Ayn Rand Essays (Examples)

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Howard Roark the Hero of

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15668940

Success cannot be genealized; too often the wod is used as a tem efeing to financial independence o owning one's own company. Yet the sanitation woke who goes to bed each night with a smile on he face also connotes success in the moden wold. I suppot a multiplicity of success, a divesity of deams fulfilled.

My success, howeve, definitely includes financial independence and caee ecognition, but it also includes the clea conscience that comes fom knowing that I did it all by and fo myself, with confidence and conviction. Like Roak in Rand's book, I got whee I am today due to my had wok and not hand-outs. Thus fa I have not compomised my beliefs o goals to fit with pevailing noms, just as Roak would not deign to design that which disgusted him o sell out. Like Roak I listen to intenal cues and heed not the…… [Read More]

references, determining which courses to take in college, and seeking professional experience that will help me master the skill sets requisite for success as a CPA. Therefore, I hope to find internship positions within firms that I am interested in the hopes of eventually securing an entry-level position immediately upon graduation. I also need to network with role models in the field, and when I am enrolled at USC I will immediately seek interactions with like-minded yet challenging individuals in a mutually supportive atmosphere.

Along with taking relevant coursework I hope also to participate fully in campus life: through social and athletic activities I can truly flourish as a student at USC. Though I am just taking the first steps toward a successful accounting career I know now that I will contribute to the USC campus environment. My singular set of skills and philosophies will be an asset to the USC community, in which I feel I will flourish and succeed. My definition of success therefore currently includes admission to the university as an accounting major. Thank you for your consideration.
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Moral Environment

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36357339

Moral Environment

Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies speaks about the value of selfishness or self-interest. Although "selfishness" might seem negative at first, Rand's explanation makes quite a bit of sense. Rand speaks about selfishness as a rational process in which a person sets his/her hierarchy of values and lives according to those values in order to achieve the moral purpose of life: one's own happiness.

Summary of The Ethics of Emergencies

According to Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness. Describing her belief in Objectivism in 1962, Rand stated, "Man -- every man -- is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others. He must exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself. The pursuit of his own rational self-interest and of his own happiness is the highest…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dictionary.com LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from thesaurus.com Web site: http://thesaurus.com/browse/altruism?s=t

Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site:  http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/malevolent_universe_premise.html 

Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.

Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site:  http://aynrandlexicon.com/ayn-rand-ideas/introducing-objectivism.html
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Recurring Dream in Which I Am Standing

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51932588

recurring dream in which I am standing at a podium in front of a large audience. I am the head of an organization, although my exact title and the nature of the organization are vague. In the dream, I deliver a speech, detailing some aspect of company policy. I am sure of myself; I speak with authority and conviction but for some reason I stand alone. Not one member of the crowd agrees with me, likes me, or supports me. When I wake up I feel a strange mixture of pride and humiliation. Yet like Howard Roark, hero of Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, I realize that my unpopularity does not preclude my success. Roark succeeds not according to an external scale of measurement, based on societal values or norms and fueled by conformity. Rather, Roark is a hero and a success because of his unflinching individualism and his willingness…… [Read More]

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Capitalists of the World Unite You Have

Words: 979 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58824526

Capitalists of the orld Unite! You Have Everything to Gain -- profit, individual excellence, and personal appeal!

In her fictional work of philosophy entitled Atlas Shrugged, one of Ayn Rand's central characters, Francisco d'Anconia, expresses outrage at the expressed ideal that "money is the root of all evil." He argues instead that money is the root of all human advancement and gain. Money provides motivation for humans to rise above the level of beasts and create unique works of human production and the imagination. Money is an objective standard of valuation, unlike airy systems of merit that are open to bias. It is for this reason, d'Anconia ominously says, why the systems of money evaluation and money production is one of the first things that are attacked by invaders, when attempting to destroy a country.

Rand's protagonist accuses those that spout "that phrase about the evil of money," as being…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Rand, Ayn. Atlas Shrugged. 1946
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Progress and Technology

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87844581

Philosophical and Literary epresentation of Capitalism

Progress & Technology in Capitalism

John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…… [Read More]

References

Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].

Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.

Hicks, G. (1939, May 2). "Steinbeck's Powerful New Novel." Review of The Grapes of Wrath. New Masses, 22-3.

Innis, H. (1930). The fur trade in Canada: An introduction to Canadian economic history. Revised and reprinted (1977). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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Education and Meaning

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9521882

Paradox

When Henry Adams described the "task of education" as being "this problem of running order through chaos, direction through space, discipline through freedom, unity through-multiplicity," it appears that he was referring to something that people today would more readily refer to as the meaning of life. This may seem a loose phrase that risks cliche, but in fact it is the easiest way to make sense of Adams's set of paradoxes about education. After all, the events of life are a pure chaos of one event after another, unless one has obtained the mental criteria to evaluate them. Similarly, life is directionless unless one has a specific purpose, and life is marked by a bewildering freedom of options unless one is restricted to certain choices, and life can appear as numerous unique phenomena unless we have learned to recognize the underlying patterns and categories in those events. In some…… [Read More]

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Laura Nash Ethical Decision-Making

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26553874

Objectivism

Helping others is not explicitly prohibited in Objectivist philosophy: it is just not considered the highest moral good, in contrast to acting in one's own, personal self-interest. It should be noted that acting in self-interest can result in assisting others indirectly: for example, in a capitalist society, my desire to sell a product and a consumer's desire to purchase a product frequently result in both individuals benefiting from this exchange. But this is not the ultimate purpose and goal of the capitalist exchange. People may also help others to make themselves feel better but and regards this impulse as inferior to self-interested actions such as creating art or working to sustain one's business.

Although in theory helping the poor is not banned in the Objectivist philosophy, all of Ayn and's writings show profound mistrust of altruistic impulses and question the idea that helping the weakest members of society achieves…… [Read More]

References

Badhwar, N.K. & Long, R.T., (2015). Ayn Rand. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/ayn-rand/ 

Nash, L. (1981). Ethics without the sermon. Harvard Business Review, (59). Retrieved from:

http://www.cs.bgsu.edu/maner/heuristics/1981Nash.htm
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Terrorism There Are a Number

Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28900701

Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.

Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:

As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."

Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.

Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.

Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.

Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
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Industry in America Are a Varied Lot

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63548229

industry in America are a varied lot, ranging from self-righteous and mean-spirited individualists to community-minded altruists. The tensions among these capitalist types is as evident today as it was in the days when Ayn Rand first penned The Fountainhead. Since Rand was a Russian immigrant, it is not particularly surprising that her experiences with socialist and communist societies colored her perspective of capitalism, to a degree reminiscent of a defensive reaction formation. The protagonists in the film Atlas Shrugged engage in a capital strike that is intended to bring the economy to a standstill in order to emphasize the rightness and importance of laissez-faire capitalism. The decline of the transcontinental railway stands in for the future of America if it practices communism and upholds the values of moral relativism. The fundamental tenant of these industrialists was that they were entitled to function according to a natural order that encouraged individuals…… [Read More]

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Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98051350

Moral Skepticism and Knowledge

Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…… [Read More]

References

Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.

Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .

Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.
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Old School by Tobias Wolff

Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28677431



Throughout the novel, the theme of writing and literature is a heavy motivator for all the boys. Early in the book he says, "My aspirations were mystical. I wanted to receive the laying on of hands that had written living stories and poems, hands that had touched the hands of other writers. I wanted to be anointed" (Wolff 7). This is where the book becomes more like a memoir than a novel. While this is Wolff's first full-length novel, he began writing decades before, and has always been involved in literature and journalism. It is clear from this novel and its themes that he is in love with the craft of writing, and that he believes it can teach people about themselves and their abilities, just as the boys learn about themselves in the novel as they turn into young men.

One of the reasons this novel is so successful…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Helen. "Literary Lies." New Statesman 9 Feb. 2004: 52.

Contino, Paul J. "This Writer's Life: Irony & Faith in the Work of Tobias Wolff." Commonweal 21 Oct. 2005: 18+.

Mallon, Thomas. "This Boy's Lit." The Atlantic Monthly Dec. 2003: 128+.

Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 10. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006.
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Ethical Leadership Given the Recent Crash on

Words: 4439 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52324008

Ethical Leadership

Given the recent crash on Wall Street and the housing market symbolized by corrupt financiers like Bernard Madoff, ethical and moral leadership of corporations has become a major issue for those who study the American capitalist system. In reality, such concerns about the lack of morality in business, government and society as a while has increased significantly in the last thirty years, which undoubtedly has been an era that glorified money, power, greed and self-interest in ways not seen in the United States since the 1920s -- or the Gilded Age of the late-19th Century. Public opinion surveys in recent decades show a total lack of public confidence in the ethics and morality of leading institutions in both the public and private sectors. This has also been an era of globalization in which many older Fordist mass production industries have been downsized, outsourced and moves to China and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ciulla, J.B. (Ed) (2004). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership, 2nd Edition. Praeger Publishers.

Daft, R.L. And D. Maucic. (2009). Understanding Management. Southwestern Cengage Learning.

Erbschloe, M. (2003). Socially Responsible IT Management. Elsevier Science.

Griffin, R.W. (2008). Fundamentals of Management, 5th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co.
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Egotism Is Substandard Ethics Application

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53889047

Virtue Ethics Beats Egoism

One of the reasons that philosophy is such a fascinating topic that has endured virtually throughout the course of human history is because it presents the crux of human existence in the basic forms of what is right and wrong. Moreover, there are a number of different philosophies that present alternative versions of what values encompass what is right and wrong. Two of the most eminent such philosophies include egoism, championed by Ayn Rand, and virtue ethics, supported by Aristotle. Examining those philosophies with inheritance examples proves virtue ethics is better.

Inheritance itself is the basic notion pertaining to the concept of personal property, and is inherently linked to capitalism (Haslett 143). Essentially, inheritance means that after an individual dies, his or her personal property goes to someone else. There are a variety of laws surrounding this particular issue. In certain instances, people must take action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Morality as Universal.

Haslett. Justice and Economic Distribution.
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Back From the Brink the Greenspan Years

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76895622

qualities of a man that make him an effective leader of the most intricate process in the modern world? Since taking the chairmanship of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan has demonstrated that whatever these qualities are, he has them. is wisdom and insight into the workings of U.S. economy have helped guide numerous administrations to construct positive economic policy. e as helped guide the nation out of the recession of the mid-70's, the hyper-inflation of the 1980's, and the fiscal short sightedness of the Clinton administration. is wisdom surprisingly does not ascend from any one particular classroom, but a life time of pursuing that which he loves. e has, according to biographer Stephen Beckner, been in the right place in the right time, making friends and influencing people for the purpose of personal well-being, and that of the nation.

Born in New York the only child of a Wall Street…… [Read More]

His love for people. Greenspan is not a numbers geek, nor a recluse. His influence extends because he can work with people, and he builds confidence so others can work with him.

His love for the free market. Greenspan is a committed free market economist. Without his principle-based commitment to the end result, he would have easily been led astray by the self defeating economic policies of Carter or Clinton.

Beckner, Steven. Back from the Brink. New York: Wiley and Sons. 1999.
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NYSE Revised There Is One

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98761087

As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?

The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. hy would someone make such a statement. hy not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Durante, Diane. "Integrity Protecting the Works of Man." < http://www.forgottendelights.com/NYCsculpture/salute/SalutesApril.htm#Integrity > April 2011.

Johnson, A. "Reviewing the Pediment of the NYSE." Reyte on Publishing. 2010.

"Museum Planet." NYSE. Federal Hall and Vicinity. < http://www.museumplanet.com/tour.php/nyc/fh/15 > 10 December 2011

"New York Stock Exchange." NYX.com. NYSE Euronext. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.
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Social Focus on the Jobless

Words: 2183 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35365520

Already educated, she had the resources to -- and indeed did find - employment opportunities. Sociologically, she belonged in the lower middle classes. Both individuals had intelligence, courage and grits. But both also possessed existent privileges with which they could pull themselves up. Critics of the work-it-hard perspective omit these facts. Perhaps they do so because focusing on the ordeals of the working class would suck us in a web of responsibility.

The unfortunate fact is that individuals belonging to the working class castigate themselves unfairly for conditions that are beyond their control.

An example in Newman's book is illustrated by 'Jarvis' who, despite his experience, unable to find a job in a restaurant is still seeking employment. Yet 'Jarvis' still holds himself accountable for his lack of success "Some people are willing to try hard and therefore they can make it, regardless if the deck is stacked against them…… [Read More]

Reference

Newman, K.S. No Shame in my Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. NY: Vintage, 2000
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Graphic Novel Watchmen by Alan Moore It

Words: 1823 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17152139

graphic novel Watchmen by Alan Moore. It is basically about what inspired Watchmen's themes, story, and characters. As well as what Watchmen has influenced and how it has been influenced by other comics and heroes like Batman and uperman among others. Watchman and its influences

Watchman, authored by Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons, and colourist John Higgins was created in 1986 / 1987 in response to contemporary anxieties and as means of critiquing the superhero concept.

Watchman recreates history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1950s who helped the U..A. win the war against Vietnam and later is involved in preventing nuclear war with the U...R. Most former superheroes have retired or are working for the government, so contumely freelance vigilantes are arbitrarily and voluntarily doing the job of protecting the country. The protagonists actively fight and strategically plot to help retired superheroes survive and they work to stave…… [Read More]

Sources

Amaya, Erik. (September 30, 2008) Len Wein: Watching the Watchmen. Comic Book Resources..

Cooke, J.B. (August 2000) Alan Moore discusses the Charlton-Watchmen Connection. Comic Book Artist.

Contino, Jennifer M. (December 28, 2008. ) Who Watches Rich Johnston's Watchmensch. Comicon.com.

Kavanagh, B. (October 17, 2000.) The Alan Moore Interview: Watchmen characters. Blather.net.
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Kierkergaard's Present Age the Age

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86699510



Indolence is the record of the century. Introductory pages to Yahoo, for instance, minutely discuss an individual's fashion as groundbreaking news (the individual, incidentally, can be one 'star' amongst many), various ways to loose weight, or the latest toys on the market. Instruments devised to further communication from reality become increasingly more complex. Whilst supposedly linking us to people, Facebook, Twitter and ilk create a 'virtual space' reality, and virtual space has become the order of the day. TV, itself, is an undistinguished conglomeration of surreal images, which, although allegedly based on reality, are, with the inclusion of news documentaries, quite distinct. It is for this reason that this age has been called the post modernistic era with the term 'modernism' being insufficient. Ours is a collage of impressions, with concepts such as Truth, Fulfillment, and Meaning, being, as Foucault, Derrida, and Habermas amongst a host of other deconstructionists, post…… [Read More]

Reference

Kierkegaard, S. The Present Age and of the Difference Between a Genius and an Apostle, trans. Alexander Dru (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1962)

Then
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Adam Smith The Economic and

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72856652



Adam Smith's Economic Philosophy:

Just as Smith's moral point-of-view was ahead of his time with respect to ideas that others would popularize later, Smith presented matter-of-fact observations on the nature of work and the relationship between working people and society at large. More than one hundred years before Henry Ford revolutionized modern industry with his production line, Smith had explained the mechanism that accounted for its success.

Using the example of manufacturing nails, Smith illustrated that dedication to a specific task -and, in general, the divvying up of component tasks within any larger endeavor enabled one individual to produce more than 2.300 units per day, compared with a competent, but less specialized worker, who could produce only 800 per day, at best.

Smith eschewed the value of acquisitive success, or the accumulation of material wealth for its own sake, or for its value as a measure of self-worth, or as…… [Read More]

References

Galbraith, J.K. (1958) the Affluent Society. Houghton Mifflin: Boston

Lerner, M. (1957) America as a Civilization: Life and Thought in the United States Today. Simon & Schuster: New York

Magill, F. (1961) Masterpieces of World Philosophy. Harper and Row: New York

Menand, L. (2001) the Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. Farrar Strauss Giroux: New York
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Popular Music Is the Obvious

Words: 2521 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18950213



These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.

The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).

The theory explained various…… [Read More]

References

Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.

Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.

Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.

Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
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How Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Mirrored the Society in the Unity of Order

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84898701

William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.

By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.

Burbage produced the works of…… [Read More]

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Abortion the Topic of Abortion

Words: 3243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9314910

According to Ayn and, rights do not relate to a prospective human being, but only to an actual human being. A child cannot attain any right until it is born. It is only on this criterion that we can safeguard the political right of the women to do what she opts for in this matter. No other person including even her husband has the right to influence as to what she may act in respect of her own body. That is a basic principle of right. (Peikoff, 2003)

While many of the endeavors to further confine the abortion rights are justified on the basis of advances being made in fetal medicine, actually they are motivated by a challenge to the right of women to exert regulation over reproduction. eproduction is viewed as a primary activity of the family, a crucial structure that forms society. If women can exercise full option…… [Read More]

References

Abortion: Definition" Retrieved from www.abcbirth.com/lGlossary.html. Accessed 30 October, 2005

Abortion is every woman's right" (23 April 2004) pp: 6-7. Retrieved at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml. Accessed 30 October, 2005 woman's right to choose: Workers Power 299" (October 2005) Retrieved at http://workerspower.com/index.php?id=83,812,0,0,1,0Accessed 31 October, 2005

Choice: Defending a Fundamental American Freedom" Retrieved at http://www.prochoiceamerica.org/generation/faq.cfmAccessed 30 October, 2005

Definitions and associated Formulas" Retrieved at http://scangis.dhec.sc.gov/scan/pregnancy/support/pregndefn.htm. Accessed 30 October, 2005
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Technoculture Jodi Dean Makes the

Words: 5214 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 589587

547-548).

The problem is stated clearly by Graham: "The legal community has paid little attention to the consequences for individual privacy of the development of computers" (Graham 1987, p. 1396). Graham does say that the common law has the capacity to protect privacy rights from invasion of privacy just as it expanded to combat threats in the past, but he also says that privacy law has lagged behind technology: "Privacy law has failed to respond, as it has in the past, to technological changes that influence the degree of privacy to which we are accustomed" (Graham 1987, p. 1396).

Technology has changed the nature of "privacy" according to some because technology has altered the meaning of "public." In an earlier age, people possessed greater anonymity than in the computer age, given that information is increasing with vast stores of data about everyone accessible by computer. The old concept of privacy…… [Read More]

References

Darsie, R., 2005, Building Accessible Web Sites, Office of the Vice Provost Information and Educational Technology Expiration, http://tif.ucdavis.edu/meetings/2002/accessibility_recsol3.pdf.

Dean, J., 2000, Cultural Studies and Political Theory, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press.

Dean, J., 2002, Publicity's Secret: How Technoculture Capitalizes on Democracy, New York, Cornell University Press.

Denise, T.C., Peterfreund, S.P. & White, N.P., 1996, Great traditions in ethics, New York, Wadsworth.
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Ethical Systems Ethical Formalism What Is Good

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76914169

Ethical Systems

Ethical formalism. What is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. This is the ethical system of Immanuel Kant, which is normative and deontological. It is a universal ethic that asserts every person is to be treated with equal dignity and respect rather than as an object or a means to an end. A truly moral action is motivated by good will, not because the individual doing the good deed expects "payment, wants a return favor, or for any reason other than a good will," while immoral actions to achieve moral or ethical ends are not permitted (Pollock, 2006, p. 27). Ethical formalism could not support unjust laws that violated basic human rights because these "run counter to the categorical imperative that each person must be treated as an end rather than as a means, and to the universalism principle" (Pollock, p. 65). This is the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Pollock, J.M. (2006). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning.
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History and Pop Culture

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18708998

Popular Culture

Folk culture refers to the collection of "songs, tales, proverbs, jokes" that reflect a specific segment of society -- and can often refer to the expressions of marginalized groups like African-Americans. Popular culture is more mainstream, and is fabricated and consumed by the dominant culture. It would include newspapers, magazines, and books propagated throughout a country, as opposed to folk culture, which would be localized (either geographically or, if the group is geographically spread out, culturally). According to Levine, popular culture is "seen as the antithesis of folk culture."[footnoteef:1] There is also an impression that popular culture lacks the authenticity of folk culture in capturing the spirit of the people. As Levine puts it, popular culture does not emanate from the community but is created artificially for consumption by the community and usually with financial motives. For historians and other researchers, popular culture, "if it has to be…… [Read More]

References

Alverman, Donna E., Moon, Jennifer S. And Hagood, Margaret C. "Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series." International Reading Association, 1999.

Bennett, A. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. CAB, 2000.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Toward Mixtures and Margins." AHR Forum.

Haque, Sabir. "Folk Culture, Mass Culture, Convergence Culture." Idea Minefield. Retrieved online:  http://www.ideaminefield.com/2008/07/folk-culture-mass-culture-convergence.html
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Goldman Case What Is Up With Wall

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63914146

Goldman Case

hat is up with all Street? The Goldman Standard and shaded of Gray

The Goldman Standard and Shades of Gray was a case study which was focused on Goldman Sachs and their impact on the economic system. Goldman has grown large enough in which their operation were capable of affecting the economic structure of our banking system, stock shares, as well as the government to a large extent. The company is obviously profit driven, but to an extent that borders on being ruthless and perpetually greedy for more money and success. Furthermore, Goldman's culture is more "toxic" today than it was in 2005, when they were involved in inflating a housing bubble that would help crash the global economy, or in 2007 and 2008, when they began desperately offloading their housing-related assets to investors who hadn't yet realized the market was going to crash; if there was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antilla, S. (2013, January 8). A case of Wall Street greed gone too far. Retrieved from CNN:  http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/08/opinion/antilla-goldman-stock 

Hamilton, W. (2012, March 14). Exiting Goldman Sachs exec blasts firm's 'toxic,' greedy culture. Retrieved from LA Times:  http://articles.latimes.com/2012/mar/14/business/la-fi-mo-goldman-greedy-20120314 

Keltner, D., & Piff, P. (2012, March 16). Greed Prevents Good. Retrieved from The New York Times:  http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/03/15/does-morality-have-a-place-on-wall-street/greed-on-wall-street-prevents-good-from-happening 

Klein, e. (2012, March 15). At Goldman, short-term greed vs. long-term greed. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/at-goldman-short-term-greed-vs.-long-term-greed/2011/08/25/gIQAxFhhES_blog.html
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John Rawls Mencious and Naturalism

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76701756

John Rawls / Mencius

John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God as the ultimate guarantor of the moral necessity of his conclusions. In place of God, Rawls offers a thought experiment, which he calls the "Original Position." The reader is asked to imagine himself or herself before birth, being offered a comprehensive survey of the different types of lives into which he or she could potentially be born. Rawls wants the reader to consider whether the available permissible options in a given society are, in themselves, an existing critique of…… [Read More]

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Friedman the Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42393357

Milton Friedman, "Social Responsibility"

Milton Friedman is absolutely blunt and direct in his 1970 critique of the notion that businesses have "social responsiblities" which require them to look beyond their balance-sheets at the real-world effects of their activity. The title of his article states his thesis outright: "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." Anyone who states otherwise, says Friedman, is "preaching pure and unadulterated socialism" and leans on ideas "that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades."

Yet I think that Friedman's argument hinges on his selective and highly tendentious definition of terms here. Friedman switches between political and ethical definitions of the various concepts, so "pure and unadulterated socialism" is used purely as a scare tactic in his opening: in reality, socialism (whether in diluted or concentrated form) has nothing to do with the public calls for businesses to increase…… [Read More]

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Separation of Powers and Federalism How Do

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95887507

separation of powers and federalism. How do these central architectural features of American government seek to support Thomas Jefferson's perspectives; "That government is best which governs least." Why from the view of many business executives is government "gridlock" good?

Separation of powers is that element of the American government designed to protect the nation from tyranny and to, as far as possible, keep the power of the nation decentralized. Federalism, while certainly not designed to promote tyranny, is designed to strengthen the power of the government to act and govern the nation, centralizing power into a strong formal national government. Each of these aspects of modern American government have different implications for business.

According to Thomas Jefferson, "That government is best which governs least." The separation of powers helps to assure that the different branches of the government balance each other sufficiently that no single branch can govern so much…… [Read More]

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Beard Hofstadter Wood Economic Analysis of the US Constitution

Words: 890 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37438748

Economics in the American Revolution

as the American Revolution motivated primarily by economic factors? To the observer in 2014, who is surrounded with economically-oriented ideologues who have adopted the title of "Tea Party" for their movement, the interpretation is inescapable. e must ignore the tendentious and flimsy view of history advanced by the twenty-first century Tea Parties though (reminding ourselves that the former vice presidential candidate who styles herself one of their leaders could not correctly identify in 2011 what Paul Revere had actually done during the American Revolution) and look at the view of reputable historians. I hope by examining the work of three historians -- Charles Beard, Richard Hofstadter, and Gordon ood -- to demonstrate the extent to which the Founding Fathers were motivated by economic circumstances.

Any discussion of the economic factors motivating the American Revolution must begin with the work of Charles Beard. Beard, influenced to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beard, Charles A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, 2004. Print.

Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print.

Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.
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Examples of Symbols Used Today and Interpretations

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86100187

Symbol is an image that conveys an idea to the viewer. For instance, the Golden Arches symbol used by McDonald's conveys the idea of fast-food -- a burger and fries with a Coke to go, picked up at the drive-thru window. One little symbol puts in the mind an idea and can even put in the will a desire for something that was not there a moment ago. Symbols have the power to ignite one's imagination and to move one's will to behave in accordance with the ideas embodied by the symbol. Thus, the Christian cross can be a symbol that reminds one to behave like Christ, to serve as an example of goodness, mercy, charity and truth to the world. However, not all symbols have the same effect on people. While the Golden Arches of McDonald's might inspire hunger in some, it can inspire revulsion in others (depending upon…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Challenging Naturalist Critiques of

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32503797



hat is needed, then, is a concept of free will that can effectively counter the claims of naturalists that there is no physical basis for free will. It requires a different kind of free will that permits moral responsibility to be leveled squarely at the individual without ignoring the reality that sometimes there are external causes to internal decisions. In fact, some philosophers have even used the conceptual tools of the naturalists to make the argument that free will can exist in a deterministic world. Daniel Dennet argues that the deterministic universe provides the reliable framework of reality by which informed, individual choices can be made (Bailey par. 14-17). ithout some determinism in the universe, it would be impossible for free will to functionally exist, because no one would ever be able to make a rational choice in a purely chaotic world. So free will requires some level of determinism.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bailey, Ronald. "Pulling Our Own Strings." Reason May 2003. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.reason.com/news/show/28782.html.

Clark, Tom. "Is Free Will a Necessary Fiction?" Naturalism.org. Nov. 2005. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.naturalism.org/fiction.html.

D'Holbach, Baron. "We Are Completely Determined." In Philosophy: The Quest for Truth. 6th ed. Ed. Louis P. Pojman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006: 333-338.

Frost, S.E. Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers. New York: Anchor Books, 1989.
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Economics and the Environment Although

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20153535



Meanwhile, Dwight R. Lee (writing in The Independent Review, 2001) points to a situation where a powerful environmental group (Audubon Society) has cooperated with an energy company and both have profited. Free market environmentalism has shown the way for profits and preservation at the same time in this case. The Audubon Society (AS) owns the 26,000-acre Rainey Sanctuary in the swamps of Louisiana, and while the group is opposed to oil drilling and gas drilling in 99 out of 100 cases, the AS has "been willing to accommodate the interests of those whose priorities are different" (Lee, p. 219). Those interests include allowing thirty-seven wells to be exploited for oil and gas in the Rainey Sanctuary.

According to Lee, the AS has received royalties of more than $25 million from those 37 wells, and in the meantime the technology used in the oil and gas development has prevented any spills…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Terry L., and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. New York: Palgrave

Macmillan, 2001.

Lee, Dwight R. "To Drill or Not to Drill: Let the Environmentalists Decide." The Independent

Review, VI.2 (2001): 217-226.
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Ethics in Cell Phone Sales

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52868371



These are subjective values that represent the altruistic view of ethical behavior, and they apply to corporations as well as individuals within the corporations. Thus, the employees of the organization that sell phones to individuals who fit the profile of a terrorist or criminal are acting unethically, and it is the corporation's responsibility to ensure that does not occur. They should require some kind of identification or registration from all customers, and they should maintain the records so they can be searched and identified if necessary. Moral pragmatism demands that the provider use common sense as one of its ethical solutions to problems, and it makes common sense for the provider to require some kind of identification to protect and serve others in the community.

In conclusion, this is a true ethical dilemma in every sense of the words. Ultimately, it seems senseless to allow cell phone companies to sell…… [Read More]

References

Frain, Jonathan. "Call in if You Suspect Terror Threat." The Birmingham Post. 27 Feb. 2008: 6.
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Creative Powers it Is a

Words: 2842 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65825873

Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.

Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.

Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…… [Read More]

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Ethical Communication

Words: 2175 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20242649

Ethical Communication

The Definition of Ethics

In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…… [Read More]

Reference

Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.

Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.

Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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Ethics ACA

Words: 1247 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49422318

The ACA does not by any means fully resolve this, but it makes strides towards addressing this critical issue of morality. The individual mandate is similar -- where the profit of one individual leads to the suffering of another, the suffering takes precedence -- the money is not as important. Not doing harm to others is the more important imperative, so the sacrifice for the greater good in this case would be the moral course of action according to Kant.

Locke

Locke's moral philosophy comprises two parts. The first is natural law, in that there are divine laws, they are obligatory and humans can understand these. The second is more hedonistic, that pleasures and pains serve to "provide morality with its normative force" (Sheridan, 2011). That these two views seem to contrast is well-established and indeed they lead to different interpretations of the key tenets of the Affordable Care Act.…… [Read More]

References

HHS.gov (2014). About the law. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/

Johnson, R. (2008). Kant's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#GooWilMorWorDut 

Sheridan, P. (2011). Locke's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke-moral/
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Economics of Public Choice

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29006812

TAXATION IS THEFT?

When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.

However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money O ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…… [Read More]

References

1) Chris R. Tame: Taxation is Theft, a publication of the Libertarian Alliance: Retrieved online 29th September 2004:  http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/polin/polin044.pdf .

2) Cohen, G.A. 1995. Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3) Mill, John Stuart. 1970 Principles of Political Economy (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.

4) Pollock, Lansing 1996 The Free Society. Westview Press. Boulder.
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Economics of Public Policy

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40440193

Monopolies and Trusts:

Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?

Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…… [Read More]