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Winter avers that it begins with reconciliation with God. To atone, one has to rebuild the relationship with God. This relationship has to be built on love, necessarily. And how does recompense for sin plays into all of this? y asking for forgiveness and recognizing the sin. Winter provides several examples from the gospels which leave no doubt about the recognition of wrongdoing and asking forgiveness. One example (of many) that illustrates this completely is the parable of the Prodigal Son. Here no compensation is required of the youngest son other than recognition of his abandoning his father and the associated contrition. Indeed, this ties in with Winter's earlier claim that for atonement to have occurred, it was not necessary that Jesus die a painful death -- despite claims that he bore the sum total of the burden of the sins of humanity.
Winter also addresses the obvious question: is…
Kent, W. (1907). Doctrine of the Atonement. In the Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved March 22, 2009 from New Advent:
Winter, Michael. (1995) the Atonement. in. Problems in Theology. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.
This could or has happened to many individuals -- saying or doing something without thinking and then not knowing how to get out of the web of lies.
But what about Briony when she is older and supposedly wiser? Does she remain a sympathetic character in her aging years? Based on the definition above of atonement, this cannot be the case. She knows what she has done and reveals her account of the crime of a wrong accusation. Yet, she cannot clearly face herself in the mirror and admit to that inner self exactly what she had set in motion that day. At the end she instead turns away from reality into fiction and states: "How could that constitute an ending? What sense or hope or satisfaction could a reader draw from such an account? Who would want to believe that, except in the service of the bleakest realism? I…
106-7). What follows is deeply tragic as Robbie is sent to prison and two people in love are separated forever.
Years later, Broiny realizes that she had made a terrible mistake and wants to atone for it. Hence the title of the novel-however this atonement, we realize is meaningless because it is completely fictional. Being a writer, Broiny writes the story of her sister, Robbie, and her own grand error. But instead of presenting the story as it was, she manipulates the ending and unites the two lovers. This was her way of atoning for her mistake-even though we know it was only on the paper. Broiny doesn't appear to be in as much pain as she should have been. She doesn't seem to care much about the facts as she writes: "If I really cared so much about facts, I should have written a different kind of book" (p.…
Romeo and Juliet and Atonement
Romeo and Juliet has always been one of illiam Shakespeare's most popular and successful plays, even though critics have sometimes dismissed it as an immature or sentimental work. In that respect, Atonement is not sentimental at all but rather grimly realistic, although the love of Ronnie and Cecelia also ends tragically. Both the play and novel have a great deal of seemingly irrational and senseless violence that destroys the lives of the main characters. In Atonement, the violence takes the form of a system that convicts Robbie unjustly of a crime he did not commit, and then gives him a choice of either serving in a war as cannon fodder or staying in jail. Cecilia and Briony also experience the violence of wartime London with regular bombing and endless numbers of badly mangled bodies that flood into the hospitals where they work. In Romeo and…
Coontz, S. Marriage, A History: From Obedience to Intimacy or How Love Conquered Marriage. NY: Viking, 2005.
Jankowiak, W. And T. Paladino. "Desiring Sex, Longing for Love: A Tripartite Conundrum" in W.R. Jankowiak (ed). Intimacies: Love and Sex across Cultures. Columbia University Press, 2008, pp. 1-15.
McEwan, Ian. Atonement. Knopf Publishing Group, 2001.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Cedric Watts (ed). Wadsworth Editions, Ltd., 1992, 2000.
War is thrilling; war is drudgery. War makes you a man; war makes you dead" (O'Brien 86-87). It is interesting that Briony includes a large section of World War II in her novel, tying these two works together in many ways. Briony is writing to assuage her own guilt, but there seems to be at least some of that in O'Brien's novel, as well. He seems to be writing about these experiences to help free himself from guilt about fighting in a war that no one wanted, while Briony is trying to get over her guilt for far different reasons.
In her mind, Briony knows that she has acted rashly and without real knowledge. She thinks to herself during the accusations, "She was like a bride-to-be who begins to feel her sickening qualms as the day approaches, and dares not speak her mind because so many preparations have been made…
Calloway, Catherine. "How to Tell a True War Story: Metafiction in the Things They Carried." Critique 36.4 (1995): 249-257.
McEwan, Ian. Atonement. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.
Stovel, Nora Foster. "Ian McEwan: Atonement." International Fiction Review 31.1-2 (2004): 114+.
" This means that God indeed hates humans because of the sins that we commit, and we do have to trust in God and in salvation, otherwise, we would be deemed to suffer an eternal torment in Hell. When Jesus Christ, He happened to save all of us unworthy human beings form the severity of God's wrath, which would have descended on us if this supreme sacrifice by Jesus Christ had not been made on time. More people have to be taught this truth, and this is the one way in which the way to salvation can be presented to them, and this without showing them what exactly they need to be saved from. If the truth of Jesus Christ's great sacrifice was to be ignored, then this means that His act of courage and sacrifice is being effectively ignored, and as a consequence, being devalued. Therefore, it can be…
Johnson, Phil. The Nature of the atonement: Why and for whom did Jesus Christ die? 2003.
Retrieved at http://www.biblebb.com/files/MAC/SC03-1027.htm . Accessed on 17 March, 2005
Nathan, S; Beman, DD. The Atonement in its Relations to God and to man. 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.gospeltruth.net/Beman_Atonement/beman04.htm . Accessed on 17 March, 2005
Sampson proclaims, "A dog of the house of Montague moves me," declaring any person from the Montague family has the power to make him angry (I.i.7). The conflict between the two houses is reason why Romeo and Juliet are met with such obstacles to be together, and contributes to their need to take extreme measures, i.e. fake their death and ultimately commit suicide, to escape them. Romeo and Juliet first meet under circumstances where they are not aware of their family affiliations. Once their familial identities are revealed, however, their attraction is enhanced, not hindered. For Romeo to wed a Capulet and Juliet to wed a Montague is the most extreme act of rebellion against family expectation. This form of rebellion also has a "forbidden fruit" effect. Individuals tend to want something they cannot have and this includes romantic love interests. By family principle, Romeo is not allowed to be…
McEwan, I. Atonement. New York, NY: Random House, Inc., 2001. Print.
Shakespeare, W. Romeo and Juliet. New York, NY: Random House, Inc., 1975. Print.
Sternberg, R, and K. Weis. The New Psychology of Love. Binghamton, NY: Vail-Ballou Press, 2006. 87-325. Print.
At seventeen years old, Catherine takes a vacation to Bath, which "offers a variety of human types . . . that a girl from a village rectory could never have encountered at home" (Lauber 18). She is often uncertain of herself, not liking to spend time at gatherings in which no one present is an acquaintance of hers (Austen 12). Because Catherine is fairly new to being social, she experiences "trials and errors in 'reading'" people (Kelly) and sets a few traps for herself, unable to express herself freely or clearly. Catherine comes to discover that she is a singular type of person who prefers to read novels instead of books that could teach her something (Austen 38), and it may be due to her excessive reading of fiction that she misunderstands social interaction. ith the time she spends poring over novels, she has an active imagination that causes her…
Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey. New York: Random House, Inc., 2007. Print.
Kelly, Gary. "Jane Austen." British Romantic Novelists, 1789-1832. Ed. Bradford Keyes Mudge.
Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 116. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. Literature
Resource Center. Web. 11 May 2011.
Betrayal and Atonement in Narnia
In the novel The Lion, the itch, and the ardrobe, C.S. Lewis creates the beginning of an epic work in children's fiction, a story set in a different world called Narnia where the young friends who are the protagonists of the story interact with an imaginative group of characters and situations. Lewis used this other world as a way of commenting on certain idea sin this world, though he did so in a way that some might consider out of date because he was not interested in the cynical vision of the modernists in fiction:
Harkening back to a premodern era, Lewis's works, particularly his fiction, address such themes as betrayal and forgiveness, good and evil, the nature of life and death, courage, loyalty, tradition, and the existence of absolute truth and a fixed moral order. He consciously rejects such contemporary themes as the endless…
Attebery, Brian. The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1980.
Brennan, Matt. "The Lion, the Witch and the Allegory: An Analysis of Selected Narnia ChroniclesThe Lion, the Witch and the Allegory: An Analysis of Selected Narnia Chronicles." Into the Wardrobe - Papers (November 1998), http://cslewis.drzeus.net/papers/lionwitchallegory.html .
Lewis, C.S. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. New York: HarperCollins, 1950.
Lewis, Naomi. "C. S. Lewis: Overview." In Twentieth-Century Children's Writers, 4th ed., Laura Standley Berger (ed.), 1995. Gale Group: Literature Resource Center.
Joe right's 2007 Atonement opens with a shot of the home of Briony et al. in miniature -- a replica of the mansion estate where the main characters live and work in England, 1935. The shot pulls back as the keys of a typewriter are heard clacking away (prior to this, the clacks coincide with the appearance of the text on-screen announcing both title and setting of the film -- and the shift from non-diegetic to diegetic sound is the first of many surprises in this cleverly crafted period piece by right). right's command of the material is as impressive as his work in Pride and Prejudice and as mesmerizing as it would later be in Anna Karenina. Here, the whole of the film, which is "a story about storytelling" (Santas, ilson, Colavito, Baker 60), is foreshadowed in one subtle pull-back as the camera, focused squarely on the miniature…
Ebert, Roger. "Atonement." RogerEbert.com, 6 Dec 2007. Web. 23 Feb 2016.
Travers, Peter. "Atonement." Rolling Stone, 14 Dec 2007. Web. 23 Feb 2016.
Santas, Constantine; Wilson, James; Colavito, Maria; Baker, Djoymi. The Encyclopedia
of Epic Films. UK: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. Print.
"All you family assumed it for all my education… I was still little better than a servant, still not to be trusted." The real dysfunction, then, goes far beyond the Tallis estate, and is more clearly a broader sociological dysfunction embedded within society. "He laughed politely, though he must have thought me profoundly stupid. It is quite impossible these days to assume anything about people's educational level from the way they talk or dress or from their taste in music. Safest to treat everyone you meet as a distinguished intellectual." (p. 342).
Instead of following this path, however, the circumstances surrounding that tragic evening cause both sisters to rethink their role as women, and members of society, in favor of a service career -- nursing. Cecilia travels to London, becomes a nurse, and cuts herself completely away from the family. Cecilia is so ashamed of her family, not only is…
Daniels, B. (2003). Poverty and Families in Victorian England. Hiddenlives.org. Retrieved from: http://www.hiddenlives.org.uk.articles/poverty.html
Knight, K. (2009). Doctrine of the Atonement. New Advent. Retrieved from: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02055a.htm
McEwan, I. (2003). Atonement. New York: Anchor Books.
Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng, "Atonement" by Ian McEwan and "The Violent Bear it Away" by Flannery O'Connor.
This paper will analyze how the three books demonstrate the significance of truth in one's life and how big a priority it is or isn't.
Search For Truth
Is Truth the winner in the end? Is the battle between Good or Evil always by won by Good? Could lies have terrible consequences on not only one's own life but on others? These are some of the questions that are raised and/or answered in Life and Death in Shanghai, Atonement and The Violent Bear It All.
Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng is a true account of how Nien Cheng's life was persecuted and imprisoned during the time of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in China. (1966-1976).
During this time, Nien Cheng became a victim of the revolution. Her…
Life and Death in Shanghai by Nien Cheng
Atonement by Ian McEwan
The Violent Bear It All by Flannery O'Connor
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'
In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.
estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.
Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
Hero with 1,000 Faces
The classic hero seems to teach us the value of humanity, while helping us strive for excellence by understanding the value of the experiences rendered through intuition, emotions, and often feelings that are special to the hero -- often rather than logical reasoning. The paradigm of heroism transcends genre, chronology and has become so common in the human collective consciousness that it is easily recognized and repeated (Campbell).
One very interesting aspect of the human experience is the manner in which certain themes appear again and again over time, in literature, religion, mythology, and culture -- regardless of the geographic location, the economic status, and the time period. Perhaps it is the innate human need to explain and explore the known and unknown, but to have disparate cultures in time and location find ways of explaining certain principles in such similar manner leads one to believe…
Bittarello, M. "ReCrafting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10 (2): 210-24, Print.
Campbell, J., et.al. The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on his Life and Work. New York: New World Library, 2003, Print.
Campbell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York: New World Library, 2008, Print..
Holquin, B., et.al. The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, Volume 1. Los Angeles, CA: Arachia Publishers, 2011, Print.
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.
Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca
Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.
This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…
Calvin, J. Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Mountain Retreat. Retrieved from: http://www.mountainretreatorg.net/classics/calvin/institutes7-1.html
Edwards, J.A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections. The Covenant of Grace. Retrieved from: http://www.covenantofgrace.com/religious_affections.htm
Edwards, J. Sinners in the hands of an Angry God. Retrieved from: http://www.biblebb.com/files/edwards/je-sinners.htm
Edwards, J. God Glorified in Man's Dependence. What Saith the Scripture? Retrieved from: http://www.whatsaiththescripture.com/Fellowship/Edwards.God.Glorified.html
ut the ible is clear that Esau, Judas, and anyone else who does not believe in Jesus Christ is condemned to an eternity in hell, separated from God forever, never to be redeemed. (Himes R.)
The Particular Movement was founded by Henry Jacob (1563-1624). Although he never in fact became a aptist his views strongly influenced the development of the Separatist Movement. Jacob also attempted to reform the Church of England rather than condemning the Church outrightly. At this time there was a distinct and sharp difference between the particular and general aptists.
eing stern Calvinists, the Particular aptists reject any relationship with John Smyth, or the early General aptists who advocated Arminian or "free will" theology with its popish overtones. The early Particular aptists rejected any historical relationship with John Smyth and his movement. Some early aptist authors even postulated a historical tradition in ritain dating as far back…
Allen, J.W. English Political Thought, 1603-1660. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1938.
Gourley B. A Very Brief Introduction to Baptist History, Then and Now. Accessed November 8, 2004. http://www.yellowstone.net/baptist/history.htm
Primer on Baptist History. Accessed November 7, 2004.
BAPTIST CONNECTIONS. Baptist History. Accessed November 7, 2004. http://home.sprintmail.com/~masthewitt/baptists/history.html
An additional type of offering was the peace-offering, which represented a feast where God was a guest and the host. Peace offerings were accompanied by meat and drink offerings. For all offerings, repentance was necessary.
In chapter seven, Edersheim describes a night in the temple. Edersheim points out the connection between Temple services and the Book of Revelations, which he suggests indicates that the Book of Revelation and the Fourth Gospel were written before Temple services actually ceased. Edersheim indicates that there was an evening service in the Temple. Accounting was also done in the evening. The Temple guard worked at night and consisted of ten men. The captain of the guard patrolled and beat any sleeping guards. The priests cast lots for the services of the day. Those who drew the first lot cleansed and prepared the later. Those who drew the second lot were to offer the sacrifice,…
They could only be disposed of, as it were, by leases till the year of jubilee, and were then to return to the seller or his heir."
This would preserve familial and tribal heritage as well as prevent the wealthy from being able to incur large masses of land, thus keeping certain families in extreme poverty. It gives all Israelites their liberty, as well as treats them all as equals, as the land would be regenerated every fifty years. "The chief point was that there should never be a build-up of power by a few to control the land and the people; therefore, there was redistribution of the land as it had been divided in the beginning."
Each family or tribe is given the opportunity to return to his or her land, and be renewed. "Those that were sold into other families, thereby became strangers to their own; but in…
Achtemeier, Paul A., Green, Joel B., and Thompson, Marianne Meyer. Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI. William B.
Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament. New York, NY. Paulist Press. 1984.
Bruggeman, Walter. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Louisville, KY.
How Jesus fulfilled the symbolism underlying the Feast of Tabernacles
eagan (2005) states that Jesus was the Messiah promised to the Israelites to deliver them from sin. The Passover pointed to the Messiah was the Passover lamb whose blood would be shed for deliverance from sin. Jesus was crucified on Passover when lambs were being slaughtered for the Passover meal. Jesus was viewed as having a sinless life making him the perfect sacrifice for sins relating to the feast of Unleavened Bread. His body was in the grave in the first days of the feast like a wheat kernel waiting to burst forth as the bread of life. Jesus' resurrection was symbolic in the feast of First Fruits as it was an indication of the first fruit of righteous. The feast of Harvest or Pentecost symbolized the great harvest of souls that would come during the Church Age. The Church…
Love, D.J. (2009). The Holy Sabbaths of The Sacred Seventh Month: The Feast Of
Tabernacles (Sukkot or Succoth) and the Last Great Day (Judgement Day).
Retrieved on April 13, 2010 from http://www.sabbatariannetwork.com/Sabbaths/HolySabbath7.html
Reagan, D.R. (2005). The Feasts of Israel: A Study in Symbolic Prophecy. Retrieved on April 13, 2010, from http://focusonjerusalem.com/thefeastsofisrael.html
hile Powlison may not agree with those approaches, he does acknowledge their existence. Therefore, in the second part of his book, Powlison examines psychological knowledge of human behavior and motivation.
However, it is important to keep in mind that the Bible is the basis for all of Powlison's discussions. hile he may develop a personality theory, it is a personality theory based on Scripture. According to reviewer Bob Kelleman:
"the strength of this section is found in Powlison's insistence on building a view of human nature not coram anthropos (from the perspective of humanity), but coram Theos (from the perspective of God). e can understand people via people, or we can understand people via God. Powlison rightly chooses to understand the creature not through the creature but through the Creator (Kelleman).
To do this, Powlison uses x-ray questions, which he says reveal what God sees when he looks at an…
Cross, F.L., ed. "Atonement." The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York:
Oxford University Press. 2005.
Kelleman, Bob. "Book Review: Seeing with New Eyes: Counseling and the Human Condition
through the Lens of Scripture." Discerning Reader. N.p. 2 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Oct. 2010.
Christian religion, the Old and New Testaments form a whole upon which its belief system is based. The transition between the Old and New Testaments resides in the person of Christ, who came to earth as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messianic prophesy.
This transition then occurs not only through the ultimate sacrifice of Christ at his death and resurrection, but also in his ministry during his lifetime. Christ uses the Old Testament in various ways in order both to establish the new order of the New Testament, but also to validate the authority of the Old.
As the son of God, Christ shows his relationship to the Father through his respect for the validity and authority of the Old Testament. He does this in various ways, of which one is his acceptance of the history of the Old Testament. Jesus refers to various persons of the Old Testament,…
France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament: His application of Old Testament passages to Himself and His mission. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1982
Holmgren, Frederic C. The Old Testament and the significance of Jesus: embracing change -- maintaining Christian identity: the emerging center in biblical scholarship. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 1999.
Smith, Barry D. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament." Atlantic Baptist University, 2005. http://www.abu.nb.ca/courses/NTIntro/OTinNT.htm
Sper, David. "Jesus Christ and the Old Testament." RBC Ministries, 1990. http://www.rbc.org/ds/sb101/page6.html
The Pre-Existence of Christ
The pre-existence of Christ is the central tenant of Christianity. This paper will review the pre-existence of Christ including supporting views and arguments against the pre-existence of Christ, proving that Christ did exist before His incarnation. Christ existed before the dawn of ages; he was not an afterthought in the mind of God, but rather, always was, and ever will be, as stated in the scriptures. To think otherwise would be heretical; such a statement is counter to every doctrine ever derived from the Gospels.
For centuries humankind has debated the origins of life; Christianity however, has supported the notion that life stems from Christ, and Christ comes from God, as the only manifest Son of God. Christ confirms this, as stated and proved in the book of John when Christ says,[footnoteef:1] "And now, Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the…
Bruce, F.F., 1990. The Epistle to the Hebrews, Grand Rapids: WB Eerdmans Publishing.
Bradley, Delon. 2010. The pre-existence of Christ: Christ's presence revealed through the Old-
Testament. Liberty Baptist: Lynchburg VA. ( http://www.biblicaltheology.com/Research/BradleyD01.pdf ).
Burt, Merlin D. 2006. History of Seventh-day Adventist views of the Trinity. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 17(1), pp. 125-139.
Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.
Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…
1) Tracey R. Rich, "Moshiach: The Messiah," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003
2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "original Sin," accessed on May 23rd, 2003 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11312a.htm
3) Jono, " Different sects of Judaism," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003, http://members.aol.com/bagelboyj/reports/sects.html
In the London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1644, we see a confession of faith statement that is much closer to that of what modern day Baptists would find familiar. ith the coming and continuance of the English Civil ar, Baptists saw the need and took the opportunity to write down their own statement of faith. The document was written and signed by seven separate congregations that collaborated to write the document. The document's purpose was to differentiate the beliefs of the Particular Baptists from the General Baptists. This was to formally define the beliefs of the Particular Baptists as opposed to the General Baptists. hile not detailed, it was very clearly Calvinistic in tone. It rejected the notion that the law convicted of sin, claiming that the terrors of the law were not needed. They were not needed because the gospel alone has the power to do this. Secondly,…
Lumpkin, Willam L. Baptist Confessions of Faith. Brentwood: Judson Press, 1969.
Taylor, John, and Chester Young . Baptists on the American Frontier. 3rd Ed. Macon:
Mercer University Press, 1995.
It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.
Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love…
(Catholic Home Study Service: Sundays and Holy Days) Hence when a changeover was made from Sabbath to Sunday as the weekly day of worship, the traditional Holy Days began to be neglected, and Christmas and Easter evolved to be the significant festivals of the Christian community. (Christian Holy Days)
The Modern Christian church now orders its members to attend services on every Sunday and on all other Holy Days. The Church makes the Services mandatory on Holy Days and on every Sunday, since the Christians have prayers and offerings as a community and the Services is the crucial activity which shows the worship of the community. Since this crucial activity shows the worship of the community as a whole, the need to attend services on the Holy Days and on Sundays is looked upon by the Church as a serious obligation. Sidelining this is considered to be a grave sin.…
Catholic Home Study Service: Sundays and Holy Days. Retrieved from http://www.cin.org/kc61-2.html Accessed on 12/1/2004
Christian Holy Days. Retrieved from http://www.abcog.org/holyday.htm Accessed on 12/1/2004
Harrison, Jeffrey J. The High Holy Days. A Time of Repentance. Retrieved from http://www.totheends.com/highholy.html Accessed on 12/1/2004
Religious Holidays - or God's Holydays? Retrieved from http://jacksonsnyder.com/arc/eli/pages/holydays.htm Accessed on 12/1/2004
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
The Hasidic Jews are extremely pious and their numbers are small around the world. Each of these sects has relatively different views of their faith and values, but they all consider themselves bound as Jews beyond their specific beliefs.
It is also important to note that Jews have been some of the most persecuted and hated of religions of all times. They were thrown out of Babylon in their early history, they were consistently banned from European cities and countries, Hitler exterminated millions of them during the Holocaust, and when Israel was created in 1948, the Arab neighbors immediately attacked and tension continues in the region. Jews have maintained their beliefs despite all these setbacks, which points to the strength of their religion and beliefs.
In conclusion, Judaism is quite different from Christianity in its philosophy and beliefs, but that does not mean it is "wrong" or "bad." There are…
Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003
Rosen, Jeremy. Understanding Judaism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2003.
Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 16.
The relationship of humanity and the divine merely changed and improved upon because of its newfound directness.
How might the Sermon on the Mount challenge contemporary Christians?
Jesus' words in his "Sermon on the Mount" conflict with many of the values of contemporary society, including the values of many professed Christians. The Sermon demands that the first are made last and the last made first, and the lowly are not simply honored but that the poor will be seen as greater by God in the life to come. The materialism of contemporary society and the inequality in a world of capitalist striving is seen as antithetical to what it means to be a Christian. Jesus' message is radically against the accepted tenor of the contemporary world, and requires Christians to live in conflict with the values and even the economy of modernity. The meek shall inherit the earth, and what…
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
It is difficult to imagine the kinds of unfair discrimination that was wrought against women, witches, and anyone else who did go along with the status quo. However, in inthrop's situation, the matter of survival was so acutely important that a strong-fisted rule was thought to be necessary.
He expresses, more than once, in the trial transcript his fears that the entire colonial civilization could fall over this one woman's outspoken beliefs. Banishment was the only appropriate punishment, since it would remove her from the small, sealed world of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ensure that she could not sway peoples' minds toward this outrageous idea of grace.
It is almost comical to consider that now, in 2008, we see crowds of Christians waving their hands in the air to feel the grace of God, an experience they believe is attainable simply through their faith. This is the exact kind…
Ayto, John Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, New York: 1990.
Hawthorne, John the Scarlet Letter, Bantam Classics, New York: 1981
Kerber, Linda K. And Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past. Oxford University Press. New York: 1995
Young, Ralph, Ph.D. Dissent in America, the Voices That Shaped a Nation. Pearson/Longman, Publishers. New York: 2006
The man we know as St. Paul was Paul of Tarsus. He is not a saint that everyone has felt comfortable. Many find him harsh, difficult and uncompromising. This is true not only, now but was so in the case of his early associates and later with the other saints of the Catholic Church including St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Barnabas. The gentle St. James once even advised him to be more diplomatic and tactful. Still at the end of it all the other saints came to look upon him with reverence and affection and so is the case with anyone who gets to know him by the study of his epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. He is a person with an indomitable spirit, filled with so much of loyalty and affection for his friends that finally he removes all criticism and his tough exterior…
Holy Roman Catholic Church. Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/newworldorder_themovie/catholicchurch.html
Accessed on 11/12/2004
Lindas, Barnabas. Apostle Paul, Saint. Retrieved from http://www.kat.gr/kat/history/Rel/Chr/PaulApostle.htm
Accessed on 11/12/2004
Moves on for Baba & Amir
In the novel, the Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, a strained relationship between father and son spans nearly a lifetime from Afghanistan to America. From the beginning, their interactions are sown with seeds of guilt, regret, inadequacy, and hopes for redemption that carries to the end of this reinvigorating and life-affirming story. Baba and Amir's attitudes toward religion plays a major role in how they deal with their moral dilemmas and ultimately how they overcome them. As Amir struggles to gain his father's love, he comes to find that they are more similar than he though both in their betrayals, and actions for salvation.
Baba, Amir's father, is the constant star of berating religion and all its failings. Very early in the novel he unloads his perspective that nothing of any value can be learned from idiot Mullahs:
Piss on the beards of all…
Pentateuch consists of the first five Books of the Bible. The Pentateuch is the same as what many people mean when they refer to the Torah, which is the first five books of the Tanakh. These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In both Jewish and Christian tradition, Moses is considered the author of most of the Pentateuch and the belief is that God dictated the books to Moses (Fairfield, N.p.). However scholars generally agree that the books actually reflect compilations of earlier writings by various different authors. Taken together, the five books introduce the reader to God. They explain that God is the creator of the universe and everything in it, how the world has imperfections despite being a divine creation, God's unique relationship with man, and the beginnings of the special relationship between God and his chosen people (Fairfield, N.p.).
The Pentateuch begins with Genesis. Genesis…
Fairfield, Mary. "Pentateuch: What is the Pentateuch?" About.com. N.p. 2013. Web. 29 Oct.
Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)
Lewis: A iography
This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.
CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.
In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…
Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.
Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).
C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.
.....sacrament of the Eucharist epitomizes the concept of transubstantiation, in which the spirit and presence of Christ is revealed to believers in the recognizable and tangible form. God's transcendence becomes God's immanence, thereby initiating a process of spiritual transformation. As Cooke (1994) points out, the Eucharist sacrament must also take place within a community, allowing each individual to perceive Christ through other believers. The importance of community is embedded within the ritual of the Eucharist because it is an act of sacred communion -- implying community, gathering, and communication. Therefore, the concept of the Eucharist is rooted in the act of sharing, on one level Jesus sharing His body with the people and on another level the community sharing the Word with each other. Moreover, the Eucharist represents "the message of human life redeemed and transformed by the power of God working through the death and resurrection of Jesus the…
The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the contentious nature of the debate within the Christian community of how to define the role and nature of Jesus in the evolving tradition. Regardless of the nature of its authorship, the epistle establishes Christ as the Son of God and part of the Godhead but also a kind of high priest within the Jewish tradition. Its Christology is uniquely Jewish in its orientation and metaphors, which is one reason why it might be commonly attributed to Paul. But it suggests a new, sacrificial role for Jesus as the Son of God and a new kind of high priest.
The Epistle to the Hebrews first calls Jesus a paradoxical figure, made lower than the angels so he could ultimately elevate humanity. “But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because…
Her natural involvement in raising Sohrab, however, serves as a completion of Soraya's own personal redemption -- she is saving one of the many lost children of Afghanistan -- as it does for Amir, making redemption not only achievable but the natural result of its earnest pursuit.
The sins that are committed by the various individuals in the book are largely defined and described by the characters themselves. Their various paths to redemption are equally personal. As the central character and narrator of the novel, this is most visible in Amir; his understanding of his own and of his father's sins is what drives many of his decisions and attitudes in life, and what causes him to seek redemption in the first place. ithout this drive and the clarity of his perception, redemption might have proved impossible after all.
Calliouet, Ruth. "The Other Side of Terrorism and…
Calliouet, Ruth. "The Other Side of Terrorism and the Children of Afghanistan." The English Journal, Vol. 96, No. 2 (Nov., 2006), pp. 28-33.
Hosseini, Khlaed. The Kite Runner. New York: Riverhead Books, 2005.
Noor, Ronny. "Review: The Kite Runner." World Literature Today, Vol. 78, No. 3/4 (Sep. - Dec., 2004), p. 148.
Therefore what God has joined together, man must not separate." 7 Why then," they asked Him, "did Moses command [us] to give divorce papers (I) and to send her away?" 8 He told them, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts. But it was not like that from the beginning. 9 and I tell you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery."
Divorce was taught to be a last resort, not the 'I am tired of you' choice. Children are hurt and devastated by the divorce and more psychological trauma is being placed on the child. Children are losing context on the meaning of love and what to expect from it.
The Bible also states the expectation on men and women in regards to the family. In Genesis 1:28, it is written, "God blessed them, and God…
Bertolet, Timothy J. 2002. "Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Peril of Postmodernism." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Evangelical Theological Society. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-275630471.html
Dawson, Lorne L.. 1998. "Anti-modernism, modernism, and postmodernism: struggling with the cultural significance of new religious movements." Sociology of Religion. Association for the Sociology of Religion. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20913875.html
Erickson, M.J. (1995). Evangelical Christology and Soteriology Today. Interpretation, 49(3), 255+. Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Questia database:
The Doctrine of Divine Providence
Divine Providence is the way God rules over all things in the world and the Heavens. Gotanswers. org states,
"The purpose, or goal, of divine providence is to accomplish the will of God. To ensure that His purposes are fulfilled, God governs the affairs of men and works through the natural order of things. The laws of nature are nothing more than a depiction of God at work in the universe. The laws of nature have no inherent power, nor do they work independently. The laws of nature are the rules and principles that God set in place to govern how things work" (Gotquestions.org, 2010)
The Bible, Proverbs 16:9 states: "The heart of a man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps." Though God allows man free will, he also has a guidance control in our life.
In Acts 9, God directly deal…
"Baptism FAQ." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://paracleteforum.org/archive/articles/baptism_faq/dialogue.html
Cloud, D. 2006. "What about Hyper-Calvinism?" Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://www.wayoflife.org/database/hypercalvinism.html
Holman Christian Standard Bible. 2004. Holman Bible Publishers. Nashville, TN.
"Secularism." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://www.answers.com/topic/secularism
Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.
The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…
Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.
Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.
Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
Nwoye, however, is attracted by the external trappings of Christian rhetoric, that promise him peace and a way out of a society in which he cannot compete because of his physical, emotional, and spiritual weaknesses. For Okonkwo, of course, the religion of Christianity is completely antithetical to his principles.
Q8. The end of the novel did surprise me. I expected that there would be a final, bloody clash between the tribesmen and the British. However, the real conflict occurs within Okonkwo's soul, when he is frustrated that his people will not fight with him, as they know they cannot overcome the superior military technology of the British. Okonkwo's suicide, however, once it is clear that his tribesmen will not stand with him, is not surprising, given that it is consistent with his militaristic and inflexible character -- he would rather die than submit. However, the fact that suicide is considered…
As for the debate on what are the strengths and weaknesses of the sect, this is quite an opinionated topic; relying a great deal on personal spiritualism, faith, and the ability to redefine and accept alternative views. Certainly, a clear strength is the ability for the religion to coalesce into a vibrant community that is active in spreading their version of the word of God. Mormonism has donanted millions of bibles to various locations, is there with aid and help during natural disasters, and has spent millions erecting churches, civic projects, and housing in the developing world. Members are often fervent in theit belief system, and tend to be more the type who live by example rather than theory -- rather than practicing their religion on Sundays and holidays, most Mormons adhere to their system 24/7. Mormonism emphasizes eduction, the family, youth programs, a healthy life style, the absence of…
Bushman, R.L. Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Jackson, a. Mormonism Explained: What Latter-Day Saints Teach and Practice. Wheaton, IL: Crossaway Books, 2008.
"Letters to the Editor." 7 March 1998. exmormon.org. February 2011 .
Mariottini, C. "The Mormon Church and the Clost Tribes of Israel." Frbruary 2006. Docto.claudemariottini.com. February 2011 .
As the Bible says, out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks," which means that you will know a person's thoughts and what they hold dear by how they speak. This is a critical lesson for JetBlue management. They cannot just gloss over this with the promise of better performance because that will immediately make them even less credible. The fact that no one stood up for the customers in the first place is an excellent case in point as to how flawed the culture is (McGregor, 2007). The Corporate Advertising program needs to instead concentrate on cultural change. It needs to show how JetBlue is rewarding employees for taking initiative, and explain how employees who go beyond get recognized -- and those that ignore customers are gone. JetBlue needs to embrace the Golden ule and use that as the basis of their advertising, taking the high road…
Holland, M.. (2008). PASSENGER BILL of RIGHTS. Defense Counsel Journal, 75(1), 109-111.
Thomas a. Kochan. (2006). Taking the High Road. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(4), 16-19.
Jena McGregor. (2007, March). An Extraordinary Stumble at JetBlue. Business Week,(4024), 58.
Waite, M.. (2007). Managing Under Crisis: The Source of Atonement at JetBlue Airways. The Business Review, Cambridge, 9(1), 187-191.
Faulkner masterfully weaves lives in and out of this fabric, demonstrating the importance of self-identity as well as social acceptance. Light in August, however, draws more attention to how the conflicts and differences between race, gender, and social constraints are destructive forces.
The birth of Lena's child "holds out the promise of a new age that transcends the social contradictions that Joe's violent tale bears witness to" (Lutz), according to Lutz. Furthermore, Faulkner looks toward the future with the birth of this child to this meek woman. Lena is comfortable with herself and she copes well hen others choose to judge her by her unwed status. This is a striking contrast to how Joe chooses to deal with how others perceive him. Lena may not be able to see the future but she is confident she can unearth some hope in it somewhere. Mrs. Hines response to the child suggests…
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: The Modern Library. Print. 1950.
LUTZ, JOHN. "Faulkner's Parable of the Cave: Ideology and Social Criticism in Light in August." The Mississippi Quarterly 52.3.1999.459. Gale Literature Resource Center.
Web. 1 Sept. 2010. http://go.galegroup.com
Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Light in August.'" Novels for Students. Ed. 2007. Gale
The other importance of Temple worship and sacrifice is that it enables a person to practice self-discipline and restraint. When people offer sacrifices and worship at the Temple, they learn to connect with God which in turn helps them to be disciplined. By and large, Temple worship and sacrifice is the means through which people exercise godly virtues and morals. Therefore, Temple worship and sacrifice affects the way people interact with each other within the society.
Considering the fact that the Temple is a place where people pray for relief from their pains and sufferings, Temple worship and sacrifice enables them to have peace of mind. Worship and sacrifice strengthens a person's ways while relieving them from the burden of guilt. When one commits a wrong deed, they get an opportunity to ask for forgiveness through Temple worship and sacrifice. As a result of forgiveness, these people experience…
Croucher et al. (2009, August 25). Leadership: Worship. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/22852.htm
Dolphin, L. (1996, October 12). The Importance of the Temple Mount to Christians. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from http://www.templemount.org/TMXNS.html
ith respect to these principles, Unitarians have historically supported social justice movements within the United States, such as the Civil Rights movement, and anti-war causes. They also support interfaith dialogue, and believe there is value in all religious faiths, not just Christianity. The merged organization does not hold solely to Universalist or Unitarian beliefs, but honors both in the shaping of the tradition. Many women have served prominently in the movement since its inception, as have African-Americans. Unitarian Universalists also support full social equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people (GLBT).
Unitarian Universalists have occasionally been accused of being irreligious, because of their tolerance of so many conceptions of faith, and the fact that they do not insist that adherents subscribe to a particular conception of God, or even to believe in a traditional, anthropomorphic form of the divine at all. Unitarian Universalists view the religion as part of…
Hughes, Peter. "Michael Sevetus." Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS).
March 24, 2011. http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/michaelservetus.html
Rasor, Paul. "Unitarian Universalist views of God." Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).
March 24, 2011. http://www.uua.org/publications/pamphlets/spiritualtopics/151278.shtml
Mr. Hooper states that he is no better or worse than the other members of his community, who he believes also harbor secret sins, even though they act as though they do not. The anti-Transcendentalist concept, like Transcendentalism, suggests that society harbors a false surface, but it believes this is due to an innate sinfulness of humankind, not because human beings outside of society are better.
Anti-transcendentalists believed that humans are hypocrites, and removing social constrictions will not heal the sins of humanity. Mr. Hooper, unlike Emerson's joyful sense of solitude in nature also experiences his isolation as a penance. He chooses to punish himself, not to gain a more positive sense of his inner self, but to fully understand and apprehend its sinfulness. Another key concept of Transcendentalism is the idea that a person's inner life is more important than their social, outer life. However, in Mr. Hooper's estimation,…
Brulatour, Meg. "Heaven on Earth: The Legacy of 19th Century Transcendentalism as an Ecumenical Philosophy of Nature." American Transcendentalist Web 1999
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil." E-text available from http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=HawMini.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
4. I am grateful for my education, even though I complain about dragging myself to school. I am so fortunate that I have this time in my life to focus on learning. Every day I learn something new, whether I like it or not!
5. The animals in my life never judge me; animals always show me kindness and understanding and illustrate that without words it is still possible to speak deep and profound truths.
6. Never let it be forgotten that Thanksgiving is a uniquely American holiday. We are a nation that has had the courage to change, we are a nation that has elected its first African-American president, and we are a nation that has confronted the realities of war and an economic downturn (loose sentence). Beyond our profoundly imperfect beginnings as a nation, beyond our sad history of slavery, beyond the atonement we must still make to…
In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…
Egner, R.E. And Denonn, L.E. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London,
Einstein, A. (1999). Ideas and Opinions. (Edited by Seelig, C.) New York: Crown.
Hawking, S. (2001). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
As the "scapegoat," Jesus is punished instead of the actual guilty parties.
Scape-goating is still very much part of humanity. It is a metaphorical term to denote that human beings are blamed for crimes, wrongdoing, or suffering of which they are in fact innocent. The most common manifestation of this in modern society is blaming specific group of persons for calamity. Minority groups are often victimized in this way, as they are vulnerable and generally do not have the means to defend themselves.
At the root of scape-goating is the human unwillingness to admit blame. It is far easier to place blame elsewhere. This provides a sense of satisfaction that accountability has been assured, even thought it is incorrectly assigned. Scape-goating will probably be part of humanity as long as the race survives. It is human nature to be unwilling to accept blame or admit wrongdoing. Ironically, scape-goating today provides…
Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.
Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…
Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. "The True Religion." IslamWorld.net. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://islamworld.net/docs/true.html
Besancon, Alain. "What Kind of Religion Is Islam?" Commentary. May 2004. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Douglass, Susan. What is Islam? Faces. February 2008. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.
Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid)
Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself. Sneaking in subtle notations about the idiocy behind many of the prominent malcontents that we have recognized through history in terms of segregation and racial provocation, "Diversity and its Discontents" prompts for more of a diverted attention to the perceptions that develop through persisting diversity than the fundamental signifying contributions that outline the progression of diversity. Madrid's concepts do not exemplify the persona of atonement that inflicts the prose of our other authors, but does come through as a genuine consort of the experiences in ethnical divide.
Day in the Life of Two Americas" (Leonard Steinhorn and arbara Diggs-rown)
Steinhorn and Diggs-rown perfect the proportionate degrees of reprimanded division within the United States as an entire collective nation. Sprouting from intricate…
Thandenka. 1999. Afro Centric News Network. Retrieved from the World Wide Web; December 10th, 2007:
Jelita McCLeod, Special to The Washington Post Monday, July 7, 2003; Page C10;
Miller's play is very similar with respect to its main theme. Joe Keller also makes an economical decision at one point in his life: being in charge of the military equipment of the Air Force planes during the Second orld ar he provides the army with 121 defective cracked cylinder heads. As a result, twenty one of the planes crash and all the pilots die. Thus, faithful to the American Dream of prosperity and wary of his family's finances, Joe knowingly ignores the possible consequences of his act. Years after this tragedy, Joe is still in denial, refusing to acknowledge any personal responsibility or guilt. Thus, the structure of the play is almost identical with that of the short story previously discussed. Joe refuses to take responsibility in two situations, not just one: first for the pilots, and then for the death of his own son, Larry who commits suicide…
Hammond, Susan Hazen. The Kidnapped Wife and the Dream Helper.
Gibson, P.J. Long Time Since Yesterday. New York: Samuel French, 1985.
Miller, Arthur. All My Sons. New York: The Modern Library, 1987.
In the heat of battle, George stands up and allows himself to be killed. He thus becomes a "hero" for his hypocritical "loved ones" at home to mourn.
The first major theme of Death of a Hero is the hypocritical attitudes and immorality of the Victorians. Much of the prologue and the first two parts of the novel are dedicated to a savage, bitter portrayal of Victorian middle class life in England, from the 19th century up to the First orld ar. The individuals in these sections are portrayed in such a severe fashion, that the inevitable conclusion drawn is that life in this society was so stifling and unbearable that it spurred a lot of idealistic young men such as George to go to war as a means of escaping it.
The third part of the novel takes place during the war itself, and allows Aldington to explore his…
Aldington, Richard. Death of a Hero. New York: Covici-Friede, 1929.
From the standpoint of non-Zionist religious Jews, the Zionist movement went against the teachings of the Talmud. The Neturei Karta noted in their writings that the group was against the creation of the State of Israel, and the uprooting of Arab individuals from their communities by Zionists wishing sovereignty. According to the group, the shedding of Jew and non-Jew blood for this sovereignty was against Judaism not only because of the violence, but because the cause for which the wars occurred was against Judaism. The Neturei Karta believed Eretz Yisrael would be returned to the Jews on the appearance of the Messiah, and that any other method of return was invalid. As such, the Neturei Karta opposed, and still opposes, the creation of a Jewish state, on the basis that the creation of such a state is against the teachings of the Talmud, and against the word of God.
Bein, Alex. Theodore Herzl: A Biography. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1967.
Borochov, Ber. Nationalism and Class Struggle. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Deuteronomy." The Holy Bible: New American Standard Edition. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1983.
Edelheit, Abraham J. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
As he himself admits, "I have a very grim perspective. I do feel that it's a grim, painful, nightmarish meaningless existence, and the only way to be happy is if you tell yourself some lies. One must have some delusions to live" ("Cannes 2010: oody Allen on Death -- 'I'm Strongly Against It'"). hat Midnight in Paris is for him (and us), therefore, is a kind of distraction from the reality that at some point the final credits will roll.
Malick's Tree of Life, then, is a kind of answer to Allen's melancholy. It is, of course, a religious answer told through an impressionistic and indirect medium. Nonetheless, unlike Allen, Malick is willing to embrace the spiritual side of man and explore its meanings and possibilities. For Malick, life is a spiritual journey that can lead one either upwards to the good or downwards to the bad. Allen's film may…
Allen, Woody, dir. Midnight in Paris. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Classics, 2011.
Augustine. City of God. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1888. Print.
Augustine. The City of God against the Pagans. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.
Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the…
Evans, James H. We Have Been Believers: An African-American Systematic Theology.
Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992. Print.
Migliore, Daniel. Faith Seeking Understanding: an Introduction to Christian Theology.
Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991. Print.