Atherosclerosis Essays (Examples)

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Aging Body the Author Bases

Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39927888



3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.

4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…… [Read More]

References

Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.

Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.

Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
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Metabolic Syndrome in the United

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10894107



Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.

Mrs. Stiller has many…… [Read More]

Reference:

Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288

Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85

Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60

Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
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New Suppliers of Health Supplements a Promising

Words: 1932 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16092922

New Suppliers of Health Supplements

A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.

esults of Business Trip to…… [Read More]

References

Cerrato, P.L. (1999, June). Coenzyme Q. And heart disease. RN, 62(6), 61 -- 62.

Chalmers, A.H., Blake-Mortimer, J.S. & Winefield, A.H. (2003). The prooxidant state and psychologic stress. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(1), 16.

Complete-Pharma Co., Ltd. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.alibaba.com/member / th107560976.html.

Freeman, M.S. & June, C. (2005). The Harvard Medical School guide to lowering your cholesterol. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Carl Cardiac Case Q1 What Should

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55377232

Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.

Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It…… [Read More]

References

Drug therapy for cholesterol. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:

 http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Drug-Therapy-for-Cholesterol_UCM_305632_Article.jsp 

Heart health screening. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:

 http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Heart-Health-Screenings_UCM_428687_Article.jsp
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Peripheral Vascular Disease

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31835233

Vascular Disease

andy Jackson

Geriatric Nursing

The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.

In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.

The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which…… [Read More]

References

American Medical Association (2004). "Peripheral Vascular Disease." Retrieved June 17, 2004, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4692.

Barker, Jason; & Meletis, Chris D. "Peripheral Vascular Disease and Stasis Ulcers:

Treatment from a Naturopathic Perspective." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. i241-242, 76-79.

Health & Medicine Week (2003). "Peripheral Vascular Disease Treatment Slated to Begin Phase II Trials." NewsRX, 123.
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a patient who has bad lifestyle habits

Words: 2814 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35005722

M.K., a 45-year-old female who has a history of Type II diabetes mellitus and primary hypertension. In addition to this, M.K. is overweight and persists with a poor diet. The patient has also been smoking for the past 22 years, and has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Current symptoms include chronic cough, which tends to be more severe in the mornings and productive with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increase urination at night. The patient is currently on several medications including Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension, along with Glucophage for the Type II diabetes mellitus. From an analysis of M.K.'s lab results, this report will offer clinical findings and treatment recommendations, as well as suggestions for what other conditions M.K. may be at risk for given her health history, lifestyle, and lab results as follows:

Vitals

BP

158/98 mm Hg

CBC

Hematocrit

57%

Glycosylated…… [Read More]

References

American Heart Association (2015). Types of heart failure. Retrieved online:  http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Heartfailure/Aboutheartfailure/Types-of-Heart-Failure_UCM_306323_Article.jsp#.WEy-h6IrKRs 

CDC (2016). High blood pressure facts. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm

Cheung, M.M. & Li, C. (2012). Diabetes and Hypertension: Is There a Common Metabolic Pathway? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Apr; 14(2): 160 -- 166.

Elliot, W.J. (2003). The economic impact of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2003 May-Jun;5(3 Suppl 2):3-13.
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Measuring Arterial Stiffness Arterial Stiffness

Words: 3813 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93992174

When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:

we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arnett, D. (n.d.). Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from  http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/hbp/arnett/arnetti.htm 

Bailey, B.; Jacobsen, D.; LeCheminant, J.; Kirk, E.; & Donnelly, J. (2003). The Effect of Analysis Method in Determining Change in Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.

Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/The_Effect_of_Analysis_Method_in_Determining.1004.aspx

Balmain, S., Padmanabhan, N., Ferrel, W., Morton, J. & McMurray, J. (2007). Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/865.full
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Nano Artery the Use of

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86973594

2010; Chorny et al. 2010). This research is still quite new, however, and the question remains as to whether or not nanoparticles can truly serve as a replacement for stents by prohibiting plaque growth through a variety of means, including more targeted and longer-range delivery of pharmaceutical substances that destroy such build-ups and inhibit plaque deposits from forming. The efficacy of this approach has already been preliminarily demonstrated, but the long-term viability and safety of this intervention method as well as attendant risks have not yet been fully determined (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010).

IV. Motivation for esearch

Despite the numerous advancements that have been made in treating plaque build-up in arteries and the general treatment and control of other cardiac issues, coronary artery disease is still the leading cause of death in North America and is a significant problem in other parts of the world, as…… [Read More]

References

Chan, J., Zhang, L., Tong, R., Ghosh, D., Gao, W., Liao, G….Farokhzad, O. (2010). Spatiotemporal controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, January 2010.

Chorny, M., Fishbein, I., Yellen, B., Alferiev, I., Bakay, M., Ganta, S….Levy, R. (2010). Targeting stents with local delivery of paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanoparticles using uniform fields. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 2010.

Kohn, J. & Zeltinger, J. (2005). Degradable, drug-eluting stents: a new frontier for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Expert review of medical devices, 2(6), pp. 667-71.

Schoenhagen, P. & Nissen, S. (2003). Assessing Coronary Plaque Burden and Plaque Vulnerability:Atherosclerosis Imaging With IVUS and Emerging Noninvasive Modalities. American Heart Hospital Journal 1(2), pp. 164-9.
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Beta Blockers Invented by Sir

Words: 1964 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19181337



1958

After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's 'beta-adrenergic' type, and coined the term 'beta-adrenergic blocking drug', later shortened to 'beta-blocker'"

1959

Sir James Black joins the cardiovascular team at Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., reads Moran's research and realizes the possibilities of synthesizing an analog to DCI that would be clinically useful.

1959

Black's ICI report contradicts Waring's arguing that the "altered fat metabolism with associated changes in blood coagulability interact, permissively, with sympathetic neurohumoural stress responses to produce fatal damage."

1962

Black synthesizes propranolol (Inderal)

1963

ICI launches Black's first beta blocker treatment -- pronethalol (Alderlin).

1964

The first clinical studies are conducted for the use of proopranolol.

1965

ICI launches propranolol, the replacement for propranolol as it was found to cause thymic tumors in mice.

1966…… [Read More]

References

Altman, L. (2 Feb 1982), New class of drugs revolutionizes therapy for heart disease, [Online], Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/02/science/new-class-of-drugs-revolutionizes-therap-y-for-heart-disease.html?&pagewanted=print [22/10/09].

Archard, G. (2005), Beta-Blocker Use in CHF Patients: History of CHF Treatments, [Online], Available: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510212_2 [22/10/09].

Betaxolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/betaxolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].

Bisoprolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/bisoprolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].
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Educational Intervention on the Balance

Words: 9613 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34346457



Literature eview

1. The dilemma of Obesity

Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).

To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…… [Read More]

References

Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.

Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.

Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.

Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
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Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16018360

Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break down triglycerides, that can cause atherosclerosis, and people who exercise regularly show the most benefits from taking fish-oil supplements. The research used test subjects, and a variety of situations to test results, and showed that those who exercised and took fish-oil could reduce their triglyceride levels by 50%. This article indicates that fish-oil supplements could replace some other drug therapies for heart disease, and that it is a good idea to begin and exercise program and take fish-oil supplements if you want to reduce your risk of heart disease. I do not take fish-oil now, but I think I will start.

The second article, "Heart of the Matter," discusses several different supplements that are supposed to help prevent heart disease, including fish…… [Read More]

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Grumpier Old Men This Movie

Words: 2869 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22009818

Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)

In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Dementia. http://www.about-dementia.com/.2006.

Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.

Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.

Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
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STEMI Systematic Review

Words: 6098 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83721716

door to balloon time is an important determinant of the prognosis of STEMI patients. To reduce D2B times, most centers implement a pre-hospital triage which involves the use of pre-hospital ECG to allow direct transfer of patients with confirmed STEMI to the PCI lab. Since most health facilities do not have PCI laboratories, a quick decision needs to be made regarding fibrinolytic therapy or transfer to a PCI facility. The most important factor determining this decision is the time taken from the onset of symptoms to arrival at a hospital facility and the predicted time duration for effective transfer. Through this systemic review, we sought to analyze the role of pre-hospital management in door to balloon time (D2B), door to needle (D2N) time and the long-term mortality of STEMI patients.

Since pre-hospital delay is responsible for the greatest time loss, and is indeed the most variable factor, we tried to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

1- Adams R, Appleman Y, Bronzewaer JG, Slagboom T, Amoroso G, Exter PV et al. Implementation of prehospial triage for patients with chest pain and logistics for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the region of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. American Journal of Cardiology.2011;: 933-935.

2- Bajaj S, Parekh R, Gupta N, Aldehneh A, Rosenburg M, Hamdan A et al. "Code stemi" protocol helps in reducing door to balloon times in patients presenting with ST- segment elevation myocardial infarction during off hours. The Journal of Emergency Medicine.2011;: 1-7

3- Brooks SC., Allan KS, Wellsford M, Verbeek PR, Arntz HR, Morrisin LJ. Prehospital triage and direct transport of patients with st- segment elevation myocardial infarction to primary percutaneous coronary intervention centers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CJEM JCMU.2009; 11(5): 481-492

4- Camp-Rogers T, Dante S, Kontos MC, Roberts CS, Kreisa L, Kurz MC. The impact of pre-hospital activation of the cardiac catheterization team on time to treatment for patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011; 29(9);1117-24
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African-American Female Obesity

Words: 1847 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26794483

Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.

Public health issue

More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).

Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…… [Read More]

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008

Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.

Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from:  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
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History and Advancements in Diagnosis

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433036

misconception in people that having an aneurysm means bleeding in the brain. An aneurysm is in fact a balloon-like swelling in a blood vessel that can affect any large vessel in your body; these larger vessels being arteries. Aneurysms pose a risk to health from the potential for rupture, clotting, or dissecting. It is the pressure of the blood passing through a weak part of the blood vessel that forces it to bulge outwards, forming a sort of a blister. If the sac that is formed extends the artery too far, the vessel may burst, causing death by bleeding. upture of an aneurysm in the brain causes stroke, and rupture of an aneurysm in the abdomen causes shock. (THIJ, 2001)

Aneurysms are the cause of many deaths because they are usually silent until a medical emergency occurs. "One author has referred to an AAA as a "U-boat" in the belly,…… [Read More]

References

Lieber, B.B, and Wakhloo, A.K. (1996) Optimization of Stents for cerebrovascular disorders using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Particle Image Velocimetry. http://www.mae.buffalo.edu/research/summaries/1996 / (Accessed April 7, 2002)

Minyard. Andrea N, MD, and Parker, Joseph C. JR., MD, (1997) Intracranial Saccular (Berry) Aneurysm: A Brief Overview. http://www.sma.org/smj/97july2.htm, Louisville, Ky. (Accessed April 7, 2002)

Petito CK (1993) Cerebrovascular diseases. Principles and Practice of Neuropathology. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book Inc., pp 436-458

Stehbens WE (1995) Aneurysms. Vascular Pathology. London, Chapman and Hall Medical, pp 379-400
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Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Lipitor

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59435879

Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).

Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…… [Read More]

Reference

"Lipitor," (n.d.). RXList. Retrieved online:  http://www.rxlist.com/lipitor-drug/clinical-pharmacology.htm
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managing coronary heart disease

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41343563

Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease

Outline of Coronary Heart Disease

The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.

CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]

References

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, (2017). Heart disease and stroke are the top two causes of death -- and among the leading causes of disability -- in Australia. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://baker.edu.au/health-hub/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease?gclid=Cj0KEQjwt6fHBRDtm9O8xPPHq4gBEiQAdxotvNmN_YV05am6ts6wLgbbEPubE3I2Z6wwGSNl0AaycX0aAnFy8P8HAQ 

Cleveland Clinic, (2017). Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cad-symptoms

Mayo Clinic, (2017). Coronary Heart Disease: Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314

Southern Cross, (2017). Coronary heart disease - causes, symptoms, prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/coronary-heart-disease-causes-symptoms-prevention
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Cardiac Cardiovascular Case Study Hypertension

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12218809

The "pain" caused to the heart due to tissue damage can be misplaced in the body due to these nerve pathways and connections; heart attacks are often felt in the left arm and elsewhere on that side of the body between the heart and brain.

5)

Diuretics would encourage the elimination of sodium and a lessened fluid retention, easing the pressure in his arteries.

6)

The increased acidity in J.M.'s blood indicates reduced heart functionality and creatine phosphokinase levels are elevated which indicates muscle damage; low-normal lactate dehydrogenase suggest no recent prior infarctions, however, and without further tests this particular measure is not especially edifying.

7)

The drug relaxes blood vessels, allowing easier passage of blood reducing chest pain (which elevates stress and blood pressure) and easing the underlying problem, as well

8)

Aspirin inhibits the collection of platelets at the site of a plaque rupture, preventing a full blockage…… [Read More]

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Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31344353

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
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Female Gender Disparities in Cardiovascular

Words: 2805 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36678633

Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).

This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly

Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health

Issues 17: 120 -- 130.

DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
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High Sugar Consumption Sugar Is

Words: 1471 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21515987

This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).

Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bray, George a. Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity. Vol 79 # 4 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:

American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2004. Retrieved on January 30, 2011 from http://www.ajcn.org/conent/79/4/537.full

Green, Aleisha. Sugar Effects in Your Health. Associated Content: Yahoo, Inc., 2011.

Retrieved on February 1, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1899250/sugar_effects_on_your_health.html
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Healthy High Schools Movement Strategies

Words: 1849 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83271824

Meat has been considered to be a risk factor for the development of heart conditions due to its large concentration of saturated fats. This study also found there to be a significant relationship between the consumption of meats and the development of heart issues with the risk increasing as the amount of meat consumed increased. These findings did vary across types of meat with red meat being twice as likely to lead to an acute coronary syndrome as white meat.

eferences

Blisson, .M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural esearch, 58(6), 12-14.

Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.

Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with educed isk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.…… [Read More]

References

Blisson, R.M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural Research, 58(6), 12-14.

Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.

Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.

Jenkins, D.A., Srichaikul, K., Wong, J.M., Kendell, C.W., Bashyam, B., Vidgen, E., Lamarche, B., Roa, A.V., Jones, P.J. Josse, R.G., Jackson, C.C., Ng, V., Leong, T., & Leiter, L.A. (2010). Supplemental barley protein and casein similarily affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemia women and men. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(9), 1633-1637.
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Strokes and Their Causes Stroke

Words: 2130 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86971451



Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

Patients with stroke symptoms are advised to seek out for emergency cure without any dilly-dallying. Definite signs of a stroke rely on the kind of stroke. However all kinds of stroke share several attributes. Warlow (1996, p.2) stated that cerebral embolism stroke generally comes on rather abruptly and is extreme right from the beginning. On the other hand schemic strokes signs consist of reduced vision in one eye or both eyes and stern headache. Other symptoms include feebleness, numbness or facial paralysis or arm and leg paralysis which are normally restricted on one side of the body.

Furthermore, other symptoms of schemic strokes include faintness, stability or coordination failure particularly when pooled with other signs. Hemorrhagic strokes are a bit different and the signs include loss of realization, distorted mental condition and seizure. Other signs include vomiting or stern nausea and extreme hypertension. Lastly, the…… [Read More]

Reference List

American Heart Association and American Stroke Association (n.d.). Stoke diagnosis

Retrieved May 14, 2010, from http://www.americanheart.org

Caplan, L. R, Dyken, M.L., & Easton, J.D. (1996). American Heart Association Family

Guide to Stroke Treatment, Recovery, and Prevention. New York: Times Books.
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Poverty and Obesity Introduction the

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 444834



The hypothesis to be tested is to what extent children and their families are influenced by the marketing techniques of food companies. This hypothesis will be tested through qualitative methods including primarily ethnographic observation and open-ended interviews.

eferences

Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.

Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.

Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.

Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.

Morland K. et al. 2002 "The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on esidents' Diets: The Atherosclerosis isk…… [Read More]

References

Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.

Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.

Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.

Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
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High Fiber Diet and Serum

Words: 2357 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39886959

However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)

The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)

It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ballesteros, Martha N. (2001) Dietary Fiber and Lifestyle Influence Serum Lipids in Free Living Adult Men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Vol. 20, No. 6. 2001. Online available at: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/20/6/649

Cater, Nilo B. And Garg, Abhimanyu (2007) The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Current Diabetes Reports. Vol. 2 No. 3 May 2002.

Dietary Fiber Health Claims and Serum Lipids -- Cardiovascular Disease (2002) Nutrition Research Newsletter, June 2002. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_6_21/ai_87852135/

Gangi, Vijay and Kuo, Jennifer (2008) Serum Lipid Responses to Psyllium Fiber: Differences Between Pre and Post-Menopausal, Hypercholesterolemic Women. Nutrition Journal 2008. Vol. 7, Issue 22. 26 Aug 2008.
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Prevention of Childhood Obesity in

Words: 3571 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75541450

(Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx

Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24

National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx

Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
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Cranberries Vaccinium Macrocarpon Are Indigenous

Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92232797

A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum

Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/

Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html

az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum

Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.

Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…… [Read More]

References

The Cranberry Institute. Emerging research. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/emerging.htm

Duthie, S.J., Jenkinson, a.M., Crozier, a., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L.S., Christen, P., Duthie, G.G. (2006). The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J. Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032375?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA

Greenberg, J., Newmann, S.J. & Howell, a.B. (2005). Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries vs. unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):875-8. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296921?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA

Liu, Y., Black, M.A., Caron, L. & Camesano, T.A. (2006). Role of cranberry juice on molecular-scale surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006 Feb 5;93(2):297-305.
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Teaching on the Cognitive Learning

Words: 9169 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78651518

The kidneys of someone that has chronic renal failure are generally smaller than average kidneys, with some notable and important exceptions (ogers, 2004). Two of these exceptions would be polycystic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy (ogers, 2004). Another diagnostic tool that is used, that of the study of the serum creatinine levels, can not only diagnose chronic renal failure, but also help to distinguish it from acute renal failure, as the acute version would see a rapid and sudden spike in the serum creatinine levels over several days or several weeks, as opposed to a gradual rise that is seen over months or even over years (ogers, 2004).

Sometimes, the levels of serum creatinine have not been measured in the past, and therefore the patient is often first treated as having acute renal failure. Only when blood tests continue to show elevated serum creatinine levels and it is determined that…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Arszyla, D.M. & Gastelum, K. (2001). Coursework Document: Theorist Presentation. Retrieved at http://dana.ucc.nau.edu/~dma27/WebWizard/courseworkdoc0.html

Boston College. (2003). The Roy Adaptation Model. Retrieved at http://www2.bc.edu/~royca/

Coresh, J. & Greene, T. (2003). Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 41, 1-12.
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Dangers of Marijuana Is a

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3899599

, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
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Gene Is Hereditary Material Made

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11632347

At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Futterman, G. Laurie., and Lemberg, Louis. "Apo A-I Milano." Am J. Crit Care 14 (2005): 244-247.

Nissen, E. Steven., Tsunoda, Taro., Tuzcu, Murat, E., Schoenhagen, Paul., Cooper, J. Christopher., Yasin, Muhammad., Eaton, M. Gregory., Lauer, A. Michael., Sheldon, W. Scott., Grines, L. Cindy., Halpern, Stephen., Crowe, Tim., and James Blankenship, C. James. "Effect of Recombinant ApoA-I Milano on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Randomized Controlled Trial." JAMA 290(2003): 2292-2300.
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Diabetes Harvard Citation Studies Conducted Over Decades

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90965581

Diabetes

(Harvard Citation)

Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)

Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]

References

"eGFR." Lab Tests Online, Available from http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/gfr/tab/test

"Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)" National Kidney Foundation Available from http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/ckd/knowgfr.cfm

Grundy, Scott. Et al 1999, "Diabetes and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare

Professionals from the American Heart Association" AHA Scientific Statement.
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Drug Synthroid

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52345470

Synthroid, Drug Profile

SYNTHROID® (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) is an important drug, used to treat hypothyroidism. Synthroid has been extensively studied for over 42 years. It is the most widely prescribed thyroid medicine in the United States. Currently, over eight million people are using Synthroid for thyroid replacement therapy. [Abbott, 2001]

Synthetic Levothyroxine (T4 ) is identical in chemical composition and molecular weight to naturally secreted T4. Synthroid tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: acacia, confectioner's sugar, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and color additives.[Abbott, 2001].

Synthroid is pregnancy category A. Studies have shown that Synthroid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if given during pregnancy. The possibility of fetal harm does appear to be remote, however, Synthroid should only given during pregnancy if it is clearly needed [Abbott, 2001]. In addition Abbot Laboratories reports that thyroid hormones do cross the placental barrier to some extent. T4 levels in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abbott Laboratories, (2001) Synthroid Product Information. Synthroid,.com. Abbott Park, Illinois Accessed February, 2002 URL: http://www.synthroid.com/

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. (AACE) (1995)clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 1;1995:56-62.

Banahan BF, et al.(1998) Generic substitution of NTI drugs: Issues for Formulary Committee Consideration. Formulary. 33;1998:1082-1096.

BASF Pharmaceuticals.(2002) Synthroid. Drug Manufacturer Information. Found on Commercial website. Drug InfoNet. Com Accessed February, 2002. http://www.druginfonet.com/synthrod.htm
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Aspirin Usage in Patients With

Words: 2946 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85323499

In these cases, it has been mentioned that only those diabetics can benefit from the use of aspirin that have had a heart attack in the past. Thus, the usage of aspirin can help in prevention of any future heart attacks3 (p. 2365).

Analysis of Chosen studies

Study 1

The first study "Use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients in an ambulatory care setting in Spain," has been conducted on diabetic patients. It has mentioned that diabetics are at an increased risk of cardiovascular malfunction as compared to normal population. As the title of the study indicates, the focus is on the diabetics in Spain. They study has focused on the effects of using certain drugs and medications in order to reduce or to prevent the risk of heart attacks in diabetics. The study has mentioned that the usage of salicylic acid for…… [Read More]

References

1. Chan KLF, Jessica YL, Ching MPH, Lawrence CT, Hung MD, Wong VSW, Leung KSV, Kung NN, Hui, AJ, Wu JCY, Leung KW, Lee WYV, Lee K, Lee TY, Lau WY, to FK, Chan HLY, Chung S, and Sung JJY. Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin and Esomeprazole to Prevent Recurrent Ulcer Bleeding. N Engl J. Med. 2005; 352:238-244.

2. Falk E, and Fernandez-Ortiz a. Role of thrombosis in atherosclerosis and its complications. American Journal of Cardiology. 1995: 75: 5B-11B.

3. Smith CS, Allen J, Blair JN, Bonow or, Brass LM, Fonarow, CG, Grundy, MS, Hiratzka L, Jones D, Krumholz, HM, Mosca L, Pasternak CR, Pearson T, Pfeffer MA, and Taubert KA. AHA/ACC Guidelines for Secondary Prevention for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2006 Update, Endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation. 2006; 113: 2363-2372.

4. Keith a. Regulating Information About Aspirin and the Prevention of Heart Attack. The American Economic Review. 1995: 85: 96-99.
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Healthcare Infrastructure

Words: 506 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20826166

Healthcare Infrastructure Memorandum

United States Surgeon General

Pediatric Doctors of America

Policy Change Memo

This memo is an attempt to gather your support in our efforts to change the existing policy regarding the funding of preventative screening programs for heart disease in adolescents. Your office currently concurs and supports the pay structure where preventative screening programs for heart disease are fully funded by the patient or personal insurance as well as your being totally against the programs being funded by Medicare or Medicaid. This would be fine if every child in America had personal insurance. However, as you are well aware, there are just too many Americans without basic health insurance. The American public has been seeing an escalated number of cases of adolescent Heart Disease and we therefore request you reconsider your position.

There is currently enough evidence to predict adults who may potentially get hypercholesterolemia and other heart…… [Read More]

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Obesity Is When a Person Has an

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5029382

Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.

Fast Food's link to Obesity

People…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, 2000

2. Mayo Clinic: Obesity www.cnn.com/mayo

3. BBC Health: Why fast food makes you fat, October 2003

4. Overweight and Obesity, Healthy People 2010: Leading Health Indicators and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
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Why Do the Japanese Live Longer

Words: 2874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63437076

Japanese Nutrition

Japanese

WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?

NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:

As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.

Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.

London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
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Food Fried in Vegetable Oil May Contain Toxic Compound

Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23239786

vegetable oil and fried foods. There are two references used for this paper.

There are a number of foods which are causing health concerns today. It is important to examine whether foods fried in vegetable oil contain a toxic compound.

Fried Foods

Frying foods in vegetable oil is a common practice throughout the United States, and has previously been considered good for the heart due to the oil's high concentration of linoleic acid.

However, researchers are discovering this can result in the formation of a toxic compound. "University of Minnesota researchers A. Saari Csallany, a professor of food chemistry and nutritional biochemistry, and graduate student Christine Seppanen has shown that when highly unsaturated vegetable oils are heated at frying temperature (365 F) for extended periods -- or even for half an hour -- a highly toxic compound, HNE (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal) forms in the oil. Csallany and her colleagues have found three…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Exotic Blends Co.: R & D. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.theexoticblends.com/research/research.html).

Unknown. "Food Fried in Vegetable Oil May Contain Toxic Compound."

Science Daily. 02 May, 2005. University of Minnesota. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm).
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Obesity An Overview What Is the Disease

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58097195

Obesity: An Overview

hat is the disease?

Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)

However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benson, Lorna. (2003) "MPR: Obesity as a Disease." Minnesota Public Radio (MPH) Special Report. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at  http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2004/03/29_bensonl_desease/ 

Eckel, Robert H. (1997) "Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 96:3248-3250. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/96/9/3248#SEC1
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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…… [Read More]

References

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Differential Diagnosis for Mrs Patrick and Give

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14912947

differential diagnosis for Mrs. Patrick and give the most likely probable diagnosis.

A review of the case reveals that Mrs. Patrick could be suffering from Fibroblastic rheumatism, heumatoid Arthritis, Sarcoid arthropathy, Acute viral polyarthritis or heumatoid Arthritis.

Fibroblastic rheumatism is noted by Chkirate and Job-Deslandre (2001) to be a very rare disease of an unknown etiology. It however shares certain features of arthritis, nodules as well as arthraglia. The disease causes flexion contractures in most of the patients, a symptom which Mrs. Patrick lacks. In half the cases, thickened palmar fascia is presented.

Sarcoid artropathy

This is a chronic arthritis in the sarcoidosis and it may be polyarticular or oligoarticular. In most cases, it presents itself similarly to A.In most cases it affects knees, hands, ankles and wrists as well as interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal. It is also normally associated with parenchymal pulmonary disease.It is distinguished from heumatoid Arthritis by:…… [Read More]

References

Gorsche, R (2001).Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The Canadian Journal of CME

Rindfleisch JA, Muller D. (2005).Diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Am Fam Physician. 2005 Sep 15;72(6):1037-47.

Smith CA, Woolf AD, Lenci M.(1987)Parvoviruses: infections and arthropathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Aug;13(2):249-63.
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Heart the Basic Work of the Heart

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65551499

Heart

The basic work of the heart is to pump blood to the entire body. It performs two types of functions, electrical and mechanical. The electrical function of the heart is the periodic contraction that is triggered by the pacemaker. The pacemaker generates the pumping effect throughout the heart. This pumping action commonly known as action potential is carried in an electrical conduction system. The mechanical function is the fluidic movement of blood; the heart is a pump. The heart's anatomical features include; ventricle, which is the pump, heart valves; that allow blood to flow one way and the atria, which includes the four chambers of the heart. The heart is susceptible to disease and as a result if unable to pump blood can lead to failure in other body organs.

Treated Heart Conditions

Cardiology is generally a field of medicine focusing on diagnosis and treatment of the heart. Discussed…… [Read More]

Reference

American Medical Association. (2011). CPT Professional Edition. Chicago: American Medical

Association.

Fishbein, M.C. (2012). Heart Transplant. Retrieved February 27, 2012, from www.medicinenet.com:  http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_transplant/page2.htm 

Heartmart. (2007). Commonly Performed Heart Procedures - Fixing Broken Hearts. Retrieved February 27, 2012, from www.heartmart.com:  http://www.heartmart.com/heart-health/heart-procedures/
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Role of Fatty Acid on Endothelial Functions

Words: 3042 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56549440

ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions

ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions

Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People

The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…… [Read More]

Reference

Kris-Etherton, M., Harris, S., & Appel, J. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty

Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association, Inc. Circulation

106:2747 -- 2757, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000038493.65177.94

Goodfellow, J., Bellamy, M. Ramsey, M. & Jones, C, (2000). Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 265 -- 270,
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Social Impact on Health of

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86878742



Often times, the impact of social relationships begins to emerge in childhood, thus illustrating the importance of how familial structures set the tone for mental and physical health of children as they grow into adulthood. Children set a tone at a very young age based on the health and type of familial and social structures they have around them, Whether positive or negative, these relationships can set a lasting impact that will thus influence how the child reacts to social situations later in life. If a child experiences relative social isolation, or the absence of strong familial or social ties, this may have a negative impact on both his or her immediate and long-term mental and physical health. On the other hand, children with higher levels of social integration will have much stronger self-esteem and will often have a higher resistance to physical health issues. The support these children have…… [Read More]

References

Umberson, D., & Montez, J.K. (2010). Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1 suppl), S54-S66.
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Stroke Is Widely Regarded One of the

Words: 2569 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54959389

Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.

Stroke: An Overview

In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…… [Read More]

References

Eisenberg, M.G., Glueckauf, R.L. & Zaretsky, H.H. (Eds.). (1999). Medical Aspects of Disability: A Handbook for the Rehabilitation Professional (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Gulini, M., Gianelli, M., Quaglia, W. & Marrucci, G. (Eds.). (2000). Receptor Chemistry Towards the Third Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Huether, S.E. & Mccance, K. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.

Mohr, J.P., Grotta, J.C., Wolf, P.A., Maskowitz, M.A., Mayberg, M.R. And Kummer, R.V. (2011). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
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Arterial Ulcerations Management of Arterial Ulcerations in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 778 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80803797

Arterial Ulcerations:Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic patient

Arterial Ulcerations: Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic Patient

There Approximately 10 per cent of all leg ulcers are arterial ulcers. The legs and feet are often start to feel very cold and then they may have a color that looks either white or blue, shiny appearance. Arterial leg ulcers normally can be certainly painful. Pain normally starts to escalate when the person's legs are elevated and resting. ith this condition, most have learned tha they can reduce that pain just by lying down on the bed. The gravity will then cause more blood to start flowing directly into the legs. Ulcers normally happen when the breaks in the legs do not heal properly. They may be escorted by irritation. A lot of the times they do not heal correctly thus causing them to become chronic. People that have arterial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

(n.d.).

Anand SC, D.C. (2003). Health-related quality of life tools for venous-ulcerated patients. Br J. Nurs, 17(2), 34-56.

C:, W. (1995). Living with a venous leg ulcer: a descriptive study of patients' experiences. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23(7), 23-30.

Franks PJM, M.C. (1998). Who suffers most from leg ulceration? Journal of Wound Care, 18(3), 383-385.
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Perioperative Nurse's Role in Caring for Pregnant Patients With Aortic Dissections

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83299405

Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)

The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from http://duranki.hubpages.com/hub/Beware-High-Blood-Pressure-It-will-Kill-You -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming

Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-aortic-dissection-FT.pdf

Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from  http://www.drugs.com/pro/morphine-injection.html 

Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.
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Thyroid Analogs and Obesity

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91494980

Thyroid Hormone and Obesity

Obesity Treatment: The Efficacy and Safety of Thyroid Hormone and Derivatives

Weight loss programs have traditionally focused on calorie intake reduction in combination with exercise, but new research suggests that it may be possible to simply accelerate metabolic rates using pharmaceutical interventions. The current drugs approved for treating obesity function by suppressing hunger or limiting nutritional absorption (reviewed by Tseng, Cypess, and Kahn, 2010). Unfortunately, the body is designed adapt to caloric availability by lowing metabolic rates during famine and to store calories as fat to guard against starvation. Drugs that suppress hunger or limit absorption activate these pathways, making long-term weight loss more difficult. The drugs that act on the satiety centers in the brain can also produce debilitating psychotropic side effects. The current state of effective pharmaceutical intervention on behalf of obese patients is therefore lacking approved drugs that increase calorie expenditure safely over…… [Read More]

References

Baxter, John D. And Webb, Paul. (2009). Thyroid hormone mimetics: potential applications in atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Nature Reviews in Drug Discovery, 8, 308-320.

Herwig, Annika, Ross, Alexander W., Nilaweera, Kanishka N., Morgan, Peter J., and Barrett, Perry. (2008). Hypothalamic TH in energy balance regulation. Onkologie, 31, 71-79.

Ortega, Francisco J., Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M., Ribas, Vincent, Esteve, Eduardo, Rodriquez-Hermosa, Jose I., Ruiz, Bartomeu et al. (2009). Subcutaneous fat shows higher thyroid hormone receptor-?1 gene expression than omental fat. Obesity, 17, 2134-2141.

Pelletier, Paula, Gauthier, Karine, Sideleva, Olga, Samarut, Jacques, and Silva, J. Enrique. (2008). Mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor-? gene spend more energy in thermogenesis, burn more fat, and are less sensitive to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Endocrinology, 149, 6471-6486.
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Cardiac Arrest

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91083108

Heart Disease

elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease

The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac…… [Read More]

References

Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600

CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/ 

Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054

Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
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Hyponatremia in a 38-Year-Old Male the Constellation

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63085277

Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male

The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.

True Hyponatremia Diagnosis

There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…… [Read More]

References

Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://aace.metapress.com/content/u645qx2217t34124/fulltext.pdf

Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse

Anglin, Rebecca E., Rosebush, Patricia I., and Mazurek, Michael F., 2006. The neuropsychiatric profile of Addison's disease: Revisiting a forgotten phenomenon. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, 450-459.

Betterle, Corrado, Pra, Chiara Dal., Mantero, Franco, and Zanchetta, Renato, 2002. Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: Autoantibodies, autoantigens, and the applicability in diagnosis and disease prediction. Endocrinology Reviews, 23, 327-364.
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Strokes and African Americans

Words: 4072 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81628730

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose…… [Read More]

References

National Stroke Association (2010) What is Stroke? Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=STROKE

The Office of Minority Health (2010) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?ID=3022

National Stroke Association (2010) African-Americans and Stroke. Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AAMER

Neipris, Louis (1998) African-Americans and Stroke Risk. My Optum Health. Retrieved from: http://www.wtvm.com/global/story.asp?s=12834243
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Cocoa the Cacao Tree Theobroma Cacao What

Words: 10319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61772106

Cocoa

THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)

WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?

MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE

State of the At of Cocoa

Is Cocoa good fo you?

Buden of Poof

CHOCOLATE AS A FAT

EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS

WHAT IS OK

CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE

Chocolate Caving

F. Migaine

G. Toxicity

H. Immune Function

Allegy

J. Othe Disodes

K. Behavio

L. Antioxidants

M. Caffeine

N. Dental Caies

O. Migaines

P. Obesity

Seum Cholesteol

K. Heat Health

Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]

references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.

Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.

Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.

Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.

Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
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Adult Aging

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40140618

Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn. 2003. " An international approach to community health care for older adults." Family and Community Health. October-December. available from Proquest Database.

In this article, Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez propose a model for community-based primary healthcare that could be more responsive to the needs of the growing elderly population around the globe. Lubben and Damron-Rodriguez base their study by analyzing the results and ramifications of the community healthcare approach developed by the World Health Organization Kobe Centre for Health Development (WKC). Based on the results of the WKC approach, the authors make recommendations regarding changes needed to allow community healthcare organizations to better serve the needs of older adults.

The authors observe that one important aspect of the WKC approach is the promotion of healthy ageing. By delaying disability through educating individuals regarding the importance of nutrition and family support, the WKC thus advocates a community-based…… [Read More]

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Nutrigenomics Is an Important Field of Study

Words: 4560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10230829

Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antshel, K.M., & Waisbren, S.E. (2003). Timing is everything: executive functions in children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 458-468.

Arn, P.H. (2003). Galactosemia. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 5(4), 343-345.

Buttke, T.M., & Sandstrom, P.A. (1995). Redox regulation of programmed cell death in lymphocytes. Free Radic Res, 22(5), 389-397.

Collins, F.S., Guyer, M.S., & Charkravarti, A. (1997). Variations on a theme: cataloging human DNA sequence variation. Science, 278(5343), 1580-1581.
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Diabetes Case Study

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98697834

Mrs. X.

elationship of high cholesterol levels to the development of cardiovascular disease

Diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol are all strongly correlated. Even when diabetes is being well-managed, the patient's risks factors increase for comorbidity with these disorders. "High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles" (Cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 2014, AHA). Also, in the case of Ms. X, because of her uncontrolled diabetes, her risk for high cholesterol is higher than average even in the absence of obesity and inactivity. "This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia…… [Read More]

References

Burden, M. (2003). Diabetes: Treatment and complications. Nursing Times, 99(2) 30/

Retrieved from:

 http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/diabetes/diabetes-treatment-and-complications-the-nurses-role/205780.article 

Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2012). American Heart Association. Retrieved from:
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Cardiac Health and Lifestyle

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36543295

incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.

ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…… [Read More]

References

Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873

Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.

Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248

[Type text]
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Symptoms of Periodontitis Smoking and

Words: 3837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64949452

Symptoms of Periodontitis

Smoking and periodontitis

Diabetes and periodontitis

Diagnosis of periodontitis

Types of probes

Probing force and probe diameter

Histopathological alteration in the periodontal tissues

Bleeding on probing (BOP) refers to bleeding of the gums induced by gentle manipulation of the tissue at the depth of the gingival sulcus or at the interface between the gingival and a tooth. This is frequently accomplished by the use of a periodontal probe. BOP is a sign of inflammation of the gums and is indicative of some sort of destruction and erosion to the lining of the sulcus.

Periodontal disease is a set of inflammatory diseases usually affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth otherwise called periodontium. This disease involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and without treatment it can lead to loosening and possible eventual loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms adhering and…… [Read More]