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3). How does a caregiver justify making decisions such as those mentioned above, decisions that are based on the caregiver's values and beliefs? Harris is very clear in this regard that these issues are both moral and philosophical, and the real problem is in how the issues are resolved and based on what standards and morals.
It's not merely about understanding the "natural of moral problems," John Harris explains (p. 4), and it's not just about what is right and what is wrong with reference to medical and human issues. But rather the answers following a decision that is framed in a morally right or wrong context have to be followed up with a good autonomous reason as to "why this is so," Harris continues (p. 4). It is Harris's assertion that a person can only claim that the action they took or the decision they made was based on…
Beckwith, Francis J. "Absolute Autonomy and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Putting a Bad Idea
Out of Its Misery," in Suicide: A Christian Response: Crucial Considerations for Choosing
Life, Eds. T. Demy ad G. Stewart.
Bickenback, Jerome E. "Disability and Life-Ending Decisions," in Physician-Assisted Suicide:
Autonomy and Pregnancy
Personal autonomy lies at the heart of the pro-choice movement and is an issue that impacts every pregnant woman. Any person who has been pregnant can tell you that pregnancy has consequences to the individual, both short-term and long-term. Some of those consequences are seemingly minor, but others can be literally life-threatening. However, while the pro-choice anti-choice debate focuses on maternal rights and fetal rights, there is little discussion of the impact of maternal choices on fetuses when mothers choose to carry a pregnancy to term, but engage in behaviors that are less-than-optimum for fetal health. The reality is that maternal behavior has consequences for the lifelong health for the developing child. There are several maternal behaviors, such as alcohol or drug usage during pregnancy that can lead to lifelong disabilities for the developing child. However, there are other maternal behaviors that are linked to optimal fetal…
Munson, R. (2011). Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Cengage Learning.
Current brain imaging surveys and other experiments also present evidence that child abuse could permanently damage neural structure and the functioning of the developing brain itself (Carloff).
Cohen (2001) discusses the merits of art therapy with its innate therapeutic qualities, which simultaneously activate the nervous system, the brain, the endocrine and the immune system in a uniquely particular way to support effective clinical management. Psycho-neuroendoimmunology connects an unregulated stress response to health, with stress as the underlying neurological dynamics of psychological and behavioral symptoms. Stress triggers an adaptive sympathetic nervous system response aimed at maintaining an optional state of functioning. This nervous system regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response to stress, which in turn provides the energy for survival and temporarily sharpens memory and brain function. Nature intends the use of this sympathetic adaptive response for survival, but the external reality is that our daily lives or urban environment…
1. Al-Kurdi, H. (2006). Messing with Our Minds. Dirty Tricks, Inc. VOXNYC. http://www.voxfux.com/features/mind_control_child_abuse_cover_up.html
2. Bower, B. (1996). Small Hippocampus Linked to Higher Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Science News: Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v149/ai_18319734
3. Brick, N.D. (2005). How Childhood Sexual Abuse Affects Interpersonal Relations. Smart News. http://members.aol.com/smartnews/howchildhoodsa.htm
4. Carloff, A. (2002). Child Abuse and Damage. Punkerslut. http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/childabuse.html
This step would also require an assessment of the various "what-if" outcomes that might result from sharing the genetic information with the mother only, both the mother and the father, or neither of them.
Based on the foregoing considerations, the physician would appear to have an ethical responsibility to share his discovery with the mother, but the decision to share this information with the father should be at the discretion of the mother. This step would require a careful assessment of Hispanic culture's views on these issues and what eventualities might interfere with the decision.
One of the unfortunate consequences of the human condition is the need to make tough decisions based on limited information that can have profound consequences. The research showed that patient autonomy is a particularly important area where the outcomes of ethical decisions can have life-or-death implications. The amount of medical information that…
Parens, E. & Asch, A. (2000). Prenatal testing and disability rights. Washington, DC:
Bowles, W., Collingridge, M, Curry, S. & Valentine, B. (2006). Ethical practice in social work:
An applied approach. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Cottone, R.R. & Claus, R.E. (2000). Ethical decision-making models: A review of the literature. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 275-283.
The Appeal Court reversed the decision declaring that 922(q) is invalid as it interfered in state matters. The Federal government did not have the right to interfere in matters such as possession of firearms in or near a school. The significance of the case is that it once again highlighted the limits of the power of the federal government. Chief Justice ehnquist declared that the congress had the power to regulate the channels of commerce, the instrumentalities of commerce and actions that affected interstate commerce. The Lopez case was therefore considered outside the federal jurisdiction.
Heart of Atlanta (Motel) v. The United States'
This case related to the application of commerce powers and also involved racial discrimination. This case involved commerce clause and Civil ights Act. The Court ruled that Congress had the power to regulate a business that served interstate travelers. It also declared that racial discrimination disrupts commercial…
Reference: Nebbia v. New York, ( http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/272/print )
The plaintiff, an owner of a Motel in Georgia, which is easily accessible to the two main interstate highways solicited its patronage from within Georgia as well as nationally, where 75% of it registered guests originate. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the motel had a policy of refusing service to African-Americans, and intended to continue that practice. The issue in the case was that if the refusal of motel patrons who are African-American is in violation of Title II?
This caring paradigm goes far beyond any one individual nurse and produces acts of caring that transcend any one theory and become associated with a greater good -- holism and non-judgmental care (Watson, 1989, 32).
Ethics- the power of Watson is that she does not see humans in a vacuum, but as the compilation of many different experiences that work to enrich and enliven their lives, but that cannot ever be known by the nurse unless the nurse is open to non-verbal communication. Too, transpersonal caring is the idea that the patient takes responsibility for their own health and works in conjunction with the nurse to achieve the best health outcome possible. (Watson, 1989, 70). This is a very Zen way of looking at healthcare -- the harmony between mind, body and soul -- with disease as disharmony -- but with a very real desire to change that experience into…
Galadher, M. (2003). Nursing and Human Rights. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth.
Rai, G. (2009). Medical Ethics and the Elderly. Abington, UK: Radcliffe Publishers.
Watson, J. (1989). Nursing: Human Science and Human Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Watson, J. (1997). The Theory of Human Caring. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.
Moreover, a hospital employee who saw Mrs. Edwards and the treatment that she was given could have understood that he or she is the only thing standing between the patient and probable death. By having Chantal as a nurse attending Mrs. Edwards the hospital staff failed to think about how the relationship between the two women made it difficult for the former to look at the situation from an impartial point-of-view. As a consequence, it is very probable that Chantal's intervention influenced the rest of the staff to express less interest in Mrs. Edward's case. Her 'eccentricity' thus came to be accepted as being real and the staff felt that all that they could do at this point was to discharge her.
The right to refuse treatment is probably one of the most important rights presently accessible by hospital patients who suffer greatly and who feel that their torment…
autonomy guarantee a person harmful oneself? To ? Explain response ethical rationale. Part the principle of autonomy certainly does not grant an individual the right to harm others. Autonomy may be one of the most fundamental aspects of free will, or is better thought of as the ultimate expression of free will since it is not hampered. However, the autonomous exercise of that free will only exists within the context of other ethical considerations. In particular, Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative is an ethical principle that explicitly denotes that autonomy does not permit the harming of others. Kant's categorical imperative is the belief that there are certain actions or deeds that are innately moral, and that must be followed (Guthrie, 2008). Conversely, there are also some actions and deeds that are fundamentally immoral, and should never be engaged in. This concept relates to the notion that people should not inflict others…
Beauchamp, T. (2008). "The Principle of beneficence in applied ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/principle-beneficence/
Guthrie, S.L. (No date). "Immanuel Kant and the categorical imperative." www.sguthrie.net. Retrieved from http://sguthrie.net/kant.htm
Hirst, E.W. (1934). "The categorical imperative and the golden rule." Philosophy. 35 (9): 328-335.
Klempner, G. (2007). "Kant's categorical imperative and the golden rule." www.electronicphilosopher.com. Retrieved from http://electronicphilosopher.blogspot.com/2012/03/kants-categorical-imperative-and-golden.html
Psychology of Sport Exercise
Conroy, D.E., and Coatsworth, J.D. (2007). Assessing autonomy-supportive coaching strategies in youth sport. Psychology of Sport Exercise, 8(50, 671-684.
Summary of Research Findings: Grounded in the application of self-determination theory to sports, this non-experimental study examines a component of motivational climate commonly referred to as autonomy support. The study was designed to examine whether youth engaged in organized sports could differentiate between the strategies used by their coaches to support the young athletes' autonomy.
The participants in the study consisted of 99 girls and 66 boys (N = 165) between the ages of seven and 18 years. Specifically, data was collected at three points during the six weeks the participants were engaged in a recreational summer swimming league. Measures were taken at the end of weeks 1 and 5 of perceived coaching behavior, and at week 1 and 6 for psychological need satisfaction.
The research instrumentation…
hat is the current level of autonomy among NPs?
How independent are nurse practitioners? It is well-known that NPs desire and deserve autonomy -- which gives NPs "substantial control over [their] professional practice" (Bahadori, et al., 2009, p. 513). The research conducted by Bahadori and colleagues shows that of 48 primary care NPs (all of whom attended a state clinical conference in Florida and completed a detailed questionnaire with 30 items to evaluate), "…had very high levels of autonomy" (517). Specifically, NPs that had been practicing in "family specialty practice area" reported "greater clinical decision-making authority, and the NPs involved in acute care had "…very high levels of autonomy also" (Bahadori, 517). The conclusion for this article explained that while the NPs enjoyed "high levels of autonomy," and had high levels of skill and accountability, that had "…only moderate levels of empowerment" (rights, privileges, and legal status) (Bahadori, 518).
Bahadori, a., and Fitzpatrick, J.J. (2009). Level of autonomy of primary care nurse
Practitioners. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(9), 513-519.
Carryer, J., Gardner, G., Dunn, S., and Gardner, a. (2007). The core role of the nurse
Practitioner: practice, professionalism and clinical leadership. Journal of Clinical Nursing,
The concept of patient autonomy, as opposed to medial paternity, is one that has gained much ground in recent years; "... about 30 years ago, issues began to appear that were difficult to solve using traditional ethics. New medical and reproductive technologies, research controversies, and a societal ethos that questioned all authority posed difficult questions." (Czaplyski, Larry, 2002)
At issue in this paper is the meaning and significance of patient autonomy and the way in which is relates to medical paternity. As the discussion will outline, the case for patient autonomy is not only ethically valid but also essential for the moral and practical balance in the medical profession. Underlying this view is the fact that the issue of patient autonomy does not exist in isolation or in the medical field alone - but relates to other issues and ethical problems in the society at large. These larger…
Bernstein Maurice, (2004) Social/Political Paternalism vs. Patient Autonomy.
Retrieved October 4, 2004 from Bioethics Discussion Blog: Web site: http://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com/2004/07/socialpolitical-paternalism-vs.-patient.html
Bradley, Gerard V. (1989). "Does autonomy require informed and specific
Refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment." Issues in Law & Medicine, December 22, 1989. Czaplyski, Larry. (2002)
Client Autonomy in Community Health & Nurse Safety in Community Practice
Nurses involved in community nursing often face ethical and practical dilemmas, particularly with regard to the issue of patient autonomy. Community practice differs for nursing in more formal settings in that there are many complex variables that can intervene in nursing care.
they are made more complex because of the influence of the setting (isolation from nursing colleagues, role ambiguity, the shift in control, family dynamics, and the increased need to collaborate). Even something as simple as access to patients in the community cannot be assumed in the same way it can be in acute care.
(Ethical Awareness for Community Care Nurses)
Examples of this complexity are cases where access is refused by the client, even when the client is in need of urgent assistance. This presents an acute problem on an ethical level for the community nurse. As…
Aulisio M. The Home Setting: Posing Ethical Challenges to Clients and Caregivers. Retrieved may 16, 2005 fropm Community Ethics. Web site:
Ellis. J. ( 2003) The Client's Right to Know Their Nurse and Question Care vs. The Nurse's Right to be Protected from Harm. Retrieved May 15, 2005 from RNABC. Web site: http://www.rnabc.bc.ca/registrants/nursing_practice/articles/Client_Right_to_Know.htm
Ethical Awareness for Community. Retrieved 15 May 2005 from Care Nurses. Volume 3, Issue 11 - January 2001 web site: http://www.phen.ab.ca/materials/intouch/vol3/intouch3-11.html
Autonomy in the nursing profession states the importance of the client's role in making decisions that reflect advocacy for the client (Wade, 1999, p.310). Ultimately, this includes taking care of the patient physically as well as mentally and emotionally, developing a relationship with the patient that is beneficial to his care and actively advocating for the patient's rights and care. This type of autonomy, it is important to note, is not the same as individual or work autonomy, yet it must be considered that empowerment in nursing autonomy will inevitably lead to better professional and personal autonomy and should also lead to increased job satisfaction (Wade, 1999, p.310).
Typical definitions of autonomy would include the idea of complete independence for the person making the decisions. However, in the case of the nursing profession, the client's needs and desires must be heavily weighed and, in fact, become central…
Wade, G.H. (1999). Professional nurse autonomy: Concept analysis and application to nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(2), 310-8.
Gaylord, N. & Grace, P. (1995). Nursing advocacy: An ethic of practice. Nursing Ethics, 2(1),
White, L. (2004). Foundations of nursing: Second edition. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
SOCIAL SCIENCE. The topic file I upload, I upload 2 lecture outlines. *The kit reading "Individual Autonomy Social Structure" Freedom Culture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall,1959 PP.5-14 LEE, DOROTHY.
The key social problem that Dorothy Lee is addressing is the relationship between personal autonomy and the structure and characteristics of the society of which the individual is a part. In particular, she looks at how "personal autonomy is supported by the cultural framework." As Lee points out at page 9 of her work, the relationship between personal autonomy and structure or the cultural framework, perhaps not obvious at first, is given by the way the latter determines the first.
Indeed, as her eloquent example of the Burmese novices points out, personal autonomy is often determined by the cultural framework. In other words, the individual determines his degree of personal autonomy based on the existing structure of the society he is part…
Attribute of Organizations
Autonomy at work
Autonomy at work and freedom to make decisions goes a long way to motivate the employees on achieving much beyond their targets with little or no supervision since they will be responsible for their own decisions. The most interesting job that I have done is being a picnic and tours guide for the high school vacation groups particularly during the school breaks. This involves helping the students to access the interesting sites in groups, planning their logistics, guiding their tours and putting together activities for them. In as much as there was sufficient room to make decisions on my own, there could have been more autonomy extended to me as a guide in terms of the choice of the sites to suggest to the different groups instead of the employer always dictating the sites where a particular group was to be take. There could…
Return Native Land
Autonomy and Self-Definition in Cesaire's Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
The concept of selfhood is one of the most complex and essential elements in Aimee Cesaire's book-length poem Notebook of a Return to the Native Land. There is a constant dialogue -- often an argument -- between the external and internal elements that attempt to define and control the identity of the speaker. At times, there is even a marked consciousness in the speaker's resolve to deny external influences (Cesaire). Even here, though the very refusal speaks of a certain acknowledge influence. Furthermore, the fantasies of autonomy, or at least freedom from the immediate external influence that the speaker perceives, are themselves dominated by large-scale external forces. After dismissing a cop in his immediate reality, the speaker reflects on his own fragility in respect to the Earth and "its grandiose future -- / the…
Cesaire, Aime. Notebook of a return to the Native Land, Clayton Eshelman and Annette Smith, trans. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
Human Autonomy and Economics
The modern day economists John Kenneth Galbraith and Frederick Hayek possessed contrasting views of human autonomy, or the ability of human beings to successfully direct their economic lives. Galbraith saw human agency as at least partially subject to the whims of the business cycle and other individual's economic choices, thus the state had a right to intervene in human economic life. Hayek stressed the unpredictability of human economic choices and the need for liberty from state interference, given that the state could not predict the responses of human economic life to changes in the business cycle.
Galbraith stated that when faced with a precarious job, humans stored their money, and thus caused a recession-mired economy to father contract, requiring government spending to stimulate the economy and thereby extricate society as a whole from a potential depression that could occur in this phase of the failed business…
Greyser, Stephen A. And Wendy S. Schiller. (1991) "G. Heilman Brewing Company (A): Power Failure at Power." Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing Master. Retrieved 8 Nov 2005 at http://www.caseplace.org/cases/cases_show.htm?doc_id=182620
Ransom, Greg. (1996) "Thee Significance of Myth and Misunderstanding in Social Science Narrative: Opening Access to Hayek's Copernican Revolution in Economics." The Hayek Center. http://www.hayekcenter.org/friedrichhayek/hayekmyth.htm
The Merriam -- ebster's Dictionary defines "autonomy" as "the quality or state of being independent, free, and self-directing, independence from the ... whole, the right of self-government," and lists as a synonym, "self-reliance" (Autonomy pp). The dictionary defines "Individual" as a "single human ... existing as a distinct entity, separate" (Individual pp). The Declaration of Independence begins by stating the colonies' position on autonomy, saying that at times it is necessary to dissolve connection with another, "and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them" (Declaration pp). The Founding Fathers then went on to justify their separation by listing truths of self-evidence, "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" (Declaration…
"Autonomy." Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=autonomy
"The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies." Indiana University
School of Law -- Bloomington.
.....nurse assigned to care for this patient, I would strongly advocate on behalf of the patient's autonomy. The clash between patient autonomy and the healthcare system and its representatives like nurses can only be resolved by being honest in this situation. The patient is under a high degree of stress, not only because of his health condition and the fear that brings out in him, but due to other stressful life events including his financial situation. He was also supposed to get married immediately before the bypass surgery was scheduled, and this is bound to add to his level of stress. The primary issue here is providing what the patient needs to keep him safe during the procedure, and if he insists on using his own pump, which he has successfully used for the thirty years he has lived with the disease of diabetes, then he should use his own…
Ethics in Healthcare Settings
Thinking as health care practitioners, in your opinion should Mr. Speaker's autonomy as a person had taken precedence over the CDC's desire to enforce public health law? Explain you answer.
It has not been prioritized over the desire of the CDC to implement public health law. There exist other good reasons for valuing the autonomy of patients. Patients that are aware of their condition and have an understanding of the reasons for a course of treatment are more probable of sticking to prescriptions. Even when a doctor ought to communicate information of a depressing prognosis, sincerely notifying the patients provides them with a chance of putting their issues in order, to think of their lives as a whole, and to adopt the spiritual or practical measures, which they may know to be essential. Furthermore, if doctors develop a practice of holding back bad news from patients,…
Struhkamp, R. M. (2005). Patient autonomy: A view from the kitchen. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s11019-004-1134-2
Traphagan, J. W. (2013). Rethinking autonomy: A critique of principlism in biomedical ethics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Oneself: On the Limits of Sexual Autonomy," Judith Butler addresses the way in which human subjectivity relies upon the interplay between biology and society. The essay was written in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks, and also draws from Butler's own experiences working as a representative for the GLBT community. Her personal involvement in culturally underrepresented groups creates a dynamic in which she writes about a universal theme (what it means to be human) while considering the fact that humans are not treated in a universal, standardized manner. She contends that although the human body is a biological entity, it is impossible to conceive of it independent from the way in which it is constituted within its sociological context.
The importance of Butler's essay lies in the way that she clarifies how the human (singular) invariably necessitates relationships with others. Moreover, she makes the connection between sexuality and…
Butler, Judith. "Beside Oneself: On the Limits of Sexual Anatomy." Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge, 2004. 17-39.
Autonomy-Supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports.
Gender is a concept which connects directly to the sense of how receptive or non-receptive humans are likely to be regarding all forms of coaching. Gender is one manifestation of the notion of how prosocial or anti-social human beings are likely to be. Some experts have argued that human beings are naturally inclined to be prosocial animals when given the proper nurturing -- such as a namely this type of support mechanism: when this type of support is lacking, it is more than likely that one will substitute it by pursuing extrinsic goals such as fame, ego enhancement or other extrinsic rewards. Such rewards are not something which help to reinforce prosocial behavior (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011).
Thus, given this research the question becomes whether or not female athletes are more prosocial than male…
Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 193-216.
Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 527-547.
Khaef, M., & Noorbakhsh, M. (2013). Relationship between Perceived Autonomy - Supportive Behaviors of Coaches . Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 229-234.
Mallett, C. (2011). Understanding motivation to enhance the quality of coaching. Retrieved from www.ausport.gov.au: http://www.ausport.gov.au/sportscoachmag/psychology2/understanding_motivation_to_enhance_the_quality_of_coaching
Not unlike the wold of business, many eseaches and pundits have evaluated and looked at the wold of spots as a way to analyze whethe and how cetain coaching styles ae beneficial o non-beneficial in tems of the pefomance and outcomes of the team in question. Of couse, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a contolled envionment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" compaisons can be difficult. Even so, thee ae many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undetaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the suppotive-autonomy coaching ac as opposed to othe methods.
The subject of this epot is an analysis of whethe autonomy-suppotive coaching is o is not beneficial and effective in boosting pefomance of the athletes subjected to the method.…
references for male and female coaches. Women in Sport and Activity Journal,
Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Pro-social and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 527
Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., and Espnes, G.A. (2004). Physical self-concept and sports: Do gender differences still exist?. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum
Publishers, 50(1-2), 119-127
Social Promotion on Young Students With Learning Disabilities
Public school systems in the United States have been damaged by policies adopted by the Department of Education in recent years. For instance, "The No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) has been responsible for moving the school system away from allowing teachers to teach (and by extension allowing children to learn and possibly discover their hidden talents, gifts, and greatest potentials). The No Child Left Behind Act has been in effect since 2001 and what it has instituted is a teach-for-the-test mentality, as so many schools are dependent upon funding that is tied to testing performance rather than to quality of education. In addition, teachers are held accountable when students do not meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) in terms of meeting grade proficiency levels. Students who are not promoted may be psychologically/emotionally damaged as a result. This study intends to scientifically investigate…
The Terri chiavo case was an unusual incident where a person who should have been removed from life support long ago was sustained due to federal and public intervention. The case instigates moral and ethical questions of decision to end life as well as the limits of autonomy in surrogate decision making. Torke et al. (2008) argue that guardian judgment is often used as decision-making when a patient lacks the cognitive abilities to decide treatment for herself. urrogate decision-making, however, has its own flaws and should be replaced by something more rational. Using the Terri chiavo case as base, the following essay argues that the decision whether or not to prolong a patient's life (or indeed any decision revolving on an incumbent or cognitively disabled patient) should focus on the patient's dignity and individuality rather than on his or her autonomy.
The Terri chiavo Case: background
The Terri chiavo…
Ditto, PH (2006) What would Terri want? On the psychological challenges of surrogate decision making. Death Studies, 30: 135 -- 148,
Lazzaerini, Z et al. (2006) Legal and policy lessons from the Schiavo case: Is our right to choose the medical care we want seriously at risk? Palliative & Supportive Care, 4, 145-153
Mathes, P (2005) Terri Schiavo and End-of-Life Decisions: Can Law Help Us Out? MEDSURG Nursing, 14 Issue 3, p200
Torke, AM et al. (2008) Substituted Judgment: The Limitations of Autonomy in Surrogate Decision Making J. Gen Intern Med. 23(9):1514-7.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that…
But not all decisions are so clear-cut. What about a teenager who wants breast reduction surgery? The argument of 'autonomy' is more complicated, even if the teen's parents are allowing her to go through with the surgery because she is young and may change her mind in the future and might not be aware of the fact that her body may 'catch up' with her current stage of development. The teen and the teen's parents may not be able to view the future with clear eyes because of an excessive focus on the present. In terms of doing good (beneficence), the argument in favor of the surgery are the possible physical and psychological benefits. But weight loss might serve the same purposes with less risk and greater benefits. The risk of the surgery, the availability of other options and the potential benefits: all of which must be weighed against one another.
Patients' perceptions of their own interests may not be the same as the physicians, as indicated by persons who religiously object to various medical procedures (McCormick 1998:8). Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that the psychological benefits of his practice outweigh any possible harm the surgery might impose. Another physician might object to the practice of plastic surgery entirely, given the risks of all surgical procedures, unless there is a dire medical need. The question of whether the procedure is the least intrusive one possible also arises: losing weight might (or might not) accomplish the same objective. But some patients find weight loss extremely challenging and do not consider this a feasible option to change their body shape, even though technically it exists. The same argument is also made in favor of weight loss surgery -- yes, it is better for patients to lose weight instead of risking the potentially life-threatening surgery, but if it were so easy, the target patients would have lost weight already. Furthermore, weight loss is not always successful in achieving breast reduction and if the teen has already tried other methods this might be seen as an argument in favor of the surgery.
There are also the occurrences where rapid expansion has also led to an exceptionally high level of conflict and turmoil as well. The culture clash in India between American and Indian outsourcing companies is a case in point. And whole the Indian government welcomes the investments of western nations, the impact on their culture and the strict controls Indian ministries of commerce have put into place are designed to guard against foreign nations taking too much control of the country's economy. The detrimental effects of these factors is a rapidly changing social fabric and set of value sin the fastest growing Indian cities, where many move to in the hope of getting a lucrative position with a western company. Too often this leads to a loss of the local culture and also a continual struggle for sovereignty of these high-growth regions of the country. Bangalore and Mumbai city ministries are…
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Taking a character from The Iliad and setting him on his own journey, the Roman Virgil's epic The Aeneid necessarily contains certain parallels with the earlier Greek text. The overall story of this lengthy poem in and of itself reflects many of the same basic understandings of mankind's place in the universe, its relationship to the gods, and the relationships that exist within society and between men that are already described above, demonstrating that no real fundamental change has occurred in this schema. Aeneas, the titular hero of the tale who flees his native Troy after it is sacked by the Greeks, is as important as the individual heroes of the war itself, but more than a tale of individual heroism The Aeneid is the story of the founding of a people and the long trajectory of history and humanity. It is a tale for and in many…
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
For the most part women in the Odyssey are essentially one of three things: sexualized monsters, in the form of Circe, Calypso, the Sirens, and even Scylla; asexual helpers and servants, in the form of Athena and Eurycleia; and finally, seemingly helpless damsels, in the form of Penelope. To this one may add what is essentially the lowest of the low class within the poem, those women who are sexually liberated but who do not even have supernatural power to defend their desire for sexual autonomy, namely, Penelope's maids. Circe and Calypso both express sexual desire, but they are ultimately spared due to their status as goddesses, and thus they merely have to give up Odysseus. Penelope's maids have no such extra status, and thus in the hierarchy of power represent the lowest of the low, and receive punishment in return.
As a result, they are summarily executed for having…
Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Samuel Butler. New York: Plain Label Books, 2009. Print.
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. he answer is a resounding 'yes'. he reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully…
Teachers will have to adapt to the new role of the student on the Net. For instance, the teacher role must shift from being a leader to being a coach as student autonomy in the learning process increases. The traditional methods of oral and written review of assigned textual material will no longer be the way to measure learning. Instead, students will measure and document their own learning progress. Within the knowledge building community, teachers will be one expert of many and must now function as a "team of experts" rather than as a sole source of expertise.
With regards to course development, technologies in Net-based learning such as multimedia, hypertext, and search engines for ubiquitous information access "are creating non-linear and multidimensional learning environments" to support student autonomy. In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. The answer is a resounding 'yes'. The reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully immerse themselves the culture of the college they are attending. Colleges offer interactive environments and encourage students to participate in extra-curricular activities. Students join different clubs and student unions at the colleges, and participate in debates, games and sports. These activities help shape students' lives and characters. Online learning communities can offer only some of a college's social environment; it can never replicate the same degree of face-to-face interactions. According to Peters (1998), "Although distance education and Net-based learning will significantly impact university learning, the traditional university will not be lost because it provides experiences that are unavailable to the distance learning student. As a result, "the university of the future will be a mixed mode university and distance education will be a prominent if not the fundamental element in it."
Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL
The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.
However, the culture or the background of…
Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From
http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…
Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.
Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.
Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.
Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
In any case, patients can set out defined clause in the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge & Krieger, 2008).
Living wills and other development directives depict a patient's inclination with respect to medicine if the patient is confronted with a genuine mishap or disease. These authoritative reports represent the patient when he/she is not ready to represent himself/herself. Unforeseen end-of-life scenarios can happen at any age, so it is imperative for all grown-ups to have progress directives. Durable power of attorney for health care (POA) is an authoritative record that designates a single person to settle on restorative choices for a patient in case he/she is unable to do so (Kerridge, Lowe & Stewart, 2013).
A patient's advance directives incorporate the living will and durable power of attorney for health care. They may be the…
Cohen, M.H. (2010). Beyond complementary medicine: Legal and ethical perspectives on health care and human evolution. Ann Arbor: Univ. Of Michigan Press.
Duquenoy, P., George, C., & Kimppa, K. (2008). Ethical, legal, and social issues in medical informatics. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
Edge, R.S., & Krieger, J.L. (2008). Legal and ethical perspectives in health care: An integrated approach. Albany: Delmar Publishers.
Kerridge, I., Lowe, M., & Stewart, C. (2013). Ethics and law for the health professions. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Ethical Dilemma Matrix
A business organization's Internet Service Provider (ISP) is providing preferential service (improved access, faster connection and download/upload speeds) to certain websites, apparently on the basis of business ties and co-ownership entanglements.
Autonomy, Justice, espect for Persons
-Users of the Internet have the duty to make and exercise their own choices, which is limited by preferential access.
-This duty also insists that users be able to face all risks and opportunities available in equal measure, and with fair access.
-Users have the right to be viewed as important ends in and of themselves, served by the ISP and not simply serving the ISP in terms of money.
the organization has a duty to ensure that its employees can perform their functions with minimal interference, and that stakeholders in the business are able to exercise autonomy in their…
FCC. (2005). August 5, 2005 Policy Statement. Accessed 21 October 2011.
Kapoor, G. (2007). Corporate Laws. New York: Taxmann Publications.
Ethical Lens Inventory
There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).
The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…
Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsgame.com/Exec/GGEG/Products/EthicalLensInventoryEdSlick.pdf
Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from: http://bahrec.shrm.org
Ethics in Health Care
The medical industry is filled with professionals who must be competent in many aspects of interaction in order to be successful and allow for patients to heal themselves in a positive manner. Professionalism is noted by a certain ethical attitude that must permeate the environment if the efforts of these people are to be successful. The ethical approach within the medical industry is extremely important due to the nature of the job and the reliance that normal everyday people have on the professionals within this industry to make wise choices based on the best interests of the individual.
The four major ethical principles of autonomy, non-malfeasance, beneficence and justice are ideals that may be rightly or wrongly applied to a patients healing process within the health care industry. The purpose of this essay is to describe the ethical issue of patient non-compliance with treatment using these…
Coy, J.A. (1989). Autonomy-based informed consent: ethical implications for patient noncompliance. Physical Therapy, 69(10), 826-833.
Habermann, B., Broome, M., Pryor, E.R., & Ziner, K.W. (2010). Research coordinators experiences with scientific misconduct and research integrity. Nursing research, 59(1), 51.
Sciberras, N. et al. (2013). The Ethical and Practical Challenges of Patient Noncompliance in Orthopedic Surgery. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2013 May.
This renunciation, depending on one's perspective, represents either a willful act of sacrifice or a selfish act of disobedience. Sandra Pouchet Paquet, however, frames this problematic deed in neutral terms in her analysis of the text, which focuses on its ambivalence toward the role of ancestral knowledge in identity formation. Paquet (2009) asserts that Janie "repudiates the values of her surrogate parents in her conscious quest for selfhood" (p.501). She also suggests that ancestral knowledge operates merely as a means to "psychic wholeness" in the novels and argues that the text is successful in exploring "the divorce from ancestral roots that accompanies conventional notions of success" (p. 500) Indeed, this tension between ancestral knowledge and individualistic goals is why Janie has to grapple with interpreting the nature of the knowledge imparted in her moments of coming to consciousness. Specifically, she wants to interpret the mystery conferred to her through the…
Jones, Sharon L. A Critical Companion to Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Reference to her Life and Work (New York: Facts on File, 2009)
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. New York: Perennial Classics, 1998. Print.
Morrison, Toni. "Intimate Things in Place': A Conversation with Toni Morrison." The Massachusetts Review. By Robert Stepto. 18.3 (1977): 473-89. JSTOR. Web. 9 December 2009.
Ramsey, William M. "The Compelling Ambivalence of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God." The Southern Literary Journal. 27.1 (1994): 36-50. JSTOR. Web. 26 October 2010.
The writing itself shows insight and intelligence while also having an energy and enthusiasm to it as well. Due to all of these factors, it is a reasonable assessment to say that the book achieved it's goals and objectives, and created a highly effective roadmap going forward for continued study of leadership and management.
How the Book Affected My Perception of Management and Leadership
Dan Pink is a very accomplished speaker who can quickly move from one complex concept to another, showing how they all interrelate to the areas of human motivation, management and leadership. This book changed my perception of what leadership is from the context of creating platforms for positive personal and professional growth, and also showed how powerful the combining of autonomy, mastery and purpose are in the context of long-term motivation. This book also shows how critical it is to create a culture where employees have…
Pink, DH (2011). Drive, The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York, New York: Riverhead Books.
Suicide," an act of suicide is defined as an event when "an otherwise healthy victim has, without any outside pressure, willfully arranged the circumstance that brought around his or her death." The process of clearly defining circumstance and actions that constitute suicide is essential to medical providers, mental health workers and many social service and public providers who are charged with caring for the health and safety of other individuals. Without a clear definition of suicide it can be difficult, if not impossible for these providers to fulfill their ethical and professional obligations to care for sick individuals or prevent crisis or emergency situations that may result from that which is truly suicidal behavior.
Doctors, nurses, social workers, and psychologists in health clinics, hospitals, and outpatient settings are expected to care for their patients and make efforts to safeguard their health and wellness. These providers are often required to protect…
What we can take from this is that their pluralistic society was always being threatened. No matter how far a pluralistic society would come in theories, those individuals without the same morality could immediately endanger and void new theories.
Carpenter focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the U.S. during the Progressive Era, questioning why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent writers of new policy and why the Interior Department did not (Carpenter 2001, 4). To explain these developments, Carpenter gives an essentially new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts.
In Carpenter's opinion, bureaucracies with very distinct goals are able to achieve autonomy when they are able to create and keep a reputation among different coalitions for offering services that are also very distinct (Carpenter 2001, 4) (which is what happened with the Post…
Bertelli, Anthony. & Lynn, Lawrence. Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Carpenter, Daniel P. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862 -- 1928. Princeton University
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Social responsibility in this context exemplifies the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, and non-malfeasance. More specifically, examples of beneficent corporate responsibility would be the use of corporate profits to return a benefit back to the community from where those profits were made, such as through financial support of education and social services in the community (Stevens, 2008).
Examples of justice and non-malfeasance would include purposeful decisions to avoid profitable policies and procedures that are perfectly legal but that are also associated with greater harm to the community than policies and procedures that are somewhat less profitable but safer for the community (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). Typical examples of corporate beneficence would include the use of company profits to fund welfare organizations, to promote education and health in the community, and to provide scholarships to disadvantaged youth in the local community (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).
More global examples of corporate beneficence…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Hursthouse, R. (2005). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mihaly, M. "Moral Theory: The Fundamentals." Ethics & Behavior Vol. 17, No. 4;
Citizens of a Stateless Nation
The emergence of stateless nations around the world and their impact on geopolitical issues, both on a regional and a global scale.
With ethnic minorities such as the Basque and Catalonian separatist movements of Spain, the Quebecois of Canada, the Palestinians of the Middle East, and the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey all staking their claim to autonomy through acts of civil protest, shows of electoral strength, and even militarized means, the issue of stateless nations has become a global priority. The currently hostile engagement between Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip, and their Israeli neighbors, demonstrates the consequences of ignoring the identity of culturally and ethnically unique groups. By studying the distinct circumstances underlying each of these four stateless nations, including their claims to sovereignty and grievances with their parent nation, it is possible to formulate effective solutions which may eventually effect the brokering…
The Critique of Pure eason proposed and researched, highlighting expertise of how the mind's synthetic framework makes up the world. As a review of taste, such a technique does not try to separate some home that is distinct to beautiful items, however rather intends at exposing how the mind discovers specific items beautiful. Kant thinks that this is possible since the intellect that is associated with common spatiotemporal experience, so it is just fitting to look initially at the nature of these professors prior to continuing to how they associate with aesthetic judgments. An additional reason to continue in this way is that the Critique of the Power of Judgment is scant when it concerns explicating the complimentary play of the creativity and understanding Kant anticipates that his readers have actually accumulated this from the first Critique.
In the Critique of Pure eason we see that in determinative judgments the…
Aristotle (1980). Metaphysics, the Loeb Classical Library (trans. H. Tredennick). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 933 / 1980 . 1029a20ff.
Crawford, D.W. (1974). Kant's Aesthetic Theory (London: The University of Wiscon-sin Press).
De Blaas, Eugene, God's Creatures, oil on canvas, 1877, private collection
Kant, I. (2000a). Critique of the Power of Judgment, trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, ed. Paul Guyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Hiring and etaining Quality Employees
This is basically going out there for the best in the market, bringing them on board by hiring their services. But again hiring the best is not enough; retaining them is a much bigger task that many find it very difficult. This concept further entails going out in the labor market and recruiting quality employees whose portfolios speak for themselves .This requires one to exercise very rigorous interviews in which the best and not just experienced but result oriented employees get hired and given attractive packages that will not only boost their morale at work but also motivate them to increase their productivity and stay longer in the company. This is a very vital topic to research on because its findings are very important for any company that intends to go beyond borders and break through the international market.
Current esearch on the…
Bridgestar (2009) Flexible Work Arrangements: A Win-Win for Organizations and Employees
Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart. (1999) Compensation: (10th Ed.) Sage: USA
Montelongo, P. (2007). Retaining Quality Employees
We make reference to your letter dated September 1st, 2004 by which you requested our opinion regarding issues related to decentralization, autonomy and transfer pricing policies and their influence on Wickam's current choice of business opportunities.
We intend to present to you the theoretical foundations on which we have based our opinion i.e. transfer pricing policies (definition, functions, issues, methods) and the actual solution we deem as fit for your company. We believe that a slight change of policy should bring more profit as a result of increased convergence, or synergy, between the companies of the Wickam group.
Large organizations are often a conglomerate of two or more smaller firms. These firms have each an entire system of operation parameters on which their daily existence is based. Central management units cannot keep track and control all these parameters for each of the subunits. Therefore,…
Gavious A., (2004) Tranfer Pricing http://www.bgu.ac.il/~ariehg/tpintro.htm
Courchene (2004) also discusses the changing nature of relations between federal Canada and Quebec and suggests that increasing cooperation has become a new vision that is now being explored. Brown (2003) takes particular note of the actions being taken in Quebec, and he notes that the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) issued a paper "calling for a new federalism 'de concertation et de cooperation,' consisting of a better effort to manage global interdependence, a respect for the federal spirit (i.e. respect for provincial jurisdiction), a better fiscal balance between the federal and provincial governments, and more concerted interprovincial cooperation" (Brown, 2003, p. 6). In terms of how the Copuncil of the Federation, Brown finds that this may be little more than a continuation of the Annual Premiers' Conference under a different name, or it could lead to a return to the earlier practice seen in the Mulroney era when annual…
Brown, D.M. (2003). Getting Things Done in the Federation: Do We Need New Rules for an Old Game? Institute for Research on Public Policy (1).
Burelle, a. (2003). The Council of the Federation: From a Defensive to a Partnership Approach. Institute for Research on Public Policy (3 English).
Cameron, D. & Simeon, R. (2002). Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism. Publius 32, 2, 49-70.
Chennells, D. (2001). The Politics of Nationalism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Is there a limit to one's professional obligation to the patient? Is that the same as advocacy?
Advocacy can be construed as a professional obligation to the patient, especially when advocacy is framed as an ethical obligation. There are therefore few limits to a nurse's ethical responsibilities to the patients, even though some situations may seem morally ambiguous. Many nursing researchers promote the concept of patient advocacy as "an ethic of practice," one that is an immutable part of the professional responsibilities of the nurse. (Gaylord & Grace, 1995, p. 11).
Are the characteristics of caring relevant to 2010?
The characteristics of caring are more relevant in 2011 than they were in 2010 or have ever been before, in part because of increasing patient diversity. Knowledge of the different concepts of health, healing, illness, and the role of the doctor helps make nurses more accountable to patient needs. Viewing…
Beyea, S.C. (2005). Patient advocacy: nurses keeping patients safe. AORN Journal. On FindArticles. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_5_81/ai_n13793213/
Gaylord, N. & Grace, P. (1995). Nursing advocacy: An ethic of practice. Nursing Ethics 2(1): 11-18.
Hanks, R.G. (2008). The lived experience of nursing advocacy. Nursing Ethics 15(4): 468-477
Vaartio, H., Leino-Kilpi, H., Salantera, S. And Suominen, T. (2006), Nursing advocacy: how is it defined by patients and nurses, what does it involve and how is it experienced?. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20: 282 -- 292. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00406.x
agrees that ethics is an important part of effective leadership in the field of health care but there is no universally accepted understanding of what constitutes ethical leadership (Milton, 20004). The concept of ethical leadership has been addressed in the literature of a wide variety of fields associated with the health care profession but none have been able to clearly define its terms. The purpose of this paper will be to examine what ethical leadership means to me and how my personal viewpoints and attitudes have been affected by my background and experience.
Having been raised in an Irish family my Irish heritage is an important aspect in the formation of my ethical viewpoint. Although I have lived in the United States for nearly forty years, I cannot escape the lessons and values that I learned growing up in the Irish countryside. My family lived in an Irish…
Benner, P. (2000). The roles of embodiment, emotion and lifeworld for rationality and agency in nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 5-19.
Catanzaro, A.M. (2001). Increasing Nursing Students' Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurse Educator, 221-226.
Fry, S.T. (2002). Ethics in Nursing Practice: A Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hussey, T. (1996). Nursing Ethics and Codes of Professional Conduct. Nursing Ethics, 250-258.
"Their superstitions are infinite, their feast, their medicines, their fishing, their hunting, their wars -- in short almost their whole life turns upon this pivot; dreams, above all have here great credit" (Foner 16). There are a number of value judgments within this quotation; almost all of them are negative. The religious beliefs and practices of the Micmac have been reduced to "superstitions" by the priest. hat is revealing is that almost all of the practices of these people -- including their means of providing food and health care and engaging in social conflict, are likened to "dreams." Yet all of these facets of the Micmac that de Brebeuf names are simply different points of culture that exist between the Europeans and the Native Americans. Because they are different, the priest himself does not believe in them and dismisses them as having a basis in fantasy.
It is interesting to…
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom. New York: Bantam. 1991. Print.
The nation will enforce law and order to protect its public property, regulate monetary frameworks and correct market failures. The government will be responsible for protecting private life of its citizens and property (Grant & Vidler, 2000).
Market and Competition Forces: the country's economy should be designed in such a way that it will promote competition. This is because competition means a fair deal in obtaining results. The government should increase sellers and buyers in the market because this would promote competition thus increasing the quality and efficiency. With competition, the country will be able to control and manage different functions of its economy (Grant & Vidler, 2000). Demand and supply are the prime market forces determining the production of a country produces and the suitable ways to do so.
Market equilibrium, price and output, are determined by market forces. Therefore, I would recommend that any least developed nation to…
Bahl, Roy, W. (2008). Land taxes vs. property taxes in developing countries. Cambridge,
MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Grant, S. & Vidler, C. (2000). Economics in Context. New York: Heinemann.
Hyman, D.N. (2011). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (10th ed.).
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
U.S. intelligence community is always expected to perform its duties according to some specified guidelines. This study examines the three themes found in the Pfeffer and Salancik book, "The External Control of Organizations," as applied to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The paper reveals how the themes are applicable to the IC and their potential benefits to the IC. It is evident that the identified have proven to be useful to the community, as it has enabled it to adapt to the changing paradigms within the intelligence community.
First theme: the importance of the environment or the social context of organizations for understanding what decisions were made about issues ranging from whom to hire, the composition of boards of directors, and what alliances and mergers to seek.
From this theme, the leading obstacle in the realization of accountability in the U.S. intelligence community is the prerequisite of secrecy…
Banner, D.K., & Gagne?, T.E. (2006). Designing effective organizations: Traditional & transformational views. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publ.
Dobbin, F., & Schoonhoven, C.B. (2010). Organizational studies: The Stanford School 1970-2000. Bingley: Emerald.
Donaldson, L. (2010). American anti-management theories of organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Hatch, M.J. (2011). Organizations: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Kant's Critique Of Practical Reason And Other Writing On The Theory Of Ethics
Kant's article on practical reason on the theory of ethics draws heavily from deontological ethics. To make the term understandable from the layman's point-of-view, deontological ethics is simply the study of moral obligation. This implies duties that a person must perform in the course of his relationship with others or to put it simply, duties that an individual is expected to perform if he is to lead a quiet and peaceful existence. This implies duties a person must exercise for himself, towards his fellowmen, towards country, towards God. asic to this article is the supreme principle of morality which underlie the reason for all rules of ethics and the concomitant duties that an individual must perform.
Taken broadly, duties are actions that are mandatory - in other words required and must perforce be done. Some philosophers through…
Internet Encyclopedia. Duties and Deontological Ethics.
According to Ruddick, not all forms of giving up hope are rooted in despair. Sometimes allowing a patient to give up hope can be a compassionate response, such as when a terminally-ill patient enters palliative care. There is a distinction between being 'bereft' of hope and simply being without hope. Hope-giving can be seen as a violation of the principle of autonomy and acknowledging the lack of hope can be an important step forward in patients being able to make rational decisions about their health (Ruddick 346). Ruddick also criticizes self-deception, or the idea that the sufferer may delude him or herself into thinking his or her condition is better than it actually is in reality: allowing this does not seem congruent with the principle of autonomy, either.
The McCartney story illustrates an example of when physicians withhold information which they consider 'life-shattering' and would severely inhibit the…
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…