Ayn Rand Essays Examples

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Moral Environment

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36357339

Moral Environment

Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies speaks about the value of selfishness or self-interest. Although "selfishness" might seem negative at first, Rand's explanation makes quite a bit of sense. Rand speaks about selfishness as a rational process in which a person sets his/her hierarchy of values and lives according to those values in order to achieve the moral purpose of life: one's own happiness.

Summary of The Ethics of Emergencies

According to Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness. Describing her belief in Objectivism in 1962, Rand stated, "Man -- every man -- is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others. He must exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself. The pursuit of his own rational self-interest and of his own happiness is the highest moral purpose of his life" (Rand, Introducing Objectivism, 2012). Rand rejects "altruism," which can be defined as "unselfish concern" (Dictionary.com LLC, 2012), and believes that the ethical basis for altruism is a "malevolent universe" metaphysics. "Malevolent universe" metaphysics, which Rand also rejects, holds that "man, by his very nature, is…… [Read More]

Dictionary.com LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from thesaurus.com Web site: http://thesaurus.com/browse/altruism?s=t

Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site:  http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/malevolent_universe_premise.html 
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Recurring Dream in Which I Am Standing

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51932588

recurring dream in which I am standing at a podium in front of a large audience. I am the head of an organization, although my exact title and the nature of the organization are vague. In the dream, I deliver a speech, detailing some aspect of company policy. I am sure of myself; I speak with authority and conviction but for some reason I stand alone. Not one member of the crowd agrees with me, likes me, or supports me. When I wake up I feel a strange mixture of pride and humiliation. Yet like Howard Roark, hero of Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, I realize that my unpopularity does not preclude my success. Roark succeeds not according to an external scale of measurement, based on societal values or norms and fueled by conformity. Rather, Roark is a hero and a success because of his unflinching individualism and his willingness to stand up for his principles in spite of immense opposition. Like Rand, I look to heroes like Roark for my inspiration and role modeling. Unlike the fleeting qualifiers of conventional success such as fame and fortune, the truly successful hero demonstrates unflinching idealism and unwavering pursuit of personal goals.…… [Read More]

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Polygamy Should the State of Missouri Legalize

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98656881


Should the state of Missouri legalize polygamy?

Comprising 114 counties, Missouri is a U.S. state located in mid-west of the country. The debate of whether or not legalize polygamy (i.e. one man marrying many women) is ethically evaluated here using ethical method and theories.

Five-point analysis method for resolving ethical dilemmas

Ethical questions are deep rooted in the emotions of individuals as well as the society. It is not easy to present and get accepted a solution to ethical dilemma. The five point analysis method for resolving ethical dilemmas has following steps:

Develop a list of premises: This step is of finding options. Listing the solution alternatives. The method will evaluate if polygamy should be legalized, illegalized, banned with heavy punishment, or allowed under specific conditions where the wife has medical issues that require the husband to marry someone else.

Step 2. Eliminate irrelevant or weak premises: After analyzing consequences, and evaluating all possible positive and negative consequences like who will be hurt, helped and what will be long-term short-term gains and losses, shed those solutions that are weak. Assessment in this ethical case tells that the first wife may be at losing end when the husband is allowed…… [Read More]

Bramhan, D., (2011), "Tradition of monogamous marriage traced in polygamy hearing,"

Retrieved from: http://www.vancouversun.com/life/Tradition+monogamous+marriage+traced+polygamy+hearing/4087361/story.html
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Atlas Shrugged

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38778132

Atlas Shrugged

John Galt, Ayn Rand's Ubermensch, relays his values in the poignant rhetorical question: "Which is the monument to the triumph of the human spirit over matter: the germ-eaten hovels on the shorelines of the Ganges or the Atlantic skyline of New York?" Galt's public address, delivered over the subverted airwaves, encompasses the major themes running through Atlas Shrugged. In the speech, Galt claims the triumph of reason over religion, of individualism over collectivism, of self-determination over governmental intervention. Galt's libertarian ideals are at the heart of Rand's novel, forming the basis for the author's own philosophical stance. It is not so much the buildings lining the Manhattan skyline that so inspire Galt; rather it is the motivation behind them: the desire to propel human consciousness and human society forward and to continue to expand the boundaries of human potential. Rand does not glamorize capitalism arbitrarily; the author's thinly veiled personal philosophy rests on solid bedrock of reason. For her heroes, such as Dagny Taggart and John Galt, capitalism is the manifestation of key social, political, and economic ideals. Such ideals, which include the expansion of the mind, continual progress, and individualism, form the philosophical core of Atlas Shrugged.…… [Read More]

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Capitalists of the World Unite You Have

Words: 979 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58824526

Capitalists of the World Unite! You Have Everything to Gain -- profit, individual excellence, and personal appeal!

In her fictional work of philosophy entitled Atlas Shrugged, one of Ayn Rand's central characters, Francisco d'Anconia, expresses outrage at the expressed ideal that "money is the root of all evil." He argues instead that money is the root of all human advancement and gain. Money provides motivation for humans to rise above the level of beasts and create unique works of human production and the imagination. Money is an objective standard of valuation, unlike airy systems of merit that are open to bias. It is for this reason, d'Anconia ominously says, why the systems of money evaluation and money production is one of the first things that are attacked by invaders, when attempting to destroy a country.

Rand's protagonist accuses those that spout "that phrase about the evil of money," as being aristocrats. She states that such an idea comes "from a time when wealth was produced by the labor of slaves -- slaves who repeated the motions once discovered by somebody's mind and left unimproved for centuries." In other words, before capitalism, individuals labored at brute tasks for no reward, other…… [Read More]

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Progress and Technology

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87844581

Philosophical and Literary Representation of Capitalism

Progress & Technology in Capitalism

John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor. Marxism acquired as decidedly Stalinist hue after the death of Lenin, further solidifying Steinbeck's skepticism about philosophical and political systems.

Despite the collectivist theme that is threaded throughout The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck considered socialism to be "simply another form of religion and thus delusional" (). The path that Steinbeck…… [Read More]

Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].

Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.
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Education and Meaning

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9521882


When Henry Adams described the "task of education" as being "this problem of running order through chaos, direction through space, discipline through freedom, unity through-multiplicity," it appears that he was referring to something that people today would more readily refer to as the meaning of life. This may seem a loose phrase that risks cliche, but in fact it is the easiest way to make sense of Adams's set of paradoxes about education. After all, the events of life are a pure chaos of one event after another, unless one has obtained the mental criteria to evaluate them. Similarly, life is directionless unless one has a specific purpose, and life is marked by a bewildering freedom of options unless one is restricted to certain choices, and life can appear as numerous unique phenomena unless we have learned to recognize the underlying patterns and categories in those events. In some sense, then, what Henry Adams means is that education is our chief way of providing meaning to life (and religion, philosophy, science, art, politics, and economy) although he is too rhetorically elegant to come right out and say so. In the writings of great minds, as in life, the meaning…… [Read More]

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Dystopia the Idea of the

Words: 4215 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4643949

The actions of these collective groups lead only to frustration, a lack of responsibility, ineptitude, and inefficiency.

What sort of world does this lead to? The people who are most capable seem to be disappearing, while the least capable are left in charge. Dagny wants to know why the capable people are disappearing, and she has to find the answer to this question in order to understand what is happening throughout society. The old virtues, virtues that sustained the business community and that made America great in the past, are no longer in force. People once took pride in their work and in the act of earning their own way. These things seem to have disappeared just as have the capable workers. The consequences are all around as things keep breaking down -- systems, machinery, people.

The villains in this story are socialists, or more descriptively those who oppose individualism and free enterprise. Wesley Mouch is representative of this group. He is a collectivist who sees the need for social programs and welfare systems that in essence protect the workers from having to work at all. He sees the big factories and manufacturing plants as places whose ownership should be…… [Read More]

Ames, Russell. Citizen Thomas More and His Utopia. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1949.

Baker, James T. Ayn Rand. Boston: Twayne, 1987.
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Laura Nash Ethical Decision-Making

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26553874


Helping others is not explicitly prohibited in Objectivist philosophy: it is just not considered the highest moral good, in contrast to acting in one's own, personal self-interest. It should be noted that acting in self-interest can result in assisting others indirectly: for example, in a capitalist society, my desire to sell a product and a consumer's desire to purchase a product frequently result in both individuals benefiting from this exchange. But this is not the ultimate purpose and goal of the capitalist exchange. People may also help others to make themselves feel better but Rand regards this impulse as inferior to self-interested actions such as creating art or working to sustain one's business.

Although in theory helping the poor is not banned in the Objectivist philosophy, all of Ayn Rand's writings show profound mistrust of altruistic impulses and question the idea that helping the weakest members of society achieves any meaningful moral purpose. In The Fountainhead, the desire of architect Howard Roark to make great buildings is shown as antithetical to the need to create buildings that help the poor survive (Badhwar & Long 2015). Survival of the self is the greatest good, according to Rand. While conventional moral…… [Read More]

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Terrorism There Are a Number

Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28900701

Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.

Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:

As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."

Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political party, then attacks upon remote areas under governmental control to increase the insurgent's hold upon the public, and finally a full force is assembled that most closely resembles a conventional army. Without a doubt, the most important aspect of the insurgent movement is establishing at least passive support from the…… [Read More]

Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.

Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
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Industry in America Are a Varied Lot

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63548229

industry in America are a varied lot, ranging from self-righteous and mean-spirited individualists to community-minded altruists. The tensions among these capitalist types is as evident today as it was in the days when Ayn Rand first penned The Fountainhead. Since Rand was a Russian immigrant, it is not particularly surprising that her experiences with socialist and communist societies colored her perspective of capitalism, to a degree reminiscent of a defensive reaction formation. The protagonists in the film Atlas Shrugged engage in a capital strike that is intended to bring the economy to a standstill in order to emphasize the rightness and importance of laissez-faire capitalism. The decline of the transcontinental railway stands in for the future of America if it practices communism and upholds the values of moral relativism. The fundamental tenant of these industrialists was that they were entitled to function according to a natural order that encouraged individuals to put their own selfish interests before those of others as doing so would eventually contribute to the common good. Foremost in this effort was the desire to ensure that individual liberty and private property rights were paramount, and essentially unfettered by artificial governmental barriers and laws. While I certainly…… [Read More]

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Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98051350

Moral Skepticism and Knowledge

Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest. Ethical egoism plainly states a choice. In psychological egoism, a person's morality is no longer in question; it doesn't matter if one is moral or not, one acts solely for one's self-interest regardless. The ethical egoist, on the other hand, believes that one's morality is at play; the moral person…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.
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Ishmael by Daniel Quinn

Words: 2218 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27072502

Daniel Quinn's Vision Of History

Beauty is often described as being in the eye of the beholder. In this sense beauty is viewed as a subjective consideration and so its appreciation is a matter of taste and perspective. Likewise, events that take place in the history of the world can often be subject to interpretation depending on the viewpoint of the observer or researcher. But what about the idea of the "world's history?" Not any specific event or series of events that took place at a given time in history but the actual history of the world in the most general sense (Interview). Is this subject to interpretation?

The View According to Man

According to Daniel Quinn in the book Ishmael, the answer is a resounding 'yes.' There are, indeed, different ways to view the "world's history." On the one hand is the dominant Taker view represented by modern society in the 'person' of Mother Culture who "has given [us] an explanation of how things came to be this way." (40). Mother Culture represents, essentially, the indoctrination that all members of modern industrial society receive as members of this dominant Taker culture. Of course, indoctrination may be too harsh a…… [Read More]

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Old School by Tobias Wolff

Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28677431

Throughout the novel, the theme of writing and literature is a heavy motivator for all the boys. Early in the book he says, "My aspirations were mystical. I wanted to receive the laying on of hands that had written living stories and poems, hands that had touched the hands of other writers. I wanted to be anointed" (Wolff 7). This is where the book becomes more like a memoir than a novel. While this is Wolff's first full-length novel, he began writing decades before, and has always been involved in literature and journalism. It is clear from this novel and its themes that he is in love with the craft of writing, and that he believes it can teach people about themselves and their abilities, just as the boys learn about themselves in the novel as they turn into young men.

One of the reasons this novel is so successful is that Wolff also bases it on his own life, adding real emotions and themes to the novel. A critic notes, "Wolff attended a prep school much like the one in Old School, the Hill School in Pennsylvania, and was himself expelled not for anything dishonorable, but for failing grades"…… [Read More]

Brown, Helen. "Literary Lies." New Statesman 9 Feb. 2004: 52.

Contino, Paul J. "This Writer's Life: Irony & Faith in the Work of Tobias Wolff." Commonweal 21 Oct. 2005: 18+.
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Ethical Leadership Given the Recent Crash on

Words: 4439 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52324008

Ethical Leadership

Given the recent crash on Wall Street and the housing market symbolized by corrupt financiers like Bernard Madoff, ethical and moral leadership of corporations has become a major issue for those who study the American capitalist system. In reality, such concerns about the lack of morality in business, government and society as a while has increased significantly in the last thirty years, which undoubtedly has been an era that glorified money, power, greed and self-interest in ways not seen in the United States since the 1920s -- or the Gilded Age of the late-19th Century. Public opinion surveys in recent decades show a total lack of public confidence in the ethics and morality of leading institutions in both the public and private sectors. This has also been an era of globalization in which many older Fordist mass production industries have been downsized, outsourced and moves to China and other low-wage export countries, which has increased the distrust of corporate management at all levels. Executives have done far better financially than their employees in this new economy, as wealth and incomes have become more concentrated at the top than ever before while the middle class has declined. In the…… [Read More]

Johannesen, R.L., K.S. Valde, and K.E. Whedhoe (2007). Ethics in Human Communication, 6th Edition. Waveland Press, Inc.

Martin, J.D., J.W. Petty and J. Wallace (2009). Value-Based Management with Corporate Social Responsibility, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.

Tichy, N.M. And A.R. McGiill (Eds) (2003). The Ethical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding Integrity. Jossey-Bass: A Wiley Imprint.
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Egotism Is Substandard Ethics Application

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53889047

Virtue Ethics Beats Egoism

One of the reasons that philosophy is such a fascinating topic that has endured virtually throughout the course of human history is because it presents the crux of human existence in the basic forms of what is right and wrong. Moreover, there are a number of different philosophies that present alternative versions of what values encompass what is right and wrong. Two of the most eminent such philosophies include egoism, championed by Ayn Rand, and virtue ethics, supported by Aristotle. Examining those philosophies with inheritance examples proves virtue ethics is better.

Inheritance itself is the basic notion pertaining to the concept of personal property, and is inherently linked to capitalism (Haslett 143). Essentially, inheritance means that after an individual dies, his or her personal property goes to someone else. There are a variety of laws surrounding this particular issue. In certain instances, people must take action so that the state does not inherit their property. Still, the basic idea is that what one has will go to another after he or she dies. Frequently, it is advantageous to bequeath one's property to others so that one can dictate who inherits one's property.

Egoism is the theory…… [Read More]

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Back From the Brink the Greenspan Years

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76895622

qualities of a man that make him an effective leader of the most intricate process in the modern world? Since taking the chairmanship of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan has demonstrated that whatever these qualities are, he has them. His wisdom and insight into the workings of U.S. economy have helped guide numerous administrations to construct positive economic policy. He as helped guide the nation out of the recession of the mid-70's, the hyper-inflation of the 1980's, and the fiscal short sightedness of the Clinton administration. His wisdom surprisingly does not ascend from any one particular classroom, but a life time of pursuing that which he loves. He has, according to biographer Stephen Beckner, been in the right place in the right time, making friends and influencing people for the purpose of personal well-being, and that of the nation.

Born in New York the only child of a Wall Street broker, Greenspan developed the traditional aspects of a first and only born child. He has a strong personality, and is not afraid to step into eth gap when policy decisions have to be made. He can joke with reporters at high level Washington dinners, and learn new sports in order…… [Read More]

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NYSE Revised There Is One

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98761087

As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?

The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. Why would someone make such a statement. Why not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the looters, who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. Is this what you consider evil"…(Rand: Durante, 2011).

Man's wealth is produced by how they apply their minds to industry, this is how money is produced. When a person invents something of…… [Read More]

Durante, Diane. "Integrity Protecting the Works of Man." < http://www.forgottendelights.com/NYCsculpture/salute/SalutesApril.htm#Integrity > April 2011.

Johnson, A. "Reviewing the Pediment of the NYSE." Reyte on Publishing. 2010.
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Social Focus on the Jobless

Words: 2183 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35365520

Already educated, she had the resources to -- and indeed did find - employment opportunities. Sociologically, she belonged in the lower middle classes. Both individuals had intelligence, courage and grits. But both also possessed existent privileges with which they could pull themselves up. Critics of the work-it-hard perspective omit these facts. Perhaps they do so because focusing on the ordeals of the working class would suck us in a web of responsibility.

The unfortunate fact is that individuals belonging to the working class castigate themselves unfairly for conditions that are beyond their control.

An example in Newman's book is illustrated by 'Jarvis' who, despite his experience, unable to find a job in a restaurant is still seeking employment. Yet 'Jarvis' still holds himself accountable for his lack of success "Some people are willing to try hard and therefore they can make it, regardless if the deck is stacked against them or not." Newman, 152). It may be time to redo that myth. It is unaccuarate and misleading. And harmful and destructive. It may be also crafted as means to exonerate upper classes from their responsibility of supportign individuals who need them. Ayn Rand, for instance, popularized such myths, but her…… [Read More]

Society largely ignores their situation and condemns their failure, and meanwhile they struggle on.


Newman, K.S. No Shame in my Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. NY: Vintage, 2000
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Classic Liberalism There Have Been

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23151940

F.A. Hayek argued that there can be no freedom of press "if the instruments of printing are under government control, no freedom of assembly if the needed rooms are so controlled, no freedom of movement if the means of transport are a government monopoly" (Liberalism pp).

As Thomas Paine wrote in 'Common Sense,' "Government even in its best state is a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one..." (Sturgis pp). Thomas Jefferson focused on creating an independent citizenry capable of maintaining the democratic republic, and he found his key in the yeoman farmer, believing "that the self-sufficient landowner possessed the ability to cultivate himself and therefore treasure his freedom" (Sturgis pp).

William Godwin, author of 'Political Justice' 1798, and hailed by many as the father of English anarchism, blended previous forms of classical liberalism into his belief in "the self-perfectibility of man and the law of progress reflected Enlightenment emphasis on reason and evolution" (Sturgis pp).

Godwin's wife, Mary Wollstonecraft, paved the way for classical liberal feminism by expanding natural rights theory to apply to women with her 1792 work 'Vindication of the Rights of Women' in which she names "women as co-inheritors of the individualist tradition with…… [Read More]

Sturgis, Amy H. "The Rise, Decline, and Reemergence of Classical

Liberalism." The LockeSmith Institute. 1994.  http://www.belmont.edu/lockesmith/essay.html 
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Graphic Novel Watchmen by Alan Moore It

Words: 1823 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17152139

graphic novel Watchmen by Alan Moore. It is basically about what inspired Watchmen's themes, story, and characters. As well as what Watchmen has influenced and how it has been influenced by other comics and heroes like Batman and Superman among others. Watchman and its influences

Watchman, authored by Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons, and colourist John Higgins was created in 1986 / 1987 in response to contemporary anxieties and as means of critiquing the superhero concept.

Watchman recreates history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1950s who helped the U.S.A. win the war against Vietnam and later is involved in preventing nuclear war with the U.S.S.R. Most former superheroes have retired or are working for the government, so contumely freelance vigilantes are arbitrarily and voluntarily doing the job of protecting the country. The protagonists actively fight and strategically plot to help retired superheroes survive and they work to stave off plots of nuclear war.

Moore's idea for watchmen was contra logical, counterintuitive, and philosophical to the extreme. It was, in fact, quite innovative. His idea was that the plot would open with his superman found dead. This would cause people to question the entire superman concept.

I suppose I…… [Read More]

Amaya, Erik. (September 30, 2008) Len Wein: Watching the Watchmen. Comic Book Resources..

Cooke, J.B. (August 2000) Alan Moore discusses the Charlton-Watchmen Connection. Comic Book Artist.
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Existentialism A History Existentialism Is a Philosophical

Words: 2915 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60585738

Existentialism: A History

Existentialism is a philosophical school of thought that addresses the "problem of being" (Stanford Encyclopedia, 2010). Existentialist questions involve the nature of man in relation to the universe, the subjective nature of "I" versus the objective "we," the creation and measure of meaning in a world with no intrinsic meaning, standards of morality in the absence of Divine Law (God), and the creation and measure of success in a world with no intrinsic standard of success. While the term "Existentialism" is often related with the European cultural movement of the 1940s and 50s, in which thinkers the likes of John Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvior rejected traditional institutions of self-description and traditional concepts of being in the world, it was the 19th century philosophers Kierkegaard and Nietzsche who inspired the reluctant "father" of Existentialism, Martin Heidegger, to first raise the question of the meaning of being (Stanford Encyclopedia, 2010).

In Being in Time (1927), Heidegger addresses the canopy theme of the meaning of being by breaking it down into the following sub-themes:

The tension of the subjective individual vs. The "public," i.e. The objective mass.

The reason for humanity's fascination with experiences of dread, fear, anxiety,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beauvior, S. de. (1953). The Second Sex. New York: Random House.

Camus, A. (1946). The Stranger. New York: Random House.
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Kierkergaard's Present Age the Age

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86699510

Indolence is the record of the century. Introductory pages to Yahoo, for instance, minutely discuss an individual's fashion as groundbreaking news (the individual, incidentally, can be one 'star' amongst many), various ways to loose weight, or the latest toys on the market. Instruments devised to further communication from reality become increasingly more complex. Whilst supposedly linking us to people, Facebook, Twitter and ilk create a 'virtual space' reality, and virtual space has become the order of the day. TV, itself, is an undistinguished conglomeration of surreal images, which, although allegedly based on reality, are, with the inclusion of news documentaries, quite distinct. It is for this reason that this age has been called the post modernistic era with the term 'modernism' being insufficient. Ours is a collage of impressions, with concepts such as Truth, Fulfillment, and Meaning, being, as Foucault, Derrida, and Habermas amongst a host of other deconstructionists, post modernist and nihilist thinkers have styled it, relativistic, dated, anachronistic, and actually non-existent.

The representative monument of our times -- in the same way as man's step on the moon signaled the '60s -- is Michael Graves' Disney building in Burbank, California the atlantes who support the mausoleum depict Snow…… [Read More]

Kierkegaard, S. The Present Age and of the Difference Between a Genius and an Apostle, trans. Alexander Dru (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1962)

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Healthcare Reform Ways the Healthcare

Words: 7972 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55198694

Transparency empowers consumers to become better shoppers. Economists assert that transparency stimulates productivity, for example, in exchange for money, one individual obtaining fair value. In every aspect, except healthcare, Davis points out, transparency, is supported. The contemporary dearth of transparency in healthcare has led to many Americans not being able to effectively shop for the best quality of service at acute care hospitals. Davis argues that transparency permits consumers, particularly those uninsured individual, to know actual charges, as well as the quality of services they will received.

The critical issue in Health Care Reform, according to some, Davis (2008) notes, is power. When consumers know less about the facts, those who do know possess the greater power. These with more power generally consist of "the hospitals, the insurers, and the healthcare policy makers" (Ibid., ¶ 14). Consumer-driven healthcare aims to switch the power to the consumer and the partnering provider (¶ 14).

Three significant factors relate to healthcare, cost, access, and quality.

Cost relates to the ability to adequately finance healthcare, whether through insurance or self-pay. It also links to the ability to pay copayments and deductibles.

Access does not only denote availability of services in a particular area (facilities,…… [Read More]


PBS- Healthcare Crisis: Healthcare Timeline. (N.d.). PBS.org. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from  http://www.pbs.org/healthcarecrisis/history.htm 

Turk, R. (2009). Reform Health Care Now: Special interest groups shouldn't call the shots. Daily Finance. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/reform health-care-now-special-interest-groups-shouldnt-call-t/19096168/
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Adam Smith The Economic and

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72856652

Adam Smith's Economic Philosophy:

Just as Smith's moral point-of-view was ahead of his time with respect to ideas that others would popularize later, Smith presented matter-of-fact observations on the nature of work and the relationship between working people and society at large. More than one hundred years before Henry Ford revolutionized modern industry with his production line, Smith had explained the mechanism that accounted for its success.

Using the example of manufacturing nails, Smith illustrated that dedication to a specific task -and, in general, the divvying up of component tasks within any larger endeavor enabled one individual to produce more than 2.300 units per day, compared with a competent, but less specialized worker, who could produce only 800 per day, at best.

Smith eschewed the value of acquisitive success, or the accumulation of material wealth for its own sake, or for its value as a measure of self-worth, or as a means to project power over others. He marveled, in particular, at the monetary worth of precious metals and stones, which are actually worth nothing, and the comparative lack of monetary worth of water, which has little monetary value despite being absolutely vital for so much (Mills, 1953).

Smith opposed…… [Read More]

Galbraith, J.K. (1958) the Affluent Society. Houghton Mifflin: Boston

Lerner, M. (1957) America as a Civilization: Life and Thought in the United States Today. Simon & Schuster: New York
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Popular Music Is the Obvious

Words: 2521 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18950213

These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.

The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).

The theory explained various consumption phenomena usually used as criticisms against neoclassical economics, such as the role of addiction, habit-formation, advertising, and fads and fashions in consumption, and provide genuine economic explanations for these phenomena (i.e. In terms of price, income, capital). According to the theory, consumer seeks techniques that will be useful to…… [Read More]

Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.

Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
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How Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Mirrored the Society in the Unity of Order

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84898701

William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.

By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.

Burbage produced the works of a variety of writers, including William Shakespeare, in his own space called "The Theatre." That year, however, Burbage ordered his company to pull down The Theatre and remove its timber to Bankside.

London was ripe with theaters, including the Hope, Theatre Royal at Whitehall, The Fortune, and The Blackfriars, among…… [Read More]

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Abortion the Topic of Abortion

Words: 3243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9314910

According to Ayn Rand, rights do not relate to a prospective human being, but only to an actual human being. A child cannot attain any right until it is born. It is only on this criterion that we can safeguard the political right of the women to do what she opts for in this matter. No other person including even her husband has the right to influence as to what she may act in respect of her own body. That is a basic principle of right. (Peikoff, 2003)

While many of the endeavors to further confine the abortion rights are justified on the basis of advances being made in fetal medicine, actually they are motivated by a challenge to the right of women to exert regulation over reproduction. Reproduction is viewed as a primary activity of the family, a crucial structure that forms society. If women can exercise full option over when, if and with whom they have their children, this barrier could be affected. It is similar with divorce as when the divorce laws were liberalized, the divorce rate escalated and it is most women that are starting it. Taking into consideration the available choice, many women will choose…… [Read More]

Abortion: Definition" Retrieved from www.abcbirth.com/lGlossary.html. Accessed 30 October, 2005

Abortion is every woman's right" (23 April 2004) pp: 6-7. Retrieved at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml. Accessed 30 October, 2005 woman's right to choose: Workers Power 299" (October 2005) Retrieved at http://workerspower.com/index.php?id=83,812,0,0,1,0Accessed 31 October, 2005
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Technoculture Jodi Dean Makes the

Words: 5214 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 589587


The problem is stated clearly by Graham: "The legal community has paid little attention to the consequences for individual privacy of the development of computers" (Graham 1987, p. 1396). Graham does say that the common law has the capacity to protect privacy rights from invasion of privacy just as it expanded to combat threats in the past, but he also says that privacy law has lagged behind technology: "Privacy law has failed to respond, as it has in the past, to technological changes that influence the degree of privacy to which we are accustomed" (Graham 1987, p. 1396).

Technology has changed the nature of "privacy" according to some because technology has altered the meaning of "public." In an earlier age, people possessed greater anonymity than in the computer age, given that information is increasing with vast stores of data about everyone accessible by computer. The old concept of privacy is thus disappearing, though computer users are realizing this fact more and more and so seek ways to prevent any further erosion of privacy. While it remains true that massive amounts of information may be gathered in one place, analyzed, and disseminated, users still try to remain anonymous to as…… [Read More]

Darsie, R., 2005, Building Accessible Web Sites, Office of the Vice Provost Information and Educational Technology Expiration, http://tif.ucdavis.edu/meetings/2002/accessibility_recsol3.pdf.

Dean, J., 2000, Cultural Studies and Political Theory, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press.
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Ethical Systems Ethical Formalism What Is Good

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76914169

Ethical Systems

Ethical formalism. What is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. This is the ethical system of Immanuel Kant, which is normative and deontological. It is a universal ethic that asserts every person is to be treated with equal dignity and respect rather than as an object or a means to an end. A truly moral action is motivated by good will, not because the individual doing the good deed expects "payment, wants a return favor, or for any reason other than a good will," while immoral actions to achieve moral or ethical ends are not permitted (Pollock, 2006, p. 27). Ethical formalism could not support unjust laws that violated basic human rights because these "run counter to the categorical imperative that each person must be treated as an end rather than as a means, and to the universalism principle" (Pollock, p. 65). This is the ethical view that comes close to my own because it is universal and respects the fact that all persons have equal rights and dignity, but also rejects the extremes of egotism or the belief that human beings are just self-interested atoms with no sense of social obligations.

Utilitarianism. What is…… [Read More]

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History and Pop Culture

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18708998

Popular Culture

Folk culture refers to the collection of "songs, tales, proverbs, jokes" that reflect a specific segment of society -- and can often refer to the expressions of marginalized groups like African-Americans. Popular culture is more mainstream, and is fabricated and consumed by the dominant culture. It would include newspapers, magazines, and books propagated throughout a country, as opposed to folk culture, which would be localized (either geographically or, if the group is geographically spread out, culturally). According to Levine, popular culture is "seen as the antithesis of folk culture."[footnoteRef:1] There is also an impression that popular culture lacks the authenticity of folk culture in capturing the spirit of the people. As Levine puts it, popular culture does not emanate from the community but is created artificially for consumption by the community and usually with financial motives. For historians and other researchers, popular culture, "if it has to be invoked at all, should be used primarily to represent the consciousness of its producers, not its consumers."[footnoteRef:2] Popular culture is criticized for being both crass in its quality and hegemonic in its intent and impact.[footnoteRef:3] [1: Levine 1370] [2: Levine 1370] [3: Levine]

Popular culture certainly is not perceived of…… [Read More]

Alverman, Donna E., Moon, Jennifer S. And Hagood, Margaret C. "Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series." International Reading Association, 1999.

Bennett, A. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. CAB, 2000.
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Goldman Case What Is Up With Wall

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63914146

Goldman Case

What is up with Wall Street? The Goldman Standard and shaded of Gray

The Goldman Standard and Shades of Gray was a case study which was focused on Goldman Sachs and their impact on the economic system. Goldman has grown large enough in which their operation were capable of affecting the economic structure of our banking system, stock shares, as well as the government to a large extent. The company is obviously profit driven, but to an extent that borders on being ruthless and perpetually greedy for more money and success. Furthermore, Goldman's culture is more "toxic" today than it was in 2005, when they were involved in inflating a housing bubble that would help crash the global economy, or in 2007 and 2008, when they began desperately offloading their housing-related assets to investors who hadn't yet realized the market was going to crash; if there was a culture change, it likely came when Goldman went public a decade ago, not after a financial crisis that almost wiped the firm out (Klein, 2012).

Goldman's strategies that seem to balance long-term greed with short-term greed prompt questions of their ethical standards or lack thereof. The company was founded by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Antilla, S. (2013, January 8). A case of Wall Street greed gone too far. Retrieved from CNN:  http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/08/opinion/antilla-goldman-stock 

Hamilton, W. (2012, March 14). Exiting Goldman Sachs exec blasts firm's 'toxic,' greedy culture. Retrieved from LA Times: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/mar/14/business/la-fi-mo-goldman-greedy-20120314
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John Rawls Mencious and Naturalism

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76701756

John Rawls / Mencius

John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God as the ultimate guarantor of the moral necessity of his conclusions. In place of God, Rawls offers a thought experiment, which he calls the "Original Position." The reader is asked to imagine himself or herself before birth, being offered a comprehensive survey of the different types of lives into which he or she could potentially be born. Rawls wants the reader to consider whether the available permissible options in a given society are, in themselves, an existing critique of the social order. The basic idea here is that all possible human lives would be surveyed from behind a "veil of ignorance" regarding which of these lives would end up belonging to the reader -- Rawls deem as unjust, or very least "unfair," any possible outcome that we would not…… [Read More]

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Friedman the Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42393357

Milton Friedman, "Social Responsibility"

Milton Friedman is absolutely blunt and direct in his 1970 critique of the notion that businesses have "social responsiblities" which require them to look beyond their balance-sheets at the real-world effects of their activity. The title of his article states his thesis outright: "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." Anyone who states otherwise, says Friedman, is "preaching pure and unadulterated socialism" and leans on ideas "that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades."

Yet I think that Friedman's argument hinges on his selective and highly tendentious definition of terms here. Friedman switches between political and ethical definitions of the various concepts, so "pure and unadulterated socialism" is used purely as a scare tactic in his opening: in reality, socialism (whether in diluted or concentrated form) has nothing to do with the public calls for businesses to increase their social responsibility which prompted Friedman to write. Socialism wants government to regulate and tax businesses more, so that the regulation and the tax revenue can be directed towards purposes that the government deems "socially responsible." The notion that asking businesses to do so voluntarily -- or publicly calling upon…… [Read More]

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Separation of Powers and Federalism How Do

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95887507

separation of powers and federalism. How do these central architectural features of American government seek to support Thomas Jefferson's perspectives; "That government is best which governs least." Why from the view of many business executives is government "gridlock" good?

Separation of powers is that element of the American government designed to protect the nation from tyranny and to, as far as possible, keep the power of the nation decentralized. Federalism, while certainly not designed to promote tyranny, is designed to strengthen the power of the government to act and govern the nation, centralizing power into a strong formal national government. Each of these aspects of modern American government have different implications for business.

According to Thomas Jefferson, "That government is best which governs least." The separation of powers helps to assure that the different branches of the government balance each other sufficiently that no single branch can govern so much that it overwhelms the rights of the populace. The central features of American government (federalism balanced with separation of powers) assure that the government has some degree of power without being able to interfere overmuch in the affairs of the individual or the corporation. The courts, state laws, and executive…… [Read More]

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Beard Hofstadter Wood Economic Analysis of the US Constitution

Words: 890 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37438748

Economics in the American Revolution

Was the American Revolution motivated primarily by economic factors? To the observer in 2014, who is surrounded with economically-oriented ideologues who have adopted the title of "Tea Party" for their movement, the interpretation is inescapable. We must ignore the tendentious and flimsy view of history advanced by the twenty-first century Tea Parties though (reminding ourselves that the former vice presidential candidate who styles herself one of their leaders could not correctly identify in 2011 what Paul Revere had actually done during the American Revolution) and look at the view of reputable historians. I hope by examining the work of three historians -- Charles Beard, Richard Hofstadter, and Gordon Wood -- to demonstrate the extent to which the Founding Fathers were motivated by economic circumstances.

Any discussion of the economic factors motivating the American Revolution must begin with the work of Charles Beard. Beard, influenced to some degree by Marxist analysis, received a historiography which had whitewashed the vested interests of the drafters of the U.S. Constitution. Beard argued that the document was "not the product of an abstraction known as 'the whole people' but a group of economic interests which must have expected beneficial results…… [Read More]

Beard, Charles A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, 2004. Print.

Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print.
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Health Policy a Global Perspective

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83356726

Global Perspective on Health Policy

A macro perspective on health policy issues has been addressed in this paper. This paper identifies how health insurance problems became a policy issue and how this issue resulted in the creation of health care policy.

Controversial issue in health and how this issue has resulted a policy's creation

The American health insurance system is riddled with drawbacks, for instance, continuously escalating premiums, and finding decent coverage. Employers seldom provide health insurance; as well, car insurance and house insurance is not covered by employers (nor should they be). One deficiency of employer-provided health insurance is that there are fewer options to choose from while selecting from the sponsored health plans. This holds true for the various companies which provide various kinds of insurance for house and cars. This is because the health insurance market is not the same as the automobile and/or home insurance market. In case of health insurance, an employee has 2-3 plans provided by the employer to choose from irrespective of the plan meeting / not meeting the needs of an employee and might well be the products of just one insurance company. Another demerit of obtaining an employer-based health insurance policy…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Challenging Naturalist Critiques of

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32503797

What is needed, then, is a concept of free will that can effectively counter the claims of naturalists that there is no physical basis for free will. It requires a different kind of free will that permits moral responsibility to be leveled squarely at the individual without ignoring the reality that sometimes there are external causes to internal decisions. In fact, some philosophers have even used the conceptual tools of the naturalists to make the argument that free will can exist in a deterministic world. Daniel Dennet argues that the deterministic universe provides the reliable framework of reality by which informed, individual choices can be made (Bailey par. 14-17). Without some determinism in the universe, it would be impossible for free will to functionally exist, because no one would ever be able to make a rational choice in a purely chaotic world. So free will requires some level of determinism.

But determinism is not the same thing as fatalism. The latter states that an event will happen no matter what one does, while the former posits that one's actions are dependent on what happens. Human beings, Dennet explains, are choice machines instead of situation machines like other creatures in the…… [Read More]

Bailey, Ronald. "Pulling Our Own Strings." Reason May 2003. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.reason.com/news/show/28782.html.

Clark, Tom. "Is Free Will a Necessary Fiction?" Naturalism.org. Nov. 2005. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.naturalism.org/fiction.html.
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Capitalism Is Moral Questioning the Morality of

Words: 4144 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75220535

Capitalism Is Moral

Questioning the Morality of Capitalism: Moral, Immoral, or Amoral?

"To trade by means of money is the code of the men of good will. Money rests on the axiom that every man is the owner of his mind and his effort. Money allows no power to prescribe the value of your effort except by the voluntary choice of the man who willing to trade you his effort in return. Money permits you to obtain for your goods and your labor that which they are worth to the men who buy them, but no more. Money permits no deals except to those to mutual benefit by the unforced judgment of the traders. Money demands of you the recognition that men must work for their own benefit, not for their own injury, for their gain, not their loss -- the recognition that they are not beasts of burden, born to carry the weight of your misery -- that you must offer them values, not wounds -- that the common bond among men is not the exchange of suffering, but the exchanges of goods. Money demands that you sell, not your weakness to men's stupidity, but your talent to their…… [Read More]

Fourcade, M. & K. Healy. (2007) Moral Views of Market Society. Annual Review of Sociology, Available from

Griffiths, B., R.A. Sirico, N. Barry, & F. Field. (2001) Capitalism, Morality, and Markets. The Institute of Economic Affairs, Profile Books, London.
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Economics and the Environment Although

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20153535

Meanwhile, Dwight R. Lee (writing in The Independent Review, 2001) points to a situation where a powerful environmental group (Audubon Society) has cooperated with an energy company and both have profited. Free market environmentalism has shown the way for profits and preservation at the same time in this case. The Audubon Society (AS) owns the 26,000-acre Rainey Sanctuary in the swamps of Louisiana, and while the group is opposed to oil drilling and gas drilling in 99 out of 100 cases, the AS has "been willing to accommodate the interests of those whose priorities are different" (Lee, p. 219). Those interests include allowing thirty-seven wells to be exploited for oil and gas in the Rainey Sanctuary.

According to Lee, the AS has received royalties of more than $25 million from those 37 wells, and in the meantime the technology used in the oil and gas development has prevented any spills or other despoliation. Do not conclude that the AS has "acted hypocritically by putting crass monetary considerations above its stated concerns" for the protection of the natural world and its wildlife, Lee asserts (p. 219). Lee, Professor of Economics at the University of Georgia, views the AS -- because of…… [Read More]

Anderson, Terry L., and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. New York: Palgrave

Macmillan, 2001.
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Ethics in Cell Phone Sales

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52868371

These are subjective values that represent the altruistic view of ethical behavior, and they apply to corporations as well as individuals within the corporations. Thus, the employees of the organization that sell phones to individuals who fit the profile of a terrorist or criminal are acting unethically, and it is the corporation's responsibility to ensure that does not occur. They should require some kind of identification or registration from all customers, and they should maintain the records so they can be searched and identified if necessary. Moral pragmatism demands that the provider use common sense as one of its ethical solutions to problems, and it makes common sense for the provider to require some kind of identification to protect and serve others in the community.

In conclusion, this is a true ethical dilemma in every sense of the words. Ultimately, it seems senseless to allow cell phone companies to sell these phones without any identity requirements. We no longer live in a pragmatic and moral society. There are many elements that will use these phones to victimize others, and the country and the company have a moral duty to ensure as much safety as they can. Most customers would not…… [Read More]

Frain, Jonathan. "Call in if You Suspect Terror Threat." The Birmingham Post. 27 Feb. 2008: 6.