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The idea that animal fat consumption causes heart disease is perhaps the most controversial component of the standard preventative advice given to reduce heart disease. This association is based upon the research of Ancel Keyes, who compared heart disease rates in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Italy, and Japan and found that lower rates of heart disease were manifested in countries with less saturated fat consumption. However, there are many examples of tribes that ate diets high in animal fats and protein yet had low rates of heart disease until exposed to a Western diet: the lifestyle practices of the industrialized world clearly seems more apt to contribute to heart disease but exactly how remains uncertain. There is a complex interplay of genetics and other metabolic factors in the development of atherosclerosis (Teicholz 2007).
Total cholesterol alone has a limited value in predicting the tendency to develop heart disease:…… [Read More]
Though this work focuses specifically on the risk factors of atherosclerosis for A patients and how to better identify them prior to clinical presentation of atherosclerosis the work is also insightful in that it builds a case for the connection between A clinical presentations and atherosclerosis, in general. To move forward from this progressive idea is the fact that research has indicated that there is an even greater connection between A patients and increased Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), which has served as a preclinical predictor in non-A patients for cardiovascular events, but has now been shown to be even greater in progressive severity in A patient, but especially in those with A symptomology that has lasted longer than 20 years. This high grade of cIMT is also an indication of increased inflammation, in addition to increased plaque deposits in the carotid arteries.
A cIMT has previously been found to be…… [Read More]
Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis
Artery diseases are of immense concern to medical researchers due to the cause and effect relationship shared with heart disease and cardiovascular mortality. Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases earning such focus from researchers because of its multifactorial nature, and its period of development which typically occurs years before clinical symptoms are apparent. Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arterial wall that promotes several common causes of cardiovascular mortality, including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease (Channon 2002). The term "atherosclerosis" was traditionally used to describe an abnormality in lipid metabolism, an end-stage degenerative disease, and vessel stiffening. Further studies have caused a rapid increase in knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggest the inciting event of atherosclerosis is more likely an inflammatory event which occurs years before evidence of the disease clinically manifests (Crowther 2005).
Cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie atherosclerosis demonstrate the roles of…… [Read More]
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…… [Read More]
Patient’s chief complaint: A man aged 69 comes to the emergency room with a sharp pain to his chest’s left side, lasting between 30 and 40 mins and then subsiding.
History of present illness: The pain has woken him up thrice in the last 7 days. He claims the pain first started roughly six months ago. Initially, however, the pain used to surface only occasionally, commonly while he was doing gardening. The patient’s past medical history reveals a diagnosis of hypertension twenty-five years back.
Precipitating/alleviating factors: The patient has been smoking a half-cigarette pack daily for the last forty-five years.
Family History: The patient has lost two brothers and his dad to heart disease. The patient does not report any other significant illness history in the family.
Social History: His typical pastimes include sharing a drink with pals and gardening.
Review of Systems: From a physical examination of…… [Read More]
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Mrs. Stiller has many…… [Read More]
New Suppliers of Health Supplements
A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.
esults of Business Trip to…… [Read More]
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.
Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It…… [Read More]
The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.
In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.
The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which…… [Read More]
M.K., a 45-year-old female who has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus and primary hypertension. In addition to this, M.K. is overweight and persists with a poor diet. The patient has also been smoking for the past 22 years, and has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Current symptoms include chronic cough, which tends to be more severe in the mornings and productive with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increase urination at night. The patient is currently on several medications including Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension, along with Glucophage for the Type II diabetes mellitus. From an analysis of M.K.'s lab results, this report will offer clinical findings and treatment recommendations, as well as suggestions for what other conditions M.K. may be at risk for given her health history, lifestyle, and lab results as follows:
158/98 mm Hg
Glycosylated…… [Read More]
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]
2010; Chorny et al. 2010). This research is still quite new, however, and the question remains as to whether or not nanoparticles can truly serve as a replacement for stents by prohibiting plaque growth through a variety of means, including more targeted and longer-range delivery of pharmaceutical substances that destroy such build-ups and inhibit plaque deposits from forming. The efficacy of this approach has already been preliminarily demonstrated, but the long-term viability and safety of this intervention method as well as attendant risks have not yet been fully determined (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010).
IV. Motivation for esearch
Despite the numerous advancements that have been made in treating plaque build-up in arteries and the general treatment and control of other cardiac issues, coronary artery disease is still the leading cause of death in North America and is a significant problem in other parts of the world, as…… [Read More]
After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's 'beta-adrenergic' type, and coined the term 'beta-adrenergic blocking drug', later shortened to 'beta-blocker'"
Sir James Black joins the cardiovascular team at Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., reads Moran's research and realizes the possibilities of synthesizing an analog to DCI that would be clinically useful.
Black's ICI report contradicts Waring's arguing that the "altered fat metabolism with associated changes in blood coagulability interact, permissively, with sympathetic neurohumoural stress responses to produce fatal damage."
Black synthesizes propranolol (Inderal)
ICI launches Black's first beta blocker treatment -- pronethalol (Alderlin).
The first clinical studies are conducted for the use of proopranolol.
ICI launches propranolol, the replacement for propranolol as it was found to cause thymic tumors in mice.
1966…… [Read More]
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…… [Read More]
Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break down triglycerides, that can cause atherosclerosis, and people who exercise regularly show the most benefits from taking fish-oil supplements. The research used test subjects, and a variety of situations to test results, and showed that those who exercised and took fish-oil could reduce their triglyceride levels by 50%. This article indicates that fish-oil supplements could replace some other drug therapies for heart disease, and that it is a good idea to begin and exercise program and take fish-oil supplements if you want to reduce your risk of heart disease. I do not take fish-oil now, but I think I will start.
The second article, "Heart of the Matter," discusses several different supplements that are supposed to help prevent heart disease, including fish…… [Read More]
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)
In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…… [Read More]
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…… [Read More]
misconception in people that having an aneurysm means bleeding in the brain. An aneurysm is in fact a balloon-like swelling in a blood vessel that can affect any large vessel in your body; these larger vessels being arteries. Aneurysms pose a risk to health from the potential for rupture, clotting, or dissecting. It is the pressure of the blood passing through a weak part of the blood vessel that forces it to bulge outwards, forming a sort of a blister. If the sac that is formed extends the artery too far, the vessel may burst, causing death by bleeding. upture of an aneurysm in the brain causes stroke, and rupture of an aneurysm in the abdomen causes shock. (THIJ, 2001)
Aneurysms are the cause of many deaths because they are usually silent until a medical emergency occurs. "One author has referred to an AAA as a "U-boat" in the belly,…… [Read More]
Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).
Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…… [Read More]
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]
The "pain" caused to the heart due to tissue damage can be misplaced in the body due to these nerve pathways and connections; heart attacks are often felt in the left arm and elsewhere on that side of the body between the heart and brain.
Diuretics would encourage the elimination of sodium and a lessened fluid retention, easing the pressure in his arteries.
The increased acidity in J.M.'s blood indicates reduced heart functionality and creatine phosphokinase levels are elevated which indicates muscle damage; low-normal lactate dehydrogenase suggest no recent prior infarctions, however, and without further tests this particular measure is not especially edifying.
The drug relaxes blood vessels, allowing easier passage of blood reducing chest pain (which elevates stress and blood pressure) and easing the underlying problem, as well
Aspirin inhibits the collection of platelets at the site of a plaque rupture, preventing a full blockage…… [Read More]
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…… [Read More]
This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).
Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…… [Read More]
Meat has been considered to be a risk factor for the development of heart conditions due to its large concentration of saturated fats. This study also found there to be a significant relationship between the consumption of meats and the development of heart issues with the risk increasing as the amount of meat consumed increased. These findings did vary across types of meat with red meat being twice as likely to lead to an acute coronary syndrome as white meat.
Blisson, .M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural esearch, 58(6), 12-14.
Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.
Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with educed isk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.…… [Read More]
Signs and Symptoms of Stroke
Patients with stroke symptoms are advised to seek out for emergency cure without any dilly-dallying. Definite signs of a stroke rely on the kind of stroke. However all kinds of stroke share several attributes. Warlow (1996, p.2) stated that cerebral embolism stroke generally comes on rather abruptly and is extreme right from the beginning. On the other hand schemic strokes signs consist of reduced vision in one eye or both eyes and stern headache. Other symptoms include feebleness, numbness or facial paralysis or arm and leg paralysis which are normally restricted on one side of the body.
Furthermore, other symptoms of schemic strokes include faintness, stability or coordination failure particularly when pooled with other signs. Hemorrhagic strokes are a bit different and the signs include loss of realization, distorted mental condition and seizure. Other signs include vomiting or stern nausea and extreme hypertension. Lastly, the…… [Read More]
The hypothesis to be tested is to what extent children and their families are influenced by the marketing techniques of food companies. This hypothesis will be tested through qualitative methods including primarily ethnographic observation and open-ended interviews.
Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.
Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.
Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.
Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
Morland K. et al. 2002 "The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on esidents' Diets: The Atherosclerosis isk…… [Read More]
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…… [Read More]
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]
A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/
Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html
az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.
Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…… [Read More]
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]
At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…… [Read More]
Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)
Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]
Synthroid, Drug Profile
SYNTHROID® (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) is an important drug, used to treat hypothyroidism. Synthroid has been extensively studied for over 42 years. It is the most widely prescribed thyroid medicine in the United States. Currently, over eight million people are using Synthroid for thyroid replacement therapy. [Abbott, 2001]
Synthetic Levothyroxine (T4 ) is identical in chemical composition and molecular weight to naturally secreted T4. Synthroid tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: acacia, confectioner's sugar, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and color additives.[Abbott, 2001].
Synthroid is pregnancy category A. Studies have shown that Synthroid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if given during pregnancy. The possibility of fetal harm does appear to be remote, however, Synthroid should only given during pregnancy if it is clearly needed [Abbott, 2001]. In addition Abbot Laboratories reports that thyroid hormones do cross the placental barrier to some extent. T4 levels in the…… [Read More]
Healthcare Infrastructure Memorandum
United States Surgeon General
Pediatric Doctors of America
Policy Change Memo
This memo is an attempt to gather your support in our efforts to change the existing policy regarding the funding of preventative screening programs for heart disease in adolescents. Your office currently concurs and supports the pay structure where preventative screening programs for heart disease are fully funded by the patient or personal insurance as well as your being totally against the programs being funded by Medicare or Medicaid. This would be fine if every child in America had personal insurance. However, as you are well aware, there are just too many Americans without basic health insurance. The American public has been seeing an escalated number of cases of adolescent Heart Disease and we therefore request you reconsider your position.
There is currently enough evidence to predict adults who may potentially get hypercholesterolemia and other heart…… [Read More]
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
People…… [Read More]
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]
vegetable oil and fried foods. There are two references used for this paper.
There are a number of foods which are causing health concerns today. It is important to examine whether foods fried in vegetable oil contain a toxic compound.
Frying foods in vegetable oil is a common practice throughout the United States, and has previously been considered good for the heart due to the oil's high concentration of linoleic acid.
However, researchers are discovering this can result in the formation of a toxic compound. "University of Minnesota researchers A. Saari Csallany, a professor of food chemistry and nutritional biochemistry, and graduate student Christine Seppanen has shown that when highly unsaturated vegetable oils are heated at frying temperature (365 F) for extended periods -- or even for half an hour -- a highly toxic compound, HNE (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal) forms in the oil. Csallany and her colleagues have found three…… [Read More]
Obesity: An Overview
hat is the disease?
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)
However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…… [Read More]
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…… [Read More]
The basic work of the heart is to pump blood to the entire body. It performs two types of functions, electrical and mechanical. The electrical function of the heart is the periodic contraction that is triggered by the pacemaker. The pacemaker generates the pumping effect throughout the heart. This pumping action commonly known as action potential is carried in an electrical conduction system. The mechanical function is the fluidic movement of blood; the heart is a pump. The heart's anatomical features include; ventricle, which is the pump, heart valves; that allow blood to flow one way and the atria, which includes the four chambers of the heart. The heart is susceptible to disease and as a result if unable to pump blood can lead to failure in other body organs.
Treated Heart Conditions
Cardiology is generally a field of medicine focusing on diagnosis and treatment of the heart. Discussed…… [Read More]
ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…… [Read More]
Often times, the impact of social relationships begins to emerge in childhood, thus illustrating the importance of how familial structures set the tone for mental and physical health of children as they grow into adulthood. Children set a tone at a very young age based on the health and type of familial and social structures they have around them, Whether positive or negative, these relationships can set a lasting impact that will thus influence how the child reacts to social situations later in life. If a child experiences relative social isolation, or the absence of strong familial or social ties, this may have a negative impact on both his or her immediate and long-term mental and physical health. On the other hand, children with higher levels of social integration will have much stronger self-esteem and will often have a higher resistance to physical health issues. The support these children have…… [Read More]
Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.
Stroke: An Overview
In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…… [Read More]
Arterial Ulcerations:Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic patient
Arterial Ulcerations: Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic Patient
There Approximately 10 per cent of all leg ulcers are arterial ulcers. The legs and feet are often start to feel very cold and then they may have a color that looks either white or blue, shiny appearance. Arterial leg ulcers normally can be certainly painful. Pain normally starts to escalate when the person's legs are elevated and resting. ith this condition, most have learned tha they can reduce that pain just by lying down on the bed. The gravity will then cause more blood to start flowing directly into the legs. Ulcers normally happen when the breaks in the legs do not heal properly. They may be escorted by irritation. A lot of the times they do not heal correctly thus causing them to become chronic. People that have arterial…… [Read More]
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…… [Read More]
Thyroid Hormone and Obesity
Obesity Treatment: The Efficacy and Safety of Thyroid Hormone and Derivatives
Weight loss programs have traditionally focused on calorie intake reduction in combination with exercise, but new research suggests that it may be possible to simply accelerate metabolic rates using pharmaceutical interventions. The current drugs approved for treating obesity function by suppressing hunger or limiting nutritional absorption (reviewed by Tseng, Cypess, and Kahn, 2010). Unfortunately, the body is designed adapt to caloric availability by lowing metabolic rates during famine and to store calories as fat to guard against starvation. Drugs that suppress hunger or limit absorption activate these pathways, making long-term weight loss more difficult. The drugs that act on the satiety centers in the brain can also produce debilitating psychotropic side effects. The current state of effective pharmaceutical intervention on behalf of obese patients is therefore lacking approved drugs that increase calorie expenditure safely over…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male
The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.
True Hyponatremia Diagnosis
There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…… [Read More]
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose…… [Read More]
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]
Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn. 2003. " An international approach to community health care for older adults." Family and Community Health. October-December. available from Proquest Database.
In this article, Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez propose a model for community-based primary healthcare that could be more responsive to the needs of the growing elderly population around the globe. Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez base their study by analyzing the results and ramifications of the community healthcare approach developed by the World Health Organization Kobe Centre for Health Development (WKC). Based on the results of the WKC approach, the authors make recommendations regarding changes needed to allow community healthcare organizations to better serve the needs of older adults.
The authors observe that one important aspect of the WKC approach is the promotion of healthy ageing. By delaying disability through educating individuals regarding the importance of nutrition and family support, the WKC thus advocates a community-based…… [Read More]
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]
elationship of high cholesterol levels to the development of cardiovascular disease
Diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol are all strongly correlated. Even when diabetes is being well-managed, the patient's risks factors increase for comorbidity with these disorders. "High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles" (Cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 2014, AHA). Also, in the case of Ms. X, because of her uncontrolled diabetes, her risk for high cholesterol is higher than average even in the absence of obesity and inactivity. "This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia…… [Read More]
incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.
ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…… [Read More]
Hospital Admission Analysis
Readmission Statistics (Denominator)
Total Number of Readmits
Total Number of Patients Readmitted
# of Patients with Multiple Readmits
In looking at readmissions, there were only three patients that were re-admitted more than once. Everyone else admitted once and, at most, readmitted once. For the readmits, no single hospital seems to have a problem. One sidenote is that one of the readmits (patient 740019266) was readmitted once to Crouse and then twice more to St. Joseph's. The reason for each readmit for that same patient is actually different. Further, the overall reason for readmits varies greatly and is not defined by any primary or common causes except perhaps breathing/pain issues of many kinds.
Overall Admission Statistics
Admissions of Males (Total)
Admission of Females (Total)
Readmissions of Females
Readmissions of Males
Multiple Admissions - Males
Multiple Admissions - Females
In looking at the rates of admissions, readmissions and multiple…… [Read More]
Both the Framingham heart study and the Alameda County study, because of their size, rigor, and length, are frequently used to prescribe specific healthcare policies for the macro population. The Framingham study has been called the study which changed America's perception of disease. Before "Framingham, most physicians believed that atherosclerosis was an inevitable part of the aging process and were taught that blood pressure was supposed to increase with age enabling the heart to pump blood through an elderly person's narrowed arteries" ("Framingham heart study," 2015). The study demonstrated that cigarette smoking, sedentary behaviors, and weight gain all exacerbated an individual's likelihood of developing heart disease. Similarly, the Alameda County study found that factors such as "drinking excessive amounts of alcohol, smoking cigarettes, being obese, sleeping fewer or more than seven to eight hours per night, being physically inactive, eating between meals, and not eating breakfast" were correlated…… [Read More]
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]
Morbidity and Mortality Statistics:
Hypertension affects around 1 in 3 Americans and according to the CDC only 52% of people have this condition under control (CDC.gov, 2016). In older men, two-thirds have hypertension, and one-third of white men have hypertension. There are nearly 1000 deaths from hypertension daily in the United States, around 360,000 per year. Hypertension is related to first heart attacks, strokes and chronic heart failure.
The patient also suffers from orthostatic hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops when going from a lying or sitting position to standing. The largest risk for elderly people is the increased risk of falling that this brings. The patient may have fallen because of this condition. It is caused by, or linked to, high blood pressure and prolonged bed rest, as well as other conditions not faced by this patient. Anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency is another potential contributor…… [Read More]