65+ documents containing “atherosclerosis”.
The idea that animal fat consumption causes heart disease is perhaps the most controversial component of the standard preventative advice given to reduce heart disease. This association is based upon the research of Ancel Keyes, who compared heart disease rates in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Italy, and Japan and found that lower rates of heart disease were manifested in countries with less saturated fat consumption. However, there are many examples of tribes that ate diets high in animal fats and protein yet had low rates of heart disease until exposed to a Western diet: the lifestyle practices of the industrialized world clearly seems more apt to contribute to heart disease but exactly how remains uncertain. There is a complex interplay of genetics and other metabolic factors in the development of atherosclerosis (Teicholz 2007).
Total cholesterol alone has a limited value in predicting the tendency to develop heart disease: the….
Atherosclerosis. (2012). American Heart Association. Retrieved:
Atherosclerosis disease. (2012). Ultrasound services. Retrieved:
Though this work focuses specifically on the risk factors of atherosclerosis for A patients and how to better identify them prior to clinical presentation of atherosclerosis the work is also insightful in that it builds a case for the connection between A clinical presentations and atherosclerosis, in general. To move forward from this progressive idea is the fact that research has indicated that there is an even greater connection between A patients and increased Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), which has served as a preclinical predictor in non-A patients for cardiovascular events, but has now been shown to be even greater in progressive severity in A patient, but especially in those with A symptomology that has lasted longer than 20 years. This high grade of cIMT is also an indication of increased inflammation, in addition to increased plaque deposits in the carotid arteries.
A cIMT has previously been found to be….
Hannawi, S. Haluska, B. Marwick, T.H. & Thomas R. (2007) Atherosclerotic Disease is Increased in Recent-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Critical role for Inflammation Arthritis Research & Therapy 9:R116doi:10.1186/ar2323 Retrieved September 28, 2008. http://arthritis-research.com/content/9/6/R116 .
Margolis, S. (February 2007) Atherosclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Johns Hopkins Medicine NP Retrieved September 28, 2008. http://health.yahoo.com/experts/heartdisease/3614/atherosclerosis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis/
Montecucco, F. & Mach, F. (October 16, 2008) Common Inflammatory Mediators Orchestrate Pathophysiological Processes in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Atherosclerosis. Rheumatology, doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ken395 Retrieved October 28, 2008. http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/ken395
Pasceri, V., Yeh, E.T.H. (1999) a Tale of Two Diseases: Atherosclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association, 100, 2124-2126. Retrieved October 2, 2008. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/100/21/2124
Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis
Artery diseases are of immense concern to medical researchers due to the cause and effect relationship shared with heart disease and cardiovascular mortality. Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases earning such focus from researchers because of its multifactorial nature, and its period of development which typically occurs years before clinical symptoms are apparent. Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arterial wall that promotes several common causes of cardiovascular mortality, including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease (Channon 2002). The term "atherosclerosis" was traditionally used to describe an abnormality in lipid metabolism, an end-stage degenerative disease, and vessel stiffening. Further studies have caused a rapid increase in knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggest the inciting event of atherosclerosis is more likely an inflammatory event which occurs years before evidence of the disease clinically manifests (Crowther 2005).
Cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie atherosclerosis demonstrate the roles of the endothelium,….
Channon, K. (2002), 'The endothelium and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis', Medicine.
Medicine Publishing Company Ltd., Oxford.
Crowther, M. (2005), 'Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis', Hematology, pp. 436-441.
Cunningham, K. & Gotlieb, A. (2005), 'The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis', Laboratory Investigation, vol. 85, pp. 9-23.
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3 20-amino….
Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.
Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.
Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Mrs. Stiller has many concerns….
Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288
Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85
Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60
Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
New Suppliers of Health Supplements
A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.
esults of Business Trip to Thailand
Cerrato, P.L. (1999, June). Coenzyme Q. And heart disease. RN, 62(6), 61 -- 62.
Chalmers, A.H., Blake-Mortimer, J.S. & Winefield, A.H. (2003). The prooxidant state and psychologic stress. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(1), 16.
Complete-Pharma Co., Ltd. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.alibaba.com/member / th107560976.html.
Freeman, M.S. & June, C. (2005). The Harvard Medical School guide to lowering your cholesterol. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.
Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It….
Drug therapy for cholesterol. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:
Heart health screening. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:
The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.
In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.
The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which restricts good blood flow….
American Medical Association (2004). "Peripheral Vascular Disease." Retrieved June 17, 2004, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4692 .
Barker, Jason; & Meletis, Chris D. "Peripheral Vascular Disease and Stasis Ulcers:
Treatment from a Naturopathic Perspective." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. i241-242, 76-79.
Health & Medicine Week (2003). "Peripheral Vascular Disease Treatment Slated to Begin Phase II Trials." NewsRX, 123.
M.K., a 45-year-old female who has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus and primary hypertension. In addition to this, M.K. is overweight and persists with a poor diet. The patient has also been smoking for the past 22 years, and has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Current symptoms include chronic cough, which tends to be more severe in the mornings and productive with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increase urination at night. The patient is currently on several medications including Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension, along with Glucophage for the Type II diabetes mellitus. From an analysis of M.K.'s lab results, this report will offer clinical findings and treatment recommendations, as well as suggestions for what other conditions M.K. may be at risk for given her health history, lifestyle, and lab results as follows:
158/98 mm Hg
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
Arterial Blood Gas Assessment
American Heart Association (2015). Types of heart failure. Retrieved online: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Heartfailure/Aboutheartfailure/Types-of-Heart-Failure_UCM_306323_Article.jsp#.WEy-h6IrKRs
CDC (2016). High blood pressure facts. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm
Cheung, M.M. & Li, C. (2012). Diabetes and Hypertension: Is There a Common Metabolic Pathway? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Apr; 14(2): 160 -- 166.
Elliot, W.J. (2003). The economic impact of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003 May-Jun;5(3 Suppl 2):3-13.
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes is in….
Arnett, D. (n.d.). Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/hbp/arnett/arnetti.htm
Bailey, B.; Jacobsen, D.; LeCheminant, J.; Kirk, E.; & Donnelly, J. (2003). The Effect of Analysis Method in Determining Change in Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.
Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/The_Effect_of_Analysis_Method_in_Determining.1004.aspx
Balmain, S., Padmanabhan, N., Ferrel, W., Morton, J. & McMurray, J. (2007). Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/865.full
2010; Chorny et al. 2010). This research is still quite new, however, and the question remains as to whether or not nanoparticles can truly serve as a replacement for stents by prohibiting plaque growth through a variety of means, including more targeted and longer-range delivery of pharmaceutical substances that destroy such build-ups and inhibit plaque deposits from forming. The efficacy of this approach has already been preliminarily demonstrated, but the long-term viability and safety of this intervention method as well as attendant risks have not yet been fully determined (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010).
IV. Motivation for esearch
Despite the numerous advancements that have been made in treating plaque build-up in arteries and the general treatment and control of other cardiac issues, coronary artery disease is still the leading cause of death in North America and is a significant problem in other parts of the world, as well….
Chan, J., Zhang, L., Tong, R., Ghosh, D., Gao, W., Liao, G….Farokhzad, O. (2010). Spatiotemporal controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, January 2010.
Chorny, M., Fishbein, I., Yellen, B., Alferiev, I., Bakay, M., Ganta, S….Levy, R. (2010). Targeting stents with local delivery of paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanoparticles using uniform fields. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 2010.
Kohn, J. & Zeltinger, J. (2005). Degradable, drug-eluting stents: a new frontier for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Expert review of medical devices, 2(6), pp. 667-71.
Schoenhagen, P. & Nissen, S. (2003). Assessing Coronary Plaque Burden and Plaque Vulnerability:Atherosclerosis Imaging With IVUS and Emerging Noninvasive Modalities. American Heart Hospital Journal 1(2), pp. 164-9.
After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's 'beta-adrenergic' type, and coined the term 'beta-adrenergic blocking drug', later shortened to 'beta-blocker'"
Sir James Black joins the cardiovascular team at Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., reads Moran's research and realizes the possibilities of synthesizing an analog to DCI that would be clinically useful.
Black's ICI report contradicts Waring's arguing that the "altered fat metabolism with associated changes in blood coagulability interact, permissively, with sympathetic neurohumoural stress responses to produce fatal damage."
Black synthesizes propranolol (Inderal)
ICI launches Black's first beta blocker treatment -- pronethalol (Alderlin).
The first clinical studies are conducted for the use of proopranolol.
ICI launches propranolol, the replacement for propranolol as it was found to cause thymic tumors in mice.
Propranolol is first marketed in the U.S.
Lands identifies a variety of models of sensitivity to….
Altman, L. (2 Feb 1982), New class of drugs revolutionizes therapy for heart disease, [Online], Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/02/science/new-class-of-drugs-revolutionizes-therap-y-for-heart-disease.html?&pagewanted=print [22/10/09].
Archard, G. (2005), Beta-Blocker Use in CHF Patients: History of CHF Treatments, [Online], Available: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510212_2 [22/10/09].
Betaxolol, (2008), [Online], Available: http://www.medicinenet.com/betaxolol/article.htm [22/10/09].
Bisoprolol, (2008), [Online], Available: http://www.medicinenet.com/bisoprolol/article.htm [22/10/09].
Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break down triglycerides, that can cause atherosclerosis, and people who exercise regularly show the most benefits from taking fish-oil supplements. The research used test subjects, and a variety of situations to test results, and showed that those who exercised and took fish-oil could reduce their triglyceride levels by 50%. This article indicates that fish-oil supplements could replace some other drug therapies for heart disease, and that it is a good idea to begin and exercise program and take fish-oil supplements if you want to reduce your risk of heart disease. I do not take fish-oil now, but I think I will start.
The second article, "Heart of the Matter," discusses several different supplements that are supposed to help prevent heart disease, including fish….
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)
In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely….
About Dementia. http://www.about-dementia.com/.2006.
Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.
Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.
Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates did not exceed….
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Medical and Medicine - Nursing
The idea that animal fat consumption causes heart disease is perhaps the most controversial component of the standard preventative advice given to reduce heart disease. This association is based…Read Full Paper ❯
Though this work focuses specifically on the risk factors of atherosclerosis for A patients and how to better identify them prior to clinical presentation of atherosclerosis the work…Read Full Paper ❯
Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis Artery diseases are of immense concern to medical researchers due to the cause and effect relationship shared with heart disease and cardiovascular mortality. Atherosclerosis is one of…Read Full Paper ❯
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have…Read Full Paper ❯
New Suppliers of Health Supplements A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened…Read Full Paper ❯
Vascular Disease andy Jackson Geriatric Nursing The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain."…Read Full Paper ❯
M.K., a 45-year-old female who has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus and primary hypertension. In addition to this, M.K. is overweight and persists with a poor…Read Full Paper ❯
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the…Read Full Paper ❯
2010; Chorny et al. 2010). This research is still quite new, however, and the question remains as to whether or not nanoparticles can truly serve as a replacement…Read Full Paper ❯
1958 After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's…Read Full Paper ❯
Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break…Read Full Paper ❯
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last…Read Full Paper ❯