiddhar. October 5, 2008. Http://Sriselvamsiddhar.Blogetery.Com / (Accessed November 5, 2008).
Sunnyvale Temple. http://www.sunnyvaletemple.org/index.htm (Accessed November 5, 2008).
In other words templates are not meant to be all encompassing observation tools, and a psychologist must utilize as much or even more than he or she knows to assist individuals in self-understanding and advocacy, in couple with real valid observational data. (517) One danger in the application of psychology is to over emphasize self-advocacy and under play individual character traits that are negatively effecting the individual. When a psychologist councils an individual he or she may need to do a certain amount of flattering, to make sure that the difficult process of self-observation and reflection does not scare the individual away from using it. In other words, sometimes internal and personality motivations are not what we want to hear about ourselves, particularly when they contradict "ideas" we have about ourselves as good decent people. The psychologist must find a balance and help the individual look at the good and…
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Sadly, it takes her mother's death to bring June really close to her mother, and close to understanding her culture and beliefs. Tan writes, "I found some old Chinese silk dresses, the kind with little slits up the sides. I rubbed the old silk against my skin, then wrapped them in tissue and decided to take them home with me" (Tan 212). She finally begins to understand some of the things that were important to her mother, but it comes too late for her to share her findings with her mother, or to even tell her she understands.
In conclusion, the generational differences and cultural gaps between mothers and daughters in this novel are largely universal and represent the gaps that grow between immigrant families and their children. Often, the children do not identify with or understand their parents' ties to their homeland, and they do not appreciate their heritage…
Discovering the Ethnic Name and the Genealogical Tie in Amy Tan's the 'Joy Luck Club'."
Hamilton, Patricia L. "Feng Shui, Astrology, and the Five Elements: Traditional Chinese Belief in Amy Tan's the 'Joy Luck Club'."
Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike Press, 1989.
And maybe too there is a "tiny flame" being planted, a flame of hope, a flame of inspiration, and a flame of recovery? e know from his biography (http://www.artandculture.com) that Li-Young Lee's father was imprisoned by the Sukarno regime in Jakarta, Indonesia, during the time Li-Young Lee was an infant. The Sukarno fascist regime hated Chinese, and Li-Young Lee's father (who had been a personal physician to Mao Zedong) got caught up in that vicious hateful moment of jailing Chinese people in Indonesia. That time in his dad's life might have also been a time for reflection, a time when he re-dedicated himself to being the best father he could be. The tiny flame could be a flame of freedom for the reader, no matter what his father's motives were, no matter what the poem was really supposed to mean. In the book American Poets Since orld ar II, Fourth…
Art & Culture. "The Gift- Li-Young Lee." Retrieved Nov. 28, 2007, at http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/AClive.woa/wa/artist?id=1084 .
Conte, Joseph. "Li-Young Lee." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 165: American
Poets Since World War II, Fourth Series. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book (1996): 139-146.
Madsen, Deborah L. "Li-Young Lee." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 312: Asian
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.
Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge
Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
1985) held that municipal ordinance prohibiting fortune-telling and any related activity were in violation of Cal. Const. art. I, 2; while arrests for fortune-telling are now less frequent in California than before Azusa, they still occur. For example, in San Diego, four women belonging to the same Gypsy family were recently charged with theft by false pretense; as a precondition of being offered bail, these psychics were prohibited from engaging in fortune-telling or from being in locations of psychic activities (Weyrauch, 2001).
Certainly, there has been much skepticism concerning the reality of paranormal powers since antiquity. A number of "natural philosophers," people that would eventually be known as scientists when more organized systems of thought came into existence, disproved such claims several centuries ago (andi, 1982). For example, in 1692, a French dowsing practitioner by the name of Jacques Aymar was hired by municipal authorities to discover a murderer by…
Abanes, R. (1998). End-time visions: The road to Armageddon? New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.
Cavendish, R. (Ed.). (1970). Man, myth & magic: An illustrated encyclopedia of the supernatural, vol. 17. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
Dodge, a.G. (1996). Psychic the science of psychical activity: A psychic's viewpoint. Education, 116(3), 387.
Drury, N. (1985). Dictionary of mysticism and the occult. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Many critics consider the name Godot to be a hidden name for God. Godot in the end is a paradox. The dramatist described in his play the person at the end of the World War II. It is a person who can be characterized as master and victim of will. The characters have a will but their wishes destroy them. The characters are waiting for someone or something to save them.
From the aesthetic point-of-view the postmodernism movement pleads for an anti-narrative structure of the work. Tarantino's film, "Pulp Fiction," doesn't have a classic plot. Two stories that seem unrelated come together in a "non linear plot." The first story is about two thieves, Honey unny and Pumpkin who decide to rob a restaurant, and the second story of two hit men working for mob, named Vincent and Jules.
The novel "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce is constructed using strange…
Klages, M. 2003 "Postmodernism." University of colorado. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia, "Posmodernism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia "Waiting for Godot" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waiting_for_Godot
Wickipedia The Free encyclopedia "Finnegan's Wake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake
One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.
Barbero, Alessandro. Charlemagne: Father of the Continent. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Brown, A.R. "Feudalism." 15 June 2010. Encyclopedia Brittanica Online. 18 July 2011 .
Butzer, P.L. Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times. Barcelona: Birkhauser Verlag, 1993.
Cantor, N.F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages: a completely revised and expanded edition of Medieval History, the life and death of a civilization. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]
The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…
Hooker, Richard. Chinese Philosophy. Confucianism. Undated 6-6-1999. Accessed February, 2002. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHPHIL/NEO.htm
Newborn, Sasha ICHING: The Book of Changes. Bandanna Books.1986
Ross, Kelley L. Ph. D. Confucius. 2000. Friesian.com.
Accessed February, 2002. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
The moral background in Life's a Dream is vastly different than that in Iphigeneia at Aulis, but the human elements of the story remain quite analogous. From Vasily's position as king, he acts to rob his son of his right to the throne, from his position as a father, he treats him is a way that Sigismund believes "denied me my humanity." (Calderon de la Barca, 118). In this way, Vasily violates his legal obligation to his son, as well as his patriarchal responsibilities to him. This second responsibility is immoral from a seventeenth century point-of-view in Europe, since a Christian father must raise his children with compassion and understanding; the first is illegal.
Unlike Agamemnon, Vasily behaves in such a way in the hopes of avoiding the fulfillment of prophesy -- Agamemnon felt that he had to fulfill it. As a result, Vasily sacrifices his son's well-being to preserve…
Calderon de la Barca, Pedro. Life's a Dream. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2004.
Euripides. Iphigeneia at Aulis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Plume Publishing, 1998.
Hypatia of Alexandria, daughter of Theon. Specifically, it will examine the life of Hypatia, especially her mathematical accomplishments. Hypatia was the first female mathematician that left a record that historians can trace. She was a philosopher, mathematician, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt from about 350 to 415 A.D. She was the daughter of Theon, a renowned mathematician and head of the library in Alexandria.
Historians do not agree on the year Hypatia was born. Some estimate it at around 355, while others place it as late as 370. What is known of Hypatia is that she was extremely influential in mathematics and philosophical thought. Hypatia was born in Alexandria and most historians believe she spent her entire life there. Some historians believe Hypatia studied mathematics in Athens, and then traveled through Europe (Coffin, 1998, p. 94), while others believe her father taught her most of what she knew…
Coffin, L.K. (1998). Hypatia. In Notable women in mathematics: A biographical dictionary, Morrow, C. & Perl, T. (Eds.) (pp. 94-96). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Osen, L.M. (1974). Women in mathematics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Russell, N. (2000). Cyril of Alexandria. London: Routledge.
Williams, Robyn. (1997). Ockham's razor. Retrieved from the ABCNet.au Web site: http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/or030897.htm 8 Aug. 2005.
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
The kingdom was left in ruins to Ivan's childless remaining son, Feodor, but soon came under the leadership of Boris Godunov, the brother of Ivan's last rape and one suspected murder.
Perrie and Pavlov single themselves out from the historical mass in their examination of Ivan IV by separating the man from the ruler; outside of a Stalinist examination of the ruler, they found a tyrant whose sadist cruelty was separate from his ability to centralize power and build the first Russian autocracy from which hundreds of years of greatness would follow. Yet, they clearly understand that it would be foolish to separate the pathological personality of Ivan from his reign; it does, in fact, serve to solidify many of his actions and the monstrous attempts at his thirsty control for absolute power. They recognize his epitaph - groznyi - as the source of the ruler whose leadership was awe-inspiring…
Part 1 "What are the key challenges facing a science of consciousness?"
The study of consciousness has been plagued by the perception that traditional scientific methods are not capable of explaining or exploring the meaning of human consciousness adequately. This is essentially due to the division between science and religion that occurred in the development of Western thought. As a result of this fact, the science of consciousness is faced with problems on a number of levels.
The first and possibly most obvious level with regard to the full scientific understanding of consciousness is the emphasis on scientific objectify and the reduction of the importance of subjective experience. This is particularly a problem with regard to the definition of consciousness. The second issue is related to the various definition and understanding of what constitutes human consciousness. An example of the problematic of a scientific understanding of copiousness can be…
Barr F. The Theory of Evolutionary Process as a Unifying Paradigm. Retrieved August 16, 2005. Web site: http://www.arthuryoung.com/barr.html
Goode, S. (1997, August 18). Sentience and Sensibility: Science Is Learning More about the Brain Every Day and Much of the New Information Has Been Very Helpful. But Big Questions Remain What Is the Definition of Human Consciousness and Why Does It Matter?. Insight on the News, 13, 8+. Retrieved August 19, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lloyd P.B. (1999) Discussion of Amit Goswami's Science Within Consciousness. Retrieved August 17, 2005. Web site:
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…
" (oach, John, 2004) This is related to cognitive biases which are supported and maintained by communities and cultures. "Once many people believe something and enjoy a significant amount of communal reinforcement, they get very selective about the type of data they pay attention to in the future." (Carroll .T.
Therefore, if there is a general belief in a culture that a full moon will lead to increased crime rates then the bias or tendency will be to pay more attention to criminal activity during full moon and not be as attentive to crime at other times.
On the other hand, as has already been briefly suggested, there is some evidence that the moon does have a physical effect on nature. There are various arguments which attempt to relate these influences to humanity and human behavior. One of the strongest of these arguments is the repetition of these beliefs…
2005) Full moon and lunar effects. Retrieved 15 September, 2006, at http://skepdic.com/fullmoon.html
Hill S. Looney Moon-y Ideas. Retrieved 15 September, 2006, at http://www.inquiringminds.org/newsletter/0503/moon.html
Lunar effect. Retrieved 16 September, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_effect
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…
Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information. http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm
Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.
Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.
Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)
One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…
Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.
Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.
Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.
Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…
Ornstein, a.C., Levine, D.U., Gutek, G.L., Vocke, D.E. (2010). Foundations of Education, 11th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.
Vang (2010). An Educational Psychology of Methods in Multicultural Education, Volume 6 of Educational Psychology, Peter Lang, New York.
We also know that they engaged in robust trade, both domestic and foreign and even over the Hindu Kush and into the Persian Gulf areas. Between 1800-1700 BC, though, most of the cities were abandoned, perhaps from environmental reasons (deforestation, etc.) and perhaps from invasion from Central Asia (Bentley, et.al., pp. 49-50).
By 3000 BCE, Ancient China had developed larger regional states and political/social units called dynasties. Each succeding dynasty took over more and more territory, which allowed for a similar development in Chinese culture. Chinese political orgaqnizations were complex, and based on both the family and socio-cultural unit. Because of the abundance of population working in agriculture, though, they also turned to technological innovations that increased their own power, but also tended to shield them from outside influences. Some of these inventions include: iron casting, the compass, gunpowder, geological mining techniques, mechanical clocks, row farming in agriculture, silk farming…
Bently, J., et.al. Traditions and Encounters -- a Brief Global History. New York: McGraw Hill, 2010, Electronic.
9. Bauman is talking to all humans and is asking us to take stock of our attitude and human togetherness, he calls them emancipation, individuality, time/space, work and community -- all need to change.
10. In deference to Roger Von Oech (Whack on the Side of the Head), Bauman is asking us to take a different look and approach to the ideas of consumerism in postmodern society / a shift took place that altered society from producers to consumers, and tradeoffs were made; security was given up to enjoy more freedom to purchase and consume. His works are difficult and the concepts a bit amorphous, but the general idea is to get back in touch with the human side of being human -- to use technology not to hide from the world, but to engage with the world. Instead of our children spending hours playing video games, have them engage…
One recent study defined purpose as "an extraordinary achievement" (Moran, 2009, p. 143), yet the there are many individuals in the world who believe that the purpose of intelligence is to prevent surprise. Contemplating the contradiction, the question that could be asked is "how then does an extraordinary achievement translate into everyday intelligence?" This author believes that the purpose of intelligence is not to prevent surprise, instead that the purpose of intelligence is to determine a pathway for the life of the individual.
Measuring the successful pathway of an individual life can be a difficult venture, especially if such measurements are based on the person's intelligence. My belief is that preventing a surprise by showing intelligence can be applied to these type of scenarios with very limited success. There are a myriad of methods used to determine ones intelligence, including but certainly not limited to: measuring intelligent quotient as…
Anderson, R.; (2006) Body intelligence scale: Defining and measuring the intelligence of the body, The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 357 -- 367
Bond, M.; (2009) It's how you use it that counts, New Scientist, Vol. 204, Issue 2732, pp. 36 -- 39
Hardy, J.B.; Welcher, D.W.; Mellits, E.D.; Kagan, J.; (1976) Pitfalls in the measurement of intelligence: Are standard intelligence tests valid instruments for measuring the intellectual potential of urban children? Journal of Psychology, Vol. 94, Issue 1, pp. 43-52
Moran, S.; (2009) Purpose: Giftedness in intrapersonal intelligence, High Ability Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 143 -- 159
Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:
Popper vs. Kuhn
According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'
Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…
Beisecker, Dave. "Induction." Philosophy 101. [30 Jan 2011]
Bird, Alexander. "Thomas Kuhn." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.
Early Christian polemicists such as Clement of Alexandria, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, and Tertullian all attacked Gnosticism as 'heresy' and until the 20th Century virtually nothing was known about it except in the distorted texts they had written. Their purpose was to construct the boundaries between what later became 'orthodox' or 'catholic' Christianity in opposition to Judaism, paganism and carious Christian 'heresies'. Until the fourth and fifth centuries, however, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire under "the guiding influence of the Christian emperors" like Constantine and Theodosius, Christian 'orthodoxy' was still fluid and in dispute. Only because of the power of the Roman state did Christianity become a "monolithic unity" that had not existed before and redefined "manifold ancient religious practices into three mutually exclusive groups: Jews, Christians and pagans (King 22). Early Christian polemicists deliberately exaggerated the differences between these groups and minimized…
King, Karen L. What Is Gnosticism? Harvard University Press, 2003.
Milavec, Aaron. The Didache: Text, Translation, Analysis, and Commentary. Liturgical Press, 2003.
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader of the SS. Specifically, it will discuss his direct involvement with the concentration camps and the extermination of the Jewish people. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
HIMMLE THE EXTEMINATO
Heinrich Himmler was born in 1900, and studied agriculture. He fought in the very end of World War I, and never seemed to make much of himself until he met Hitler. "Himmler was a passionate farmer. He had studied agriculture for several years, had a degree in agriculture, and was later the chairman of the board of the Organization of Agricultural Graduates"…
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Editors. "Who was Heinrich Himmler?" Holocaust History Project. 31 Dec. 1998. 17 Nov. 2002. http://www.holocaust-history.org/short-essays/heinrich-himmler.shtml
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Eisenhower, John. "Juxtaposed with History, Inquiry into why the Nazis Did What They Did." The Washington Times. 9 June 2002.
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Constraints to Email and Potential Solutions
Humankind has been communicating over increasingly lengthy distances over the millennia, beginning with drums and smoke signals, to relay runners and mounted messengers, to the telegraph and telephone and then, during the 1990s, the Internet and email. All of these communication media have their limitations, though, including the most popular written communication method today: email. Indeed, many observers believe that email will eventually spell the end of the United States Postal Service, and trillions of dollars worth of business is transacted using email each year. Nevertheless, like its predecessors mentioned above, it is reasonable to suggest that the time will come -- and it may come sooner than expected -- when email is obsolete, having been replaced by "the next big thing." This paper provides an introduction and overview to social informatics and examines three problems that are currently associated with email that may…
Aquino, J (2012, September). "Avoid the Spam Folder: How Marketers Can Save Outbound
Emails from the Dreaded Fate." CRM Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 24-29.
Baron, NS (2001). Alphabet to Email: How Written English Evolved and Where It's Heading.
Hyperrealism in Literature
The following criticism was made by Michael izza on Don DeLillo's Libra:
In Libra, Don DeLillo offers solace for the issue of achieving historical certainty; however, despite rendering fictive order to historical confusions, the attempt to describe events, like the assassination of John F. Kennedy, has been complicated by him, through transferring individual agency to external forces. ejecting these forces' caricatures by astrology, paranoia and conspiracy, he lets characters makes decisions (izza 2008). Nevertheless, independent actions, apparently initiated by characters, become a system's products, while design springs from and in spite of individual intentions. Though chaos and system theories help shed light on the conjunction of determinism and randomness, the individual is incorporated in the global. Moreover, the unstable identity of Oswald is performative; he performs for a changing audience, which dictates every new act.
While the above critique has its views, I would agree with it.…
DeLillo, Don. Libra.Penguin Books, 1991. Print.
Horst, Bredekamp. Hyperrealism - One Step Beyond. UK: Tate Museum Publishers, 2006. Print.
Johnston, John. "Superlinear Fiction or Historical Diagram?: Don DeLillo's Libra." Modern Fiction Studies . 40.2 (1994): 319-342. Web..
Parrish, Timothy . "From Hoover's FBI to Eisenstein's Unterwelt: DeLillo Directs the Postmodern Nove." Modern Fiction Studies. 45.3 (1999): 696-723. Web..
Deconstructing the Utility of the orschach as a Measure of Personality and Psychopathology
This paper explores the enduring relvance of the orschach and finds that this instrument deserves such appositeness. It examines its strengths and weaknesses, and provides a review of literature that elucidates its value. This instrument is useful in numerous fields.
The orschach Inkblot Test is one of the most time honored and widespread assessment instruments within the field of psychology. It has endured in numerous forms ever since its inception in the early part of the 20th century (Meyer and Eblin, 2012, p. 107). During its tenure, it has experienced substantial amounts of criticism as well as various deployments in a number of diverse vertical industries and applications (Wood et al., 2003, p. 30). However, it is worth noting that this instrument has been revised and reformed on a number of occasions to continue delivering value to…
Franklin, K. W., & Cornell, D. G. (1997). Rorschach Interpretation With High-Ability Adolescent Females: Psychopathology or Creative Thinking?. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 68(1), 184.
Meehan, K. B., PhD., Ueng-McHale, J., Reynoso, J. S., PhD., Harris, Benjamin H, PhD., M.Ed, Wolfson, V. M., M.A., Gomes, H., PhD., & Tuber, S. B., PhD. (2008). Self-regulation and internal resources in school-aged children with ADHD symptomatology: An investigation using the rorschach inkblot method. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 72(4), 259-82. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/200473131?accountid=25340
Meyer, G. J., & Eblin, J. J. (2012). An overview of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS). Psychological Injury & Law, 5, 107-121.
Wood, J. M., Nezworski, M. T., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Garb, H. N. (2003, Jul). The rorschach inkblot test, fortune tellers, and cold reading. The Skeptical Inquirer, 27, 29-33,61. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219286741?accountid=25340
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
The man is carrying a white piece of paper as well. He seems to be sort of monk. Now the strange bird becomes a metaphor for this character. The viewer can understand that the monks have the role of carrying the message of god on earth. On a closer look, the bird can be interpreted as a birdman. The fact that the birdman is wearing skates means that he is unable to fly on the one hand and that the ground on which he is walking is slippery. The ideas of instability and fear are suggested.
We see a street which passes through hills and valleys and ending in an open area where mountains can be see. In this background we can see fantastic characters such as a fish with a tower on its back. Another character resembles a human but has a strong grotesque yet funny appeal to it…