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This study concerns the Pseudomonas type bacterium strains that have, in recent years, become more of a concern for medical professionals. The primary issue is that several different types of the bacteria, especially pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been shown to have a resistance to many common antibiotics. Another issue with this genus is that it is a very common type of bacteria that naturally occurs in the soil, in plant matter and on humans. Therefore, it has been widely studied, and the dangers of pseudomonas infection have been widely documented.
Using different imaging techniques the infection from pseudomonas aerignosa has been shown in different types of pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, endocarditis, and bone and joint infections. The damage done to different types of tissue shows up on scans as fibrosis, lesions, erosions and other evident deteriorations. The issue is both that this common bacterium can cause significant cellular damage…
Many people believe that bacteria only cause disease and death. This is not technically true. While we have all suffered from some kind of an infection which we are told is caused some noxious form of bacteria, this is just a small part of what bacteria contribute to out lives.
First, it would be well to add a bit of science to be clear about what bacteria are. Defined most correctly, bacteria are a large group of one-celled microorganisms widely distributed in nature. Search any microbiological text book and you will see that there are thousands of different types of bacteria in the world, everywhere around us, although only about two thousand species of bacteria have actually been identified. On the most part, bacteria simply share the world with us and are of no specific harm to any human being. They are remarkable organisms for their simplicity of form,…
No author listed. Bacteria, a definition accessed through Winkipedia, the Free Internet Encyclopedia. (2005) Accessed via the WWW at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria on 4/17/05
No author listed. Domain Bacteria, (2002) accessed via the WWW on 4/17/05 at http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Bacteria/
No author listed. Microbe world; Bacteria (2002) accessed via the WWW on 4/17/05 at http://www.microbeworld.org/htm/aboutmicro/microbes/types/bacteria.htm
Effect of date extract on different types of bacteria
Taxonomy of date
Species: Phoenix dactylifera
Binomial mane: Phoenix dactylifera Linn
The date palm is known in technical terms by its botanical name Phoenix dactylifera. The properties and the composition of the date extract have been noted to have many beneficial effects in medicine as well as domestically. The following paper intends to shed light on the impact of date extracts on the different types of bacteria.
The date palm is botanically dioeciously in nature. It is a medium sized plant that has pinnate leaves and it has approximately 140 to 145 leaflets and these leaflets bears the spines by the petiole. The small yellow colored followers of the date palm are found attached directly to the spikelets that later develops to form the juicy…
Bostoen, Koen. 2005. "A Diachronic Onomasiological Approach to Early Bantu Oil Palm Vocabulary." Studies in African Linguistics 34:113+. Retrieved September 25, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5034944701 ).
Bringeus, Nils-Arvid. 2003. "The Rest on the Flight into Egypt: A Motif in Scandanavian Folk Art." Folklore 114:323+. Retrieved September 25, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006399281 ).
Dandamayev, M.A. 2002. "Das Egibi-Archiv, I: Die Felder Und Garten, 2 Vols." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122:105+. Retrieved September 25, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000841255 ).
Kapp, Dieter B. 1994. "A Collection of Jaffna Tamil Riddles from Oral Tradition." Asian Folklore Studies 53:125+. Retrieved September 25, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000213582 ).
One organism, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), kills approximately 19,000 Americans annually, which is more than HIV / AIDS, Parkinson's disease, emphysema, and homicide combined (5). In the mid-1980s, the incidence of MRSA isolates was close to zero, and by 1998 the incidence of MRSA was approximately 70% in Japan, 40% in Belgium, 30% in the United Kingdom, and 28% in the United States (1). Every year, 2 million Americans obtain hospital-acquired infections, most of which are caused by antibiotic resistant microorganisms, and result in 99,000 deaths (5). In malaria-endemic countries, resistance to earlier anti-malaria medications such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is widespread, which sustains malaria as a significant health threat (2). Antibiotic resistance is relevant in every country, and has the potential to affect all strands of bacteria that are responsible for human infection.
Threat of Antibiotic Resistance
The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is not only a threat to…
1. Smith, R, and J. Coast. "Antimicrobial resistance: a global response." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 80.2 (2002): 126-133. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. .
2. "Antimicrobial Resistance ." World Health Organization. WHO, Mar 2012. Web. 29 Mar 2012. .
3. "How Antibiotic Resistance Happens." Save Antibiotics. The Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming. Web. 29 Mar 2012. .
4. "Gene Transfer Facilitates the Spread of Drug Resistance" Save Antibiotics. The Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming. Web. 29 Mar 2012. .
Psuedomonas aeruginosa: A nosocomial bacteria
Challenges to healthcare
(1) Melaku, S., Gebre-Selassie, S., Damtie, M., and Alamrew, K. (2012) Hospital acquired infections among surgical, gynecology and obstetrics patients in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Med 2012 -- Apr; 50(2): 135-44. Retrieved from PubMed.
Melaku, Gebre-Selassie, Damtie, and Alamrew (2012) report a study with the objective of assessing the prevalence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in Feleg-Hiwot referral hospital. he study is reported to have been conducted among 1383 patients admitted to Surgical and Gynecology-Obstetrics wards during their stay in the hospital for development of infections. Data collected included sociodemographic, underlying disease, and risk factors. hese were investigated using culture, biochemical testing, and gram staining as well as antibacterial sensitivity tests using disc diffusion methods. Results reported state that of the 1383 patients assessed including 333 obstetrics,…
The study reported by Innovative BioDefense Inc. states that studies have demonstrated that Zylast, a line of antimicrobial products has been found after an extensive time-kill testing on the Zylast products that more than 99.9% of disease causing germs were destroyed within 15 seconds, making Zylast the most effective antimicrobial on the market. Stated to be included in the microbacteria that Zylast products are effective against is that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 versions) -- "A dangerous bacteria that thrives on medical equipment and catheters and is a major source of nosocomial infection, this gram-negative bacteria can be fatal if infecting a vital organ." (p.1)
(10) McGeer, A and Fleming, CA (2011) Antimicrobial Resistance in Common Hospital Pathogens in Ontario. Quality Management Program -- Laboratory Services, Department of the Ontario Medial Association. April 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.qmpls.org/Portals/0/Knowledge%20Centre/Antimicrobial%20Resistance%20Report%202011.pdf
The work of McGeer and Fleming (2012) relates that the evolution of resistance in common hospital pathogens in Ontario has been tracked by QMP-LS since 1996. The 16th annual survey was conducted by QMP-LS in January 2012, which assessed the incidence of resistant hospital pathogens in the province in 2011. All 77 currently licensed bacteriology laboratories are reported to have responded. These laboratories provide services for 211 hospitals. It is reported that resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2011 identified "7310/40-110 (18.2%) isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and 3388/39308 (8.6%) resistant to imipenem/meropenem both of which have increased (from 17.7% and 8.1%, respectively) compared to 2010.Twelve laboratories reporting 9797 isolates of P. aeruginosa were not able to provide data for the number of isolates that were resistant to all agents tested." (p.6)
Following standard procedure for Gram staining, a slide was prepared by heat fixing the sample and applying the primary crystal violet stain (Bruckner, 2012). After incubation in the primary stain for a period of one minute, the stain was rinsed under a slow stream of water for four seconds before fixing the remaining dye with Gram's iodine, with immersion in this mordant lasting one minute (Bruckner, 2012). Following this, a second rinse using acetone, again poured in a very slow stream and this time lasting for less than three seconds, removed any non-fixed crystal violet and left behind only the dye fixed within the Gram-positive bacteria of the sample (Carleton, 2012). Safranin was added as a secondary stain and incubation again lasted one minute, with a rinse of four seconds under a slow stream of water occurring before examination of the slide (Carleton, 2012). All observable…
Bruckner, M. (2012). Gram staining. Accessed 28 February 2012. http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/microscopy/gramstain.html
Rossbach, S. (2012). Lab procedures. Accessed 28 February 2012. http://homepages.wmich.edu/~rossbach/bios312/LabProcedures/
Unrein, B. (2008). Clostidium tetani. Accessed 28 February 2012. http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2008/unrein_bren/
The virus genome covered by the capsid penetrates the host cell. Once inside, the virus is uncoated as the envelope and capsid are removed. Free of its covering, the viral genome (DNA or RNA) proceeds with biosynthesis. Newly assembled viral particles are released by budding. Components of viral envelopes (i.e., lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) are obtained from the plasma or nuclear membrane as the viruses leave the cell. Budding does not necessarily kill the host cell.
A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two plus sense RNA molecules, which may or may not be identical. It relies on reverse transcriptase to perform the reverse transcription of its genome from RNA into DNA, which can then be integrated into the host's genome with an integrase. The virus itself is a storage form for its nucleic acid genome as well as a means of delivery of its genome…
Fig 1. Salmonella Bacteria
The first thing to note about Salmonella (seen in Fig. 1) is that it is a bacteria, and therefore a living organism. However the term "Salmonella" is used loosely in daily conversation to specify an illness caused by that bacteria in humans, and in other animals. Most people have some vague recollection of a "salmonella outbreak" caused by a contaminated food supply being reported in the media, and some people may have contracted Salmonellosis, which is technically the name of the human disease. Salmonella is just the organism that causes it. But because Salmonella is a form of life it needs to be understood environmentally, and so I would propose addressing it on each individual environmental level, as specified in this concept map:
Fig 2. CONCEPT MAP DIAGRAM
Life Cycle of Bacteria Effects on Individual Effects on Population
Myths and Rumors Human Costs…
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative germ (bacterium) that typically infects the stomach or duodenum, but can also be found in other parts of the body. This bacterium is very common and it is believed that approximately half of the planet's population has it. Individuals in developing countries are predisposed to it as a consequence of poor sanitary conditions in these areas. The bacteria can typically be found in the inner lining of the stomach and it can lead to conditions like gastritis, ulcer, or even cancer. There are a series of variables that can influence the disease most likely to affect a person, with his or her background playing an important role in the bacteria's development.
People are most commonly infected as a result of eating or drinking foods or liquids that are contaminated. One is also likely to contract the bacteria if he or she interacts with another individual…
"Digestive Disorders Health Center," Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/h-pylori-helicobacter-pylori
"Helicobacter Pylori and Stomach Pain," Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/helicobacter-pylori-and-stomach-pain
microorganism, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, displays a symbiotic relationship with soybean plants. There are different factors that may affect the relationship of this microorganism with plant biomass. These factors may be pH, temperature, the nutrition status and density of soil. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different soil treatments, in different soil types, on nodule formation and the dry weight of the plant. For this purpose, soil samples were collected from three locations, namely, at a forest, near a stream and potted soil. Each sample was then analyzed with a hydrometer and classified to a soil type. The forest soil was of clay loam type, the pot soil was loam soil and the stream sample was loamy sand. The samples were subjected to different treatments, such as sterilization and inoculation. The dry weight and number of nodules on each soil type was measured. esults showed that the…
Evans, J., C, W., & N, D. (2002).Interaction of soil type and temperature on the survival of rhizobium leguminosarum.Soil biology and biochemistry, 25, 1153-1160.
Graham, P., & Caroll, P.V. (2003). Legumes: Importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiology, 131, 872-877.
Jenny, H. (2005). Factors of soil formation . (2 ed., pp. 197-261). NewYork: Dover.
Lindermann, W.C., & C.R, Glover.(2003). Nitrogen fixation by legumes. College of Agriculture and Home Economics, A-12, 1-4. Retrieved from http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_a/a-129.pdf
Bacterial Effects on the Body
Some bacteria produce a toxin that causes a flaccid paralysis, while other bacteria produce a toxin that causes all of the skeletal muscles to contract at the same time. In understanding these effects that such bacteria can have on the human body, one can begin to fully understand the root causes of these bacterial toxins as well as the full extent to which these toxins can cause damage. Additionally, in beginning to understand the processes and complexities of each bacterial effect on the body, one can begin to understand the processes used by the body to repair areas that are damaged, such as the peripheral neuron.
As mentioned, some bacteria produce a toxin that causes flaccid paralysis while others produce a toxin that causes all of the skeletal muscles to contract at the same time. In noting these facts, one can begin to ask the…
Lee, S. And Wolfe, S. (2000). Peripheral nerve injury and repair. Journal of American
Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 8.4: pp. 243-252. Web. [Accessed on 6 December 2011].
Nigam, A. And Nigam, P. (2010). Botulinum toxin. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 55.1:
pp.8-14. Web. [Accessed on 6 December 2011].
Categories of Antimicrobial Agents
Differentiating between viruses and bacterial infections is absolutely critical to give a patient adequate treatment. Antibiotics such as penicillin and its derivatives will not work on a viral infection. Not only are antibiotics ineffective against viruses; they are actually harmful given that overuse of antibiotics can give rise to antibiotic-resistant infections, both in the patient and in society as a whole. Primary care providers are on the front lines of fighting over-prescription of antibiotics and ensuring that antibiotics are prescribed solely for conditions for which they are effective and necessary.
"Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that thrive in many different types of environments" (Steckelberg 2015). While many kinds of bacteria are harmless, some can be very dangerous, such as the bacteria that cause strep throat, tuberculosis, and urinary tract infections (Steckelberg 2015). In contrast, "when a virus enters your body, it invades some of your cells and…
Allen, A. (2011). Chickenpox and shingles: What is the link? Web MD. Retrieved from:
Key facts about seasonal flu vaccine. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from:
hat are toxicants and how do they affect living organisms?
According to Dr. Celine Godard, toxicants and toxins both reference substances that are toxic; however, toxins are made in nature (like in poisonous mushrooms or in the poisonous venom that snakes use to kill their prey) and toxicants are human made (Godard, et al., 2001). Examples of toxicants would be "industrial waste products and pesticides" -- along with pollutants that get into the oceans. In fact pesticide residues (toxicants) are found in the ocean, and Godard's article in the Public Broadcast Service (PBS) is about how the Ocean Alliance is researching the impacts that toxicants have on sperm whales.
Sperm whales are exposed to the pollution (toxicants) that humans allow to flow into the oceans, and the whales have a "layer of fat called blubber" beneath their skins; Godard explains that toxicants accumulate in fatty tissue and so…
Education Portal. (2011). Disease-Causing Agents in the Environment: Definition and Types.
Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://education-portal.com .
Godard, C. (2001). The Toxicant Build-up. KCET / PBS. Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org .
World Health Organization. (2012). Global Climate change and Human Health. Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://www.who.int .
healthy individual is infected with a bacteria or virus, the body identifies the virus as an invader, and therefore produces the antibodies, which is the human body's immune system, to destroy the virus to assist the person to recover and become healthy. Meanwhile, vaccination is the process of stimulating the active immune system to fight disease in the body, and vaccine will boost the body active immunity to fight disease that may come into the body in the future. Through immunization, a child body system will enhance immunity in such a way that when he is in contact with a disease, his immune system will identify the disease as an invader and will produce the antibodies to fight the disease. In essence, active immunity is life-long lasting.
Many countries, especially developing countries, give children vaccination against Polio, Cholera, Yellow fever, Measles, Typhoid fever and other type of diseases. (Heymann, Aylward,…
Armstrong, L.E. Casa, D.J. Maresh, C.M. et al. (2007). The Temperature regulation Caffeine, exercise-heat tolerance and fluid-electrolyte balance, Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 35(3):135-40.
Grant, S.J. Bin, Y.S. Kiat, H. et al. (2012). The use of complementary and alternative medicine by people with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 12:299
Heymann D, Aylward B. (2008). Mass vaccination in public health. In: Heymann D, ed. Control of communicable diseases manual. 19th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
Millard-Stafford, M.L. Cureton, K.J. Wingo, J.E. (2007). Hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions: effect of a caffeinated sports drink. Int J. Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 17(2):163-77.
Environmental concentrations of endotoxins are measured in Endotoxin Units (EU) per m3 (based on biological activity) or ng/m3 (based on chemical activity). There are no strict regulations pertaining to permissible levels of endotoxins in the U.S. As well as the Europe. However, the international commission on occupational health has prescribed levels of endotoxins at which the toxicity is acute. ased on the report released by the commission, at concentrations of 20-50 ng/m3 endotoxin exposure leads to irritation of mucous membrane, at 100-200 ng/m3 acute brocho constriction is reported while very high levels such as 1000-2000 ng/m3 leads to organic dust toxic syndrome. In view of the high risks of occupational exposure several studies have focused on occupational contamination. The results from these studies show that the typical endotoxin concentrations at sewage processing plants, cattle sheds and grain processing units are 0 to 330 ng/m3, 1000 to 10,000…
1) Eliot Epstein, PhD, 'Fact Sheet: Endotoxins', Accessed 26th Mar 2009, Available at, www.compostingcouncil.org/download.php?r=21&f=d6a6ea1ce4192ed082acf6a64bfa1774.pdf
2) NRDC, 'New Orleans Environmental Quality Test Results', Accessed 26th Mar 2009, Available at, http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/katrinadata/endotoxin.asp
3) Smit LA, Spaan S, Heederik D. (2005) Endotoxin exposure and symptoms in wastewater treatment workers. Am J. Ind Med 48:30 -- 9
4) ACC, 'Limulus Amebocyte Lysate-LAL for the detection and Quantitation of Gram negative Bacterial Endotoxins', http://www.acciusa.com/pdfs/accProduct/pisheets/Chromo-LAL%20Insert%20English.pdf
Pathophysiological Bacterial Infections
Pathophysiological Infection refers to the alteration of body functions in response to effects by other living microorganisms such as virus and bacteria (McCance et al., 2009). Pathophysiological Infections occurs in two unique or different forms: viral and bacterial infections. Viral infection affects the entire body of the organism. Common symptoms might include running nose and extensive fever. Bacterial infection in relation to Pathophysiological focuses on infecting one part of the body of the organism. Some of the symptoms of Pathophysiological bacterial Infections include swelling, pain, extensive heat, and redness of the spot of attack. The first approach towards fighting or treatment of Pathophysiological Bacterial Infections starts within the body. This occurs in response to the message of the attack to the immune system. Cytokines perform the role of relaying the message to the immune systems in the body of the organism. Phagocytes and Lymphocytes play a critical…
Clegg HW, et al. (2006). Treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with once-daily compared with twice-daily amoxicillin: a noninferiority trial. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Bowler PG. (2002). Wound pathophysiology, infection and therapeutic options. Ann Med;
34(6):419-27. Review. PubMed PMID: 12523497.
Bacterial or biological warfare is the use of bacteria or viruses to attack an enemy. In the modern time period, people are very concerned about the dangers of bacterial or biological warfare. It would be easier to deliver dangerous and deadly bacteria to a victim than to launch an armed assault. It is because of the ease of distribution and the invisibility of the attacks that germ warfare is so concerning. It is important to note that there is a difference between viruses and bacterium. Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria and viral infections are caused by viruses. The major difference between the two is that antibiotic medication is an effective way to kill bacterial infections, but there is no medication which will kill a viral infection (Steckelberg 2009). So, in the modern moment, a bacterial infection can be cured with the aid of modern medication, but a…
Steckelberg, James M. (2009). "What's the Difference Between a Bacterial Infection and a Viral
Infection?" Mayo Clinic.
Wheelis, Mark (2002). "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa."
Challenges include the ability to identify suitable markers. oth library-dependent and library-independent methods require thorough validation." (Soule, Loge, and Gay, 2007) Challenges are stated to be inclusive of "....the ability to identify suitable markers. oth library-dependent and library-independent methods require thorough validation." (Soule, Loge, and Gay, 2007) it is stated that no matter which method is appointed for MST there are two basic and inherent assumptions to the effectiveness of these methods which include: (1) Host-specificity exists and is detectable; and (2) the proportion of any given marker is constant in the environment: (a) No differential loss; (b) No significant environmental replication; and - No significant environmental reservoirs. (Soule, Loge, and Gay, 2007)
ackground on TMDL Including Components and Calculation and Various Environmental Issues Needing Considerations in Calculating TMDL
The work of Hagedorn (2001) entitled: "acterial Source Tracking Methodology (ST) (2001) Crop and Soil Environmental News March update…
Kern, J., et al. (2002) Bacterial Source Tracking in the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Process. American Society of Agriculture and Biological Engineers. Environmental regulations Proceedings of the March 11-13 2002 Conference, Fort Worth, Texas.
Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) CREES Southern Regional Water Quality Program. The University of Georgia. Online available at http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/B1242-7.pdf.
Bernstein, Brock B, Griffith, J.F., and Weisberg, S.B. (2002) Microbiological Source Tracking Workshop: Workgroup Findings and Recommendations. Online available at: ftp://ftp.sccwrp.org/pub/download/DOCUMENTS/TechnicalReports/363_mst_workshop_document.pdf
Soule, Marilyn, Loge, Frank and Gay, John (2007) Microarray Lab - Microbial Source Tracking, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology (VMP) Washington State University. Online available at http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/research_vmp/MicroArrayLab/Webpages/MST.asp
Commensal Bacterial and Obesity
Link Between Commensal Bacteria And Obesity
Link between Commensal Bacteria and Obesity
Link between Commensal Bacteria and Obesity
A global obesity epidemic is having a major impact on the healthcare costs of developed nations (Brody, 2011). For example, the annual healthcare cost of obesity in the U.S. is estimated to be $150 billion (Hurt, Kulisek, Buchanan, and McClave, 2010). This epidemic has been blamed on a powerful fast food and beverage industry, the comparatively low cost and convenience of these foods, and the increased prevalence of sedentary lifestyles. Another less obvious cause may be western medicine. This essay will describe the role western medicine may be playing in promoting an obesity epidemic.
The Human Microbiome
An adult human body contains approximately 60 to 90 trillion cells (Iyer, n.d.), but the bacterial contribution is 10 times that number (Ackerman, 2012). While most of the bacteria…
Ackerman, Jennifer. (2012, June). The ultimate social network. Scientific American, 306(6), 36-43.
Brody, Jane E. (2011, Sep. 12). Attacking the obesity epidemic by first figuring out its cause. New York Times, p. D7.
Hurt, Ryan T., Kulisek, Christopher, Buchanan, Laura A., and McClave, Stephen A. (2010). The obesity epidemic: Challenges, health initiatives, and implications for gastroenterologists. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 6(12), 780-792.
Iyer, Shyamala. (n.d.). Building blocks of life. Ask a Biologist. Retrieved 24 Sep. 2012 from http://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/building-blocks-life .
Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria and viral infections are caused by viruses and though the symptoms of these infections may seem similar, the causes are different—which means that treating them will also require unique methods. The categories of antimicrobial agents include antibacterial drugs, antifungal drugs, antiviral agents and antiparasitic drugs. A common antibacterial drug is Zithromax which will stop the pathogenesis of the bacteria. A common antiviral drug is Tamiflu, which will stop the pathogenesis of the virus. These two types are most commonly used by patients who are looking to address an infection.
But what makes viral and bacterial infections different aside from the agents causing the infection? As Steckleberg (2017) notes, bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that live in the body—some are good but others are bad. Viruses are even smaller than bacteria: they are like hostile takeover agents because they actually invade cells and cause…
Pannek, J., Kurmann, C., Imbach, E., Amsler, F., & Pannek-Rademacher, S. (2018). In Vitro Effects of Homeopathic Drugs on Cultured Escherichia coli. Homeopathy, 107(02), 150-154.
Steckelberg, J. (2017). Bacterial vs. viral infection. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/infectious-diseases/expert-answers/infectious-disease/faq-20058098
Suarez, N. M., Bunsow, E., Falsey, A. R., Walsh, E. E., Mejias, A., & Ramilo, O. (2015). Superiority of transcriptional profiling over procalcitonin for distinguishing bacterial from viral lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized adults. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 212(2), 213-222.
Bacterial Cross-Contamination and Patient's Charts
IS THEE ANY CONNECTION BETWEEN BACTEIAL COSS-CONTAMINATION AND PATIENTS' CHATS?
Is there any connection between bacterial cross-contamination and patients' charts?
With recent interventions in nursing standards, there is an increasing emphasis on care which requires to be taken by the nursing and surgical staff while handling patient's charts an also other equipments which are prone to bacterial cross contamination. Failure to adhere to such standards can have fatal effects not only on the health of nursing staff but may also endanger other patients as well. Where more emphasis has been levied on bacterial cross-contamination present and evidenced on surgical instruments, there does lies a need to study similar impacts on patient's charts as well which are widely handled in normal treatment as well surgical procedures as well where the chances of cross-contamination are largely extensive.
Where there are various studies to support the very idea…
Harrison WA, et al. (2003). Bacterial transfer and cross-contamination potential associated with paper-towel dispensing. Am J. Infect Control 2003; 31(7):387-91.
Hubner, N., Hubner, C., Kramer, A., & Assadian, O. (2011). Survival of bacterial pathogens on paper and bacterial retrieval from paper to hands, American Journal of Nursing, 111 (12). pp. 30-34
Panhotra, B.R., Saxena, A.K. & Al-Mulhim, A.S. (2005). Contamination of patients' files in intensive care units: An indication of strict hand washing after entering case notes, American Journal of Infection Control, 33(7), pp. 398-401, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2004.12.009
Teng SO, et al. (2009). Bacterial contamination of patients' medical charts in a surgical ward and the intensive care unit: impact on nosocomial infections. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2009; 42(1):86-91. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19424563
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
The epidemiology of Microbacterium hatanis is unknown at this time (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). However, researchers have found similar bacteria to infect humans and are concerned with what impact Microbacterium hatanis will have. For this reason, researchers will conduct additional testing to determine if the new species poses a health threat and, if so, researchers will make recommendations for new hairspray formulations to prevent future contamination.
The discovery of Microbacterium hatanonis is significant because contamination of cosmetic products has previously been thought to be rare. This new species in hairspray will no doubt lead to further research in this area, especially since Microbacterium hatanonis can grow in an environment which is pH neutral and 30°C, the environment common in the manufacturing of may commercial cosmetic products (Contaminated hairspray, 2008). Hairspray, with its high alcohol content, had not seemed to provide the ideal conditions for life…
Bakir, M.A., Kudo, T. And Benno, Y. (2008). Microbacterium hatanonis sp. nov., isolated as a contaminant of hairspray. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58, 654-658; DOI 10.1099/ijs.0.65160-0. Retrieved at http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/3/654
Contaminated hairspray. (2008, March 9). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved at http://science.kukuchew.com/tag/microbacterium-hatanonis/
New Species of Bacteria Contaminates Hairspray (2008, March 9). ScienceDaily. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080307110337.htm
Lac Operon Genetics
Practical 2. Analysis of wild type and lac operon mutant strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli
Complete the results tables below using the data you obtained in the practical.
Describe the size, colour and eosin sheen of the colonies on the EMB plates in Table 1 below.
Large colonies purple
Strong eosin sheen
Large colonies purple
Weak eosin sheen
Small colonies pink
No eosin sheen
Small colonies pink
No eosin sheen
Fill in the fluorescence results for NA+glu and NA+lac in Table 2 below.
NA+glu within 1 minute of MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
NA+lac within 1 minute of MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
* Record the degree of fluorescence as (-) or (+) or (++) or (+++). Where…
Clostridium perfringens or as it is more commonly called C. perfringens, formerly known as C. welchii , is a bacterium which is part of the genus Clostridium. It is a common bacterium which occurs naturally and is subsequently
found all over the world (Ryan). Like many bacteria, it is most often found in decaying matter such as dead plants, animals, and insects. It can also be found in living matter, such as the intestines of infected human beings. In addition, the bacteria can survive in environments with very little oxygen present. Infection from C. perfringens can be very dangerous to people who contract it. It is defined as, "Clostridium perfringens is a pathogenic species of Clostridium that causes a wide range of disease in humans -- from a limited gastroenteritis to a myonecrosis termed gas gangrene" (Nanney). C. perfringens is most often found in ill-cooked food matter or in fecal…
Borland, Sophie & Sinmaz, Emine. "They Sent Her Home and She Lay in My Arms Dying:
Husband's Anger at Hospital and Pub After his Wife Dies from Suspected Christmas Day Food Poisoning." Daily Mail. UK: Associated Newspapers, 2013. Print.
CDC. "CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"Clostridium Perfringens." U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. N.p., 2013. 6 April.
Welcome aboard the SS William Harvey! As you well know the human body is a complex system of intricate cells that work together to maintain a perfect and efficient environment on which an individual can thrive. Two systems in the human body that work together to ensure that a human individual remains healthy are the circulatory and the cardiopulmonary systems. Working in conjunction with each other, these systems help with the transportation of gasses, nutrients, and hormones to different organs within the human body. While the intricate mazes that make up the different systems in the human body may confuse some individuals, finding one's way from the femoral vein in the circulatory system to the lungs is not as complicated as it sounds.
Join us as we embark on this Fantastic Voyage through the human body as we visit and discover new cells and organs of the human…
Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
How does the body fight infections? (n.d.). WiseGeek. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/how-does-the-human-body-fight-infections.htm
Inner Body. (2011). All systems. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
Tests are therefore conducted to examine if there is a presence of S. aureus that caused the illness and if the bacteria is or can be recognised as a potential source for food poisoning (Bennet & Lancette, 2001). One such test is known under the name of Direct Plate Count Method as it was illustrated by Bennet and Lancette, generally requiring a step-by-step procedure involving a. Equipment and materials, B. Media and reagents, C. Preparation of sample, D. Isolation and enumeration of S. aureus, E. coagulase test, F. ncillary tests, and G. Knowledge of some typical characteristics of species of staphylococci and micrococci (Bennet & Lancette, 2001).
fter considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy gar (TS) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. lso, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of…
After considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. Also, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of food.
In cases of antibiotic resistance, the issue is first and perhaps foremost of hygiene. Afterwards it is an issue of people having to take antibiotics only when necessary. Of course, these are preventive measures that generally are required from individuals. Overcoming antibiotic resistance has taken a new approach as exemplified by Levy (2002) and it consists of trasferring the resistance genes into other bacteria through several genetic means (p. 26). Of the three adoptive methods, it seems the latter, that of DNA released of dead bacteria and incorporated into new strains has also proved efficient in resisting among pneumococci and Haemophilus spp. (Levy, 2002, p. 26)
For determining antibiotic resistance a few sensitive testing methods exist: dilution methods, disk diffusion method, E-test, automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems, mechanism-specific tests, and genotypic
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…
CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
Washing and Use of Testosterone:
The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:
Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…
Angkadjaja, S. (2012). What Makes Antibacterial Soap Antibacterial? Retrieved from Illumin
University of Southern California website: http://illumin.usc.edu/printer/68/what-makes-antibacterial-soap-antibacterial/
Singer, N. (2006, August 10). Does Testosterone Build A Better Athlete? The New York Times.
Retrieved December 4, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/10/fashion/10Fitness.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Gram Staining Lab
The Gram staining of bacteria is one of the most important tests in identifying specific bacterial strains, and is usually the first test performed when medical or research laboratories need to identify an unknown bacteria (Xu, 1997; AACC, 2011). Named for the inventor of the technique, Hans Christian Gram, Gram staining first came into use in Gram's own Danish medical and research practice in 1882, and became very widely known and used after the details of the technique were published in 1884 (Xu, 1997). Though some adjustments can be made to the original technique without losing effectiveness, the basic process of Gram staining has remained unchanged for over a century, and is as effective and essential a test today as it was in the latter half of the nineteenth century (Xu, 1997).
Simply put, the Gram staining test often (though not always) allows the researcher…
AACC. (2011). Gram Stain. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Accessed 14 September 2011. http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/gram-stain/tab/test
Xu, G. (1997). Gram stain. University of Pennsylvania Health System. Accessed 14 September 2011. http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/bugdrug/antibiotic_manual/gram.htm
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…
Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.cryonet.org
Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl
Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.bact.wisc.edu
Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at http://www.plantstress.com
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…
Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx
Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short
Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/
Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.
Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…
Aida, K., Chibata, L. Nakayama, K., Takinami, K., and Yamada, K. 1986. Biotechnology of Amino Acid Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 215.
Ajinomoto Company, Inc. 1996. Production process of amino acids. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Tokyo, Japan: Ajinomoto Company, Inc.
Blue Diamond. 2004. History of MSG. Facts About MSG. Obtained October 18, 2004 from Direct Food Ingredients, LTD. Web site: http://www.directfood.net/bluediamond/history.asp .
DeSilva, F.J. 1997. Removing organics with ion exchange resin. Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine, 2, p. 5-8.
Penicillin focuses on the miraculous discovery of Alexander Fleming in the world of medicine called the Penicillin. This paper illustrates the process of discovery of this drug and outlines the various advantages it has caused not only to people but the society as well. This paper also emphasizes on the side effects of antibiotics but also proves how this may prove to be beneficial for many researchers, doctors and scientists.
One of the most brilliant knowledge advances of this century - as great as the computer, as great as the abolition of natural racial inferiority and growing awareness of spaceship earth, has been the conquest of infectious diseases. Drugs are thousands of years old. Neolithic, perhaps even paleolithic shamans and medicine men and women knew the curative powers of many plants. The ability of alcohol, in wine, beer and stronger liquors, to make life seem better than it really…
Mary B. The History Of Penicillin. 2003. Available on the address http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpenicillin.htm . Accessed on 22 Nov.
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Micro-Organism: Syghella dysenteriae
Genus: Shigella (Castellani and Chalmers 1919)
Type species: Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga 1897) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980)
Gammaproteobacteria, from the family of enterobacteriaceae (GBIF.org)
Gram-negative, non-acid-fast bacilli; no spores, no capsules; non-motile; do not posses flagella, rod-shaped bacteria (Todar, 008-01)
Picture was obtained from Sciencephoto Library
According to the national Institute of Health, "Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery"
Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S., but it causes epidemics in the developing countries (Todar, 008-01)
Shigella dysenteriae is one of the four species of Shigella, also known as group A (World Health Organization, 005).
The microorganism produces a toxin called Shiga toxin (Bhunia, 007). I causes shigellosis, characterized by bacillary dysentery (mucoid bloody stool).
Shigella micro-organisms are present in soil and water. They will become infective only in the presence of the "invasion plasmid…
"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."
E. coli Outbreak:
There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…
Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.
Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
The stream of electrons passing through the external circuit generates a flow of electricity (Greer).
But, it's Geobacter's unique abilities that have allowed the reality of useful MFCs to come to fruition.
In the past, other microbes used for MFCs only converted a small percentage of the electrons available in their food into electricity. Geobacter processes electrons differently from other microbes though. Instead of transferring the electron byproducts into oxygen, Geobacter transfers their excess electrons to alternative electron acceptors, which makes them very efficient in transferring this power to the anode of an MFC.
Lovley had deemed this type of organism an "electricigen" and notes that Geobacter often converts 90% of the available electrons in their metabolic process (qtd. Greer).
In addition to this increased efficiency, Geobacter also eliminates the need for electron mediators needed when other microbes are utilized for MFCs. These artificial compounds are used to promote electron…
About Geobacter. 2008. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008 http://www.geobacter.org/.
Bacteria May Be Wiring Up the Soil." Nature. 26 Sept. 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008 http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-09-26-nature.pdf.
Davis, R. "Little Geobacter Still Sparks Discoveries After 20 Years." The Greenfield Reorder. 15 June 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008. http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-06-15-greenfieldrecorder.pdf.
Green Energy." Time. 30 Aug 2007. Geobacter.org. December 4, 2008. http://www.geobacter.org/press/2007-08-30-time.pdf.
Oral Hygiene Methodology
There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…
Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.
Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf
Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.
Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
Shoot architecture enhances photosynthesis largely by maximizing the ability of the plant to get sunlight. Obviously light is the crucial resource in photosynthesis, but different plants obtain the resource in different ways. For example, the basic arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (known as "phyllotaxy") is different for every species of plant -- however, in all of these cases the plant has evolved so that the emergence of leaves does not block the available light for leaves above or below. The evolutionary reason for this should be obvious: as leaves exist purely to facilitate photosynthesis, the production of leaves that underperform due to inadequate access to sunlight would be a waste of the plant's resources. We can also see the evolutionary imperative expressed in leaf size: in cold or dry environments without much access to liquid water, the leaf size is drastically shrunken in an attempt to…
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).
The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…
Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.
Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.
Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.
Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
Instrumentation needed for the research study will be relatively minimal and straightforward; necessary equipment for a standard checkup to determine cardiovascular health and other basic signs of chronic disease as well as scrapers, swabs, and vials for the collection of bacterial samples will be needed. It is possible that culturing of the bacterial samples will be desired, in which case additional instruments and controlled environment equipment will also be needed for the full completion of the study. In order to assess the exclusionary criteria related to weight, a standard scale and height ruler will need to be utilized along with caliper measurements to determine body mass index. Other than this and the instruments necessary for recording and analyzing the data collected using these instruments, it is not expected that any other resources will be necessary for this research study.
ollowing initial measurements to determine suitability for inclusion in…
Following these general examinations and the more extensive examinations of cardiovascular health, specifically identified areas in participants' mouths will be variously swabbed or scraped to obtain bacteria samples, and levels of bacteria in these areas and in the mouth as a whole will be measured using a variety of techniques. If necessary, the bacteria collected through this direct methodology will be cultured in an appropriate lab setting using standard equipment, with twenty-four hours being sufficient time for the culture to grow to be identifiable in most instances. Examination of bacteria types, growth patterns in the mouth, and correlation with cardiovascular disease will be identifiable with the data collected via these methods, enabling appropriate analysis and a determination of correlation.
The latest available version of SPSS software operated by an experienced statistician, under the observation and supervision of the lead researcher, will be utilized to analyze the raw data collected in this study. Specifically, regression analyses will be utilized in order to determine the correlation, if any, that exists between the existence of certain types or levels of bacteria in the mouth or in certain areas of the mouth and cardiovascular disease. The Mann-Whitney test will also be used to determine which if any variables are statistically different between the participant group with cardiovascular disease and those without. Again, this is in keeping with similarly designed studies already successfully completed (Johansson et al. 2008).
Because some children have developed brain damage after the immunizations, some parents are concerned that the vaccine is responsible for neurologic impairment, however research does not indicate a definitive link between the pertussis vaccine and brain damage, although research is still ongoing (hooping 2005). Yet, as a precaution, children with a history of seizures or brain disorders may not be proper candidates for the DTaP vaccine (hooping 2005).
2001 study revealed that pertussis was the cause of chronic cough in 19.9% of the patients studied. Once a disease that ravaged children worldwide, whooping cough is once again on the rise (Green 2002). Today, approximately 300,000 children worldwide die every year from whooping cough, usually in areas where immunization rates are low (Green 2002). Nonetheless, even in the United States, where immunization rates are high, roughly 1 out of every 200 babies who get whooping cough will die from it, another…
Green, Alan. (2002). Pertussis. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.drgreene.com/21_1155.html
Whooping Cough. (2005). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whooping-cough/DS00445/DSECTION=3
Whooping Cough. (2006). MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/whoopingcough.html
Whooping cough a continuing problem. (2002, June 29). British Medical Journal.
First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…
Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.
Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
ESBLs Prevention and Education
Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers (ESBLs) are antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can colonize internally before spreading and/or present as infections that are very difficult to treat du to the protective nature of the ESBL substance itself (AHS, n.d.; CARA, n.d.). ESBL is capable of breaking down antibiotics and thus protecting the producing bacteria, allowing them to continue to thrive and reproduce despite the administering of traditional treatments. For this reason, prevention of such infections is of paramount importance, yet practices that effectively work towards such prevention are not as widespread as would be desirable (AHS, n.d.; Durham, 2006). The following education plan aims to address identified knowledge needs and so reduce rates of ESBLs infections and their negative effects on patient outcomes.
Knowledge Needs Assessment
Though the nursing staff examined for this education project is well qualified and highly educated, there is a definite lack of knowledge regarding…
In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.
hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?
hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…
Aldis, W., Braden, C.R., Chunsuttiwat, S., Olsen, S.J., Ueno, K., and Ungchusak, K. (2007).
The need for global planned mobilization of essential medicine: lessons from a massive Thai botulism outbreak. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(3), 238-241.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). There are three main kinds of botulism.
Retrieved July 4, 2012, from http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/botulism/factsheet.asp .
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I walked into my office at 8:00 AM with an empty mind. I was worried about the transmission that I needed to air in two days. When my boss asked me that morning about what the transmission would be, I lied and said, "Let that be a surprise!" I quickly logged online for ideas. Just then, I was interrupted by a man who wanted to speak to me. Annoyed at his persistent nagging, I grabbed my camera and decided to follow him to where he wanted to take me. During our ride, he asked me the most bizarre question, "can you film inside a patient? The doctors can't seem to understand what's going on in her body." My reaction was rather quick and loud, "Are you insane?" He pointed to a medium sized box in his backpack, "Whenever you're ready!"
He escorted me to…
Hansen, J.T., Koeppen, B.M., & Netter, F.H. (2002). Netter's atlas of human physiology. (5th ed., p 246 -249) Teterboro, N.J: Icon Learning Systems.
Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Fausto, N. (2010) Robbins Basic Pathology. (8th ed., p 25-60) Philadelphia: Saunders.
Chemical and Biological Terroism
Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention
The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.
Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…
Khan, A. Levitt, A. Sage, M. (2000). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. 7-19. Retrieved From http://www.southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/download/epi/mmwr-plan.pdf
Ashraf H. European dioxin-contaminated food crisis grows and grows [news]. Lancet
Khan, A. Swerdlow, D. Juranek, D. (2001) Precautions Against Biological and Chemical Terrorism directed at Food and Water Supplies. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497290/pdf/11571403.pdf
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, And Prevention
Acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, but in the United States the most common cause is the norovirus (CDC, 2012b). The norovirus contributes to 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year, but unless a person is elderly, very young, severely ill, or immunocompromised, most people suffer only minor symptoms. Since the estimated U.S. health care burden of norovirus infections around $2 billion annually (CDC, 2012a), this report will examine what is known about norovirus etiology and how these infections can be prevented.
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention
The norovirus belongs to the virus family Caliciviridae and contains a single-stranded NA genome encased within an envelope-free protein isocahedral capsid (Morillo and Timenetsky, 2011). Based on recent sequencing information, noroviruses can be grouped into five genogroups: G1, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV. Only GI, GII, and GIII infect…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
United States or Europe but there are a few outliers. First off, Sharma et al. (2013) is written from an Indian perspective. Further, Salmon et al. (2014) directly references Vietnamese hospitals but is written in a clearly labeled American journal while Zaragoza et al. (1999) and its study was set in Barcelona. Girou et al. (2002) appears in a British journal. Zaragoza et al. is in an American Journal. The basic comparison that is prevalent in all of the journal articles at one level or another is the comparison in results and cleanliness between traditional soap scrub downs and alcohol-based solutions being used in those same scrubbing sessions. The comparisons being made were based on the efficacy of the hand-washing solution, the time it took to do each washing solution and so forth. For example, Chow et al. (2012) looked at both. It actually compared three protocols in total, those…