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Attention Deficit Disorder or in short ADD, is a condition wherein a person cannot concentrate on a thing that he is doing and a person who is very energetic when compared to other people. They are sometimes called an extra ordinary person because they possess a different kind of behavior that is quite distinguishable. They are also very impulsive because they react to things drastically and often times restless. The ADD is oftentimes diagnosed with children showing symptoms of this kind of disorder. A child who shows symptoms of ADD usually leads to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder or AD/HD. A child who is very impulsive and hyperactive have also the tendency to get bored easily and because of this they tend to distract other people also through making a lot of noise, moving unnecessarily and disturbing other kids. It is said that it is not their own choice to distract…
h2g2 Researchers (2000) "Attention Deficit Disorder" [Online] Available at:
LD Online (2005) "Attention Deficit Disorder: Beyond the Myths," U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. 1994 [Online] Available at:
Attention Deficit Disorder: Yes, It Does Exist
The existence of the syndrome that has come to be known in recent decades as either Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ADHD, as opposed to ADD, is Attention Deficit Disorder with hyperactive symptoms) (Hallowell and Ratey, 1994; ender, 1995; Barkley, 1997) was first identified in 1937 when Dr. Charles Bradley, discovered "effective treatment of children with stimulants ("Does ADHD Exist?," 2005). Moreover, "ADHD has received more scientific scrutiny than any other childhood psychiatric disorder" ("Does ADHD Exist?"). Still, some, including concerned parents (Collier, 2005) and even one pediatric neurologist, Fred Baughman, M.D., continue to insist that ADD and/or ADHD have been "made up" for the combined benefit of teachers wanting tranquil children in class, and drug companies. ("Does ADHD Exist? PBS Frontline 2005). However, in January 2002, in response to such arguments, 75 international scientists issued the following…
'ADHD International Consensus Statement." January 2002. ADHD-Report.com.
Retrieved March 22, 2005, from: http://www.adhd-report.com/adhd/
Attention Deficit Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD or ADHD) is a diagnosis given to children and adults who display certain characteristic behaviors on a consistent basis over an extended period of time. The most common behaviors that characterize ADD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
According to statistics, people living with ADHD experience a continuous movement of sounds, images, and thoughts, similar to a fast-paced kaleidoscope (Johnson, 2002). ADD victims are easily bored yet are unable to concentrate. They are easily distracted and tend to daydream. The following statement describes the behavior of a typical child who suffers from ADD or ADHD: "Tommy can't sit still. He is disruptive at school with his constant talking and clowning around. He leaves the classroom without the teacher's permission. Although he has above-average intelligence, Tommy has trouble reading and writing. When he talks, the words…
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: APA.
Johnson, Charlotte. (2002). ADHD. Canadian Psychological Association Periodical. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.
Rabiner, David. (2001). The Use of Medication in Treating Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD. Duke University Press.
Rees, Ann. (1999, August 9). "Drugging our Children: Boys will be Boys - That's Why We've Got Them Popping Pills." The Vancouver Province.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both genetically transmitted behavioral and neurological conditions that most often manifest themselves in childhood and may continue into adulthood. alters notes ADHD is considered a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act, affecting approximately three to ten percent of all school-aged children. Brown further fine tunes this number, citing a U.S. Centers for Disease Control study which found that approximately 7.8% of American children between the ages of four and 17 were currently diagnosed with ADD or ADHD (22). Up to two-thirds of these children continue to exhibit symptoms in adulthood, according to alters (21). Terchek states that approximately 50% of children diagnosed with ADD/ADHD continue to be affected into adulthood. As such, Terchekk concludes that 4.4% of American adults are affected by ADD/ADHD. This high level of incidence makes the continued study of the condition imperative. To further…
Antonucci, D., Manos, M., Kunins, C., Lopez, F., Kerney, D. "Patient Experience and Satisfaction with Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults with ADHD." Primary Psychiatry. 17.6 (2010): 48-57. Print.
Brown, T. "A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder." Educational Leadership. 64.5 (2007): 22-27. Print.
Coghlan, A. "Attention-deficit Disorder Gene Link." New Scientist. 208.2781 (2010): 01. Print.
Elia, J. & Vetter, V. "Cardiovascular Effects of Medications for the Treatment of Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Pediatric Drugs. 12.3 (2010): 165-175. Print.
The Hyperactivity involves fiddling with hands or feet or squirms in seat; does not continue seating when is expected to; excessive running or climbing considered not appropriate in adolescence and adults; feelings of restlessness; find it hard to play quietly; seems to be continuously on the move and talks excessively. Impulsivity includes blurts out answers prior to the question has been completed; becomes impatient waiting his turn; interruption and intrusion on the activities of others. The DSM-IV also necessitates that some of the signs even grow prior to the age of seven and that they significantly inhibit the functioning in two or more environments such as home and school at least for duration of six months. The children that exert the signs of inattention, however, not of hyperactivity/impulsivity are identified with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and normally known as ADD. (Bower, 129)
Moreover, the family…
ADHD Not Just a School-Day Disorder: New Survey Reveals All-Day Impact of ADHD on Children and Their Parents. Parents Report Socialization Problems Abound With Peers & Family. Retrieved at http://www.kidsource.com/health/all.day.adhd.html . Accessed on 27 November, 2004
Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity. http://hinduwebsite.com /health/attentiondeficit.htm. Accessed on 27 November, 2004
Bower, Bruce. Evolution of Attention - Evolutionary View of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Science News. 3 January, 1998. Volume: 8; No: 2; pp: 126-130
Symptoms of ADHD include poor impulse control, carelessness, oppositional behaviors, not following rules.
These same symptoms are often cited as manifestations of giftedness (Hartnett, 2006).
One of the hallmark symptoms of ADHD is social problems (Chamberlain, 2003). Children with ADHD often have trouble with impulse control, keeping their hands to themselves and other things that make them unpopular. While many children with these issues may have ADHD these symptoms can also be an indicator of slow emotional development. Maturity comes at different times for different children and some experts believe that physicians are too quick to diagnose ADHD when the child simply needed more time to mature (Chamberlain, 2003).
The science of ADD is becoming more clear but as of today, there still is not a definitive way to diagnosis whether or not a child has ADD. Medical research has linked the possibility of genetics to the disorder,…
Harnett, Neil (2006) the possibility of misdiagnosis of giftedness and ADHD still exists:
response to Mika.(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)(Critical essay) Roeper Review
Ullman, Robert (1997) Ritalin-free kids. Mothering Practices Journal
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both behavioral illnesses that are affecting a growing number of children and teenagers.
Currently, more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD. A number of adults are also being diagnosed with adult-onset ADHD. Furthermore, an estimated one-third of children diagnosed with ADHD will continue to have symptoms until adulthood (eyandt et al. 2003). Through greater exposure in the media and from health activists, there is less social stigma associated with the illness. As a result, more families are seeking treatment for their children.
This paper looks at the various symptoms associated with ADD and ADHD. The next part then evaluates how these symptoms and effects of ADD and ADHD affect a child's learning ability. This section of the paper looks at how ADHD affects the development of a child's motor development skills. The next part then sees whether…
Baverstock, A and F. Finlay. 2003. "Who manages the care of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in higher education?" Child: Care, Health and Development. May. PsychInfo.
Breznitz, Zvia. 2003. "The Speech and Vocalization Patterns of Boys With ADHD Compared With Boys With Dyslexia and Boys Without Learning Disabilities." Journal of Genetic Psychology. December. PscychInfo Database
Cutting, Laurie et al. 2003. "Evidence for Unexpected Weaknesses in Learning in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Without Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning Disabilities. May/June.
Kalff, A. et al. 2003. "Low- and high-level controlled processing in executive motor control tasks in 5-6-year-old children at risk of ADHD." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines.
was significantly higher or lower than would be predicted. A baseline prediction could be taken by comparing the scores of groups a and , and then comparing the scores of group . And D. If AD/HD had no unique effect on multi-tasking, then one would expect the same ratio to exist between multi-tasking groups as between single-tasking groups. For example, imagine that group a averaged a "danger score" of ten, and the average group . driver score was five. Further imagine that the average group D score was seven. One would then expect that group C. would be double that and have a score of fourteen. If their actual score was either significantly lower or higher than that, this might indicate that AD/HD had a specific effect not just on the ability of the individual to drive in all conditions but also specifically on their ability to drive while multitasking.…
Goepel, J. (2003, May) "Crashes caused by inattentive drivers are nothing new. Cell phones are the latest distraction." VIA. http://www.viamagazine.com/top_stories/auto/cell_phone03.asp
Living with ADD. (2004) http://www.livingwithadd.com/
Snyder, M. (200) ADHD & Driving: A Guide for Parents of Teens with AD/HD. Montana: Whitefish Consultants.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder that is mostly found in children. According to one research almost 7.5% of school-aged children are suffering from some kind of ADHD related behavioral problem in the United States. In some cases, untreated symptoms can persist in the adulthood too, which can create numerous problems in the patient's social and emotional life. ADHD is rarely found in isolation as the child may also develop some other behavioral problems. The existence of more than one behavioral disorder is known as co-morbidity, which usually complicates the case because the child cannot be treated for one specific condition. It was once believed that ADHD patients outgrow the symptoms with age but this theory is no longer supported by latest research, which indicates that without treatment, ADHD's symptoms can easily persist in one's adult life. A newspaper article, which appeared in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1994), author…
1) CLAUDIA WALLIS, With Hannah Bloch/New York, Wendy Cole/Chicago and James Willwerth/Irvine, LIFE IN OVERDRIVE Doctors say huge numbers of kids and adults have attention deficit disorder. Is it for real?, Time, 07-18-1994, pp 42
2) Robin Seaton Jefferson; MODERN STRESSES WORSEN ATTENTION DEFICIT PROBLEMS, DOCTOR SAYS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 06-19-2002, pp 2.
3) Arthur Allen, The Trouble With ADHD; As growing numbers of children are being medicated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, some doctors and parents wonder whether the drugs have become a too-convenient w., The Washington Post, 03-18-2001, pp W08
4) Marianne Szegedy-Maszak;; Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, The Mind Maze., U.S. News & World Report, 05-06-2002, pp 52.
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…
Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.
Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.
Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
The teacher must also be willing to use more conventional cognitive and behavior reinforcement tactics to encourage that the student will be able to function effectively in the modern workforce.
A discussion of how the topic is related to teaching-that is, what instructional strategies does the topic promote that support student learning and how are instructional decisions made based on the topic?
It may sound both crazy and controversial, but it may be most educationally empowering to the child and the teacher alike, rather than regarding individuals who learn or comport themselves 'differently' in the classroom as burdensome, to see ADHD as a potential if difficult gift for the classroom. The ADHD way of viewing learning can provide teachers with a new way of approaching the world and the rules of the teacher-student dialogue.
Yes, of course, distracted and hyperactive behavior must conform to respectable standards within the classroom. A…
Attention Deficit Disorders: What Teachers Should Know." (1994) U.S. Department of Education. Classroom Strategies for a Class with Students with ADD. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/add_adhd/add-school1.html#anchor131686
ADHD -- Symptoms." (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100386.htm
ADHD -- What is it?" (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100391.htm?z=1623_86000_0000_rl_02
The Medical Treatment of ADHD." (2004) The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 4 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/89/100397.htm
Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.
Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005 http://www.cdc.gov /ncbddd/adhd/default.htm.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm .
Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005 http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506 .
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…
ADHD. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=adhd_guest_consumers&s=2
Scientists have not yet figured out what causes ADHD, even though many studies propose that genes play a large part. Like a lot of other sicknesses, ADHD almost certainly can be contributed to a mixture of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at probable environmental factors, and are examining how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might add to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (2010). Most research supports the hypothesis that ADHD is a physiological situation and is consequently present at birth. Nevertheless, the obvious beginning of ADHD indications characteristically takes place early in childhood. Prior to the age of five, ADHD indications may be hard to diagnose, for the reason that most young kids are extremely energetic, easily distractible, and impulsive. Consequently, the average age of diagnosis is eight years for ADHD and ten years for ADD. The dissimilarity in diagnosis age likely takes place…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (2010). Retrieved May 30, 2011 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/complete-index.shtml
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. (2011). Retrieved May 30, 2011,
from http://www.bing.com/health/article/mayo-125656/Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-ADHD-in-children?q=attention+deficit+hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Treatment Overview. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-treatment-overview
ablechild.org),child abuse allegations appear to be infrequent, perhaps because states are moving to pass laws that to some degree limit what schools can say or do regarding ADHD and other behavioral disorders.
To date, according to activists who track the issue, seven states have laws prohibiting school personnel from recommending psychotropic drugs for children. Over the past few years, 46 bills in 28 states have either passed or are awaiting action (Hearn, 2004)." recent study in Australia produced even more shocking results. According to this study on ADHD children and misdiagnosed there were a full 75% of the children in the study misdiagnosed. According to the published report following the study the children being medicated with stimulant medications were at risk for side affects and addiction for a medication they did not even need to take (Clarke, 2004).
In our experience, many of the children misdiagnosed with ADHD in fact…
Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Copyright © 1996-2005
Kids on drugs? (News Shorts).(an investigation into treatment of attention deficit disorder is launched in the U.S.)(Brief Article)
In addition, a number of anti-depressants may be prescribed, such as Norpramin, Elavil and Wellbutrin.
The side effects of these medications also vary, but for the most part, they cause a slower heart rate, possible seizures, dry mouth, and constipation. Yet overall, the side effects are usually minor and when the child responds favorably to the medication, it obviously outweighs the side effects. The effectiveness of these medications produce positive results in regard to sustained attention and persistence of effort. They also reduce restlessness and overall improve behavior.
In conclusion, ADHD can be a very debilitating disorder for any child, especially in regard to activities performed at home and in school. However, the future looks bright, for breakthroughs in the treatment of ADHD are on the horizon, and over the next decade, genetic testing may be available for the disorder and could lead to safer and more effective medications for…
American Academy of Pediatrics. ADHD: A Complete and Authoritative Guide. New York: Independent Publishing Group, 2003.
Baughman, Fred a. "Hyperactivity Disorder Tied to Brain Irregularities." Internet.
ADHDFraud.com. December 11, 2004. Accessed April 19, 2005. http://www.adhdfraud.com/frameit.asp?src=commentary.htm.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Internet.
The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)
Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…
Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. December 2001. Retrieved at http://www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc30.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, Disorder: Neurological Basis and Treatment Alternatives. Journal of Neurotherapy. Volume: 1; No: 1; p: 1. Retrieved at ( http://www.snr-jnt.org/JournalNT/JNT (1-1)1.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Bedard, Anne-Claude; Ickowicz, Abel; Logan, Gordon D; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell; Tannock, Rosemary. Selective Inhibition in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Off and on Stimulant Medication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. June, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 90-93
audience on wha ADHD is, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
ADHD is a serious condition, but it doesn't mean that it has to ruin person's life.
Bouncing off walls! (Strong declarative statement to draw attention)
ADHD is a severe case of not being able to concentrate
Everyone has off days, but ADHD patients cannot focus on a daily basis
Symptoms include chronic inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Children with ADHD are easy to identify, they are always hyperactive
ADHD is something we have all heard about but we don't really understand. I want to make you understand the seriousness of ADHD and how it affects people who suffer from it.
A.I have carefully researched this topic and now I will share the most topical information I have found (establish credibility)
B. The reason that I am interested in ADHD research is because I also have ADHD, and this has helped me…
ADHD -- Treatment through Behavioral Therapy." American Institute of Pediatrics.
Mederm: Medical Library: ADHD. 2007. [3 Mar 2007] http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZWWPFTXSC&sub_cat=21#Table3
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." National Institute of Mental Health. 2006.
Mar 2007] http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm#intro
economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.
The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.
One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…
Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica
Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development
Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012
Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
Topic: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Order ID: A2018177
User Name: sabina1325
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological problem that affects children. As children grow some of them grow out of this behavioral problem, however in some cases it does continue into adulthood. ADHD is a behavioral problem that creates difficulty for the individual to remain focused, or inactive. This is a severe problem because there is currently no known cure for this problem and it affects the individuals being affected in many ways. The main way the ADHD affects children is that it impacts their educational progress because of their inability to focus or sit still. ADHD is a serious problem and the children who have this problem struggle each day to achieve simple goals, like reading a book. There is no cure for this problem; the medications that are used to treat ADHD have serious side…
From ADHD meds to testing and NCLB. (2009). American School Board Journal. 196 (7) 45-47
Gustafsson et. al. (1997). ADHD symptoms and maturity ? a study in primary school children. Acta Paediatricia. 97 (2) 233-238
Knowles, T. (2010). The kids behind the label: Understanding ADHD. Education Digest. 76 (3)
Mayes, R., Bagwell, C. & Erkulwater, J. (2008). ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (3) 151-166
National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention -deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml#pub1
Rodriguez, P.D. & Baylis, G. C. (2007) Activation of brain attention systems in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. Behavioral Neurology. 18 (2) 115-130
Samantha was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) two years ago, when she was in seventh grade. her behavioral problems began years earlier, but teachers had not recommended that Samantha get evaluated. Working with Samantha has been enlightening because of the ways her attitudes and behaviors do not correspond with my assumptions about ADHD.
When I first met Samantha she seemed like a normal kid. In retrospect, I noticed that she fidgeted a lot, and had trouble maintaining eye contact. However, I attributed those behaviors to her just being a kid and not being interested in talking to me. When I really became aware of how ADHD affects students like Samantha was in the classroom. The disorder impacts not just Samantha's ability to concentrate on the lessons but also on her ability to learn.
Samantha shows me a good degree of respect as the teacher, and she interacts well…
Thus, it is easy to see why the use of medication to treat ADHD is controversial, especially in students who have the disorder in only mild amounts (Boyd and Bee, 2009). However, an option other than medication is available in the form of parent training programs. Boyd and Bee (2009) note that parent training programs intend to help parents who are having trouble controlling their ADHD affected child. According to the authors, "By the time their children are diagnosed with ADHD, usually upon entering school, many parents have lost confidence in their ability to control them" (Boyd and Bee, 2009, pg. 269). Because of this, it is easy for parents to take their parenting in two extreme directions -- either allowing their children to be undisciplined or by disciplining them to the point of abuse. Through parent training, teachers and parents can communicate regarding the child's success in school, and…
Boyd, D. And Bee, H. (2009). Lifespan Development, Fifth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
LeFever, G.B., Dawson, K.V., and Morrow, A.L. (1999). The Extent of Drug Therapy
for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public Schools. American Journal of Public Health. 89(9): 1359-1364.
Kewley, G. (1998). Personal Paper: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder us underdiagnosed and undertreated in Britain. British Medical Journal. 316 (7144): 1594-1596. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=421427
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…
Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)
Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54
NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov /ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a childhood disorder characterized by chronic irritability that interferes with academic and social functioning. Frequent outbursts and temper tantrums, at a frequency of about three times per week, are the most obvious behavior externalizations of DMDD, but to be diagnosed with the disorder, the child must also exhibit poor mood or irritability in between outbursts, too (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). To differentiate DMDD from pediatric bipolar disorder, it is also essential that the child does not exhibit sustained mood elevation or nonepisodic mania (Beweka, Mayes, Hameed, et al, 2016). Moreover, the symptoms of DMDD persist in spite of changes to the child’s environment, evident at home and also in school. Symptoms must also not be temporary, but in place for a year or more. While on the surface DMDD appears no different from any other psychiatric illness, it is in fact a nebulous…
Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).
In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.
Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder .
Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:
An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
, 2005). In conclusion, Kim et al. (2005) suggested that combining the use of the CBCL with the AS-IV could be used by clinicians as a fast and effective method of predicting, identifying, and diagnosing children with ADHD.
Although the studies discussed thus far involve the use of psychometric instruments in the diagnosis of ADHD in children, there are proponents of an alternate method of diagnosis. Gordon, Antshel, Faraone, Barkley, Lewandowski, Hudziak, Biederman, and Cunningham (2006) investigated the idea that diagnosis of ADHD by symptom lists, such as those provided by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) may be more beneficial than diagnosis by psychometric assessments. This proposition is grounded in the observation that the number and frequency of symptoms experienced by an individual is closely associated to the impairment of functioning experienced by the individual. However, results of the study indicated that the average correlation…
Gordon, M., Antshel, K., Faraone, S., Barkley, R., Lewandowski, L., Hudziak, J.J., Biederman, J., Cunningham, C. (2006). Symptoms vs. impairment: the case for respecting DSM-IV's Criterion D. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 465-75.
Kim, J.W., Park, K.H., Cheon, K.A., Kim, B.N., Cho, S.C., Hong, K.E. (2005). The child behavior checklist together with the ADHD rating scale can diagnose ADHD in Korean community-based samples. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(12), 802-5.
Maves, S.D. & Calhoun, S.L. (2006). WISC-IV and WISC-III profiles in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 486-93.
Spencer, T.J., Biederman, J., Mick, E. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 7, 73-81.
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
technology plays a very important role in the learning process of students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The previous problems encountered by lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners, such as learning adversities caused by complexities in the behavioral patterns, were reduced when technology started to play a role in the educational environment of ADD/ADHD students. Problems even in simple learning intervention are now rarely experienced by both the lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners ever since technology became part of the educational curriculum for special students.
There are different kinds of technologies that are applied these days to facilitate the learning process of ADD/ADHD learners. This includes multimedia computers and televisions among many other learning devices that have been developed. Their use in special classroom environments presents advantages and disadvantages, as how they also do to normal learners who have no disabilities. However, in an advocate to maximize…
Sanders, M. Video Game Therapy Scoring Points.
Retrieved on November 12, 2005 from Online.
Web site: http://www.freep.com/money/tech/games10e_20051010.htm
Rizzo, A.A., et. al. (2000). The Virtual Classroom: A Virtual Reality Environment for the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Attention Deficits
My parents also instilled in me a love for science and reading, and have proven to be the best examples in the world. Our favorite family activity is to watch the game show "Jeopardy" together. We challenge each other to see who can answer the most correct questions, and whoever wins gets to choose the restaurant the family will eat at that weekend. And if I win, I am even allowed to invite friends to join us.
My parents are also very wise. I have come to understand from my high school psychology class why my parents never argued in from of me no matter how upset they may have been. My mother would always say to my father, "Can we go to the other room, there is something that I must talk to you about." feel very proud of my parents, especially when my friends make comments such as,…
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug
One of the most noticeable and prevalent disorders occurring in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is commonly diagnosed when the child begins to attend school or kindergarten, and occurs in 3 to 5% of the population. A chronic condition, it normally carries over into adolescence and perhaps into maturity as well. ADHD children can be hyperactive, inattentive, distractible, aggressive and impulsive, and as a result tend to do poorly in school and present behavioral problems both in academic, social and familial settings. ADHD adolescents, in addition to the above-mentioned difficulties, may be disposed toward delinquency and involvement in car accidents and substance abuse. Co-occurring disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety and depression tend to exacerbate both the symptoms and the difficulty of treating ADHD. (Hyman, 2000)
Unfortunately there is no single diagnostic test to establish ADHD, and the etiology of…
American Chemical Society press release, March 22, 1999. "Improved Ritalin offers smaller doses and fewer side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 11, 2003 at http://www.hypsos.ch/presse/improvedmph.htm
Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center. "Ritalin effects and ADD ADHD medicine side effects." [Online]. Retrieved January 4, 2003 at http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm
Cantwell, D.P. "ADHD through the life span: the role of buproprion in treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59 Suppl 4: 92-4.
Colacot, T.J. "An overview on the applications of Doyle catalysts in asymmetric cyclopropanation and CH insertion reactions," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) June 2000. Vol. 112, No. 3: 197-207.
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
This is a method of indirect instruction, an important component of art education, as noted in Mary E. Thompson's chapter on "Art for Students with Special Needs." Having a rebus charts with pictures illustrating the steps of the project also helps students follow directions, and for students with attention deficit issues, these students can refer to the chart to reorient themselves if they lose focus on the project.
Teachers should strive to minimize self-consciousness. For children in a wheelchair, the classroom should be physically accessible, not simply with wheelchair ramps, but also with a wide, clear path to the art center. Some art tools may need to be used in different ways, depending on the children's physical limitations. The teacher should have a wide range of adaptive art tools, like fat bingo markers, chunky crayons, large markers, double-handed ambidextrous scissors and glue sticks, which may prove less frustrating than a…
Thompson, Mary E. (1997). "Art for Students with Special Needs." Chapter 13 from An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. Edited by Linda L. Dunlap MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Methylphenidate is part of a therapy regimen for the control of the symptoms of Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD in adults and children (Ogbru 2013, Medline Plus 2012). It stimulates the central nervous system similarly as amphetamines but more mildly. The effects of methylphenidate are also more noticeable on mental activities than in physical movements. It also is used in treating narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD. Stimulants control these symptoms by changing the amount of natural substances in the brain responsible for the conditions. ut both classes of stimulants are carefully used because of their potential abuse. They calm the patient, reduce their hyperactivity and increase attention span. FDA approved methylphenidate in 1955 (Ogbru, MedlinePlus).
Generic and Trade Names
Generic names -- methylphenidate, Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Trade names -- Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Adderall
Toxicity and Side Effects
It is to be used with cause on patients with…
Medline Plus. Methylphenidate. National Library of Medicine: National Institute
Health, 2012. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682188.html
NIDA. Drug Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Institute of Health,
2009. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www, drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/stiulant-adhd-medications-methylpheidate-amphetamines
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Other techniques like brainstorming and mapping are recommended by Ellis (1997).
The other principle which underlies the constructivist approach is a deep focus on main ideas as well as relationships within the key ideas that lie within a given subject area (Grobecker, 1999). The application of this principle means that a teacher must stress the various connections of the more important concepts that form the main idea for a given discipline as opposed to teaching several bits of knowledge which are isolated.
Duhaney & Duhaney (2000) proposed the use of active learning as an important element of the constructivist instructional approach. This is because when students are actively involved in a given lesson, they tend to learn as well as retain most of the presented information (Harris & Graham, 1996).
Behaviorist theory and its application
The other theory / approach of learning that should be used on children with learning…
Brooks, J.G., & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Brown, M (2003).Learning disability: a handbook for integrated care.Salisbury: APS
Cambridge, Paul; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Carpenter, John; Tate, Alison; Knapp, Martin; Beecham, Jennifer; Hallam, Angela (2005).The State of Care Management in Learning Disability and Mental Health Services 12 Years into Community Care .British Journal of Social Work, Volume 35, Number 7, 1 October 2005, pp. 1039-1062(24)
Duhaney, D.C., & Duhaney, L.M.G. (2000). Assistive technology: Meeting the needs of learners with disabilities. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27, 393-401.
Autism and Dementia
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Behavioral Criteria for Autism and Dementia
The Incidence ates and Causes
Options for Treatment Based on Theoretical Models
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is essentially a brain dysfunction that has the potential to affect emotion, learning ability and memory that gradually comes to light as an individual grows up. This is generally evident in children and sometimes, if undetected and untreated, can manifest in adults also. Autism Spectrum disorder can include brain dysfunctions due to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Down syndrome and intellectual developmental disorder. In modern medicine, Autism and ADHD are also considered to be Autism Spectrum disorders (http://aadmd.org, 2015).
The root of autism seems to be in the very early brain development. Since it is a brain developmental condition that becomes prominent as an individual continuous to grow…
Barnham, K., & Cherny, R. (2011). Metal chaperones: A holistic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(4), e54. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.221
CDC - Facts about Autism Spectrum Disorders - NCBDDD,. (2015). Facts About ASDs. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /ncbddd/autism/data.html
Corcoran, M. Neurocognitive disorder (NCD).
Corrada, M., Brookmeyer, R., Paganini-Hill, A., Berlau, D., & Kawas, C. (2010). Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest old: The 90+ study. Annals Of Neurology, 67(1), 114-121. doi:10.1002/ana.21915
And the movements which typify chronic movement disorder are probably subserved by the same structures within the basal ganglia as those which underpin compulsive behaviors and complex tics" (p. 470).
In addition to the other disorders associated with Tourettes, there are (not surprisingly) many emotional and social problems that affect its sufferers. Many sufferers of Tourettes are afraid to go out in public for fear of embarrassment, and many have very low self-esteem. There are also noted problems of aggression in Tourettes sufferers, not only because the tics themselves can manifest themselves aggressively, but also because the victims are angry that they were 'cursed' with this debilitating and often humiliating disorder. Making matters even worse is the fact that feelings of anger and stress can actually increase the symptoms of Tourettes (Prestia, 2003).
While there is no known cure for Tourettes, there are ways of reducing the emotional and social…
Brady, E. (2006, January 5) How Jessica's learning to live with Tourette's, the Birmingham Post (England), 4
Carr, a. (1999) the handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach, Routledge
Hendren, G. (2002), Tourette Syndrome: A new look at an old condition, the Journal of Rehabilitation, 68, 22-30
Prestia, K. (2003), Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and interventions, Intervention in School & Clinic, 39, 66-70
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need to reinforce and actualize this world view and mind set. These perspectives, if the children who play video games for hours every day could also be seeking out those video games in an attempt to actualize their violent thoughts and feelings. Demographics evidence would also agree with this statement, since those who are not at a high risk to commit violent crimes are likely not seeking out the violent television programming and video games.
Attention Deficit Disorder and Television
Some studies show a strong correlation between the amount of television a child watches and the likelihood that they will suffer from ADD later in life (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008). Other studies show no correlation between them at all. Television has the unique…
Dudley, William. "Media Violence Causes Youth Violence. "Opposing Viewpoints: Mass Media. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 1 Dec. 2009.
Jensen, Elizabeth. "Study Finds Test Scores Not Lowered By Television. " The New York Times. (Feb 27, 2006): C6(L). New York State Newspapers. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 4 Dec. 2009.
McLellan, Faith. The Lancet. London: Feb 9, 2002. Vol. 359, Iss. 9305, p. 502 (1 pp.)
Schmidt, Marie Evans, and Vandewater, Elizabeth A. "Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement." Future of Children. Spring 2008. Vol. 18, Iss.1. (2008).
This study used quantitative techniques to measure the dependent variables, but the answers obtained have a high level of subjectivity present in them.
Aside from the independent and dependent variables, almost every study has a number of factors present that affect the results obtained in the study and the ability to interpret them. In this study, there are a number of factors that must be addressed in regards to the teacher responses to the survey. Confounding variables can be internal or external factors over which the researcher has no control. It id difficult to find a study that has absolutely no confounding variables that could affect the results.
In this study, the first confounding variable is dependent on the interactions of other confounding variables. The student's type and severity of emotional disturbance are the first factors that affect the results obtained in this study. Neither the teachers, nor…
Hyatt, K. & Filler, J. (2007). A Comparison of the Effects of Two Social Skill Training
Approaches on Teacher and Child Behavior. Journal of Research in Childhood
Education. 22 (1): 85.
Lane, K., Wehby, J., Robertson, J. & Rogers, L. (2007). How Do Different Types of High
Triple P. Positive Parenting Progress
The 'Triple P' Program is marketed with a somewhat startling and troubling slogan: "Parenting now comes with an instruction manual!" This confidently seems to suggest that the program is superior to a parent's gut instincts and conventional wisdom. The program allegedly is an internationally award winning-program and "backed by over 25 years of clinically proven, world-wide research" and "has the answers to your parenting questions and needs" (Welcome to Triple P, 2011, Official Website). However, on the website the actual studies backing up the program are apparently done by individuals who work for Triple P. The 'research articles' in support of Triple P. are extremely vague, and the much-touted five different levels of intervention do not actually outline specific strategies, but rather the different intervention levels one can purchase (Sanders et al., n.d). The research articles supporting the intervention are made to look like they…
Get the shot, not the flu! (2011). Virginia State website. Retrieved:
HOPS study preliminary results. (2011). HOPS. Retrieved:
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
The 'pull out' model of teaching students with speech issues can be useful because it lets the SLP focus on every child's specific needs and challenges in an individualized fashion. But ultimately all learning takes place in context. Integrating the SLP into the curriculum allows the SLP to have new opportunities to reinforce different concepts for the child in a real-world situation. The SLP has greater opportunities to work with content where speech exercises are not the focus; with group settings; and with speaking aloud to a crowd in a formal setting. By using exercises where speech is not the primary focus of the child, but the SLP is still there to provide encouragement and support in the areas of the child's difficulty, great progress can be made in the child's general education and way of relating to others.
The SLP must never assume the role of a teacher, but…
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…
Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
There is however no cure. There is currently a lot of research dedicated to the development of more effective interventions as well as treatments for ADHD. These include the use of revolutionary tools such as brain scanners. The management and treatment of ADHD should be given a multidirectional approach.
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
DSM-IV-T workgroup (1994 ). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition, Text evision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Gross-Tsur, V (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate safe and effective? - J Pediatr - Apr; 130(4): 670-4.
Hunt, D (2006). Functional oles of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in ADHD . Medscape
Psychiatry & Mental Health.
Lahey, B.B., & Carlson, C.L. (1991). "Validity of the diagnostic category attention deficit
disorder without hyperactivity: a review
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
children in the U.S. has a learning disability and nearly 3 million have ADHD. Most of them are between the ages of 5 and 21, males whose mothers have less than 12 years of education, of poor health and socio-economically disadvantaged. One in every 25 or 30 school children in one classroom will have a learning disability. Learning disabilities also persist for a lifetime. At present, these affected children and adults can only be helped to make the best use of their skills and themselves through stimulants and psychotherapy as well as the combined support of their families, school, community and public services.
Learning disabilities in children and adults have yet to be thoroughly understood and adequately contained.
A learning disability generally refers to one of specific kinds of learning problems, such as the difficulty in learning and using certain skills (NICHCY 2002). These trouble areas are often reading, writing,…
1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838
2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT
3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html
4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm
Ritalin: Good or Bad?
Ritalin is a tradename for Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an antidepressant stimulant. It was created to stimulate the central nervous system and is used to treat increased compulsion to sleep and hyperactivity disorders in children.
According to University of Miami pediatric psychologist Dr. F. Daniel Armstrong, despite recent bad press regarding Ritalin, sometimes children need the drug to keep them safe and healthy. "Sometimes it is the safest way, especially if the children are at risk to themselves or others," said Armstrong (The Miami Herald).
However, a recent article in USA Today magazine points out that physicians are too quick to diagnose attention deficit disorders and dispense stimulants to children who exhibit normal activity levels. "The difficulties in finding a panacea for entrenched, maladaptive behavior in children do not provide sufficient justification for plunging into a nationwide pharmacopoeia for solutions." (USA Today)
hile many physicians and researchers…
Gehrke-White, Donna. Ritalin needed to keep kids safe and healthy, psychologist says. The Miami Herald, January 25, 2002.
Vatz, Richard. Weinberg, Lee. Problems in Diagnosing and Treating ADD/ADHD. USA Today, March 2001.
Volume 2 Case Number 21
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects clients across the lifespan, although it is more common in children. Data from the Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC) indicates that approximately 6.1 million children in the US had ADHD in 2016 (CDC, 2019). In some cases, however, ADHD is not detected early and progresses into adulthood, where it affects an individual’s ability to run a household, maintain employment, and care for children. The presenting client is a 30-year old female diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poly-substance abuse, and long-standing schizoaffective bipolar-type disorder. The client reports involvement in criminal activity, impulsiveness, hallucinations, difficulty managing anger, persecutory ideation, poor academic performance, and self-mutilatory behavior. This text seeks to develop an individualized treatment plan for the client with co-occurring ADHD and PTSD.
Questions to Ask the Client
Clinical interviews are crucial for effective treatment. A fundamental question to…
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.
ADDA (2015). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Symptom Checklist Instructions. Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Retrieved from https://add.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/adhd-questionnaire-ASRS111.pdf
CDC (2019). Data and Statistics about ADHD. Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
CMS (2016). Stimulant and Related Medications: US Food and Drug Administration – Approved Indications and Dosages for Use in Adults. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Medicare-Medicaid-Coordination/Fraud-Prevention/Medicaid-Integrity-Education/Pharmacy-Education-Materials/Downloads/stim-adult-dosingchart11-14.pdf
Dalgaard, S., Kvist, A., Leckman, F. J., Nielsen, H., & Simonsen, M. (2014). Cardiovascular Safety of Stimulants in Children with Attention –Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Nationwide Perspective Cohort Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 24(6), 302-10.
Kolar, D., Keller, A., Golfinopoulos, M., Cumyn, L., Syer, C., & Hechtman, L. (2008). Treatment of Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(2), 389-403.
Smucker, W., & Hedayat, M. (2001). Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD. American Family Physician, 64(5), 817-30.
Self-Control Theory and ADHD
Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Crime Theory, now referred to as the theory of self-control, remains one of the most well-known theories (Tibbetts & Gibson, 2002). Low self-control remains the main component of their theory. The time-stable individual difference that regulates behavior is low self-control. From what I learnt, individuals who have low self-control are mainly due to poor or ineffective parenting techniques during the early years-before they reached the age of eight. Particularly, parents that lack the consistency or effectiveness to form an emotional attachment with their children will find it hard to monitor the behavior of their children. The difficulty experienced in monitoring the child's behavior minimizes the possibility that the children's deviant behavior will be noticed by the parents. This will minimize the chance for the parents to administer non-corporal punishment for deviant behavior. Therefore, such persons would prefer easy and…
Higgins, G. E. (2007). Digital piracy, self-control theory, and rational choice: An examination of the role of value. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(1), 33-55.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Tibbetts, S. G., & Gibson, C. L. (2002). Individual propensities and rational decision-making: Recent findings and promising approaches.
In: A. R. Piquero and S. G. Tibbetts (Eds.), Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior: Recent Research and Future Challenges. (pp. 3-24): New York, NY: Routledge Press.