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Aviation Safety Program Management
The average air traveler rarely sees the essence of recognizing the aviation safety regulations in place. People only and often recognize the factors of safety after a horrific accident occurs. Within the daily working schedules in the private and commercial flights, countless lives of innocent passengers depend on the full implementation of the safety regulations. These safety procedures are in place to protect the lives of the passengers. The drafting and implementation of safety regulations is not only significant to those travelling by air, but to those conducting their business on the ground, as well. For instance, a scenario in which a large plane crashes in a large metropolitan area has disastrous and detrimental effects. Thus, every nation has placed a civil aviation authority to maintain order in the management of the air industry (Transportation department (DOT); federal aviation administration (FAA) (F.. page 53530) -- meeting,…
Stolzer, A.J., Halford, C.D., & Goglia, J.J. (2008). Safety management systems in aviation.
Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate.
FAA exceeds general aviation safety goals. (2008). Professional Safety, 53(1), 6. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/200392259?accountid=458
Transportation department (DOT); federal aviation administration (FAA) (F.R. page 53530)
isk Management in Commercial Aviation
Improving airline safety means continually improving policies and procedures based on the most recent evidence. The FAA, ICAO and other professionals in the airline and air freight industry are under continuing pressure to make certain that their policies and procedures represent state of the art, particularly in the area of safety. Air traffic continues to increase on a global level, leading to the need for a greater level of standardization and uniformity. This research explores the problem of risk manage in aviation and efforts to improve the industry safety record. It suggests areas that need to be studied in the quest for safer aviation.
isk Management in Commercial Aviation
isk management in commercial aviation has many facets. Many types of risk management affect the aviation industry. The first type that people think about is safety issues. isk management concerning safety issues is by…
Chidambara, R. (2010). Problems and Solutions in the Implementation of Safety Management
System. November 30, 2010. Retrieved from / 8http://aci- asiapac.aero/upload/page/817/photo/4f2fa5b9b8ed5.pdf17/photo/4f2fa5b9b8ed5.pdf
General Accounting Office (GAO). (2005). FAA's Safety Oversight System Is Effective
but Could Benefit from Better Evaluation of Its Programs' Performance. Physical Infrastructure Issues: GAO-06-266T. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/assets/90/82203.html
Political Drivers in the Aviation Industry: Implications and Opportunities for Sustainability
Ladies and Gentleman, distinguished guests, and concerned citizens, thank you for joining us today as we reflect on the political and ecological challenges facing the British Aviation industry. Although I use the term challenges to describe the issues facing the aviation industry, I want to encourage all of you to see each challenge as a hidden opportunity. View each challenge as an opportunity for our industry to evolve as it grows more competitive, and begins to function sustainably.
Industries, such as ours, conduct business at the cross-roads of stock-holders, government regulatory agencies, all the while continuously finding ourselves subject to the geo-politics of the Middle-East and its affect on the price of crude oil. If there ever was a reason to find real world alternatives to oil- surely the fact that a sudden rise in the price…
David Strahan. (2008) Green Fuel for the Airline Industry. New Scientist, Vol. 199, No. 2669, pp.34-37
Emma Nygren. (2004) Aviation Fuel and Future Oil Production Scenarios. Energy Policy. Vol. 37, No. 10, pp. 4003-4010
Gerald Schneider. (2008) The International Politics of Oil: The Impact of Political Events on the Oil Spot Market, 2000-2004. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts. Aug 28, 2008 <
ot available> at http://www.allacademic.com (accessed 12 Dec. 2011)
Aviation usiness Ethics and Sept. 11 Industry Implications
On September 11, 2001, nineteen terrorists passed through several security checkpoints at three United States airports and proceeded to hijack four commercial jets. The horror began at 8:45 A.M. Two hours later, more than three thousand people were killed in New York City, rural Pennsylvania and Arlington, Virginia (Duffy, 2002).
shattered the nation's sense of safety and security and forever changed the way people travel through and across America. In response to the tragic event, there is an increased pressure on the aviation industry to develop and implement higher ethical standards.
ecause millions of people fly daily and rely on airlines, s well as the Federal Aviation Administration's oversight of aviation procedures, the entire aviation industry must work together to keep their passengers safe and secure.
This research paper aims to address the subject of business ethics in the field…
Alaska Airlines Web Site
Aviation Safety Network:
Furthermore, subjective feelings of fatigue can be inconsistent with performance (Holding, 1983), sometimes exhibiting a greater sensitivity to sleep loss than the performance measures (Haslam, 1981).
While different studies have produced variable results about the effects of fatigue inducing elements in flight performance and aviation errors, yet there is on the whole general agreement among researchers that fatigue is negative factor in aviation, particularly when it comes to military operations. "Despite the mixed findings, there is agreement on the importance of adequate sleep management and sleep logistics for military troops in wartime (Johnson & Naitoh, 1974; Naitoh et al., 1986; Nicholson & Stone, 1987). (ibid)
Researchers also point out that the varying results obtained from studies are related to and dependent on the type of experiments and the situations in which the testing takes place. They note that the best data and sources of information on the true effects of…
Bartley, S.H., Chute, E., & Ivy, a.C. (1947). Fatigue and Impairment in Man (1st ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Baranski, J.V., Cian, C., Esquivie, D., Pigeau, R.A., & Raphael, C. (1998). Modafinil during 64 Hr of Sleep Deprivation: Dose-Related Effects on Fatigue, Alertness, and Cognitive Performance. Military Psychology, 10(3), 173-193.
Belenky, G., Penetar, D.M., Thorne, D., Popp, K., Leu, J., Thomas, M., Sing, H., Balkin, T., Wesensten, N., and Redmond, D. (1994) the effects of sleep deprivation on performance during continuous combat operations. In Food Components to Enhance Performance, 127-135. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Billings, C.E. (1997). Aviation Automation: The Search for a Human-Centered Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Aviation Maintenance Management Theory & Practices
Aeronautics is considered to be the most secured and fastest mode of journey. But the frequent air accidents and resulting consequences reduce our reliance on the mode. Human flaws are acknowledged to be very critical in diverse fields like medicine, mining, shipping so also aviation. Irrespective of the fact that the role human component is widely acknowledged in the cockpit, its contribution in sphere of aircraft maintenance has been ignored to a great extent. (Special Investigation eports: Aircraft Maintenance Safety Survey) The first ever air accident as a consequence of manufacturing and designing error was associated with lcarus while many held the mistakes committed by pilot as responsible for the same. The faulty maintenance and irregular maintenance is considered to be a major cause of most of the air disasters presently. The accident of Aloha Airlines in Hawaii during 1988 occurred as a result…
"Aircraft maintenance management" Retrieved from55808.html" http://www.*****/lib/essay/term-paper55808.html
Accessed on 26 February, 2005
Anderson, Deryk. "The Maintenance Theory Jungle" Maintenance Management
Solutions Pty Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.plantmaintenance.com/articles/maintenance_jungle.shtml
Aviation legislation and law is quite a complex subject. There are incredibly detailed rules and regulations based on the very sensitive nature of the aviation industry. Ultimately, the field of Aviation Law revolves around issues regarding the ongoing process of adhering to and updating regulations as technology continues to develop in the constantly changing industry. Aviation professionals of all levels are impacted by such regulations, and thus need to be aware of them. Ultimately, these laws and regulations impact the way that CM management is practiced within the industry because management needs to be aware to and adhere to such regulations.
In the United States, Aviation Legislation and egulations are determined by the FAA and local states. The FAA has a central document of authority in the Federal Aviation egulations (FAs). This legal system is a codified approach that spells out the very detailed and complex regulations involved in domestic…
The Educational and Financial Requirements of an Aviation Career
A career in aviation can mean a lot of different things. From the pilots who fly commercial airliners and the air traffic controllers who guide them from the ground to the routing specialists and engineers who keep the highly complex flight schedules in check, aviation is a highly varied field. The course that one takes will be a determinant in the nature of one's education, the costs of progressing in the field and the eventual earnings that one can expect. However, even with the greatest of ambitions in the field of aviation, starting the process does not have to be prohibitively complex.
According to the article by Cobb (2012), the first steps are fairly accessible to all who live in close proximity to an airport. Cobb advises that "aspiring pilots can launch their aviation interest by visiting a local airport…
AV Scholars. (2012). Careers in Aviation. AVScholars.com.
Cobb, B. (2012). Useful Aviation Career Guidance. Jettutor.com.
National Career Services (NCS). (2010). Finding Out About Aviation. Nationalcareerservice.direct.gov.uk.
Aviation Crashes: Delta 191 and USAir 1016
This paper examines two of the most devastating plane crashes in all of professional aviation, the crashing of Delta 191 and the crashing of U.S. Air Flight 1016.
To the lay person, these crashes might just look like isolated incidents that both involved the inability of technology to handle inclement weather. However, these crashes were related to a weather phenomenon known as a microburst -- a weather phenomenon that was not well understood at the times of the incidents and which neither the pilots nor the aircraft were well equipped to handle. This paper documents the elements of both crashes and the unique details that led to them both and how they could have been avoided. This paper also explores what a microburst is and how it functions and also scrutinizes why the field of aviation was so ignorant about this particular weather…
Dresser, M. (1994, September 20). USAir captain seized controls just before N.C. crash. Retrieved from Baltimoresun.com: http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1994-09-20/news/1994263026_1_usair-flight-pilots-crash
Flannigan, D. (2011, May 9). When Full Thrust Isn't Enough -- A Sobering Look at Delta Flight 191. Retrieved from Aviationchatter.com: http://www.aviationchatter.com/2011/05/when-full-thrust-isnt-enough-a-sobering-look-at-delta-flight-191/
FSF. (1996, February). Unaware that they have encountered a microburst... Retrieved from Accident Prevention: http://flightsafety.org/ap/ap_feb96.pdf
Gibson, W. (1985, October 1). Delta Crew Sensed Trouble Transcript Traces Last Minutes Of Flight 191. Retrieved from Sun-Sentinel.com: http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1985-10-01/news/8502110289_1_air-traffic-controllers-transcript-safety-board
In would appear that cabin safety is still the main goal for the airline industry, as it should be, but it also appears that not enough individuals are paying attention to what is going on and what needs to be changed where the cockpit is concerned. hen even a small fire can damage systems that the pilot and crew need to fly and land the plane safely, this is a serious and significant issue that should be addressed quickly. Despite this, little has apparently been done regarding this problem.
As for what should be recommended for future research and study, there are two that are the most significant. First, cockpit safety must be further addressed through the use of smoke detectors, circuit breakers that will stop fires and problems from spreading, and other issues that will be helpful for the future. hen this problem is not addressed it does not…
Adams, K. (1999). A new approach to cockpit and cabin fire safety. Air Safety Week.
In-Flight fires wreak havoc with systems reliability. (2003). Air Safety Week.
Knutson, L.L. (1998). FAA wants more fire-retardant insulation on airplanes. Associated Press.
McSweeny, T.E. (1999). We're improving cabin safety. USA Today.
It may refer matters within its sphere of action to the commission or council. It is responsible for delegating duties to the Council and modifies or revokes the delegated authority. This shows that the Assembly reviews technical, legal, economic, and administrative operations of the organization (Goglia, Halford & Stolzer, 2010).
2. Discuss the ICAO ulemaking Process including the rule of SAPs, PANS, and SUPPs
Three international bodies conduct ulemaking: the International Civil Aviation Organization, International Monetary Fund, and Civil Aviation Organization. These organizations conduct an examination on types of rule making. They begin by sponsoring international treaties, which generates traditional global responsibilities on ratifying countries. This is followed by enactment of voluntary codes of practice and standards. ICAO rulemaking process requires that all appropriate experts must be consulted before making any considerations. This helps in omitting certain issues, which might be an obstacle in the real world (Goglia, Halford &…
Goglia, J., Halford, C. & Stolzer, a. (2010). Safety Management Systems in Aviation. New York:
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Jakhu, R. (2012). The Need for an Integrated Regulatory Regime for Aviation and Space.
Profitability and Air Travel
Recent history has been particularly unkind to the aviation industry. A sector uniquely vulnerable to the fluctuations, uncertainties and anxieties that seem to connect to particular moments in history, the air travel business has suffered greatly at the hands of a decade-long recession with various peaks and valleys; at the hands of series of wars in the Middle East punctuated by the 9/11 terror attacks and all their attendant paranoia; and at the hands of public health scares such as the SARS and avian flu panics. These events led to a dramatic reduction in elective air travel as members of the public within an inherent need to fly actively avoided doing so. Indeed, the financial hit on the industry as a consequence of 9/11 and the subsequent ar on Terror would be a catastrophic one, underlining one of the core internal contradictions of the air…
Chapman, L. (2010). Airline Brands: Piloting A Failing Business Model and Brand Experience. Technorati.
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Steffy, L. (2009). Why the airline industry will never be profitable. Chron.com.
Aviation maintenance and management are probably among the most important actions within the transport industry today. Failure to provide adequate maintenance or indeed to manage this effectively can result in errors, accidents, and death. In the aviation industry, death is far more likely than in other modes of transport, since there is the factor of height added to speed and crashing that act as danger factors when accidents occur. Kinnison (2004, p. 13) notes that, in reality, all mechanical parts and engineered components, regardless of quality, will fail at some point during their lifetime. This is at the heart of the importance of maintenance. Management means that maintenance and inspection schedules are set up in such a way that the failures cause the least disruption in service while ensuring optimal safety for passengers and crew. Specifically, maintenance management includes a variety of components such as repair, inspection, and the upkeep…
AOPA. (2011). Best Practices Guide for Maintaining Aging General Aviation Airplanes. Retrieved from: http://www.vintageaircraft.org/informational_articles/Best%20Practices%20Guide%20for%20Maintaining%20Aging%20General%20Aviation%20Airplanes.pdf
Kinnison, H.A. (2004). Aviation Maintenance Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Xavier, A.J. (2005, March). Managing Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance Through a Performance Excellence Framework. Retrieved from: http://www.system-safety.com/articles/Xavier%20Thesis.pdf
On January 13, 1982, an Air Florida operated Boeing 737 crashed. Flight 90, with call-in nickname Palm 90, was schedule to fly from Washington, D.C. To Fort Lauderdale via Tampa. The flight crashed seconds after takeoff, just a mile from the Washington National Airport (Kaye, 2009). The Palm 90 disaster was the "the first major airline accident attributed to organizational factors," (Ciavarelli, 2007, p. 1). Some of the potential causes of the disaster are attributed to organizational factors such as Air Florida being an "upstart airline" that was willing to "cut corners," (cited by Kaye, 2009). A "poor decision chain" that included inadequate staff training, errors in judgment, "inappropriate procedures," and communication breakdowns were the primary factors in the accident (Ciavarelli, 2007, p. 2).
Weather was an intervening factor, but it was human error that caused the crash itself. At the time of scheduled departure, there was a blizzard…
Ciavarelli, A.P. (2007). Safety climate and risk culture: How does your organization measure up? Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/ about/safety_efficiency/sms/resources/documents/safety_climate_and_risk_culture.pdf
"Civil Aviation Disasters," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.pilotfriend.com/disasters/crash/airflorida90.htm
Kaye, K. (2009). Air Florida disaster still chilling 27 years later. Sun Sentinel.com. 10 Jan 2009. Retrieved online: http://weblogs.sun-sentinel.com/news/weather/hurricane/blog/2009/01/air_florida_disaster_27_years.html
OHS Body of Knowledge (2012). Models of Causation: Safety. Retrieved online: http://www.ohsbok.org/downloads/32%20Models%20of%20Causation%20Safety.pdf
Aviation / Aerospace
Course # Management 311 Marketing
The business of aircraft for defense requirements is quite different from the requirements of aircraft for civilian requirements. The sale of the material is also to different groups and all defense equipment has to be sold to governments whereas the civilian purpose aircraft have to be sold to airline transport companies. The objective of the government for military aircraft is simple -- the protection of the country. Here the cost or carriage capacities are not very important considerations. What matters is whether the defense aircraft will be able to repel the possible attacks by the other country. The situation varies from country to country depending on the aircraft that the opposition has. The aircraft must have the capacity of being upgraded as these aircraft are likely to be used for many generations as they are quite expensive. Up gradation requirements mean that…
"Aeronautics" Retrieved from http://www.lockheedmartin.com/wms/findPage.do?dsp=fec& ; ci=15047& sc=400 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Coffman, Vance. D. (17 June, 2001) "Bridges are better than Walls" Retrieved from Lockheed
Martin Paris Air Show Press Dinner Ritz Hotel, Paris, France.
4. Effects upon the airline industry
Sky miles were initially granted to customers in order to attract them. From their emergence up to present times, the sky miles have developed in form and usage possibilities and are now features that influence the global airline industry. Their effects are best represented in two directions. First of all, air miles increase customers' satisfaction in regard to the issuer's products and services. Secondly, they influence the airline industry in the meaning that they increase the competition among airline companies.
Increased customer satisfaction
Air miles are a most efficient means of attracting customers, familiarizing them with the company's products, services and policies and increasing their fidelity to the issuer. The concept is based on the reward strategy and the sky miles are presented as the company's reward for their customers.
eing granted additional traveling opportunities, customers become more content with the airline company and…
2007, Credit Cards that earn free travel, Dial Abroad, http://www.dial-abroad.org/blue.htm, last accessed on October 29, 2007
2007, Airline miles credit card with travel reward, Credit Federal, http://creditfederal.com/airline-miles-creditcard.html , last accessed on October 29, 2007
2007, the Marketing Mix, the Four P's of Marketing, Net MBA, http://www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/,last accessed on October 29, 2007
2005, Lukach, T., America Supports You: Americans Donate Sky Miles to Wounded Troops, U.S. Department of Defense, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=16941,last accessed on October 29, 2007
Training Program Design and Development
These considerations do not, however, lead to the conclusion that all instruction, especially training, is hopelessly idiosyncratic and thereby beyond all structure and control. There is still much that can and should be done to design, develop, and implement instructional programs beyond simply providing opportunities for trial and error with feedback. Systematic development of instruction is especially important for programs intended to produce a steady stream of competent individuals, an intention that is most characteristic of training programs. All aspects of the systematic development of training are concerns of what is often called Instructional System Design (Salas et al., 1998) or the Systems Approach to Training (Baker et al., 2003). ISD/SAT approaches apply standard systems engineering to the development of instructional programs. These are the generic steps of analysis, design, production, implementation, and evaluation. ISD/SAT combines these steps with theories of learning and instruction to…
Baker D, Prince C, Shrestha L, Oser R, Salas E. (2003) Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 3:143-56
Bowers, C.A., Deaton, J., Oser, R., Prince, C., & Kolb, M. (2004). Impact of automation on aircrew communication and decision-making performance. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 5, 145-167.
Cannon-Bowers JA, Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE. (2005). Toward theoretically-based principles of trainee effectiveness: a model and initial empirical investigation. Mil. Psychol. 7:141-64
Federal Aviation Administration. (FAA). (2009). Cockpit resource management training (Advisory Circular 120-51A). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.
Employers should make an attempt to educate their crewmembers better on fatigue, and a regular basis of training is required. Healthy lifestyles that encourage exercise, fitness, a proper diet, and obtaining the appropriate sleep must be encouraged. Employers should also take time to create a team-oriented atmosphere in which the crewmembers can come to management with issues that may be affecting his or her sleep patterns. Employers who provide sleeping quarters for crew members must take into account factors such as light, noise, temperature, and humidity.
Pilots and flight crewmembers must also take responsibility in the ongoing battle against fatigue. Employees of the aviation field should recognize that caffeine and nicotine close to bedtime can disrupt an individual's sleep pattern. Pilots and crewmembers must try to avoid alcohol, as it is a deterrent of healthy sleeping habits. Pilots and crewmembers should try and establish routines (hot bath or listening to…
Caldwell, J.A., & Caldwell, J.L. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: a guide to staying awake at the stick. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Duncan aviation. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.duncanaviation.aero/avionics/flightdeck.php
Federal Aviation Administration. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/
National Transportation and Safety Board. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ntsb.gov/
For decades human beings have been fascinated with flight and transportation. Aviation is a very important field of endeavor and requires a great deal of concentration and drive. The purpose of this discussion is to discuss how and why I will enter this field in college. e will begin by describing the importance of aviation in the world that we live in.
Importance of Aviation
Aviation is defined as "the science and practice of flight in heavier-than-air craft, including airplanes, gliders, helicopters, ornithopters, convertiplanes, and VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and STOL (short takeoff and landing) craft."("Aviation")
There are three types of aviation which include commercial, military and general aviation. Commercial aviation involves chartered flights. ("Aviation")
Military aviation is used in cases of war and to provide security to a nation or a region. Finally, general aviation refers to recreational and instructional flight. It also includes the operation of…
Aviation," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved
Lake, Katie M. (2011, May). "A Critical Analysis of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010." Retrieved from: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/
Lake's main argument focuses upon aviation legislation implemented after an airline accident that resulted in public pressure to improve and tighten the educational and technical requirements for persons to qualify as pilots. The legislation to be implemented is the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010. The author argues that the requirements of this legislation are too stringent and that it would severely affect the supply of suitably qualified pilots to the industry. Furthermore the author appears to indicate that the nature of the requirements are not in line with the level of qualification that might otherwise be expected from graduates and that suitably qualified graduates would be pushed out of the job market by the new legislation.
While I can certainly…
Over the past few years, the aviation sector has experienced tremendous growth and development due to growth in air traffic. Despite the growth and development of this industry, safety concerns continue to increase even as technological developments are adopted to improve aviation safety. One of the major areas in aviation safety that has been characterized by numerous concerns include aviation accident investigation. Aviation accident investigation plays a crucial role in aviation safety since it provides recommendations that are utilized to prevent future aviation accidents resulting in improved safety.
Aviation accident investigations have been characterized by some challenges that have hindered the effectiveness of the recommendations in preventing future reoccurrences of aviation accidents under similar circumstances. Even though the current state and strategies employed in aviation accident investigations are relatively effective, the process is characterized by some challenges that necessitate improvements. Some of these challenges include involvement of different stakeholders…
Balcerzak, T. (2017). A “Just Culture”? Conflicts of Interest in the Investigation of Aviation Accidents. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology, 94, 5-17.
Boyd, D. & Stolzer, A. (2015). Causes and Trends in Maintenance-Related Accidents in FAA-Certified Single Engine Piston Aircraft. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 5(1), 17-24.
Coury, B.G., Kolly, J.M., Gormley, E. & Dietz, A. (2008, September 1). The Central Role of Principal Issues in Aviation Accident Investigation. SAGE Journals, 52(1), 99-103.
Drury, C.G. (2000). Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance. Retrieved June 21, 2018, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9928/7d713d79fc7a72a0f08d5f8076a72012f1a9.pdf
Federal Aviation Administration. (n.d.). Aviation Investigation Training. Retrieved June 21, 2018, from https://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/maintenance_hf/library/documents/media/hfacs/2_accidentinvestigation.pdf
Fultz, A.J. & Ashley, W.S. (2016). Fatal Weather-related General Aviation Accidents in the United States. Physical Geography, 1-22.
Kohlbacher, F. (2006, January). The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research. Qualitative Social Research, 7(1). Retrieved June 21, 2018, from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/75/153
Macrae, C. & Vincent, C. (2014). Learning from Failure: The Need for Independent Safety Investigation in Healthcare. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 107(11), 439-443.
The International Civil Aviation Organization’s Role in International Relations
Established shortly before the end of World War II in December 1944 and known as the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Civil Aviation Organization (hereinafter alternatively ICAO or “the organization”) became a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) on April 4, 1947 (About ICAO, 2017). Since that time, the overarching purpose of the ICAO was set forth in the Convention on International Civil Aviation (commonly known as the “Chicago Convention” or simply “the Convention”) together with specific mandates for the future (About ICAO, 2017). Today, the Convention’s 192 member-states (see Appendix A) and various industry groups pursue common solutions for global aviation-related problems as well as optimal standards and recommended practices to provide a civil aviation sector that is efficient and safe as well as environmentally responsible and sustainable (About ICAO, 2017). This paper provides a review of…
About ICAO. (2017). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved from https://www. icao.int/about-icao/Pages/default.aspx.
Agency appropriations for fiscal year 1978. (1977). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
History of the ICAO. (2017). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved from https://www.icao.int/secretariat/TechnicalCooperation/Pages/history.aspx.
Jeon, C. (2010, Winter). ICAO. International Journal, 66(1), 239-244.
Kao, S. (2016, September 21). Taiwan to ICAO: Let us in. Aviation Week. Retrieved from http://aviationweek.com/commercial-aviation/taiwan-icao-let-us.
Magrini, M. (2017, September). Grounded: Geographical\\\\'s regular look at the world of climate change. The future of civil aviation. Geographical, 89(9), 9.
Nunes, A. & Cabon, P. (2015, May/June). The fatigue conundrum. American Scientist, 103(3), 218-222.
Safety and security aspects of economic liberalization. (2009). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved from https://www.icao.int/sustainability/Documents/ SafetySecurityStudy_en.pdf.
Histotoxic Hypoxia refers to hypoxia specifically caused by toxins in the blood that interfere with the ability of hemoglobin to absorb oxygen even in the presence of sufficient quantities and at normal atmospheric pressure (Jepperson, 2007; USDOT,
2003). In that regard, alcohol is the most likely toxin to affect pilots, but other poisonous substances like cyanide and certain narcotics and other medications (including some sold over-the-counter) can also cause histotoxic hypoxia. Finally, Stagnant Hypoxia refers to insufficient oxygen absorption caused by underlying circulatory problems that reduce blood flow, and therefore, the efficient transport of oxygen, even where the quality of air, atmospheric conditions, and oxygen absorption by hemoglobin are normal (Jepperson,
2007; USDOT, 2003).
Signs and Symptoms of Altitude-Induced Hypoxia:
One of the most dangerous aspects of all forms of hypoxia is that its onset is not noticed by the pilot. Another danger is that while hypoxia severely reduces physical…
Jepperson. (2007). Guided Flight Discovery: Private Pilot Englewood, CO: Jepperson.
Jepperson. (2006). Guided Flight Discovery: Instrument Commercial Englewood, CO:
Reinhart, R.O. (2008). Basic Flight Physiology New York: McGraw-Hill.
Aviation Safety: Is flying safer than driving?
There has been an ongoing debate regarding the relative safety of flying as opposed to driving over long distances. Many argue that flying is the safer option, since statistics have proven this mode of transport to be one of the safest in the world. On the other hand, flying has been perceived as unsafe because passengers have relatively little chance of survival should mishaps occur in midair. One interesting dimension in terms of aviation safety is the events during September 11, 2001. These have caused many travelers to choose driving over flying as a result of terrorism fears. When comparing statistics, however, it appears that flying is indeed safer than driving because of factors such as the fatigue that drivers may suffer and human error on American roads. When flying, passengers do not need to maintain any level of concentration in order to…
Blalock, G., Kadiyali, V., and Simon, DH (2005, Dec. 5). Driving Fatalities After 9/11: A Hidden Cost of Terrorism. Retrieved from: http://dyson.cornell.edu/faculty_sites/gb78/wp/fatalities_120505.pdf
Jones, P. (2003). Letter to the Editors: Flying vs. Driving. American Scientist. Retrieved from: http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/id.391,y.2003,no.3,content.true , page.1,css.print/issue.aspx
Kersten, M. (2011). How Did Aviation Change the Travel Experience? Grin Verlag.
Sivak, M. And Flannagan, M. (n.d.) Flying and Driving after the September 11 Attacks. American Scientist. Retrieved from: https://www.americanscientist.org/issues/issue.aspx?id=3312&y=0&no=&content=true&page=2&css=print
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…
Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design" http://www.airscooter.com/pages/airscooter_main.htm
Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475918/
Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. http://www.cessna150-152.com/faqs/safety.htm
Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cessna_172
Commercial aviation, therefore, warrants the highest attention to risk management, precisely by virtue of the obvious risks to life and limb first, and devastating financial consequences of materialized risks associated with commercial aviation operations.
Designing and implementing a comprehensive risk management program entails specific components to identify potential risks, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, the magnitude of harm associated with them, and the interrelationship of their statistical likelihood and extent of potential harm they represent. Program implementation is, in many ways, merely the first step in a long-term comprehensive safety strategy for effective and economical risk mitigation, precisely because the complexities of risk management in commercial aviation.
Consequently, post-implementation procedural monitoring and regular follow-up are necessary to ensure proper redress of any operational oversights and inadequacies, especially those that come to light only retrospectively after initial program implementation. In this regard, statutory requirements are merely the first level of risk…
Accessed October 27, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/ library/manuals/aviation/risk_management/
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (2005).
Aviation Safety Center. Risk Management; Accessed October 27, 2007, at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/av_safety/risk_mgt/index.html
In short then, the Pilot is everything the stewardess is not. He even supplies the sense of dash and adventure that the stewardess keeps "bottled up" within her button-down exterior. However, it is not just the pilot's overall demeanor - or persona - that is significant. We often have no direct contact with the pilot of our craft except via the airplane intercom. As this is our sole means of interface with this individual; this individual who is so essential to our own personal safety and survival, it is important that even on the intercom the pilot must sound like our preconceived image of him:
speaker's personality may be judged by listeners not only on the basis of the choices of behaviour he makes, but also possibly to some extent on physical features over which he has no possibility of volitional control at all. In our culture, a man…
Egozi (2012) points out that Israeli ground crew systems in ATC and related to UAS operations are working together to create mutually beneficial solutions. Therefore, the FAA needs to take the cue from emerging technology sectors that can help guide the way to regulations related to integrating both hardware and software systems on the ground for both unmanned and manned vehicles. As the Joint Planning and Development Office (2011) points out, there has yet to emerge a standard interface design for use in any category or type of vehicle, let alone between ATC and UAS operators and pilots. This must change if UAS are to become not just more prolific but also safer and more integrated into mixed-use aircraft facilities. The Joint Planning and Development Office (2011) also suggests that there may be, especially in larger airports, a separate ground control and ATC area for unmanned aircraft. However, it is…
Davis, K. (n.d.). Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the National Airspace System. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/ about/initiatives/uas/reg/media/frnotice_uas.pdf
Egozi, a. (2012). A small step for UAVs, a giant step for ATC. Flight Global. Retrieved online: http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/ariel-view/2012/11/small-step-for-uavs-a-giant-step-for-air-traffic-control.html
Joint Planning and Development Office (2011). Operating unmanned aircraft systems in 2018 and beyond: NextGen Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved online: http://www.jpdo.gov/newsarticle.asp?id=146
NextGen (2013). NextGen for Airports. Retrieved online:
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/ news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
Fatigue has been recognized as a causal factor in accidents, injuries and death in a vast range of situations, which indicate that tired people have a lessened likelihood and probability to give sound performance of a safe action. The situational areas can include industries like transport such as road, air, rail and oceanic as well as occupational areas such as; hospitals, emergency operations, law enforcement etc. And the problem is more particular in the working hours that are irregular. Almost everyone is caught complaining of fatigue at some point of time, either on work or leisure time, and that ultimately causes accidents and injuries. Fatigue causes slow responses and failure to pay attention or inappropriate action which can be the primary causes leading to most of the accidents (Mitler et al., 1988).
In most of the countries, fatigue is understood to be the most prominent accident factor in the…
4. Define the design structure: The subjects will be given a pre-test, which will inform the researcher about their decision making habits. Thereafter, the subjects will be assigned in 2 groups based on their decision making habits. Thereafter they will be asked to fill out a survey, which will indicate their level of stress.
5. Data analysis: Data will be analyzed using a Chi square test.
We see that the great job demands and higher decision latitude in aviation all help in maintaining a superior mental health capacity and can be ascertained by the ability of the employee to adapt to his environment. It also said by Xie (1996) that prominent job demands and superior decision latitude contribute to better mental health and are interlinked with positive outcomes. Not to be forgotten, the above sentence also refers to the job framework and criteria. Along with the level of control and management the employee has over the requirement of work associated to fixed shifts, rotating shifts may hinder the employee's control. Providing a greater sense of control and grasping of the context on a consistent basis could possibly permit for the decision latitude to be put to enhanced use. Because of the unpredictable nature of the job framework in aviation, it is anticipated that employees who operate
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…
Abrahamsson, M., Aldin, N., & Stahre, F. (2003). Logistics platforms for improved strategic flexibility. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications, 6 (3), 85-106.
Bardi, E.J., Raghunathan, T.S., & Bagchi, P.K. (1994). Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 71-85.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Bowersox, D.J., and Daugherty, P.J. (1995). Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology. Journal of Business Logistics, 16 (1), 65-80.
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…
Morrison Mary E. July 14, 2008. "Most airlines shun marketing as way to fly through storm" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/FREE/950009745/1109/FREE
What is General Aviation. http://www.aopa.org/info/what_ga.pdf
Winston C. And Morrison S.A. (2008) "The State of Airline Competition and Prospective Mergers" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0424_airlines_winston.aspx
aviation history has influenced my educational direction, it truly made me stop and think. Was it perhaps Deadalus, the ingenious craftsman more than 3,000 years ago, which directed me onto this life path?
he story of one man's desire to be like the birds, free of Earth's surly bonds, expressed in a two sets of wings made of gull feathers and wax. Whether the tale is true or not, his inventiveness surely has inspired me.
Perhaps it was George Cayley and his aeronautical research that sparked my desire for aeronautical engineering. Certainly he was a man that I wouldn't mind following in his creative footsteps. Cayley's identification of the drag vector and lift vector are core concepts that no engineer could be without. And, his work on heavier-than-air flight is what fascinates me about aeronautical engineering.
o take pieces of what would normally be cumbersome material and fashion them in…
Then again, perhaps it was the development of the Bell X-1 and Chuck Yeager's historic flight on that clear October morning in 1947. Supersonic flight changed the course of advanced aviation. I can only imagine what it must have been like to know that that 'wall of air' at the sound barrier was out there, and that the buffeting was so intense it could literally tear an aircraft to pieces. Designing a plane to go where no aircraft had gone before must have been incredibly exciting and rewarding.
Perhaps it's the current advancements in aviation technology, though, that truly have motivated me to take up aeronautical engineering. Just this March, the X-43A made its historic flight and successfully reached Mach 7. When I read about this incredible 11-second flight, all I could think was, "That's what I want to do with my life. No question."
So, in the end, perhaps it wasn't one single event in aviation history that set me on the path of aeronautical engineering. I believe I know now that it was the entire history of aviation, coupled with the unbounded future. It was each and every person that has woven this intricate tapestry of a field of study that has truly gotten into my blood. It's this history that makes me passionately long to be a part of it, a marriage of science and art that is not found in many other fields, an elegant study of efficiencies that leads to the ultimate escape from our own limitations and makes aircrafts truly greater than the sum of their parts. I simply can think of nothing else I would rather spend the rest of my life doing.
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
Sigma has often become the associated trademark for all processes involving a managerial approach towards increasing the efficiency of an organization. More and more, Six Sigma has become a tool that management can use in the aviation industry for the same purpose of streamlining operations and activity in order to drive a reduction in costs and an increased efficiency, with the final objective of maximizing profits. At the same time, Six Sigma proposes the increase in quality of the products delivered to the final consumer.
There are several distinct areas of the aviation industry that the Six Sigma methodology can target. On one hand, there is the turnaround time that airplanes spend in repair. There are two costs that such an activity incurs. The first is the cost of the actual repair. It is obvious that if the repair time is longer, then the costs are also increased due to…
1. Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
2. De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
ACARS stand for Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System. This system allows aircrafts to communicate and report to the ground and vice-versa. It does so by transmitting data on VHF frequencies that can be received and decoded. It is a digital datasystem in VHF (Aviation). It makes it possible for aviation companies to "communicate" and track the planes of their fleet.
This system is being used by a lot of large aviation corporations and can be said to be the 'E-mail' for the planes. The plane's call sign is used as the address for the destination of the message. Before ACAR was developed, all the flight messages were voiced and that made things slow and painful. The development of ACAR by Aeronautical Radio Inc. made possible the routine-messages, about departure, arrival, cargo, fuel etc. To only take a short time to transmit.
The Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) maintains a huge…
ACARS-Link, About ACARS http://www.grove.net/~acarslink/alabout.htm (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Flynn, Ed. Understanding ACARS. Copyright Fred Osterman and published by Universal radio Research, 6830 Americana Pkwy. Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068, USA. ISBN 1-882123-36-0
Lord, R.J., W.P. Menzel, and L.E. Pecht, 1984: ACARS Wind Measurements: An Intercomparison with Radiosonde, Cloud Motion, and VAS Thermally-Derived Winds. J. Oceanic and Atmos. Tech., 1, 131-137.
Mamrosh, Richard D: http://acweb.fsl.noaa.gov/docs/mamrosh-ams-98 / (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…
Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.
Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion
Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456
"Data Resources." Retrieved from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-management/what-is-data-resource.html
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…
"Global airline industry profits to falter at $3bn in 2012," (2012). New Statesman. June 11, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.newstatesman.com/business/transport/2012/06/global-airline-industry-profits-falter-3bn-2012
"In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," (2012). Retieved online: http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Pilarski, A.M. (2010). The fallacy of airline mergers: Two drunks holding unto each other will not walk straight. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. Retrieved online: http://www.avitas.com/publications/adampilarskiarticles/The%20Fallacy%20of%20Airline%20Mergers%20Two%20Drunks%20Holding%20Unto%20Each%20Other%20Will%20Not%20Walk%20Straight.pdf
Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell
Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell
It may seem that aviation has a long and storied history because it seems now to have been a part of the national landscape forever. But, the reality is that the history of flying is very short even considering the many different types of vehicles that have been used. When it comes to actual powered airplanes, that history is even shorter, but it does have a colorful history. A large part of the landscape that has given air travel some of its most storied moments is the military wing of aviation history. It is impossible to examine the story of air power without looking at the life and accomplishments of one person, Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. This paper examines the man as a child and young officer, his assent to the highest reaches of the war department, his fall…
Hickman, K. (2012). Military aviation: Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. Retrieved from http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/airforce/p/Military-Aviation-Brigadier-General- Billy-Mitchell.htm
Long, C. (1998). General William "Billy" Mitchell: Aviation pioneer. Retrieved from http://www.christopherlong.co.uk/per/mitchell.html
National Museum USAF. (2010). Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell. Retrieved from http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=739
Sterner, C.W. (2008). Fight for survival, the battle at home and the court martial of Billy Mitchell. Retrieved from http://www.homeofheroes.com/wings/part1/6_survival.html
On a Tuesday in 2000, an Air France Concorde supersonic jet crashed. The disaster resulted in the death of 113 people. In addition to the casualties from the flight itself, the Concorde crash left a major dent in aviation history. The crash was not like any other airline crash. This crash resulted in the entire dismantling of the Concorde program, which had been one of the most romantic eras in aviation history. Since 1969, the Concorde had been dazzling onlookers and aviation buffs. Its characteristic downturned nose made the Concorde unique, and it was the only commercial airline ever to fly supersonically.
What went wrong on that fateful day in 2000? It took ten full years to find out, and it appears that some mystery surrounding the Concorde crash still remains. In 2010, a French court ruled that Continental airlines were to blame for the Concorde crash. The verdict…
"1969: Concorde flies for the first time," (n.d). BBC. Retrieved onlinehttp://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/2/newsid_2514000/2514535.stm
British Airways (n.d.). Celebrating Concorde. Retrieved online: http://www.britishairways.com/travel/history-concorde/public/en_gb?cookiesAccepted=newvispop
"Concorde: What Went Wrong?" BBC News. 5 Sept, 2000. Retrieved online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/851864.stm
Lauter, D. (2010). Continental, mechanic guilty of manslaughter in Concorde crash. Los Angeles Times. 7 Dec, 2010. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2010/dec/07/world/la-fg-concorde-crash-ruling-20101207
They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).
The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…
Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.
Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/
Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.
Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
GE Aviation Division, Aircraft Engines
This paper discusses General Electric Corporation (GE), specifically the arm which focuses on the production of aircraft engines. Until 2005, the GE Aviation division (GEA) operated under the designation of General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). We will analyze GEA from a product standpoint, as well as from a business operations standpoint. We will firstly discuss the beginnings of GE as a maker of aircraft engines. We will discuss some of the products GEA has built which have resulted in its leadership position as one of the world's best makers of aircraft engines. The product related discussion will conclude with a look into what the future may hold related to engine technology and projects that GEA will focus upon. Secondly, we will examine GEA's unique business human resource management model. Specifically, we will examine GE's leadership education organization and its belief in the practice of rotating…
Aircraft Engines | Aircraft Systems | Aviation Services. (2011).GE Aviation. Retrieved December 25, 2011, from http://www.geaviation.com/
Deutsch, C.H. (2007, January 4). The GE way isn't for everyone. The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/04/business/worldbusiness/04iht-ge.4102488.html
Esler, D. (2009, February). Betting Big on Business Aviation. Aviation Week. Retrieved from
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…
Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/...n%20HF%20News/AVIATION%20...
Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/Aviation%20HF%20News%203707%20.pdf .
Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human.pdf
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
Baron, R. (n.d.). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Retrieved from gofir.com: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/index.htm
Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, a., & Bellman, M. (2011, August). Flight Simulator Motion Literature Pertinent to Airline-Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Retrieved from Volpe.dot.gov: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/hfrsa/docs/aiaafinal811.pdf
Estegassy, R. (n.d.). Improving Cabin Crew Training for Emergency Evacuations. Retrieved from fire.tc.faa.gov: http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/1998Conference/presentations/RobertEstegassy.pdf
Liu, a. (2010, October 14). The Role of Cabin Crew in Aircraft Safety Procedures. Retrieved from Aviation Knowledge: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:the-responsibility-of-cabin-crew-in-aircraft-safety
The Air Navigation Bureau has the responsibility of creating and developing technical studies for the Air Navigation Commissions, and also for developing recommendations that are meant to be used by the air navigation board. These recommendations, grouped under the heading Standards and ecommended Practices or SAPs are related to the efficiency, safety and the regularity of the International Aviation Council. The Air Transport Bureau, on the other hand, is charged with, by the Air Transport, Unlawful Interference and Joint Support Committees, for providing expert assistance for the Assembly, Council, Air Transport Committee or the ATC, the Committee on Unlawful Interference or the UIC, the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services or the JSC, and the specialized conference, divisional, panel and working group meetings that may be convened in the air transport field. The Legal Bureau would provide legal assistance and aid to the Secretary General, and through him,…
Kapteyn, P.J. (1984) "International Organization and Integration, Functional Organization"
N.A. (2004, Feb) "International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, History and present status"
Retrieved 4 December, 2007 at http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/Multilateral/inter/icoa.htm
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…
Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:
Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,
2010, from the Website,
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
Personal Critique and Lessons Learned from the Article:
The article was well-written with many studies to back up the findings of the usefulness of the error management system discussed. It was interesting to see so many parallels between two diverse fields of occupation.
The stress levels, risks to human life, and the importance of teamwork were highlighted examples of similarities. However, it was the differences that were the most intriguing.
Clearly aviation accidents are more highly publicized than the individual medical accidents that occur each year; yet, it was startling to learn that it is estimated that up to nearly 100,000 people die each year from medical accidents, far less than aviation accidents. Although not as highly publicized, litigation following medical accidents, in the form of malpractice suits, would lead one to believe that the medical profession would be motivated to institute the types of processes and protocols that the…
Helmreich, R. "On error management: Lessons from aviation." BMJ 320 (2000, Mar 18): pp. 781-785. September 26, 2006 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/320/7237/781?ijkey=C.kPjYhV51IB .
Management Perspective on Aviaton Safety
Aviation Safety Management
However, this topic narrows substantially when one considers it from a management perspective. Management has a number of diverse concerns that it must consider in regards to aviation safety. For the most part, these safety issues are typically balanced out with issues related to cost and customer satisfaction. Although safety should always be the principle point of concern, management oftentimes has to temper this with practical considerations related to finances regarding time and money spent. Management can help to mitigate the severity of financial constraints, however, by involving as many people as possible in the safety and quality assurance process via a team-based approach. Additionally, there are certain Safety Management System (SMS) programs that can help to stratify different facets of safety management. Finally, it is important for management to make aviation safety a continuous process which is increasingly refined and improved.…
Burnside, J.E. (2013). "Top five pre-flight mistakes." Aviation Safety Management. Retrieved from http://www.aviationsafetymagazine.com/issues/33_5/features/Pre-Flight-Check-Mistakes_10554-1.html
Conyers, B. (2013). "Safety management systems: beyond theory." SM4 Safety. Retrieved from http://sm4.global-aero.com/articles/safety-management-systems-beyond-the-theory/?disp=pdf
Grosenick, C. (2002). "Quality assurance: how does it impact maintenance?" Aviation Pros. Retrieved from http://www.aviationpros.com/article/10387519/quality-assurance-how-does-it-impact-maintenance?page=3
Waikar, A., Nichols, P. (1997) "Aviation safety: a quality perspective." Disaster Prevention and Management. 6 (2): 87 -- 93.
Servant leadership is often based on Christian principles, although this is not required. It is a leadership concept that is designed to show that a leader can be a steward for the company, lead by example, help others, and not have to use any of the more 'heavy handed' leadership styles. While the servant leadership style is more often employed by women, men are becoming increasing more aware of (and more interested in) this particular style, because it seems to work well. The easiest way to show what servant leadership is would be to discuss the work of Stephen Covey, as he advocates this style in "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and many other books.
Even though Stephen Covey is seen by many to be extremely important when it comes to management and effective individuals Covey himself appears to be somewhat scattered and disorganized. This is not actually…
Lider Aviation is a highly successful name in the aviation industry of Brazil. Within a short period of time this company has risen to great heights of success, as it started with only one aircraft and now has a fleet of over 8-0 aircrafts. Apart from that, the company is also engaged in other aviation related businesses including Helicopter Operations, Executive Chartering, Maintenance, Aircraft Sales and Ground Handling. Along with these five major business units, Lider is now also found engaged in insurance, flight simulation developing and pilot training fields.
The success of Lider Aviation is evident from the fact that it now operates from 20 airports in Brazil and has a strong and dedicated workforce of 1700 employees. The company considers itself a pioneer in the field of aircraft chartering and does so rightly because it indeed established the foundation for chartering in the country.
Information about Lider Aviacao is retrieved from its official website:
As a result, in such conditions, the flight control systems commands the engines to increase thrust without pilot intervention and with an accuracy that no pilot could achieve.
Human Factors Considerations
The F/a-18D Hornet that slammed into a residential neighborhood in San Diego last December came from the first family of fighter jets with full fly-by-wire technology, where a flight control computer gathers data from on-board sensors to control flaps and other control surfaces that were mechanically driven on planes decades ago. ut for all their high-tech appeal, do fly-by-wire systems distance pilots from the feel and behavior of their airplanes to the point that crashes become more likely (Milstein)?
In aviation, human factors is dedicated to better understanding how humans can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the technology. That understanding is then translated into design, training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform better (Human Factors).…
Aircraft flight control systems." n.d. Absoluteastronomy. 03 March 2009 http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Aircraft_flight_control_systems .
Alford, L.D., Jr. "Fly-by-wire T & E. challenge [aircraft test pilot handling compensation]." Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE February 2004: 3-7, Volume 19, Issue 2.
Bannister, Jonathan, et al. "Fly-by-Wire Report." 04 October 2006. Adelaide University School of Mechanical Engineering. 05 March 2009 http://www.mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/~marjom01/Aeronautical%20Engineering%20Projects/2006/group8.pdf .
Corporate information/history: Fly-by-wire." n.d. Airbus. 04 March 2009 http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/people/company_evolution/history/part_6.html .
Finally, Pilarski reviews the explanations which blame airline underperformance on onerous government-imposed restrictions and obligations. Many observers, especially deregulation-fanatics, claim that airline companies are inhibited by excessive government regulation and public ownership of airlines. Pilarski rejects these explanations which attribute financial performance to government interference, stating that airline carriers outside of the U.S. subject to much more regulation have performed better than unregulated airlines.
Overall, Pilarski seems to agree that it is difficult to be profitable in aviation. What Pilarski is saying is that, for this very reason, only serious, competent players should enter the aviation business. The airline industry is a high-risk, high-overhead business, a point which appears to be ignored by the financiers, lawyers, and business consultants who help the foolhardy set up airline companies.
From a methodological perspective, Pilarski does a good job of refuting dubious claims through sound economic reasoning and historical evidence. For…
Pilarski, A. (2007) Why Can't We Make Money off of Aviation? Hampshire: Ashgate.
That is mainly because aircraft are much more expendable than pilots and combat operations can now be flown remotely by pilots stationed thousands of miles away from hostile fronts. Analysts predict that within the next decade or two, nations without the resources to compete with the U.S. In the development of sophisticated piloted naval aircraft will be able to launch hundreds of inexpensive drones without regard for how many are lost in combat (Crosby, 2007; Elgin, 2009). Large numbers of unmanned drones with offensive and "suicidal" capabilities could easily overwhelm even the most sophisticated multiple hostile aircraft tracking abilities of the U.S. Navy's manned air superiority aircraft (Crosby, 2007).
On one hand, the apparent trend in contemporary military aviation foretells the obsolescence of some of the principal missions of U.S. naval aircraft. On the other hand, U.S. naval air operations will still rely substantially on aircraft in the meantime,…
Crosby, F. (2007). The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World. London,
Elgin, B. "It's a Bird, It's a Plane, it's Pork!" Business Week; November 9, 2009: 46-47.
Jackson, R. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. London, UK: Parragon.
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
Traditionally, airport safety took up a reactive model. It has since evolved to a proactive and predictive model, with a safety program whose purpose "is to detect hazards or threats and mitigate them before an accident occurs" (Lu, Schreckengast & Jia, 2011, p. 2). The introduction of Safety Management Systems (SMS) in 2002 was aimed at ensuring that airports could effectively deal with their safety issues through efficient activity and safety planning, as well as regulatory compliance. An SMS has four pillars;
Safety policy -- the formulation of a procedural framework outlining relationship roles, responsibilities, and management involvement in safety-management issues. If these are properly established, authority and accountability is deemed to flow efficiently, enabling an organization to encourage safety in all its actions and activities (Q-Pulse, 2012).
Safety risk management -- the effective and timely identification of hazards and their associated risks, as well as appropriate mitigation…
Lu, C., Schreckengast, S.W. & Jia, J. (2011). Safety Risk Management, Assurance and Promotion: A Hazard-Management System for Budget-Constrained Airports. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 1(1), 2-10.
Q-Pulse. (2012). The Four Pillars of Aviation Safety. Q-Pulse. Retrieved 6 May 2014 from http://k2.paniclab.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Aviation_Pillars_of_Safety_Part1_Web.pdf