Atonement Essays (Examples)

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Film and the Use of Themes Motifs and Symbols

Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87565505


Joe right's 2007 Atonement opens with a shot of the home of Briony et al. in miniature -- a replica of the mansion estate where the main characters live and work in England, 1935. The shot pulls back as the keys of a typewriter are heard clacking away (prior to this, the clacks coincide with the appearance of the text on-screen announcing both title and setting of the film -- and the shift from non-diegetic to diegetic sound is the first of many surprises in this cleverly crafted period piece by right). right's command of the material is as impressive as his work in Pride and Prejudice and as mesmerizing as it would later be in Anna Karenina. Here, the whole of the film, which is "a story about storytelling" (Santas, ilson, Colavito, Baker 60), is foreshadowed in one subtle pull-back as the camera, focused squarely on the miniature…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ebert, Roger. "Atonement.", 6 Dec 2007. Web. 23 Feb 2016.

Travers, Peter. "Atonement." Rolling Stone, 14 Dec 2007. Web. 23 Feb 2016.

Santas, Constantine; Wilson, James; Colavito, Maria; Baker, Djoymi. The Encyclopedia

of Epic Films. UK: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. Print.
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Nominated for the 2001 Booker

Words: 2169 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20278643

"All you family assumed it for all my education… I was still little better than a servant, still not to be trusted." The real dysfunction, then, goes far beyond the Tallis estate, and is more clearly a broader sociological dysfunction embedded within society. "He laughed politely, though he must have thought me profoundly stupid. It is quite impossible these days to assume anything about people's educational level from the way they talk or dress or from their taste in music. Safest to treat everyone you meet as a distinguished intellectual." (p. 342).

Instead of following this path, however, the circumstances surrounding that tragic evening cause both sisters to rethink their role as women, and members of society, in favor of a service career -- nursing. Cecilia travels to London, becomes a nurse, and cuts herself completely away from the family. Cecilia is so ashamed of her family, not only is…… [Read More]


Daniels, B. (2003). Poverty and Families in Victorian England. Retrieved from:

Knight, K. (2009). Doctrine of the Atonement. New Advent. Retrieved from:  

McEwan, I. (2003). Atonement. New York: Anchor Books.
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Search for Truth

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96313949

Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng, "Atonement" by Ian McEwan and "The Violent Bear it Away" by Flannery O'Connor.

This paper will analyze how the three books demonstrate the significance of truth in one's life and how big a priority it is or isn't.

Search For Truth

Is Truth the winner in the end? Is the battle between Good or Evil always by won by Good? Could lies have terrible consequences on not only one's own life but on others? These are some of the questions that are raised and/or answered in Life and Death in Shanghai, Atonement and The Violent Bear It All.

Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng is a true account of how Nien Cheng's life was persecuted and imprisoned during the time of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in China. (1966-1976).

During this time, Nien Cheng became a victim of the revolution. Her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Life and Death in Shanghai by Nien Cheng

Atonement by Ian McEwan

The Violent Bear It All by Flannery O'Connor
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Change About the Criminal Justice

Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36936272

(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'

In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.

estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…… [Read More]


Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.

Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
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Hero With 1 000 Faces the Classic Hero

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4625582

Hero with 1,000 Faces

The classic hero seems to teach us the value of humanity, while helping us strive for excellence by understanding the value of the experiences rendered through intuition, emotions, and often feelings that are special to the hero -- often rather than logical reasoning. The paradigm of heroism transcends genre, chronology and has become so common in the human collective consciousness that it is easily recognized and repeated (Campbell).

One very interesting aspect of the human experience is the manner in which certain themes appear again and again over time, in literature, religion, mythology, and culture -- regardless of the geographic location, the economic status, and the time period. Perhaps it is the innate human need to explain and explore the known and unknown, but to have disparate cultures in time and location find ways of explaining certain principles in such similar manner leads one to believe…… [Read More]


Bittarello, M. "ReCrafting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10 (2): 210-24, Print.

Campbell, J., The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on his Life and Work. New York: New World Library, 2003, Print.

Campbell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York: New World Library, 2008, Print..

Holquin, B., The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, Volume 1. Los Angeles, CA: Arachia Publishers, 2011, Print.
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Providence Debate

Words: 3248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17404719

Providence Debate

According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."

In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…… [Read More]


Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English

Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.

Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca

Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
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Luther Calvin Pascal the Three

Words: 2421 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24841517

All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.

This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…… [Read More]


Calvin, J. Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Mountain Retreat. Retrieved from:  

Edwards, J.A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections. The Covenant of Grace. Retrieved from:  

Edwards, J. Sinners in the hands of an Angry God. Retrieved from:  

Edwards, J. God Glorified in Man's Dependence. What Saith the Scripture? Retrieved from:
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Rise of the English Baptists

Words: 2377 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18611972

ut the ible is clear that Esau, Judas, and anyone else who does not believe in Jesus Christ is condemned to an eternity in hell, separated from God forever, never to be redeemed. (Himes R.)

The Particular Movement was founded by Henry Jacob (1563-1624). Although he never in fact became a aptist his views strongly influenced the development of the Separatist Movement. Jacob also attempted to reform the Church of England rather than condemning the Church outrightly. At this time there was a distinct and sharp difference between the particular and general aptists.

eing stern Calvinists, the Particular aptists reject any relationship with John Smyth, or the early General aptists who advocated Arminian or "free will" theology with its popish overtones. The early Particular aptists rejected any historical relationship with John Smyth and his movement. Some early aptist authors even postulated a historical tradition in ritain dating as far back…… [Read More]


Allen, J.W. English Political Thought, 1603-1660. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1938.

Gourley B. A Very Brief Introduction to Baptist History, Then and Now. Accessed November 8, 2004.

Primer on Baptist History. Accessed November 7, 2004.

BAPTIST CONNECTIONS. Baptist History. Accessed November 7, 2004.
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Temple- Its Ministry and Services

Words: 6010 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32390774

An additional type of offering was the peace-offering, which represented a feast where God was a guest and the host. Peace offerings were accompanied by meat and drink offerings. For all offerings, repentance was necessary.

In chapter seven, Edersheim describes a night in the temple. Edersheim points out the connection between Temple services and the Book of Revelations, which he suggests indicates that the Book of Revelation and the Fourth Gospel were written before Temple services actually ceased. Edersheim indicates that there was an evening service in the Temple. Accounting was also done in the evening. The Temple guard worked at night and consisted of ten men. The captain of the guard patrolled and beat any sleeping guards. The priests cast lots for the services of the day. Those who drew the first lot cleansed and prepared the later. Those who drew the second lot were to offer the sacrifice,…… [Read More]

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Isaiah Delivered the Jubilee Message

Words: 3410 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64245856

They could only be disposed of, as it were, by leases till the year of jubilee, and were then to return to the seller or his heir."

This would preserve familial and tribal heritage as well as prevent the wealthy from being able to incur large masses of land, thus keeping certain families in extreme poverty. It gives all Israelites their liberty, as well as treats them all as equals, as the land would be regenerated every fifty years. "The chief point was that there should never be a build-up of power by a few to control the land and the people; therefore, there was redistribution of the land as it had been divided in the beginning."

Each family or tribe is given the opportunity to return to his or her land, and be renewed. "Those that were sold into other families, thereby became strangers to their own; but in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achtemeier, Paul A., Green, Joel B., and Thompson, Marianne Meyer. Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI. William B.

Eerdmans. 2001.

Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament. New York, NY. Paulist Press. 1984.

Bruggeman, Walter. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Louisville, KY.
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Feast of Tabernacles Underlying the

Words: 904 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52858052

How Jesus fulfilled the symbolism underlying the Feast of Tabernacles

eagan (2005) states that Jesus was the Messiah promised to the Israelites to deliver them from sin. The Passover pointed to the Messiah was the Passover lamb whose blood would be shed for deliverance from sin. Jesus was crucified on Passover when lambs were being slaughtered for the Passover meal. Jesus was viewed as having a sinless life making him the perfect sacrifice for sins relating to the feast of Unleavened Bread. His body was in the grave in the first days of the feast like a wheat kernel waiting to burst forth as the bread of life. Jesus' resurrection was symbolic in the feast of First Fruits as it was an indication of the first fruit of righteous. The feast of Harvest or Pentecost symbolized the great harvest of souls that would come during the Church Age. The Church…… [Read More]


Love, D.J. (2009). The Holy Sabbaths of The Sacred Seventh Month: The Feast Of

Tabernacles (Sukkot or Succoth) and the Last Great Day (Judgement Day).

Retrieved on April 13, 2010 from

Reagan, D.R. (2005). The Feasts of Israel: A Study in Symbolic Prophecy. Retrieved on April 13, 2010, from
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David Powlison's Book Seeing With

Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80370268

hile Powlison may not agree with those approaches, he does acknowledge their existence. Therefore, in the second part of his book, Powlison examines psychological knowledge of human behavior and motivation.

However, it is important to keep in mind that the Bible is the basis for all of Powlison's discussions. hile he may develop a personality theory, it is a personality theory based on Scripture. According to reviewer Bob Kelleman:

"the strength of this section is found in Powlison's insistence on building a view of human nature not coram anthropos (from the perspective of humanity), but coram Theos (from the perspective of God). e can understand people via people, or we can understand people via God. Powlison rightly chooses to understand the creature not through the creature but through the Creator (Kelleman).

To do this, Powlison uses x-ray questions, which he says reveal what God sees when he looks at an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cross, F.L., ed. "Atonement." The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York:

Oxford University Press. 2005.

Kelleman, Bob. "Book Review: Seeing with New Eyes: Counseling and the Human Condition

through the Lens of Scripture." Discerning Reader. N.p. 2 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Oct. 2010.
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Christ's Use of the Old Testament

Words: 2945 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31664126

Christian religion, the Old and New Testaments form a whole upon which its belief system is based. The transition between the Old and New Testaments resides in the person of Christ, who came to earth as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messianic prophesy.

This transition then occurs not only through the ultimate sacrifice of Christ at his death and resurrection, but also in his ministry during his lifetime. Christ uses the Old Testament in various ways in order both to establish the new order of the New Testament, but also to validate the authority of the Old.

As the son of God, Christ shows his relationship to the Father through his respect for the validity and authority of the Old Testament. He does this in various ways, of which one is his acceptance of the history of the Old Testament. Jesus refers to various persons of the Old Testament,…… [Read More]


France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament: His application of Old Testament passages to Himself and His mission. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1982

Holmgren, Frederic C. The Old Testament and the significance of Jesus: embracing change -- maintaining Christian identity: the emerging center in biblical scholarship. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 1999.

Smith, Barry D. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament." Atlantic Baptist University, 2005.

Sper, David. "Jesus Christ and the Old Testament." RBC Ministries, 1990.
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Preexistence of Christ

Words: 3206 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44012030

Pre-Existence Christ

The Pre-Existence of Christ

The pre-existence of Christ is the central tenant of Christianity. This paper will review the pre-existence of Christ including supporting views and arguments against the pre-existence of Christ, proving that Christ did exist before His incarnation. Christ existed before the dawn of ages; he was not an afterthought in the mind of God, but rather, always was, and ever will be, as stated in the scriptures. To think otherwise would be heretical; such a statement is counter to every doctrine ever derived from the Gospels.

For centuries humankind has debated the origins of life; Christianity however, has supported the notion that life stems from Christ, and Christ comes from God, as the only manifest Son of God. Christ confirms this, as stated and proved in the book of John when Christ says,[footnoteef:1] "And now, Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the…… [Read More]


Bruce, F.F., 1990. The Epistle to the Hebrews, Grand Rapids: WB Eerdmans Publishing.

Bradley, Delon. 2010. The pre-existence of Christ: Christ's presence revealed through the Old-

Testament. Liberty Baptist: Lynchburg VA. ( ).

Burt, Merlin D. 2006. History of Seventh-day Adventist views of the Trinity. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 17(1), pp. 125-139.
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Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity

Words: 7257 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52966776

Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.

Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…… [Read More]


1) Tracey R. Rich, "Moshiach: The Messiah," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003

2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "original Sin," accessed on May 23rd, 2003 

3) Jono, " Different sects of Judaism," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003,
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London Baptist Confession of Faith

Words: 968 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12587803

In the London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1644, we see a confession of faith statement that is much closer to that of what modern day Baptists would find familiar. ith the coming and continuance of the English Civil ar, Baptists saw the need and took the opportunity to write down their own statement of faith. The document was written and signed by seven separate congregations that collaborated to write the document. The document's purpose was to differentiate the beliefs of the Particular Baptists from the General Baptists. This was to formally define the beliefs of the Particular Baptists as opposed to the General Baptists. hile not detailed, it was very clearly Calvinistic in tone. It rejected the notion that the law convicted of sin, claiming that the terrors of the law were not needed. They were not needed because the gospel alone has the power to do this. Secondly,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Lumpkin, Willam L. Baptist Confessions of Faith. Brentwood: Judson Press, 1969.

Taylor, John, and Chester Young . Baptists on the American Frontier. 3rd Ed. Macon:

Mercer University Press, 1995.
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Solaris God and Ineffability the

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56581753

It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.

Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love…… [Read More]

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Judaism Even Though the Presence

Words: 2361 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39984211

(Catholic Home Study Service: Sundays and Holy Days) Hence when a changeover was made from Sabbath to Sunday as the weekly day of worship, the traditional Holy Days began to be neglected, and Christmas and Easter evolved to be the significant festivals of the Christian community. (Christian Holy Days)

The Modern Christian church now orders its members to attend services on every Sunday and on all other Holy Days. The Church makes the Services mandatory on Holy Days and on every Sunday, since the Christians have prayers and offerings as a community and the Services is the crucial activity which shows the worship of the community. Since this crucial activity shows the worship of the community as a whole, the need to attend services on the Holy Days and on Sundays is looked upon by the Church as a serious obligation. Sidelining this is considered to be a grave sin.…… [Read More]


Catholic Home Study Service: Sundays and Holy Days. Retrieved from  Accessed on 12/1/2004

Christian Holy Days. Retrieved from Accessed on 12/1/2004

Harrison, Jeffrey J. The High Holy Days. A Time of Repentance. Retrieved from  Accessed on 12/1/2004

Religious Holidays - or God's Holydays? Retrieved from  Accessed on 12/1/2004
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Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity

Words: 14079 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81059360

history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…… [Read More]


J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.



Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
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Beliefs Concepts and Elements of

Words: 1597 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78685736

The Hasidic Jews are extremely pious and their numbers are small around the world. Each of these sects has relatively different views of their faith and values, but they all consider themselves bound as Jews beyond their specific beliefs.

It is also important to note that Jews have been some of the most persecuted and hated of religions of all times. They were thrown out of Babylon in their early history, they were consistently banned from European cities and countries, Hitler exterminated millions of them during the Holocaust, and when Israel was created in 1948, the Arab neighbors immediately attacked and tension continues in the region. Jews have maintained their beliefs despite all these setbacks, which points to the strength of their religion and beliefs.

In conclusion, Judaism is quite different from Christianity in its philosophy and beliefs, but that does not mean it is "wrong" or "bad." There are…… [Read More]


Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003

Rosen, Jeremy. Understanding Judaism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2003.

Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 16.

Raphael, 17.
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Satisfaction According to Anselm Preserves

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1729717

The relationship of humanity and the divine merely changed and improved upon because of its newfound directness.

How might the Sermon on the Mount challenge contemporary Christians?

Jesus' words in his "Sermon on the Mount" conflict with many of the values of contemporary society, including the values of many professed Christians. The Sermon demands that the first are made last and the last made first, and the lowly are not simply honored but that the poor will be seen as greater by God in the life to come. The materialism of contemporary society and the inequality in a world of capitalist striving is seen as antithetical to what it means to be a Christian. Jesus' message is radically against the accepted tenor of the contemporary world, and requires Christians to live in conflict with the values and even the economy of modernity. The meek shall inherit the earth, and what…… [Read More]

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Yom Kippur War Can Be

Words: 2581 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57956512

Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.

Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…… [Read More]


Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.

Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;

Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51

Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
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Anne Hutchinson Fear of the

Words: 1970 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29721054

It is difficult to imagine the kinds of unfair discrimination that was wrought against women, witches, and anyone else who did go along with the status quo. However, in inthrop's situation, the matter of survival was so acutely important that a strong-fisted rule was thought to be necessary.

He expresses, more than once, in the trial transcript his fears that the entire colonial civilization could fall over this one woman's outspoken beliefs. Banishment was the only appropriate punishment, since it would remove her from the small, sealed world of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ensure that she could not sway peoples' minds toward this outrageous idea of grace.

It is almost comical to consider that now, in 2008, we see crowds of Christians waving their hands in the air to feel the grace of God, an experience they believe is attainable simply through their faith. This is the exact kind…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayto, John Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, New York: 1990.

Hawthorne, John the Scarlet Letter, Bantam Classics, New York: 1981

Kerber, Linda K. And Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past. Oxford University Press. New York: 1995

Young, Ralph, Ph.D. Dissent in America, the Voices That Shaped a Nation. Pearson/Longman, Publishers. New York: 2006
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Saint Paul the Man We Know as

Words: 2055 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18576512

Saint Paul

The man we know as St. Paul was Paul of Tarsus. He is not a saint that everyone has felt comfortable. Many find him harsh, difficult and uncompromising. This is true not only, now but was so in the case of his early associates and later with the other saints of the Catholic Church including St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Barnabas. The gentle St. James once even advised him to be more diplomatic and tactful. Still at the end of it all the other saints came to look upon him with reverence and affection and so is the case with anyone who gets to know him by the study of his epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. He is a person with an indomitable spirit, filled with so much of loyalty and affection for his friends that finally he removes all criticism and his tough exterior…… [Read More]


Holy Roman Catholic Church. Retrieved from

Accessed on 11/12/2004

Lindas, Barnabas. Apostle Paul, Saint. Retrieved from

Accessed on 11/12/2004
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Moves on for Baba & Amir in

Words: 1961 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65000726

Moves on for Baba & Amir

In the novel, the Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, a strained relationship between father and son spans nearly a lifetime from Afghanistan to America. From the beginning, their interactions are sown with seeds of guilt, regret, inadequacy, and hopes for redemption that carries to the end of this reinvigorating and life-affirming story. Baba and Amir's attitudes toward religion plays a major role in how they deal with their moral dilemmas and ultimately how they overcome them. As Amir struggles to gain his father's love, he comes to find that they are more similar than he though both in their betrayals, and actions for salvation.

Baba, Amir's father, is the constant star of berating religion and all its failings. Very early in the novel he unloads his perspective that nothing of any value can be learned from idiot Mullahs:

Piss on the beards of all…… [Read More]

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Pentateuch Consists of the First Five Books

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3414040

Pentateuch consists of the first five Books of the Bible. The Pentateuch is the same as what many people mean when they refer to the Torah, which is the first five books of the Tanakh. These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In both Jewish and Christian tradition, Moses is considered the author of most of the Pentateuch and the belief is that God dictated the books to Moses (Fairfield, N.p.). However scholars generally agree that the books actually reflect compilations of earlier writings by various different authors. Taken together, the five books introduce the reader to God. They explain that God is the creator of the universe and everything in it, how the world has imperfections despite being a divine creation, God's unique relationship with man, and the beginnings of the special relationship between God and his chosen people (Fairfield, N.p.).

The Pentateuch begins with Genesis. Genesis…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fairfield, Mary. "Pentateuch: What is the Pentateuch?" N.p. 2013. Web. 29 Oct.
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Theology Religion Christian

Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67898091


Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)

Lewis: A iography

This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.

CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.

In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…… [Read More]


Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.

Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.

C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).

C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.
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Redemption Runner Journey Memory and

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41133221

Her natural involvement in raising Sohrab, however, serves as a completion of Soraya's own personal redemption -- she is saving one of the many lost children of Afghanistan -- as it does for Amir, making redemption not only achievable but the natural result of its earnest pursuit.


The sins that are committed by the various individuals in the book are largely defined and described by the characters themselves. Their various paths to redemption are equally personal. As the central character and narrator of the novel, this is most visible in Amir; his understanding of his own and of his father's sins is what drives many of his decisions and attitudes in life, and what causes him to seek redemption in the first place. ithout this drive and the clarity of his perception, redemption might have proved impossible after all.

orks Cited

Calliouet, Ruth. "The Other Side of Terrorism and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calliouet, Ruth. "The Other Side of Terrorism and the Children of Afghanistan." The English Journal, Vol. 96, No. 2 (Nov., 2006), pp. 28-33.

Hosseini, Khlaed. The Kite Runner. New York: Riverhead Books, 2005.

Noor, Ronny. "Review: The Kite Runner." World Literature Today, Vol. 78, No. 3/4 (Sep. - Dec., 2004), p. 148.
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Premodernism Is Defined as Possessed

Words: 2489 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99579607

Therefore what God has joined together, man must not separate." 7 Why then," they asked Him, "did Moses command [us] to give divorce papers (I) and to send her away?" 8 He told them, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts. But it was not like that from the beginning. 9 and I tell you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery."

Divorce was taught to be a last resort, not the 'I am tired of you' choice. Children are hurt and devastated by the divorce and more psychological trauma is being placed on the child. Children are losing context on the meaning of love and what to expect from it.

The Bible also states the expectation on men and women in regards to the family. In Genesis 1:28, it is written, "God blessed them, and God…… [Read More]


Bertolet, Timothy J. 2002. "Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Peril of Postmodernism." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Evangelical Theological Society. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research:

Dawson, Lorne L.. 1998. "Anti-modernism, modernism, and postmodernism: struggling with the cultural significance of new religious movements." Sociology of Religion. Association for the Sociology of Religion. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research:

Erickson, M.J. (1995). Evangelical Christology and Soteriology Today. Interpretation, 49(3), 255+. Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Questia database:

Holy Bible (King James Version). 1972. Thomas Nelson Inc., Camden, New Jersey.
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Bible and When Possible an

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48228467

The Doctrine of Divine Providence

Divine Providence is the way God rules over all things in the world and the Heavens. Gotanswers. org states,

"The purpose, or goal, of divine providence is to accomplish the will of God. To ensure that His purposes are fulfilled, God governs the affairs of men and works through the natural order of things. The laws of nature are nothing more than a depiction of God at work in the universe. The laws of nature have no inherent power, nor do they work independently. The laws of nature are the rules and principles that God set in place to govern how things work" (, 2010)

The Bible, Proverbs 16:9 states: "The heart of a man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps." Though God allows man free will, he also has a guidance control in our life.

In Acts 9, God directly deal…… [Read More]


"Baptism FAQ." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from 

Cloud, D. 2006. "What about Hyper-Calvinism?" Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from 

Holman Christian Standard Bible. 2004. Holman Bible Publishers. Nashville, TN.

"Secularism." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from
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Asterios Polyp a Variety of

Words: 3510 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16132884

Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.

The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…… [Read More]

Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.

Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.

Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
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Epistle of Paul to Philemon

Words: 20604 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75843868

The divisions ere as such:

1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.

2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.

3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.

4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]

works cited at the end.

If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!


JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997

Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
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Okonkwo One of the Most

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76589967

Nwoye, however, is attracted by the external trappings of Christian rhetoric, that promise him peace and a way out of a society in which he cannot compete because of his physical, emotional, and spiritual weaknesses. For Okonkwo, of course, the religion of Christianity is completely antithetical to his principles.

Q8. The end of the novel did surprise me. I expected that there would be a final, bloody clash between the tribesmen and the British. However, the real conflict occurs within Okonkwo's soul, when he is frustrated that his people will not fight with him, as they know they cannot overcome the superior military technology of the British. Okonkwo's suicide, however, once it is clear that his tribesmen will not stand with him, is not surprising, given that it is consistent with his militaristic and inflexible character -- he would rather die than submit. However, the fact that suicide is considered…… [Read More]

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Mormonism Is the Religious and

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32515513

As for the debate on what are the strengths and weaknesses of the sect, this is quite an opinionated topic; relying a great deal on personal spiritualism, faith, and the ability to redefine and accept alternative views. Certainly, a clear strength is the ability for the religion to coalesce into a vibrant community that is active in spreading their version of the word of God. Mormonism has donanted millions of bibles to various locations, is there with aid and help during natural disasters, and has spent millions erecting churches, civic projects, and housing in the developing world. Members are often fervent in theit belief system, and tend to be more the type who live by example rather than theory -- rather than practicing their religion on Sundays and holidays, most Mormons adhere to their system 24/7. Mormonism emphasizes eduction, the family, youth programs, a healthy life style, the absence of…… [Read More]


Bushman, R.L. Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Jackson, a. Mormonism Explained: What Latter-Day Saints Teach and Practice. Wheaton, IL: Crossaway Books, 2008.

"Letters to the Editor." 7 March 1998. February 2011 .

Mariottini, C. "The Mormon Church and the Clost Tribes of Israel." Frbruary 2006. February 2011 .
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Corporate Advertising Program Would You

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83939434

As the Bible says, out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks," which means that you will know a person's thoughts and what they hold dear by how they speak. This is a critical lesson for JetBlue management. They cannot just gloss over this with the promise of better performance because that will immediately make them even less credible. The fact that no one stood up for the customers in the first place is an excellent case in point as to how flawed the culture is (McGregor, 2007). The Corporate Advertising program needs to instead concentrate on cultural change. It needs to show how JetBlue is rewarding employees for taking initiative, and explain how employees who go beyond get recognized -- and those that ignore customers are gone. JetBlue needs to embrace the Golden ule and use that as the basis of their advertising, taking the high road…… [Read More]


Holland, M.. (2008). PASSENGER BILL of RIGHTS. Defense Counsel Journal, 75(1), 109-111.

Thomas a. Kochan. (2006). Taking the High Road. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(4), 16-19.

Jena McGregor. (2007, March). An Extraordinary Stumble at JetBlue. Business Week,(4024), 58.

Waite, M.. (2007). Managing Under Crisis: The Source of Atonement at JetBlue Airways. The Business Review, Cambridge, 9(1), 187-191.
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Nature of Man Explored in

Words: 4562 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12218010

Faulkner masterfully weaves lives in and out of this fabric, demonstrating the importance of self-identity as well as social acceptance. Light in August, however, draws more attention to how the conflicts and differences between race, gender, and social constraints are destructive forces.

The birth of Lena's child "holds out the promise of a new age that transcends the social contradictions that Joe's violent tale bears witness to" (Lutz), according to Lutz. Furthermore, Faulkner looks toward the future with the birth of this child to this meek woman. Lena is comfortable with herself and she copes well hen others choose to judge her by her unwed status. This is a striking contrast to how Joe chooses to deal with how others perceive him. Lena may not be able to see the future but she is confident she can unearth some hope in it somewhere. Mrs. Hines response to the child suggests…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: The Modern Library. Print. 1950.

LUTZ, JOHN. "Faulkner's Parable of the Cave: Ideology and Social Criticism in Light in August." The Mississippi Quarterly 52.3.1999.459. Gale Literature Resource Center.

Web. 1 Sept. 2010.

Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Light in August.'" Novels for Students. Ed. 2007. Gale
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Temples Are Known as Holy

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35242218


The other importance of Temple worship and sacrifice is that it enables a person to practice self-discipline and restraint. When people offer sacrifices and worship at the Temple, they learn to connect with God which in turn helps them to be disciplined. By and large, Temple worship and sacrifice is the means through which people exercise godly virtues and morals. Therefore, Temple worship and sacrifice affects the way people interact with each other within the society.


Considering the fact that the Temple is a place where people pray for relief from their pains and sufferings, Temple worship and sacrifice enables them to have peace of mind. Worship and sacrifice strengthens a person's ways while relieving them from the burden of guilt. When one commits a wrong deed, they get an opportunity to ask for forgiveness through Temple worship and sacrifice. As a result of forgiveness, these people experience…… [Read More]


Croucher et al. (2009, August 25). Leadership: Worship. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from

Dolphin, L. (1996, October 12). The Importance of the Temple Mount to Christians. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from
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Unitarian Universalism Beliefs and Organization

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35413756

ith respect to these principles, Unitarians have historically supported social justice movements within the United States, such as the Civil Rights movement, and anti-war causes. They also support interfaith dialogue, and believe there is value in all religious faiths, not just Christianity. The merged organization does not hold solely to Universalist or Unitarian beliefs, but honors both in the shaping of the tradition. Many women have served prominently in the movement since its inception, as have African-Americans. Unitarian Universalists also support full social equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people (GLBT).

Unitarian Universalists have occasionally been accused of being irreligious, because of their tolerance of so many conceptions of faith, and the fact that they do not insist that adherents subscribe to a particular conception of God, or even to believe in a traditional, anthropomorphic form of the divine at all. Unitarian Universalists view the religion as part of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hughes, Peter. "Michael Sevetus." Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS).

March 24, 2011.

Rasor, Paul. "Unitarian Universalist views of God." Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).

March 24, 2011.
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Nathanial Hawthorne The Ministers Black

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98930443

Mr. Hooper states that he is no better or worse than the other members of his community, who he believes also harbor secret sins, even though they act as though they do not. The anti-Transcendentalist concept, like Transcendentalism, suggests that society harbors a false surface, but it believes this is due to an innate sinfulness of humankind, not because human beings outside of society are better.

Anti-transcendentalists believed that humans are hypocrites, and removing social constrictions will not heal the sins of humanity. Mr. Hooper, unlike Emerson's joyful sense of solitude in nature also experiences his isolation as a penance. He chooses to punish himself, not to gain a more positive sense of his inner self, but to fully understand and apprehend its sinfulness. Another key concept of Transcendentalism is the idea that a person's inner life is more important than their social, outer life. However, in Mr. Hooper's estimation,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. "Heaven on Earth: The Legacy of 19th Century Transcendentalism as an Ecumenical Philosophy of Nature." American Transcendentalist Web 1999

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil." E-text available from
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Teenagers Should Be Thankful This

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51629064

4. I am grateful for my education, even though I complain about dragging myself to school. I am so fortunate that I have this time in my life to focus on learning. Every day I learn something new, whether I like it or not!

5. The animals in my life never judge me; animals always show me kindness and understanding and illustrate that without words it is still possible to speak deep and profound truths.

6. Never let it be forgotten that Thanksgiving is a uniquely American holiday. We are a nation that has had the courage to change, we are a nation that has elected its first African-American president, and we are a nation that has confronted the realities of war and an economic downturn (loose sentence). Beyond our profoundly imperfect beginnings as a nation, beyond our sad history of slavery, beyond the atonement we must still make to…… [Read More]

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Theistic Religion as a Fundamental

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96643304


In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.

Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…… [Read More]


Egner, R.E. And Denonn, L.E. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London,

UK: Routledge.

Einstein, A. (1999). Ideas and Opinions. (Edited by Seelig, C.) New York: Crown.

Hawking, S. (2001). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
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Scapegoat in Society Today the

Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37422314

As the "scapegoat," Jesus is punished instead of the actual guilty parties.

Scape-goating is still very much part of humanity. It is a metaphorical term to denote that human beings are blamed for crimes, wrongdoing, or suffering of which they are in fact innocent. The most common manifestation of this in modern society is blaming specific group of persons for calamity. Minority groups are often victimized in this way, as they are vulnerable and generally do not have the means to defend themselves.

At the root of scape-goating is the human unwillingness to admit blame. It is far easier to place blame elsewhere. This provides a sense of satisfaction that accountability has been assured, even thought it is incorrectly assigned. Scape-goating will probably be part of humanity as long as the race survives. It is human nature to be unwilling to accept blame or admit wrongdoing. Ironically, scape-goating today provides…… [Read More]

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Islam and Christianity Muslims Practice

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27314160

Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.

Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. "The True Religion." Site Accessed September 03, 2008.

Besancon, Alain. "What Kind of Religion Is Islam?" Commentary. May 2004. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.

Douglass, Susan. What is Islam? Faces. February 2008. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.

Muslim Rituals and Practices Religion Facts Online." Site Accessed September 03, 2008.
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Psychology - Counseling Race &

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51076789

Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid)

Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself. Sneaking in subtle notations about the idiocy behind many of the prominent malcontents that we have recognized through history in terms of segregation and racial provocation, "Diversity and its Discontents" prompts for more of a diverted attention to the perceptions that develop through persisting diversity than the fundamental signifying contributions that outline the progression of diversity. Madrid's concepts do not exemplify the persona of atonement that inflicts the prose of our other authors, but does come through as a genuine consort of the experiences in ethnical divide.

Day in the Life of Two Americas" (Leonard Steinhorn and arbara Diggs-rown)

Steinhorn and Diggs-rown perfect the proportionate degrees of reprimanded division within the United States as an entire collective nation. Sprouting from intricate…… [Read More]


Thandenka. 1999. Afro Centric News Network. Retrieved from the World Wide Web; December 10th, 2007: 

Jelita McCLeod, Special to The Washington Post Monday, July 7, 2003; Page C10;
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Kidnapped Wife and the Dream

Words: 1222 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32405089

Miller's play is very similar with respect to its main theme. Joe Keller also makes an economical decision at one point in his life: being in charge of the military equipment of the Air Force planes during the Second orld ar he provides the army with 121 defective cracked cylinder heads. As a result, twenty one of the planes crash and all the pilots die. Thus, faithful to the American Dream of prosperity and wary of his family's finances, Joe knowingly ignores the possible consequences of his act. Years after this tragedy, Joe is still in denial, refusing to acknowledge any personal responsibility or guilt. Thus, the structure of the play is almost identical with that of the short story previously discussed. Joe refuses to take responsibility in two situations, not just one: first for the pilots, and then for the death of his own son, Larry who commits suicide…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hammond, Susan Hazen. The Kidnapped Wife and the Dream Helper.

Gibson, P.J. Long Time Since Yesterday. New York: Samuel French, 1985.

Miller, Arthur. All My Sons. New York: The Modern Library, 1987.
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Death of a Hero by

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57100033

In the heat of battle, George stands up and allows himself to be killed. He thus becomes a "hero" for his hypocritical "loved ones" at home to mourn.

The first major theme of Death of a Hero is the hypocritical attitudes and immorality of the Victorians. Much of the prologue and the first two parts of the novel are dedicated to a savage, bitter portrayal of Victorian middle class life in England, from the 19th century up to the First orld ar. The individuals in these sections are portrayed in such a severe fashion, that the inevitable conclusion drawn is that life in this society was so stifling and unbearable that it spurred a lot of idealistic young men such as George to go to war as a means of escaping it.

The third part of the novel takes place during the war itself, and allows Aldington to explore his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldington, Richard. Death of a Hero. New York: Covici-Friede, 1929.
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Zionism Born in the Latter

Words: 3387 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64813280

From the standpoint of non-Zionist religious Jews, the Zionist movement went against the teachings of the Talmud. The Neturei Karta noted in their writings that the group was against the creation of the State of Israel, and the uprooting of Arab individuals from their communities by Zionists wishing sovereignty. According to the group, the shedding of Jew and non-Jew blood for this sovereignty was against Judaism not only because of the violence, but because the cause for which the wars occurred was against Judaism. The Neturei Karta believed Eretz Yisrael would be returned to the Jews on the appearance of the Messiah, and that any other method of return was invalid. As such, the Neturei Karta opposed, and still opposes, the creation of a Jewish state, on the basis that the creation of such a state is against the teachings of the Talmud, and against the word of God.

Clearly,…… [Read More]


Bein, Alex. Theodore Herzl: A Biography. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1967.

Borochov, Ber. Nationalism and Class Struggle. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974.

Deuteronomy." The Holy Bible: New American Standard Edition. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1983.

Edelheit, Abraham J. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
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Tree of Life and Midnight

Words: 5004 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7916220

As he himself admits, "I have a very grim perspective. I do feel that it's a grim, painful, nightmarish meaningless existence, and the only way to be happy is if you tell yourself some lies. One must have some delusions to live" ("Cannes 2010: oody Allen on Death -- 'I'm Strongly Against It'"). hat Midnight in Paris is for him (and us), therefore, is a kind of distraction from the reality that at some point the final credits will roll.

Malick's Tree of Life, then, is a kind of answer to Allen's melancholy. It is, of course, a religious answer told through an impressionistic and indirect medium. Nonetheless, unlike Allen, Malick is willing to embrace the spiritual side of man and explore its meanings and possibilities. For Malick, life is a spiritual journey that can lead one either upwards to the good or downwards to the bad. Allen's film may…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Woody, dir. Midnight in Paris. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Classics, 2011.


Augustine. City of God. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1888. Print.

Augustine. The City of God against the Pagans. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
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Violence and the Cross an

Words: 3053 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38360665

Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.

Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Evans, James H. We Have Been Believers: An African-American Systematic Theology.

Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992. Print.

Migliore, Daniel. Faith Seeking Understanding: an Introduction to Christian Theology.

Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991. Print.
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Millennialism in America Charismatic Prophets

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19661186

For Jehovah's Witnesses, that millennium was supposed to begin already, first in 1914, and later in 1975 (Brom 2004). The year 2000 brought to light the fear and fiction surrounding Y2K and the numerical millennium, but the return of Christ had yet to take place. "As the millennium approaches, self-styled messiahs like David Koresh and Marshall Applewhite have flourished, teaching impending doom with doctrines cobbled from Christianity, millennialism and even science fiction," (Washington Post Staff 1997).

A new date of spiritual revolution has now been set, embraced by many members of New Age millennial movements: 2012. The year 2012 has been selected because of its connection with the Mayan calendar, which is embraced by many New Age individuals. However, the generic New Age brands of millennialism often lack the presence of a charismatic prophet. The New Age movement is therefore qualitatively different from that of other millennial movements that draw…… [Read More]


Brom, Robert H.

2004. History of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Catholic Answers. Retrieved online: 

Hatch, Nathan O.

1974 The origins of civil millennialism in America: New England clergymen, war with France, and the Revolution. The William and Mary Quarterly 31(3): 407-430.
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When Is a Person Truly in the People of God

Words: 3900 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41021154

People of God

When Is a Person Truly "In" the People of God?

When Is A Person Truly "In" The People Of God?

"Inclusivism" is a term that encompasses a fairly wide range of positions, as J.A. DiNoia notes in his book, The Diversity of eligions. DiNoia's definition is broad enough to encompass both a minimal and a maximal form of inclusivism. The maximal form is asserted by those who believe that "all religious communities implicitly aim at the salvation that the Christian community most adequately commends." Non-Christian religious bodies may think and act as if their ultimate goals are distinctively different from the church's. However, their goals in fact orient them to some degree towards Jesus Christ, and to the extent that they do, their concrete identities may be truthful and their way of life leads to salvation. A minimal version of inclusivism says little or nothing about the…… [Read More]


Congar, Yves. (1964) The Church: The People of God in Concilium, vol. I. New Jersey: Paulist Press, pp. 11 -- 37.

D'Costa, Gavin. (1986) Theology and Religious Pluralism: The Challenge of Other Religions. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rahner, Karl, S.J. (1968) The Theology of Pastoral Action. New York: Herder.

Karl Barth could be understood as an exclusivist on the basis of the way he opposes "religion" to Christianity in his early work. I would say that by his Church Dogmatics period he had more of an inclusivist position, though one that had little bearing upon his ecclesiology. See Church Dogmatics, trans G.W. Bromiley, II/2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1957), pp. 417f.
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Jews and Jewish Religion Judaism Is One

Words: 1852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1040417

Jews and Jewish eligion

Judaism is one of the revealed religions of the world and like Islam and Christianity; this religion also endorses the concept of monotheism. Being one of the oldest monotheist religions, Judaism has a long history but throughout this history, its basic beliefs, traditions, sacred texts and rituals have remained more or less the same.

Monotheism in Judaism

Like Christianity and Islam, Judaism is one of the most well-known monotheist religions. Monotheistic means believing in one God. Unlike some other religions like Hinduism and Buddhism, Jewish religion believes in the existence of one single God who is the source of all power in the world. In Torah, God says: "I am the first, and I am the last; and besides me there is no God." (Isaiah 44:6)

Jewish people tend to believe that there is one Supreme Being that controls the whole world and our destinies. Over…… [Read More]


1) Isaac Unterman. The Jewish Holidays. Bloch Pub Co. New York. 1950

2) Jewish rituals: accessed online:

3) Leo Trepp, A History of the Jewish Experience, Springfield, NJ: Behram House,. Inc., 2001
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Histories of the United States Address the

Words: 2496 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45764984

histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…… [Read More]


Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.

Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.

This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
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California Proposition 8 Same Sex Marriage the

Words: 2846 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32270127

California Proposition 8: Same Sex Marriage

The equal right to marry for same-sex couples in the United States has acquired growing public support over time, with a quantity of state-level laws passed and others presently up for debate. Proposition 8 was a ballot proposition and constitutional amendment that was passed in the November 2008 state elections in California. The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution, which provides that only marriage between a man and a woman is legitimate or recognized in California. By limiting the acknowledgment of marriage to opposite-sex couples, the proposition reversed the California Supreme Court's ruling of In re Marriage Cases that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to get married (Newman, 2010). The wording of Proposition 8 was exactly the same as Proposition 22, which had passed in 2000 and, as an ordinary statute, had been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hirsch, Alan. 2004. "Separate Still Not Equal." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:

Holloway, Carson. 2009. "Same-Sex Marriage and the Civil-Rights Movement: A

Problematic Analogy." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:
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St Mark's Basilica - An

Words: 2700 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8449045

We know now that more than one knight who went to the Holy Lands ostensibly to "rout out the infidel" actually had a more pragmatic agenda: they brought home loot, everything they could physically handle plus anything more they could load on pack animals and/or enlist the aid of a squire or a fellow traveler to help them haul away.
In that context, therefore, it's neither very surprising nor out of the realm of possibility that one particular group of mercenaries saw a chance for a real gold mine to come their way-if not the Holy Grail, then a pretty good second choice!
Thus it was in 829, the story goes, that two merchants smuggled the body of St. Mark from its original burial place in Alexandria, Egypt, to Venice, upon which point the Doge promptly declared the church as the apostle's official burial place and appropriated him as the…… [Read More]

Web Gallery of Art, Kren, Emil and Marx, Daniel. A Scene from the Life of Saint Mark by Paolo Venezian. <>.
Web Gallery of Art, Kren, Emil and Marx, Daniel. Labours of the Months (detail) by Gothic Sculptor. <>.
Zang, Ulla. Venice San Marco. 2000, 2001, 2002.
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Women in Genesis 1-3'so

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43139871

Likewise, other passages create more problems than they solve from a modern perspective: "Why did Rachel remove the teraphim, the sacred images, when she left her father's house? Why Rachel and not Leah, the eldest? Teubal, though, points out that if these events are viewed in terms of the fundamental humanity of the individuals involved, their actions and motives becomes more clear to modern observers. "These episodes, and many others in the Genesis texts, are bewildering only if they are seen as occurring in a patriarchal society." Notwithstanding the high regard that women were almost universally provided in terms of their supportive counsel and motherly devotions, these attributes did not carry with them any sense of social authority in a patriarchal society, but were rather confined to the homes of the individuals involved. According to Teubal, "The vivid stories depicting Sarah's removal of Ishmael from the line of inheritance, Rebekah's…… [Read More]


Bacon, Benjamin Wisner. 1892. The Genesis of Genesis. Hartford, CT: The student publishing co.

Bruno, J.E. 1973. God as Woman, Woman as God. New York: Paulist. In Phipps, 1989.

Eichrodt, Walther. 1961. Theology of the Old Testament. Philadelphia: Westminster.

Headlam, Walter. 1934. "Prometheus and the Garden of Eden," Classical Quarterly 28, pp. 63- 7. In Phipps, 1989.
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Magic Barrel Leo Was Informed

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83885240

"Why do you want to get married, anyway?" She looked at Leo and shook her head. "Are those flowers like they put on a grave, is that why you're chanting for the dead? Violets? Roses?"

She wore white, and the pale cloth hung upon her shoulders like a shroud. But the cut was like a child's cut, a child's first white dress. It was soiled, Leo could see now that his eyes had adjusted to the light, at its hem.

Do you smoke?" she said. She lit another cigarette and took the flowers, smelled them. "The tobacco kills my sense of smell, but they're beautiful. I'm going to the pictures and to the automat -- do you want to come?"

Leo hesitated. He could feel Salzman's presence nearby, although the changing had ceased. "I wouldn't want to intrude."

You're intruding on nothing -- I was going alone. But you're welcome…… [Read More]

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Daniel's Vision of 70 Weeks

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26942666

(26) and after the sixty two sevens (the) anointed one shall be cut off but not for himself. And the city and the holy (place) shall be destroyed by the people of the coming prince. And his destruction shall be in the outpouring; and until the destruction there shall be war, desolations are decreed. (27) and he shall cause a covenant to prevail with the many for one seven. But (for) half of the seven he shall cause sacrifice and offering to cease; and upon the wing (shall come) a desolating abominable idol, even until the end, and until that which is decreed shall be poured out upon the desolator." (Bible Gateway, 2004)


In conclusion, this report aimed to discuss the Prophet Daniel's vision of Seventy Weeks through interpretations, theories, views, and fulfillments including the references to Christ and the tribulations experienced. eligious scholars and other historians have felt…… [Read More]


Bible Gateway. (2004). Daniel. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at

KeyWay. (2004). Daniel. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at 

King James Bible (1984). The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments.

Sentex. (2004). Daniel's 70 Weeks. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at
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Jesus Jew or Christian the

Words: 5150 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98554255

His followers claimed He had risen as He said He would, bodily appeared to them and then bodily ascended into Heaven, as Elijah prophesied. This experience emboldened them to come out of hiding and they gathered at the upper room of the Cenacle on the Day of the Pentecost. From then on, they openly preached the radical ethic taught by Jesus. The resurrection of Jesus is the origin of Christian worship and prayer and it directly links Jesus to God and Jesus has been called Lord, the Christ, the faithful and true witness. His followers who observed and advocated His teachings of the Good News were called Christians. Christianity was later founded and spread by the Roman soldier, Saul, who persecuted the Christians but was converted into an apostle by a direct encounter with Christ on Saul's way to Damascus. He was later renamed Paul.

Jesus as a Jew demanded…… [Read More]


Beeck, FJ van (1997). Who Do You Say I am? - Studying Jesus Christ. Commonweal: Commonweal Foundation.

Cantor, N. (1994). The Jew Jesus Christ, the Nazarene. The Sacred Chain: the History of the Jews.

Carroll, J. (2001). Jesus, a Jew? Constantine's Sword. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. http://artfuljesus.Ocatchcom/carroll.html

Dankenbring, WF. Jesus Christ Was Not a Christian. Triumph Prophetic Ministries.
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Nature Festivals Including Succoth One of the

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Nature Festivals (including succoth)

One of the world's four great monotheistic religions is Judaism. It is the religious culture of Jewish people and constitutes the cultural system of Jewish law, tradition and customs. It is the smallest religion with around 15 million people following it worldwide and is linked by a system of beliefs. Judaism started in the Middle East and has spread its popularity all over the world. It is believed that the Patriarchs of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, are the founders of Judaism. They were considered as the physical and spiritual ancestors of Judaism. Jews have their historical backing from the written Torah, Talmud, Midrash and other sources. Judaism is the first religion to be based on ethical monotheism. It also inspired the early development of Christianity and Islam with a major force on western civilization. The main faith is about the reality of a single God who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Judaism. Retrieved from Accessed on 26 March 2005

Judaism. Retrieved from Accessed on 25 March 2005

The various types of Judaism: Introduction. Retrieved from Accessed on 25 March 2005

Feasts and Festivals. Retrieved from Accessed on 25 March 2005
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Greek Culture

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31403257

Anatomy of an Aesthete

The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Rise of Aestheticism

Oscar ilde's the Picture of Dorian Gray is the manifesto of Late Victorian Aestheticism.

The Late Victorian Era was characterized by numerous artistic and literary movements that were reactions to the growing industrialization and homogenization of contemporary society. As trains, telephones, and factories rushed humankind headlong to an unknown future, many of the greatest lights of the Age looked back into the Past, and to a simpler, more clearly-defined time and place; a time and place with readily-recognized rules and standards. For centuries, the Classical orld of Ancient Greece and Rome had provided a model for modern Europeans. Artists, writers, philosophers, architects -- even musicians -- let themselves be guided by what they believed to be the Classical canons of behavior and taste. Until the dawn of the Industrial Age, Europe's intellectual class entertained no illusions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, Robert. The Seduction of the Mediterranean: Writing, Art, and Homosexual Fantasy. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Beckson, Karl, ed. Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.

Boscagli, Maurizia. Eye on the Flesh: Fashions of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

Harris, Jose. "1 Ruskin and Social Reform." Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern. Ed. Birch, Dinah. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 7-33.
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Abrahamic Religion Comparing and Contrasting

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3840482

Before the Torah is replaced near the end of the service, it is carried throughout the assembled congregation. Worshippers may reach out and touch the Torah with prayer books (hands are not supposed to be used), then kiss the object that touched the Torah, a gesture of affection, respect, and loyalty to God. This ritual is (arguably) symbolically equivalent to Catholic Communion, where believers symbolically ingest the blood and the body of Christ (a sip of wine and a Communion wafer) thereby taking the Lord into themselves. Both practices reaffirm personal relationships to God. Such contemporary (and past) ceremonies and liturgical practices may or may not actually aid worshippers in understanding God (or on the other hand, provide roadblocks for interpretation of the sacred). However, both are powerful signs of a personal relationship between congregants and God.

Many sections of the Old Testament reaffirm monotheism. In Exodus 31-33, Moses leaves…… [Read More]

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Why Genesis 1 11 May Be Considered Accurate History

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23180600

Genesis of the Bible is the sovereignty of God throughout the four events described in the first 11 chapters: the creation, the fall, the flood and the Babel dispersion. In the next chapters, up to chapter 50, there is presented God's relationship to four outstanding people; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph.

Throughout centuries, skeptics developed theories that sustained the idea that especially the first eleven chapters of the Genesis are to be considered as series of legends and myths rather than actual historical facts. Let us have a look first at the reasons that could make us believe the contrary: the sources. There are two main literary sources: the priestly source and the Yahwist narrative.

The myths of the Creation and destruction of the world can be viewed in a much larger sense as attempts to explain a culture's believes and practices, as a reflection of that culture's own view.…… [Read More]

Kaiser, Walter, 2001-2005, Challenging Believers to think and Thinker to Believe available from; Internet, accessed 17 October 2005.

Grigg, Russell, M.Sc. (Hons.), ? ?Creation Ex-Nihilo? Dec 93 - Feb 1994, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 38-41, available from  ; Internet; accessed on 17 October 2005

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Social and Economic Circumstances Leading

Words: 1241 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80066088

Salem and the surrounding Essex County (the witch hunt itself went beyond merely Salem) (Norton; Linder) viewed the results of the First, and now the Second Indian ar, and their own loss of material prosperity from these wars, as God's punishment for their sins (Norton). It was at about this time that several of Salem's teenage girls began having fits on which they (and their parents and others) blamed the devil, witches and Indians (Norton). hen the mysterious fits began, according to Norton, Salem and Essex County Puritans started believing that now both visible spirits (i.e., Indians) and invisible spirits (i.e., the devil) were punishing them, simultaneously (Norton). Consequently, given this grim community mood, the politically-appointed judges took seriously the (often-unreliable and inconsistent) testimony of a group of similarly "afflicted" teenagers in order to then put dozens of supposed witches on trial. As Norton further suggests, the Salem judges and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Linder, Douglas. "The Witchcraft Trials in Salem: A Commentary." Famous

American Trials: Salem Witchcraft Trials 1692. Retrieved May 22, 2006, at

Morgan, Edmund. The Puritan Dilemma. New York: Longman, 1998.

Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. New York: Knopf, 2002.
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Japanese Attitude Towards the Atomic

Words: 4551 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64562654

) Some even thought (rightly) that it was being spared for something big. However, no one in their wildest imagination was anticipating an atomic bomb attack. Hence, on the morning of the fateful day, the residents of Hiroshima were completely unprepared for an atomic bomb explosion.

Painting of Hell":

Many survivors of the atomic explosion on Hiroshima have likened the experience of the blast and its immediate aftermath to mankind's common perception of hell. A young Japanese sociologist, for example, described the scene of a nearby park after the explosion: "The most impressive thing I saw was some girls, very young girls, not only with their clothes torn off but with their skin peeled off as immediate thought was that this was like the hell I had always read about." (Selden and Selden, xix) Another eye-witness, twenty-year-old Shibayama Hiroshi, recalled entering Hiroshima on foot from his suburban workplace within…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braw, Monica. The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

Hume, Mick. "Hiroshima: the 'White Man's Bomb' revisited." Spiked Essays. August 2, 2005. May 24, 2006.

Kagan, Donald. "Why America Dropped the Bomb." Commentary Sept. 1995: 17+.

Kamata, Sadao, and Stephen Salaff. "The Atomic Bomb and the Citizens of Nagasaki." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 14.2 (1982): 38-50.
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Luther and Zwingli - The

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6441401

The paper will focus on Luther and Zwingli and their views of the Lord's Supper. It will not cover the views of other reformers though they may be mentioned briefly because of their relationships to Luther and Zwingli. The Catholic Church's view of Transubstantiation will not be covered in depth though it must be discussed in relation to the theology of Luther and Zwingli.

Martin Luther

Luther was and is to the Church of the Reformation: the great theologian of the Sacrament of the Altar"

Martin Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper was built on his strong belief in the Word of God. As a young man struggling with what today we would call depression, his professor directed him to an extensive study of Scripture. Luther began to study Augustine and the other church fathers, but once Luther moved beyond the writings and commentaries of others to the biblical text,…… [Read More]