383 results for “Aviation Management”.
Murray, G. (2008, January). The Case for Corporate Aviation. Risk Management, 55(1), p. 42.
Sheehan, J. (2003). Business and Corporate Aviation Management: On Demand Air Transportation. New York: McGraw Hill.
Suzuki, Y. (2000). The effect of airline positioning on profit. Transportation Journal, 39(3), 44-54.
Toomey, J. (2010, March). Building Parner Aviation Capacity Through Training. DISAM
Journal of International Security Assistance Management, 31(4), pp. 118-25.
Transportation Security Administration. (2011, March). Air Cargo Security Programs. Retrieved from TSA.GOV: http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/aircargo/index.shtm
Trumbach, a., & illiams, a. (2009). Managing Tourism and the Economy in Recessionary Times. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 93-106.
U.S. Department of Energy. (2012, January). Aviation Management. Retrieved from ENERGY.GOV: http://energy.gov/management/office-management/operational-management/aviation-management
U.S. Department of the Interior - National Parks Service. (2012, January). Fire and Aviation Management. Retrieved from NPS.GOV: http://www.nps.gov/fire/
U.S. Department of the Interior. (2012, January). NBC Aviation Management Directorate. Retrieved from AMD.NBC.GOV: http://amd.nbc.gov/
U.S. Forest Service.…
Murray, G. (2008, January). The Case for Corporate Aviation. Risk Management, 55(1), p. 42.
Sheehan, J. (2003). Business and Corporate Aviation Management: On Demand Air Transportation. New York: McGraw Hill.
Suzuki, Y. (2000). The effect of airline positioning on profit. Transportation Journal, 39(3), 44-54.
Toomey, J. (2010, March). Building Parner Aviation Capacity Through Training. DISAM
Aviation Management is a complex issue in any environment. In the 21st century environment Aviation Management faces many challenges. These challenges are related to Globalization, Challenges specific to legacy airlines, Air Traffic control shortages and Ethics including the impact of greenhouse gas emmissions. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the Challenges of the 21st century in Aviation Management and the forces of change.
Challenges for Legacy airlines
Like any industry, aviation is effected by the issue of globalization and the manner in which it has altered how and when people travel. Globalization has also meant the development of many new airlines in various areas of the world. These new airlines create a great deal of competition for legacy airlines. In fact the United States Governmental Accounting office reports that
"U.S. airlines, particularly legacy airlines, have faced an unprecedented set of challenges since 1998. These challenges were both…
Air traffic control shortage endangers New York air security. http://homelandsecuritynewswire.com/air-traffic-control-shortage-endangers-new-york-air-security
"Commercial Aviation," 2004. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04836.pdf
European Commission (2005), Reducing the Climate Change Impact of Aviation, COM (2005) 459 final (EC, Brussels).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1999), Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, IPCC Special Report (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Management Perspective on Aviaton Safety
Aviation Safety Management
However, this topic narrows substantially when one considers it from a management perspective. Management has a number of diverse concerns that it must consider in regards to aviation safety. For the most part, these safety issues are typically balanced out with issues related to cost and customer satisfaction. Although safety should always be the principle point of concern, management oftentimes has to temper this with practical considerations related to finances regarding time and money spent. Management can help to mitigate the severity of financial constraints, however, by involving as many people as possible in the safety and quality assurance process via a team-based approach. Additionally, there are certain Safety Management System (SMS) programs that can help to stratify different facets of safety management. Finally, it is important for management to make aviation safety a continuous process which is increasingly refined and improved.…
Burnside, J.E. (2013). "Top five pre-flight mistakes." Aviation Safety Management. Retrieved from http://www.aviationsafetymagazine.com/issues/33_5/features/Pre-Flight-Check-Mistakes_10554-1.html
Conyers, B. (2013). "Safety management systems: beyond theory." SM4 Safety. Retrieved from http://sm4.global-aero.com/articles/safety-management-systems-beyond-the-theory/?disp=pdf
Grosenick, C. (2002). "Quality assurance: how does it impact maintenance?" Aviation Pros. Retrieved from http://www.aviationpros.com/article/10387519/quality-assurance-how-does-it-impact-maintenance?page=3
Waikar, A., Nichols, P. (1997) "Aviation safety: a quality perspective." Disaster Prevention and Management. 6 (2): 87 -- 93.
Managing ecruitment and Selection
Being able to successfully manage the recruitment and staffing of an entire Human esources (H) department is the foundation of a successful enterprise. For example, eese and French cite the work of Bratton and Gold in saying, "ecruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organisation. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements" (2010). This quote aptly highlights the extreme importance of being able to successfully woo and establish a team of competent people who are equally invested in doing an exemplary job with a given company. Thus, the H department needs to understand the nuances and strategies that go into the process of successfully winning over the…
Burton, J., 1998. Managing Residential Care. New York: Routledge.
French, R. & ., 2010. Recruitment and Selection. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/01F95685-76C9-4C96-B291 -
Management and Leadership
Impact of management and leadership
The aspect of management and leadership are very crucial in the success of any organization as long as they are practiced in the right manner and leadership as well as management tenets are put into proper use. These two principles cannot do without each other and they have a kind of symbiotic relationship where one cannot efficiently operate without the presence or influence of the other.
A leader is noted to be that person who has the ability to influence others in order to achieve a common goal that has been agreed upon. A true leader for that matter is one who does not have selfish interests but the interests of those whom he or she relates with and leads in the process of achieving a required goal (Woodroffe Noel, 2012).
The issue of leadership has for long been the subject of…
Center for Creative Leadership, (2009). Developing a Leadership Strategy: A Critical Ingredient for Organizational Success. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
Drew Stevens, 2003. Finish Line Leadership - Qualities for Successful Leadership. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.expertmagazine.com/EMOnline/030103/finishline.htm
George Ambler (2008). Leaders vs. Managers….. Are they really different? Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://www.thepracticeofleadership.net/2008/04/08/leaders-vs.-managers-are-they-really-different/comment-page-2/
Larry C. Spears, (2010). Character and Servant Leadership: Ten Characteristics of Effective,
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
Commercial aviation, therefore, warrants the highest attention to risk management, precisely by virtue of the obvious risks to life and limb first, and devastating financial consequences of materialized risks associated with commercial aviation operations.
Designing and implementing a comprehensive risk management program entails specific components to identify potential risks, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, the magnitude of harm associated with them, and the interrelationship of their statistical likelihood and extent of potential harm they represent. Program implementation is, in many ways, merely the first step in a long-term comprehensive safety strategy for effective and economical risk mitigation, precisely because the complexities of risk management in commercial aviation.
Consequently, post-implementation procedural monitoring and regular follow-up are necessary to ensure proper redress of any operational oversights and inadequacies, especially those that come to light only retrospectively after initial program implementation. In this regard, statutory requirements are merely the first level of risk…
Accessed October 27, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/risk_management/
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (2005).
Aviation Safety Center. Risk Management; Accessed October 27, 2007, at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/ av_safety/risk_mgt/index.html
S. Airways and United have been stifled twice before, but renewed interest in the merger possibility has been created as a result of economic re-stabilization. But the two companies are currently in merger talks that would make U.S. Airways the second largest airline. The industry reported a $60 billion dollar loss since 2000 which has spurred interest in consolidation. Even with the dramatic declines in capacity by airlines collectively, in recent years, experts believe that there are too many airlines and a shortage in travelers. A merger could help both increase the earnings per share in a smaller timeframe than either company can accomplish alone.
But mergers in the airline industry have been difficult to pull off, in part because complex labor contracts can offset the promised cost savings. Delta and Northwestern recently merged, creating the nation's largest carrier after two years of implementation. William S. Swelbar, (research engineer at…
Corridore, Jim. "Airlines."Standard and PoorsNetAdvantage. www.netadvantage.standardpoor.com.online.library.marist.edu/NASApp/NetAdvantage/showIndustrySurvey.do?code=air (accessed May 14, 2011).
Crutsinger, Martin. "IMF: U.S. economy slowing but global growth gaining USATODAY.com." News, Travel, Weather, Entertainment, Sports, Technology, U.S. & World - USATODAY.com. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2010-10-06-imf-economic-forecast_N.htm (accessed May 14, 2011).
Bureau of Labor Statistics Graph: "The cost of airline fares and lodging away from home" http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ugWk-rnkqXM/SYMF82UCWcI/AAAAAAAAD6U/eRlBYBU4j7s/s400/IATA+Performance+Month+Dec+2008.png (Accessed May 14, 2011).
Reed, Ted. "U.S. Airways Pilots to Seek New Union." TheStreet.com. http://www.thestreet.com/s/us-airways-pilots-to-seek-new-union/newsanalysis/transportation/10382899.html . (accessed May 14, 2011).
Incentives and Performance Monitoring in Management
Writer Inserts Title of Essay
This study examines and compares two concepts that are applicable in aviation management practices; incentives and performance monitoring. In addition, the weaknesses and strengths of these two concepts are highlighted to ascertain the most effective and efficient concept.
The paper further describes the application of these two concepts in management and details their implications as well as suitability in the aviation industry and above all in management.
In organizations such as those in the aviation sector, people make the critical difference between success and failure of the operations. The key determinant of the level of performance in organizations is the effectiveness with which workers are managed, motivated, involved and engaged. It is however interesting that little research indicates the relationship between worker management and business performance. Numerous articles describe certain practices and styles which are claimed to increase motivation,…
Aspect. (2012). Performance Management: Tools that Drive Action, Not Just Reports. Retrieved from www.aspect.com.
Bloom, N., & Van Reenen, J. (2006). Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries. NBER Working Paper.
Brink, A.G., Hobson, J.L., & Stevens, D.E. ( 2012). The Effect of Financial Incentives on Excessive Risk-Taking Behavior: An Experimental Examination Incorporating Earnings Management and Individual Factors. Social Science Research Network.
Deci, E. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Managing Diversity Matters
A Study on QANTAS
Women Representation at QANTAS
QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers
QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth
Challenges Faced y QANTAS
In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…
Arthur, J.B 1994, 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 670-687.
Australian Human Rights Commission. 2008, The Right to a Discrimination-Free Workplace, Legal Section, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Mills, D.Q. And Walton, R 1985, Human Resource Management: A General Managers Perspective, New York: Free Press
Berman, E., West, J. And Wang, X 1999, 'Using Performance Measurement in Human Resource Management', Review of Public Personnel Administration, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 5-17.
Sigma has often become the associated trademark for all processes involving a managerial approach towards increasing the efficiency of an organization. More and more, Six Sigma has become a tool that management can use in the aviation industry for the same purpose of streamlining operations and activity in order to drive a reduction in costs and an increased efficiency, with the final objective of maximizing profits. At the same time, Six Sigma proposes the increase in quality of the products delivered to the final consumer.
There are several distinct areas of the aviation industry that the Six Sigma methodology can target. On one hand, there is the turnaround time that airplanes spend in repair. There are two costs that such an activity incurs. The first is the cost of the actual repair. It is obvious that if the repair time is longer, then the costs are also increased due to…
1. Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
2. De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
Aircraft Performance: Management Perspective
Improving the performance of aircraft operations is not simply a technical issue; it is also a management issue that requires insight into how to deploy the organization's human resources in an effective fashion. "Physically demanding tasks, variable weather phenomena, night shifts and poor lighting, time pressure, staff shortages, the unavailability of tooling and the interface with pieces of equipment that are increasingly technologically sophisticated are only some of the typical hassles that characterize the typical working environment" (Pierobon 2014). The FAA suggests that the process of Human Factors management (HF) is a valuable way to improve safety and reduce the risk of avoidable errors due to a lack of knowledge and fatigue. "Training can promote awareness and affect attitude thereby reducing costs associated to human performance issues" (Pierobon 2014). Just like equipment needs a periodic tune-up, so does the safety-related policies of workers and other components…
Johnson, K. (2005). Special operations from a safety perspective. ALEA. Retrieved from:
Perry, M.J. & Perez-Gonzalez, J.D. (2010). SHELL Model. Aviation Knowledge. Retrieved from: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:shell-model
Pierobon, M. (2014). Aviation Pros. Retrieved from:
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…
Abrahamsson, M., Aldin, N., & Stahre, F. (2003). Logistics platforms for improved strategic flexibility. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications, 6 (3), 85-106.
Bardi, E.J., Raghunathan, T.S., & Bagchi, P.K. (1994). Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 71-85.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Bowersox, D.J., and Daugherty, P.J. (1995). Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology. Journal of Business Logistics, 16 (1), 65-80.
Fatigue has been recognized as a causal factor in accidents, injuries and death in a vast range of situations, which indicate that tired people have a lessened likelihood and probability to give sound performance of a safe action. The situational areas can include industries like transport such as road, air, rail and oceanic as well as occupational areas such as; hospitals, emergency operations, law enforcement etc. And the problem is more particular in the working hours that are irregular. Almost everyone is caught complaining of fatigue at some point of time, either on work or leisure time, and that ultimately causes accidents and injuries. Fatigue causes slow responses and failure to pay attention or inappropriate action which can be the primary causes leading to most of the accidents (Mitler et al., 1988).
In most of the countries, fatigue is understood to be the most prominent accident factor in the…
4. Define the design structure: The subjects will be given a pre-test, which will inform the researcher about their decision making habits. Thereafter, the subjects will be assigned in 2 groups based on their decision making habits. Thereafter they will be asked to fill out a survey, which will indicate their level of stress.
5. Data analysis: Data will be analyzed using a Chi square test.
We see that the great job demands and higher decision latitude in aviation all help in maintaining a superior mental health capacity and can be ascertained by the ability of the employee to adapt to his environment. It also said by Xie (1996) that prominent job demands and superior decision latitude contribute to better mental health and are interlinked with positive outcomes. Not to be forgotten, the above sentence also refers to the job framework and criteria. Along with the level of control and management the employee has over the requirement of work associated to fixed shifts, rotating shifts may hinder the employee's control. Providing a greater sense of control and grasping of the context on a consistent basis could possibly permit for the decision latitude to be put to enhanced use. Because of the unpredictable nature of the job framework in aviation, it is anticipated that employees who operate
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…
Morrison Mary E. July 14, 2008. "Most airlines shun marketing as way to fly through storm" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/FREE/950009745/1109/FREE
What is General Aviation. http://www.aopa.org/info/what_ga.pdf
Winston C. And Morrison S.A. (2008) "The State of Airline Competition and Prospective Mergers" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0424_airlines_winston.aspx
Management Service Processes in a Specific Organization
Critical Evaluation of Effective Management Service Processes: Qantas Airlines
Effective and efficient management service processes are highly important when it comes to any organization that has dealings with the public in a service capacity. Addressed here will be the case and critical evaluation of Qantas airlines, which operates airplanes that shuttle individuals to vacation destinations and work-related conferences, among other needs. The paper will focus on three areas: the effective management of service processes, service people, and resource allocation. All three of these areas must be evaluated, in order to better understand the issues that the company faces. Additionally, all three areas generally work together to help an organization reach maximum efficiency and effectiveness. ith that in mind, examining all three issues for Qantas will show how well the company is doing and whether there are things it could do to improve in…
Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (Eds.). (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bryant, S.E. (2003). The role of transformational and transactional leadership in creating, sharing and exploiting organizational knowledge. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies
Easdown, G. (2006). Qantas through the years. The Herald Sun.
Morrison, S.A. & Winston, C. (1990), The dynamics of airline pricing and competition, American Economic Review, 80(3).
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
ACARS stand for Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System. This system allows aircrafts to communicate and report to the ground and vice-versa. It does so by transmitting data on VHF frequencies that can be received and decoded. It is a digital datasystem in VHF (Aviation). It makes it possible for aviation companies to "communicate" and track the planes of their fleet.
This system is being used by a lot of large aviation corporations and can be said to be the 'E-mail' for the planes. The plane's call sign is used as the address for the destination of the message. Before ACAR was developed, all the flight messages were voiced and that made things slow and painful. The development of ACAR by Aeronautical Radio Inc. made possible the routine-messages, about departure, arrival, cargo, fuel etc. To only take a short time to transmit.
The Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) maintains a huge…
ACARS-Link, About ACARS http://www.grove.net/~acarslink/alabout.htm (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Flynn, Ed. Understanding ACARS. Copyright Fred Osterman and published by Universal radio Research, 6830 Americana Pkwy. Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068, USA. ISBN 1-882123-36-0
Lord, R.J., W.P. Menzel, and L.E. Pecht, 1984: ACARS Wind Measurements: An Intercomparison with Radiosonde, Cloud Motion, and VAS Thermally-Derived Winds. J. Oceanic and Atmos. Tech., 1, 131-137.
Mamrosh, Richard D: http://acweb.fsl.noaa.gov/docs/mamrosh-ams-98 / (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…
Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.
Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion
Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456
"Data Resources." Retrieved from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-management/what-is-data-resource.html
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…
"Global airline industry profits to falter at $3bn in 2012," (2012). New Statesman. June 11, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.newstatesman.com/business/transport/2012/06/global-airline-industry-profits-falter-3bn-2012
"In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," (2012). Retieved online: http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Pilarski, A.M. (2010). The fallacy of airline mergers: Two drunks holding unto each other will not walk straight. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. Retrieved online: http://www.avitas.com/publications/adampilarskiarticles/The%20Fallacy%20of%20Airline%20Mergers%20Two%20Drunks%20Holding%20Unto%20Each%20Other%20Will%20Not%20Walk%20Straight.pdf
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…
AAM-500. (2010). Human Factors Research Division (AAM-500) Simulation Facilities. Federal Aviation Administration. http://www.faa.gov/data_research/research/med_humanfacs/humanfactors/
Gallaway, G. (2011). A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Fatigue Risk Management in Aircraft
Maintenance -- Near-Term and NextGen Time Frame (Maintenance Fatigue; Avers).
AAM-500-b-F-004 Rev.2. Retrieved from
Managing Individual Behavior
How Google's corporate values and goals concerning employees, customers, and the business combine to create job satisfaction and motivate the people who work there
Google Inc. has been handling its personnel successfully. This has resulted in the enhancement of the overall motivation and commitment to its goals. Moreover, the effective management of human resources has made Google elected the 'Best Company to work for' in the United States. Google uses a strategy of making workplaces and offices all over the world which are designed over expansive areas with offering the workers not only with every possible space for innovation and creativity, but also make sure that the employees' concepts are properly and uncompromisingly analyzed, worked on, and recognized (Girard, 2008).
Best companies make their own exclusive cultures in which workers are able to say "I believe in the company I work for, have the pleasure in what…
Axson, D.A.J. (2010). Best practices in planning and performance management: Radically rethinking management for a volatile world. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Cooke, W.N. (2012). Multinational companies and global human resource strategies. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Girard, B. (2008). The Google way: 12 management strategies to revolutionize your business. San Francisco, Calif: No Starch.
Crew resource management
Evolving Concepts of CM
CM is a process, which aims at preventing aviation accidents and incidents by progressing crew performance through an advanced understanding of human factor concepts. It involves the understanding of how crewmembers attitudes and behaviors influence safety, using the crew as an asset of training, and creating opportunities for them to evaluate their behavior and make decisions on various ways to improve controller teamwork. Notably, crews operate efficiently as teams and cope effectively with unexpected situations than crews lacking CM training (OAC, 2007). There has been substantial evidence over the last decade supporting that CM training has the capacity and does change attitudes and behavior among flight crews, and the changes increase the level of safety in their air operations.
The growing number of accidents owing to human failures and pilot errors in 1979, led to the introduction of the concept of Crew…
Operations Advisory Circular. (2007). Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training. Retrieved from http://bcad.gov.bb/page/Pdf/Operations%20Circulars-Pdf/OAC-012%20Crew%20Resource%20%20Management%20Crm%20Training.Pdf
McKeel, G.J. (2012). Crew Resource Management. Marine Corps Gazette, 96 (5), 44.
Helmreich, R.L., Kanki, G.B., & Anca, J. (2010). Crew resource management (2nd ed).
Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier.
Total Quality Management Theory
Total Quality Management Development
How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling
Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).
Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance…
Alamdari, F. (1999). Airline In-flight Entertainment: The Passengers' Perspective. Journal of Air
Transport Management, 5(4).
Andrle, J. (1994). Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research Result Digest,
If so, the project manager has the necessary tools to assess the project's progress and communicate its status and needs to others.
Useful tools are defined for project management. Prior to initiation, there are tools for ensuring that all parties agree on the goal, the approach, the costs, the personnel, the timetable, and the "deliverables." Yet, only when these are defined and agreed upon can the project planning begin. Furthermore, only when the plans are defined and agreed upon can the project actually commence! It quickly becomes apparent why we speak in terms of project phases. The project management profession has developed tools, techniques, education, certification, publications, and organizations to enhance the collective skill set of its practitioners. The reason is quite clear - there is a tremendous amount of money at risk and too few projects are complete successes. However, the profession continues to self-improve. Gifted individuals bring…
Knack, R.E. (2004, October). Getting your act together: How project management can help you bring in every project on time and under budget. Planning, 70, 1.
Massue, M. (2004, February). A project planning tool. T&D, 58, 1.
Mission and vision. (2007). Project Management Institute. Retrieved February 14, 2008 at http://www.pmi-adsig.org/MissionandVision.html.
Stuckenbruck, L.C. (1981). The implementation of project management: The professional's
50). Therefore, the ability of planners in both civilian and military aviation settings will need to ensure this integrated approach to information management to identify opportunities for improvement and what steps will be needed today to ensure their successful outcome in the future.
The research showed that resource management and strategic decision making processes in the civilian and military sectors of the aviation industry have been profoundly affected by innovations in technology that continue to have an enormous impact today. The research also showed that although there is much to be considered in developing effective resource management techniques, the strategic decision process can help organizations of all types identify opportunities for improvement today and take the steps today to help ensure their successful development and implementation in the future. In the final analysis, the body of knowledge in these areas is growing at exponential rates, and the terrible costs…
Goodman, W.C. (2000). Transportation by air: Job growth moderates from stellar rates. Monthly Labor Review, 123(3), 34.
Harris, W.C., Goernert, P.N., Hancock, P.A., & Arthur, E.J. (1994). The comparative effectiveness of adaptive automation and operator initiated automation during anticipated and unanticipated taskload increases. In Hollnagel at p. 159.
Hendrick, H.W. & Kleiner, B.M. (2002). Macroergonomics: Theory, methods, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollnagel, E. (2003). Handbook of cognitive task design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
6). In crisis scenarios, a team holds the same objectives. Even when individual crew members have specific roles, responsibilities, and duties the entire cockpit works together as a whole. A collective response to a crisis will be better timed than a response executed by the same number of single-minded individuals. Collective action by a team ensures coordination of behaviors and effective emergency management. Teamwork also encourages crew members to throw aside interpersonal conflicts when a crisis arises and instead place the best interests of the team above personal pride. Technical expertise and years of experience cannot make up for a lack of cooperation.
Task allocation might take place on the fly, as crew members address unforeseen circumstances by assigning duties to flight crew who might not be fully prepared for them. However, task allocation is directly related to a crew member's professional title, role within the organization, and overt descriptions…
American Psychological Association. Making Air Travel Safer Through Crew Resource Management (CRM). Retrieved June 27, 2008 at http://www.psychologymatters.org/crm.html
FAA (2004). Crew resource management training. Retrieved June 27, 2008 at http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/80038cf51aace53686256e24005cbb23/$FILE/AC120-51e.pdf
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C. & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1), 19-32. Retrieved June 27, 2008 at http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/HelmreichLAB/Publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Schultz, J. (2002). Hear What They're Saying: The Influence of Culture on Cockpit Communication. Quest. 2002, Vol. 5, Issue 1. Retrieved June 27, 2008 at http://www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/cockpitcommun.html
Strategic and Ethical Management Tactics: Gulfstream Aviation
Gulfstream Aviation produces flagship products for private, corporate, government and military clientele locally and globally. The well-known company eagerly touts its rigorous products. Part of its impressive reputation reflects key management strategies, particularly with regard to strategic management and ethics in management. Transnational or global corporations face unique challenges with respect to ethics and strategy in management.
Organizations operating in several countries including Gulfstream Aviation must incorporate diversity in heterogeneity into the organization in a manner that supports alignment of organizational goals and objectives with those of employees. To retain competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace, Gulfstream successfully adopts various ethical and strategic management techniques that include supporting and hiring of a diverse workforce, creating work life balance, providing empowering opportunities and annual evaluations for employees and supporting global and local humanitarian and community efforts. These ideas are explored in greater detail…
"Gulstream Aviation." 21, Sept 2005:
Bonczek, S. & Menzel, D. (1994 -- March). "Achieving the ethical workplace." Public
Management, 76(3): 13.
Brown, M.F. & Stillwell, J. (2005 -- Jun). "The ethical foundation of performance and management." Public Management, 87(5):22.
The situation, involving Cessna is showing how an older firm had become a victim of its own success. This occurred with the company failing to understand, the challenges they were facing inside the marketplace or how to adapt. In 1998, the management decided that a new strategy needed to be utilized to change the mindset and focus of the company (i.e. Total Quality Management). This process involves streamlining operations and reducing waste throughout the entire organization. To fully understand how this works requires carefully examining how Cessna enacted these changes, their results and how this helps to improve logistics / supply chain management. These different elements will illustrate the lasting impacts of the strategy on the firm. ("Our History," 2014) (Plunkett, 2009)
Discuss why Cessna took on this initiative?
Cessna took on this program in order to change the culture and attitudes within the firm. From the 1960s…
Cessna Quality Requirements. (2013). Cessna. Retrieved from: https://supplier.cessna.com/quality/cqrs.pdf
Our History. (2014). Cessna. Retrieved from: http://www.cessna.com/en/why-cessna/our-history
Plunkett, J. (2009). Plunkett's Transportation, Supply Chain and Logistics. Houston, TX: Plunkett Research.
Traditionally, airport safety took up a reactive model. It has since evolved to a proactive and predictive model, with a safety program whose purpose "is to detect hazards or threats and mitigate them before an accident occurs" (Lu, Schreckengast & Jia, 2011, p. 2). The introduction of Safety Management Systems (SMS) in 2002 was aimed at ensuring that airports could effectively deal with their safety issues through efficient activity and safety planning, as well as regulatory compliance. An SMS has four pillars;
Safety policy -- the formulation of a procedural framework outlining relationship roles, responsibilities, and management involvement in safety-management issues. If these are properly established, authority and accountability is deemed to flow efficiently, enabling an organization to encourage safety in all its actions and activities (Q-Pulse, 2012).
Safety risk management -- the effective and timely identification of hazards and their associated risks, as well as appropriate mitigation…
Lu, C., Schreckengast, S.W. & Jia, J. (2011). Safety Risk Management, Assurance and Promotion: A Hazard-Management System for Budget-Constrained Airports. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 1(1), 2-10.
Q-Pulse. (2012). The Four Pillars of Aviation Safety. Q-Pulse. Retrieved 6 May 2014 from http://k2.paniclab.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Aviation_Pillars_of_Safety_Part1_Web.pdf
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
The study made a comparison of the performance of the crew in two types of equipment.CM failures were note to lead to a general increase in the number of mishaps (56% due to CM failure).
The development of Crew esource Management came as response to the new revelations on the causes of aircraft accidents that followed the introduction of flight and cockpit voice recorders into the modern aircraft jets. Information received from these devices suggests that most aircraft accidents are as a result of inability of crews to respond appropriately to the situations they find themselves in. this is contrary to general beliefs that these accidents are caused by technical malfunction of the aircraft systems, failure of aircraft handling skills or lack of technical knowhow by the crew. For instance, lack of good communications channels between the crew members and other parties. This can in turn lead to loss…
Barker JM, Clothier CC, Woody JR, McKinney EH, Jr., Brown JL (1996). Crew resource management: a simulator study comparing fixed vs. formed aircrews. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67:3-7
Billings CE, Reynard WD (1984).Human factors in aircraft incidents: results of a 7-year study. Aviat Space Environ Med;55:960-5.
Cooper GE, White MD, Lauber JK. Resource management on the flightdeck: proceedings of a NASA / Industry Workshop. Moffett Field, Calif: NASA - Ames Research Center; 1980. NASA Conference Publication No. CP-2120.
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1), 19-32.
(Kanki, 2010, pp. 452-460) ("Air Crew Training Manual," 2007)
In 2006, the guidelines were revised even further with the introduction of Air Crew Coordination Training Enhanced (ACT-E). Under this approach all aviators are given this kind of training from the start of the program. Once they are assigned to a squadron, is when they will have this training further augmented. The way that this takes place, they will have an ACT-E qualified instructor who is focused on their flight checks and procedures. A few of the most notable include: an annual instrument check and the annual flight proficiency check. (Kanki, 2010, pp. 452-460) ("Air Crew Training Manual," 2007)
Moreover, instructors must go through an intensive two and half day training program. This is when there will be a focus on a number of concepts to include: how to access training media, providing this kind of assistance to air / ground…
A Spotlight on Utility Issues. (2001)
Air Crew Coordination. (n.d.).
Air Crew Training Manual. (2007). Department of the Army.
Army Aviation Accident. (1999). ASSE. Retrieved from: http://www.asse.org/practicespecialties/military/docs/AviationSafety.pdf
GE Aviation Division, Aircraft Engines
This paper discusses General Electric Corporation (GE), specifically the arm which focuses on the production of aircraft engines. Until 2005, the GE Aviation division (GEA) operated under the designation of General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). We will analyze GEA from a product standpoint, as well as from a business operations standpoint. We will firstly discuss the beginnings of GE as a maker of aircraft engines. We will discuss some of the products GEA has built which have resulted in its leadership position as one of the world's best makers of aircraft engines. The product related discussion will conclude with a look into what the future may hold related to engine technology and projects that GEA will focus upon. Secondly, we will examine GEA's unique business human resource management model. Specifically, we will examine GE's leadership education organization and its belief in the practice of rotating…
Aircraft Engines | Aircraft Systems | Aviation Services. (2011).GE Aviation. Retrieved December 25, 2011, from http://www.geaviation.com/
Deutsch, C.H. (2007, January 4). The GE way isn't for everyone. The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/04/business/worldbusiness/04iht-ge.4102488.html
Esler, D. (2009, February). Betting Big on Business Aviation. Aviation Week. Retrieved from
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…
Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/...n%20HF%20News/AVIATION%20...
Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/Aviation%20HF%20News%203707%20.pdf .
Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human.pdf
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
To date, little eseach exists on the actual costs and benefits of poject management. Much of the infomation that exists is a poduct of advetising mateials distibuted though the poject management fims. Little unbiased infomation egading the value of poject management exists. This eseach will povide an unbiased view of the benefits and costs of the poject manage. Aviation manages will be able to use this infomation to make decisions about whethe to use a poject manage o whethe to find anothe way to pefom those duties that may be moe cost effective.
This study will use quantitative analysis to detemine if aviation officials feel that poject manages epesents an opeational efficiency in tems of cost-effectiveness o if they epesent inefficiency and waste. The eseach will use a suvey methodology that will ask aviation manage's questions that will ask them to quantify both the tangible and intangible benefits of…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
International Journal of Project
Management. 28 (5): 461-468.
Cresswell, J. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
This requires the offering of a variety of products that are unique in the industry, and this is precisely how Parker Hannifin got its start and has remained viable (Porter 2007). There is a slight element of cost leadership at work in Parker Hannifin, largely as the result of the sheer size and market share of the company (which allows it to produce, distribute, and market its products at a much lower per-unit cost than smaller firms), but primarily the company's growth has been driven by internal innovation leading to the development of new products, and the acquisition of companies holding niche positions in key industries.
Parker Hannifin could alternatively explore a strategy of cost leadership even more explicitly and avidly, as it could certainly out perform its competitors in such a strategy. Given its already extensive market share and the relative lack of competitors it has for many…
AIT. (2008). SWOT Analysis for sales and marketing. Accessed 19 January 2010. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2673528/SWOT-Analysis-for-Sales-and-Marketing
Chico. (209). "Matching organization structure to strategy." Accessed 19 January 2010. http://www.csuchico.edu/mgmt/strategy/module9/tsld028.htm
Knight, D. (2004). "Grand Strategy: building your foundation for performance breakthroughs." Accessed 19 January 2010. http://www.hpstrategy.com/html/grand_strategy_steps.html
Porter, M. (2007). "Strategic management: Generic strategies." Accessed 19 January 2010. http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
Personal Critique and Lessons Learned from the Article:
The article was well-written with many studies to back up the findings of the usefulness of the error management system discussed. It was interesting to see so many parallels between two diverse fields of occupation.
The stress levels, risks to human life, and the importance of teamwork were highlighted examples of similarities. However, it was the differences that were the most intriguing.
Clearly aviation accidents are more highly publicized than the individual medical accidents that occur each year; yet, it was startling to learn that it is estimated that up to nearly 100,000 people die each year from medical accidents, far less than aviation accidents. Although not as highly publicized, litigation following medical accidents, in the form of malpractice suits, would lead one to believe that the medical profession would be motivated to institute the types of processes and protocols that the…
Helmreich, R. "On error management: Lessons from aviation." BMJ 320 (2000, Mar 18): pp. 781-785. September 26, 2006 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/320/7237/781?ijkey=C.kPjYhV51IB .
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…
Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:
Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,
2010, from the Website, http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/faa_regulations/
Lider Aviation is a highly successful name in the aviation industry of Brazil. Within a short period of time this company has risen to great heights of success, as it started with only one aircraft and now has a fleet of over 8-0 aircrafts. Apart from that, the company is also engaged in other aviation related businesses including Helicopter Operations, Executive Chartering, Maintenance, Aircraft Sales and Ground Handling. Along with these five major business units, Lider is now also found engaged in insurance, flight simulation developing and pilot training fields.
The success of Lider Aviation is evident from the fact that it now operates from 20 airports in Brazil and has a strong and dedicated workforce of 1700 employees. The company considers itself a pioneer in the field of aircraft chartering and does so rightly because it indeed established the foundation for chartering in the country.
Information about Lider Aviacao is retrieved from its official website:
Servant leadership is often based on Christian principles, although this is not required. It is a leadership concept that is designed to show that a leader can be a steward for the company, lead by example, help others, and not have to use any of the more 'heavy handed' leadership styles. While the servant leadership style is more often employed by women, men are becoming increasing more aware of (and more interested in) this particular style, because it seems to work well. The easiest way to show what servant leadership is would be to discuss the work of Stephen Covey, as he advocates this style in "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and many other books.
Even though Stephen Covey is seen by many to be extremely important when it comes to management and effective individuals Covey himself appears to be somewhat scattered and disorganized. This is not actually…
Crew resource management can basically be described as a series of training processes that are used in environments that are prone to human error that contribute to devastating effects. These procedures have become critical in the aviation industry since they are used to enhance air safety through addressing interpersonal communication, decision making, and leadership in the cockpit. Since its inception, crew resource management has actually contributed to statistically a safer aeronautical environment. This has been achieved through incorporation of digitally enabled technology, mathematics proficiency, and analysis techniques. These techniques are used to interpret data in order to draw valid conclusions and solved associated problems.
Analysis of Crew esource Management:
The understanding of how crew resource management has enhanced air safety or improved the aeronautical environment can be achieved through the use of quantitative reasoning in analysis. Quantitative reasoning can be defined as the use and application of quantitative concepts and…
"Crew Management Resource." (2003). International Association of Fire Chiefs. Retrieved July
22, 2014, from https://www.iaff.org/06news/NearMissKit/6.%20Crew%20Resource%20Management/CRM.pdf
"Making Air Travel Safer Through Crew Resource Management." (2014, February). American
Psychological Association. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from http://www.apa.org/research/action/crew.aspx
Finally, Pilarski reviews the explanations which blame airline underperformance on onerous government-imposed restrictions and obligations. Many observers, especially deregulation-fanatics, claim that airline companies are inhibited by excessive government regulation and public ownership of airlines. Pilarski rejects these explanations which attribute financial performance to government interference, stating that airline carriers outside of the U.S. subject to much more regulation have performed better than unregulated airlines.
Overall, Pilarski seems to agree that it is difficult to be profitable in aviation. What Pilarski is saying is that, for this very reason, only serious, competent players should enter the aviation business. The airline industry is a high-risk, high-overhead business, a point which appears to be ignored by the financiers, lawyers, and business consultants who help the foolhardy set up airline companies.
From a methodological perspective, Pilarski does a good job of refuting dubious claims through sound economic reasoning and historical evidence. For…
Pilarski, A. (2007) Why Can't We Make Money off of Aviation? Hampshire: Ashgate.
com.ph. 2010)." Overall this is in line with HKIA's official policy of functioning as a green and environmentally friendly airport. To quote HKIA's website Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is fully committed to the 4s of waste management -- eduction, e-use, ecycling and esponsibility. Our waste management efforts include reusing and recycling around 12 tons of wastes every day (Hong Kong International Airport 2010)." In addition, HKIA has been participating in the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department's Wastewise program since 2003. Wastewise sets the city of Hong Kong's annual waste reduction and recycling targets. HKIA has received the Gold Wastewise Label annually from 2003 to 2007. In 2008 they received the Wastewise excellent class and recycle materials such as cardboard, paper, plastics, scrap metals, glass bottles, food waste, vehicle tires, spent lube oil, fluorescent lamps, rechargeable batteries, printer / fax cartridges as well as used cooking oil (Ibid).
AECOM. (2010). Hong Kong International Airport - Airport Master Plan 2030 Study,
Hong Kong. Available: http://www.aecom.com/Where+We+Are/Asia/Transportation/_carousel/Hong+Kong+International+Airport+-+Airport+Master+Plan+2030+Study,+Hong+Kong . Last accessed 25 Dec 2010.
Bloomberg. (2004). High Times for Hong Kong's Airport . Available:
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_52/b3914061.htm . Last accessed 25 Dec 2010.
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
The company has an efficient innovative management strategy that is committed to research and development in its products, processes and services. Strategic sourcing and franchising has been a key innovative management strategy for United Technologies more so in venturing into international markets and competing with other firms in several countries. The innovative management approach for united technologies has greater prospects for the growth of the firm and it can be applicable to other sectors or industries. The strategy can be applicable to the aviation industry in relation to extension of products and services since the sector transverse across the globe. This can be achieved through strategic sourcing, acquisition, franchising and joint-venture agreements with other firms in emerging markets and it has the potential for improving revenue and expansion of market share for the aviation industry.
Afuah, a. (2003). Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation and Profits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Afuah, a. (2003). Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation and Profits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. London: Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization, Concepts. New york: Cengage Learning.
Ko, Y.T. (2009). Innovative Management. Berlin: VDM Verlag.
Systems Management Problem:
Cincom Company operates in a flexible business environment that allows participating business enterprises and customers to be flexible. This flexibility translates into the ability of these businesses to choose the best software option from available options like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), cloud option, and one or on-premise enterprise software. Generally, the availability of this software options and the flexibility of the business environment implies that Cincom Company can choose the type of software to implement based on its specific needs. However, the company is faced with numerous challenges including difficulty in implementing change, customer lock-in strategy, and lack of flexibility due to its particular organizational structure and culture. Actually, the major challenge for Cincom is the difficulty to adapt to and implement change that will reflect the new business environment it is operating in. This challenge is characterized with the CEO's approval of all products, pricing, sales, and services…
Andreson, D. & Anderson, L.A. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008). Target Zero: A Culture of safety. Defence Aviation Safety
Centre Journal, 22 -- 27.
Cameron, Kim S. & Quinn, Robert E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture:
Dierct Air - Management & Marketing Mistakes
The following case study employs the array of industry metrics discussed above to determine major factors that contributed to Direct Airways filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the time period from 2007-212. This time period was chosen because SEC filings at that time available, providing valuable insight into the stark differences between the two airlines. Direct Airways was a major U.S. carrier that was founded in 2001 and operated for 7 years until it fell into bankruptcy in 2001. This terminated an unrestrained years for Direct Airways, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last year of 2012 (Jayanti).
I understood that already the subject of a federal investigation by transportation regulators, the outdated charter service Direct Air long ago would soon may be facing a far-reaching investigation of its finances by the bankruptcy trustee (Bomkamp). The lawyer governing Direct Air's bankruptcy went ahead…
Barla, P., & Koo, B. (1999). Bankruptcy protection and pricing strategies in the U.S. airline industry. Transportation Research.Part E, Logistics & Transportation Review, 35, 101-120.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (1995). Bankruptcy and pricing behavior in U.S. airline markets. The American Economic Review, 85(2), 397-397.
Borenstein, S., & Rose, N.L. (2003). The impact of bankruptcy on airline service levels. The American Economic Review, 93(2), 415-415.
Baran, Michelle. Uncertainty over refunds surrounds Direct Air's bankruptcy. 2 April 2012. http://www.travelweekly.com/Travel-News/Tour-Operators/Uncertainty-over-refunds-surrounds-Direct-Airs-bankruptcy/ . 29 November 2012.
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
Fatigue Management in Aviation
Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).
Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event
That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:
The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National…
Brandon Printup, M. 2000. "The effects of fatigue on performance and safety" Airlinesafety.com http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm
Duke, T. 1997 "Battling Fatigue -- the Challenge is to Manage It." NATCA Voice. Editorial pp.49-52
Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F., 2005, "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25, pp. 117-129.
National Transportation Safety Board, Aircraft Accident Report, 1993, In Flight Loss of Control and Subsequent Collision with Terrain, DC-8-61, N814CK, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Washington, DC.
In the realm of aviation safety, human factors in design relate primarily to purposeful redundancy in accordance with accurately anticipated component or system failures
Human Factors in Pilot Performance and Equipment Maintenance:
Two specific pilot performance issues developed as modern aviation technology increased aircraft performance and computers automated components of in-flight pilot responsibilities. Jet power quickly enabled military aircraft to exceed the natural human limits of g-force tolerance and computerization in civilian aviation presented potential pilot performance issues ranging from the need for problem solving through complex check lists to pilot complacency and inattention resulting from excessive reliance on instruments (APA, 2004). Military flight training addressed g-force tolerance, and as civilian flight operations became less physically strenuous and more automatic, much of human factor pilot training shifted from actual flight hour experience to emphasizing check list protocols, trouble shooting, crew communications and cooperation, and attentiveness skills practiced in simulators (Barron,…
Resources (GOFIR) Web site, at: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/
Jackson, R. (2006) the Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. Bath, U.K.: Paragon
The future requirement of a new, large aircraft with the capability of carrying 500 to 1000 passengers has been a major topic in the past few years. This issue has attracted huge concerns from various stakeholders in the aviation industry, especially aircraft manufacturers and airlines. The concerns are partly attributed to the fact that such an aircraft will weigh more than 1 million pounds. With the delivery of these kinds of aircrafts expected to commence in the 5 to 10 years, there have been numerous concerns regarding the impact of new, larger aircraft on airport operation, particularly airport management. These concerns are attributed to the effect of such an aircraft on airport design and frequency of airport pavement replacement and repairs, impact on taxiway and apron separations, effect on gate capacity and baggage handling operations, and impact on aircraft servicing operations.
The introduction of the Boeing 747…
Barros, A.G. & Wirasinghe, S.C. (1997, June 27). New Aircraft Characteristics Related to Airport Planning. Retrieved December 19, 2014, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/EN/civil/NLAircraft/Atrgpap.pdf
Burns & McDonnell. (2001). What's Your NLA? How Will New Large Aircraft Affect Your
Airport Facilities. Retrieved December 19, 2014, from http://www.burnsmcd.com/Resource_/Issue/283/PdfFile/aviationreport2.pdf
Chiu, C. & Walton, C.M. (2003, July). Impact of New Large Aircraft on Passenger Flows at International Airport Terminals. Retrieved from Southwest Region University Transportation Center website: http://d2dtl5nnlpfr0r.cloudfront.net/swutc.tamu.edu/publications/technicalreports/167530-1.pdf
Human Resources Management at Boeing
Corporate Governance Strategies at Boeing 5
CSR and Ethical Training
Boeing's CSR Progress
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and the leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined. Boeing has built a model that focuses on operating sustainably and being good corporate citizens. However, to effectively integrate an effective CSR model so that the employees use this on a tactile level this will require a significant training effort. This analysis will provide a brief overview of the company, their CSR statements and desired outcomes, as well as provide some analysis on the training that the organization will need to conduct in order to meet its objectives.
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and the leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined; Boeing also designs and manufactures rotorcraft, electronic and defense systems,…
Boeing. (2008, October). Getting eco-engaged. Retrieved from Boeing Frontiers: http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2008/october/mainfeature.pdf
Boeing. (2012). Corporate Governance. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/corp_gov/
Boeing. (2012). Global Corporate Citizenship. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/community/gcc.html
Boeing. (2015). Boeing Overview. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/assets/pdf/companyoffices/aboutus/overview/boeing_overview.pdf
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Overregulation Finally, Pilarski reviews the explanations which blame airline underperformance on onerous government-imposed restrictions and obligations. Many observers, especially deregulation-fanatics, claim that airline companies are inhibited by excessive government…Read Full Paper ❯
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Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered…Read Full Paper ❯
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Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the…Read Full Paper ❯
Fatigue Management in Aviation Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst…Read Full Paper ❯
In the realm of aviation safety, human factors in design relate primarily to purposeful redundancy in accordance with accurately anticipated component or system failures Human Factors in Pilot Performance…Read Full Paper ❯
Airport Operation The future requirement of a new, large aircraft with the capability of carrying 500 to 1000 passengers has been a major topic in the past few years.…Read Full Paper ❯
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