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but, she learned this only functioned as a step on the way toward the wider process. Once more proactive strategies were resumed, techniques such as allowing Max to have a choice of which chores he could choose from helped, as well as did requesting him to complete chores within a couple days time, as opposed to now.
From here, more predictable requests allowed Max to anticipate what would be asked of him, and, eventually, gave him the ability to do a chore before having to be asked, thereby taking him away from the situation and setting which instigated the outbursts of anger. Also, by asking Max to complete a series of ever-so minor tasks, a pattern of success was established, making him more open to the completion of a more involved chore.
Overall, ABA in this context functioned on numerous levels, most of all as a means of simplifying the…
1. Baer, Wolf, Risley. (1968) Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97 (Number 1, Spring 1968)
2. Maag J.W. And Kemp S.E. (2003). Behavioral Intent of power and affiliation: implications for functional analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (1), 57-65.
3. McEvoy, a and Welker, R. (2000) Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate: A critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
" (Krapels, 2007) it is additionally related "For the futures-only report, spreading measures the extent to which each non-commercial traders holds equal long and short futures positions. For the options-and-futures-combined report, spreading measures to the extent to which each non-commercial trader holds equal combined-long and combined-short positions." (CFTC, as cited in Krapels, 2007) Krapels states that there are areas where dismissal of causation should not be the projectory in keeping them consistent with normal economic analysis which include: (1) perfect storm episodes because there is a likelihood of time periods when the physical energy market condition and the trading strategies of financial market participants are aligned so well that the result is 'herding' or 'bubbles' or their opposite, crashes; and (2) Variations on the market power syndrome in which it is possible that the positions of some market participants - index funds as one example - are so large as…
Johnson, Toni (2007) Oil Market Volatility. 10 Dec 2007 Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/15017/
Krapels, Edward N. (2007) Financial Energy Markets and the Bubble in Energy Prices: Does the Increase in Energy Trading by Index and Hedge Funds Affect Energy Prices? Testimony Before a Joint Heating of the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Homeland Security and the Governmental Affairs and the Subcommittee on Energy of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. 11 Dec. 2007 Online available at http://hsgac.senate.gov/_files/STMTKRAPELASEdward.pdf
Caruso, Guy F. (2007) EIA Short=-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook. Energy Information Administration. DOE/NASEO 2007/08 Winter Fuels Outlook Conference 9 Oct 2007. Washington D.C. Online available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/presentations/2007/winterfuels2007/winterfuels2007_files/frame.html
Levin, Carl and Coleman, Norm (2007) Excessive Speculation in the Natural Gas Market. United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations- Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. June-July Hearings 2007. Online available at http://hsgac.senate.gov/_files/062507Report.pdf
Leadership & Organizational Behavior
Analysis of Leadership Theory and Organizational Behavior Theory
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the servant leadership theory and organizational behavior theory. The first part of the paper is focused on a description of the features of both theories. The second part seeks to point out how both theories are interrelated.
Main discussion of servant leadership theory
a) Definition: Servant leadership is a form of leadership where the leader places followers' interests above his own. The motive of the servant leader's influence is not to direct others but rather motivate and facilitate service and stewardship by the followers themselves. Followers' service to others and stewardship of organizational resources could be construed as organizational citizenship behavior (Vondey (2010), p. 5).
b) Characteristic Features: The servant leader experiences himself as a servant to employees, customers and community as the number one priority. He makes sure that…
Ang, S. & van Dyne, L. & Begley, T.M. (2003). The employment relationship of foreign workers vs. local employees: a field study of organizational justice, job satisfaction, performance, and OCB. J. Organiz. Behav. 24, 561-583.
Masterson, S.S. & Stamper, C.L. (2003). Perceived organizational membership: an aggregate framework representing the employee-organization relationship.
J. Organiz. Behav. 24, 473-490.
Spears, L. (2004). Practicing servant-leadership. Leader To Leader, No. 34, Fall 2004,
For the military unit, the defining of specific rank, role and responsibility is the critical catalyst in the structure that makes integrative tasks accomplishable, leading to synergy across the organization. For the musician, their role, responsibility and status as defined by chair in the symphony is also the catalyst of how well synergy of effort can take place. The socio-economic value of each of these organizations is entirely dependent on how well, to the individual role, responsibility and mastery level, each contributor is prepared to deliver values and coordinate efforts. The ability of an organization to become a living system is dependent on how well the roles, responsibilities, expectations and position in the internal ecosystem are defined (Allee, 2009). The leaders of these comparable organizations have a responsibility to enable a consistently high level of autonomy, mastery and purpose for each member of these living organisms so they may continue…
Verna Allee. (2009). Value-creating networks: organizational issues and challenges. The Learning Organization, 16(6), 427-442.
Noruzi, M., & Hernandez, J.. (2010). An Exploration of Partnerships, Coalitions, Sole and Trans-organizational Systems in the Current Turbulent Environment. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(1), 33-53.
William E. Schneider. (2000). Why good management ideas fail: the neglected power of organizational culture. Strategy & Leadership, 28(1), 24-29.
Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism
Applied Behavior Analysis & Autism
Reichow, B. And Wolery, M. (2008, June). Comprehensive synthesis of early intensive behavioral interventions for young children with autism based on the UCLA Young Autism Project model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 23-41. DOI 10.1007/s10803-008-0596-0
The use of applied behavior analysis as a treatment intervention for young children with autism is a frequently used and applauded model. The researcher most commonly associated with applied behavior analysis is Ivar Lovaas of the University of California at Los Angeles. Lovaas work with applied behavior analysis, commonly referred to as ABA, began in the 1960s. Eventually, Lovaas work culminated in the establishment of the early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs for young children with autism independent of UCLA, but which were based on Lovaas' Young Autism Project (YAP). A comprehensive review of 10 intervention programs by the Committee on Educational Interventions…
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) & Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
The work of Cummings and Carr (2009) entitled "Evaluating Progress in Behavioral Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Via Continuous and Discontinuous Measurement" reports a study that conducted an examination of the effect of two sets of data collected on skill acquisition and maintenance in behavioral treatment programs for children with autism spectrum disorders in terms of the influence of two frequencies that are differentiated.
Methodology & Data Collection/Analysis
It is reported that the provision of "behavior-analytic treatment" that is intensive in nature has been found to "produce substantial improvements in the repertoires of children with autism spectrum disorders." (Cummings and Carr, 2009, p.57) Cummings and Carr report that two approaches that are of a "disparate" nature "have emerged in the autism treatment community. In continuous measurement systems, it is reported, "data regarding learner responding and prompt level are recorded…
Cummings, Anne R. And Carr, James E. (2009) Evaluating Progress in Behavioral Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Via Continuous and Discontinuous Measurement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. No.1 Spring 2009. 42, 57-71.
Target Behavior and ABA
A target behavior, according to Volpe, DiPerna, Hintze and Shapiro (2005), should give an accurate description and definition of the behavior; it should also be positive and have boundaries. The target behavior identified for this study is for the autistic child to obey verbal commands. The method used to define this target and to assess treatment are several: rating scales, observation, IQ tests as well as "the social-cultural-physical environment" in which the child lives, can all be utilized (Ollendick, Cerny, 2010, p. 33).
Internal, external and social validity are ways to determine the nature of the target behavior and the experiment surrounding it. Internal validity is when a cause-and-effect relationship is determined between the independent and the dependent variables. The way an experiment is designed will help to identify if the case has internal validity, though there might also be unanticipated factors impacting the results that…
Mohammadzaheri, F., Koegel, L., Rezaee, M., Rafiee, S. (2014). A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal response treatment (PRT) and structure applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(11): 2769-2777.
Ollendick, T., Cerny, J. (2010). Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children. NY: Plenum
Volpe, R., DiPerna, J., Hintze, J., Shapiro, E. (2005). Observing students in classroom
Applied Behavioral Analysis & Autism
Applied Behavioral Analysis of Autism and Severe Intellectual Disability
Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism: A eview
The study conducted by Sheinkopf and Siegel exposes serious gaps in autism treatment knowledge rather than coming to specific conclusions about the effectiveness of home-based behavioral treatment (1998). The primary outcome of the study was the finding of positive therapeutic effects when treatment was implemented in the affected children's homes, outside the more closely controlled setting of an academic research center. It effectively showed that home-based behavior treatment for children with autism is plausible and appears to have a positive impact on the children's IQ and symptomatology. The study methodology, however, was compromised by a number of significant limitations and biases.
The largest limitation of the study consists of its failure to effectively isolate variables. The positive outcome of the study, therefore, cannot be attributed to…
1. Sheinkopf SJ, Siegel B. (1998). Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 1, 15-23.
2. Osborne LA, McHugh L, Saunders J, Reed P. (2008). Parenting Stress Reduces the Effectiveness of Early Teaching Interventions for Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1092-1103.
3. Sawyer MG, Bittman M, La Greca AM, Crettenden AD, Harchak TF, Martin J. (2010). Time Demands of Caring for Children with Autism: What are the Implications for Maternal Mental Health? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 620-628.
4. Rickards AL, Walstab JE, Wright-Rossi RA, Simpson J, Reddihough DS. (2007). A Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Home-Based Intervention Program for Children with Autism and Developmental Delay. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 308-316.
FedEx was founded by Fred Smith, an ex-Marine who served in Vietnam, and the company retains strong elements of military culture (Smith, 2008). The company fosters its culture in several ways -- in the training process, through corporate lore, and through communications between different levels. As a result, FedEx has a fairly strong corporate culture. They have, however, had challenges in the past when growing via acquisition. Sometimes the acquired company does not adjust well to the FedEx culture, and this happened most prominently with the acquisition of Kinko's, a company that had a dramatically different culture (Goldgeier, 2007). This paper will examine the organizational behavior at FedEx, where it pertains to both the company's culture and its organizational design.
Type of Culture
The culture at FedEx was formed in its early days. There are two major influences. The first is the military culture that founder Fred Smith brought with…
Goldgeier, D. (2007) A ream of culture clashes at FedEx Kinko's. AdPulp. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.adpulp.com/a_ream_of_cultu/
Riley, G. (2012). Motivation theory -- Maslow. Tutor2U.net. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_maslow.asp
Smith, F. (2008). What the Marine Corps taught me can be seen every day at FedEx. Proceedings, U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from https://www.usni.org/userfiles/file/%20Sept/ATC%20Sept%2008.pdf
Thornton, B. (2012). Melting pots and salad bowls. Hoover Institution. Retrieved March 12, 2014 fro http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/132541
Isolation from other students
Wadding up paper
Drawing on desk
Complains of stomach ache
How Behaviors Are Currently Addressed
Introduce child to other peers
Taking away paper
Putting in corner
Taking away pencils
Not allowing child access to markers or pens
Keeping child busy
Category (Internalizing or Externalizing)
Pull aside and talk
Introduce group work
Explain about boundaries
Provide art tools
Introduce a hands-on lesson
Provide visual aids
Perform a reading group lesson
Give an art class
Call for a counselor
10. Call parent-teacher meeting
Externalizing behaviors like fighting, non-compliance, talking out are all externalizing behaviors (Cicchetti, 2015). While externalizing behaviors are easy to identify, internalizing behaviors are sometimes hard to identify unless a student talks about his or…
Cicchetti, D. (2015). Developmental Psychopathology, Volume One, Theory and Method. John Wiley & Sons.
Columbus, F. & Shohov, S. (2001). Advances in psychology research. New York: Nova Science.
Erjavec and Horne (2008) investigated the determinants of imitation in children. The general view, according to the authors, is that imitation is a function that is established early in human development and that makes possible the acquirement of important behavioral repertoires like verbal behavior that are exclusively human. There appears to be disagreement to if the propensity towards imitation in humans is innate or learned; however, the process of learning imitation is also of interest to researchers and several different models abound. The researchers used an accepted procedure of training infants in a baseline modeling phase of the same four behaviors with continuous reinforcement and then a 50% V2 intermittent reinforcement schedule and then interspersing the baseline matching behaviors with unreinforced target behaviors. The dependent measure was the accuracy of the imitation of the target behaviors, whereas several independent variables were used including the age of the children (there were…
Erjavec, M., & Horne, P.J. (2008). Determinants of imitation of hand-to-body gestures in 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 89, 183 -- 207.
Rigal, R. (1994). Right-left orientation: Development of correct use of right and left terms. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 1259 -- 1278.
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…
This claim is supported by other researchers cited in the work including Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery (1996).
The applied behavioral and positive behavior approach developed by Symon considers individual and family needs for patients with autism as part of the larger system and factors that might influence a child's behaviors, in order to develop more comprehensive support interventions.
The author supports use of applied behavioral analysis procedures where parents would work with their children via a clinic or at home in a controlled setting that encourages one-on-one interaction. The role of the parent in this situation would be to present children with "a variety of discrete instructional tasks" that would require on-step commands. The child participating would be rewarded for giving correct responses and punished for not giving correct ones, in order to train children to respond to different commands and reinforcing positive behavior.
The approach suggested by the…
Schoen, Alexis a. "What Potential Does the applied Behavior Analysis Approach Have for the Treatment of Children and Youth with Autism?" Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), (2003):125
Symon, Jennifer B. "Parent education for autism: Issues in providing services at a distance." Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(3), (2001):160
Applied Behavior Analysis
Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.
Outcomes and New Learning
Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'
Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
Organizational Behavior Analysis
Explored here will be a former employer, whose culture and method of communication in the workplace made it difficult for the organization to work together as a whole. Many organizations struggle with this particular issue, because they are not aware of what they can do to make much-needed changes that will allow for better communication in the workplace. The company in question was domineering in a sense, in that it did not allow for a good mixing of the cultures of the people who worked there. There was some mixing, because that is inevitable when there are a number of people who have different cultural beliefs all working in one spot. However, there was far less mixing and understanding than could have been seen and then could have been expected. This made it very difficult for people to do their jobs properly, because a significant number of…
Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), pp. 656 -- 665.
Black, R.J. (2003) Organizational culture: Creating the influence needed for strategic success, London, UK.
Jex, S.M. & Britt, T.W. (2008) Organizational psychology, a scientist-practitioner approach. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
O'Donovan, G. (2006). The corporate culture handbook: How to plan, implement and measure a successful culture change programme. NY: The Liffey Press.
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…
Carr, James E; Severtson, Jamie M. (2005) "On the Appropriateness of the Term
"Noncontingent Reinforcement" European Journal Of Behavior Analysis, vol. 21, no. 6, pp: 21 -- 24.
Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn. (2003) "A comparison of differential reinforcement And Noncontingent Reinforcement For The Treatment Of A Child's multiply Controlled Problem behavior Behavioral Interventions" Behav. Intervent, vol. 18, no, 1: 267 -- 278.
Poling, Alan; Normand, Matthew. (1999) "Noncontingent Reinforcement:An Inappropriate
Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.
Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.
Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.
You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…
I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.
With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.
A learned for example…
Since long the necessity for quality health care for veterans is considered to be a critical issue with widespread implications in respect of health care system of the nation. Irrespective of the incessant pressure on converting the Veteran Administration into a business model it has been alleged vehemently on the ground that the approach is not conducive to the satisfaction of most veterans, the legislators and even the providers of the health care. The problem of extending acceptable quality health care for the veterans of the nation is to be resolved by constituting public consensus on the issue. Irrespective of its increasing challenges it is believed that the provision of quality health care for the veterans of the nation is considered to be an appropriate objective for this country to maintain. Acknowledging the sacrifices of the veterans, the death of millions of Americans in service, 1.5 million returning…
Alqarni, Abdul Rahman. "The Managerial Decision Styles" A dissertation submitted to the School of Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Information Studies: The Florida State University. http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11242003-215328/unrestricted/Alqarni.Dissertation.pdf Accessed on 25 February, 2005
'Leadership Challenges in Non-Governmental Organisations" (2004) Organisational
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…
Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.
Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
Hence, variables that occur outside of the classroom have an impact on the teacher's ability to institute positive behavior support (PBS). That makes it all the more vital that strategies are in place in the classroom designed to deal with all setting events, distant and recent, when possible.
Body of Paper -- Distant Setting Events & Antecedents
How do antecedents effect the behavior of students? Antecedents have a tendency to either pull individuals or push individuals into doing something, or feeling a certain way. Author Edward P. Sarafino points out that a stimulus serves as an antecedent; for example, children seeing other children rope jumping before class starts is a stimulus for an antecedent because it sets the table for behavior. The rope jumping is orderly, fun, and children have smiles when they to their rope jumping (Sarafino, 2010, 71).
Children learn through stimulus generalization, by responding to stimuli, and…
Baron, Grace M. (2006). Stress and Coping in Autism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Demchak, MaryAnn, and Greenfield, Robin G. (2003). Transition Portfolios for Students with Disabilities: How to Help Students, Teachers, and Families Handle New Settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Durand, Vincent Mark. (1990). Severe Behavior Problems: A Functional Communication
Training Approach. New York: Guilford Press.
As a consequence, information
can become redundant, it may not be received by the desired receiver, or it
may be distorted.
All these affect the well-functioning of the company's operations. As
a consequence, a series of malfunctions start to emerge, they determine
other problems, which result in not reaching the company's objectives,
decreasing quality of products and services, and increased costs.
The same situation happens in the case of the supermarket's branches.
Each of these branches is run by a general manager and they establish their
own sets of goals and objectives that must be aligned with the general
strategy and objectives established at the headquarters of the company.
This way, each branch activates like a profit center. However, it is
difficult to control the branches. Although they establish their own
objectives also in accordance with the customer targets of each branch, the
demographics and the characteristics of the market…
1. Operational Analysis Guidance (2007). Retrieved November 6,
2. Jones, C. A. (2000). Extraordinary Customer Service
Management: The Critical Success Factors. Business
South Australia Ambulance Service
Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis
ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.
Has to do what
The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:
To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.
Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.
Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.
The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.
Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.
Workforce retention should be increased.
Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.
Interventions should be prioritized.
The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)
Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.
Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
Yet, from their operations it can be observed that the need for contingency is generally reduced as the company has the ability to succeed at mostly any endeavor. Nonetheless, in this time of a competition fiercer than ever and growing consumer demands, some of Microsoft's products have failed to generate the expected outcome. The most commonly used example in this sense was the operating system Windows '98, which replaced the more efficient and user friendly Windows '95. Contingency planning in this scenario was limited, but the user comments were collected and attention was paid in the development of the next operating system, the Windows 2000, known under the name of Windows XP.
Another angle from which Microsoft's contingencies can be assessed is that of the hardware products manufactured by the organization. Unlike the software, the material products have enjoyed limited success and the company considered ways to address lack of…
Cummings, C., 2005, Windows Server System Reference Architecture and the Roadmap for Enterprise Delivery, Microsoft Developer Network, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954607.aspx last accessed on July 15, 2009
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., Pitsis, T., 2005, Managing and organizations: an introduction to theory and practice, SAGE, ISBN 9780761943891
Greenberg, J., 2003, Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, 2nd Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, ISBN 9780805840315
2001, The History of Microsoft, PIE Software, http://www.piesoftwareinc.co.uk/textonly/microsoft.html last accessed on July 15, 2009
front line of defense and the first line of offense of American might, the United States military plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the nation's interests at home and abroad. In sharp contrast to the highly motivated and professional armed forces that are in place today, though, the U.S. military struggled to overcome the legacy of its conscription-based approach to maintaining adequate manpower during the Vietnam War where relatively short enlistment periods and high attrition rates resulted in diminished combat readiness and dangerously low levels of troop morale. This paper examines how the U.S. armed forces overcame this legacy to emerge as the preeminent military power in the world today. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Organizational Behavior in Today's Military
Over the past half century, the United States armed forces have experienced a number of changes to their…
Gates, R.M. (2008, September 29). National Defense University. U.S. Department of Defense
Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Depending on the child's abilities and self-awareness, these could include avoidance of triggers, self-soothing strategies, and learning to process the feelings and choose more healthy alternative responses. Results of the -B-C assessment can be shared with other educators and parents and can assist in the planning of the next set of goals in the student's education plan.
second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. s shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center (http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/gpm/challenge.htm), test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.
The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and…
A second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. As shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center ( http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/gpm/challenge.htm ), test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.
The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and skill levels. As the school year progresses, students are given similar items on probes and should get more of these items correct as learning takes place. Probes must be administered on a regular basis, whether that is weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, and must be scored the same way each time. In the third step of the process, the teacher graphs the results, providing a visual that is easy and quick to use, both for students and teachers. The graphs can also help with goal-setting, which is the final step in the process.
CBM serves as both formative and summative assessments. The formative aspect allows the teacher to change instruction in response to a student's needs. It allows students, educators and parents to focus on current achievements and deficits. The summative aspect allows student, teacher and parent to see what the student has accomplished over the entire year. It is an important component in goal-setting for the next academic year.
Companies secretly collecting and selling information about your online behavior
The large-scale information collection, information sale, and free access to sensitive, private information, accompanied by inadequate regulatory controls, leaves much room for misuse. Those who desire to limit access to their personal details find themselves with scant options as, in a majority of instances, parties that collect data are able to categorize, store, and sell free or captured information without the consent of the concerned individual. Even in instances where information is voluntarily given to social networking or e-shopping websites, web users cannot control who the information will be sold to (Tsesis, 2014). The data industry is currently a three-hundred-billion-dollar-per-annum industry, with around three million employees in the US alone. Information brokers attempt to understand customer identity and interests. For organizational delivery of more relevant advertisements to customers, data-brokering companies have to provide information on services and products of potential…
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
There are several theoretical approaches that are utilized in explaining personality based on the different traits relating to an individual. These theoretical approaches are divided into two major categories i.e. the five domains and complex models domains. The five domains (psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, trait and type, and learning) are approaches that focus on how individual traits are developed and how behavior is formulated. On the other hand, the complex models domains basically focus on how traits could impact an individual's personality. These two categories can be utilized in developing a personality profile of an individual based on interactions with him/her and the information on he/she posts on social media.
TinaShazzy's Personality Profile
The chosen theoretical approach that I will utilize in developing TinaShazzy's personality is the behavioral domain, which suggests that an individual's behavior is a reflection of his/her personality trait since personality is behavior (Phelps, 2015). Additionally,…
behaviors inherent in e-tailing (in business-to-Consumer relationships / communications). Note the communications medium in which each behavior occurs.
Explain how each medium enables e-commerce.
E-tailing is the business of electronic retailing or retailing over the Internet (*). There are three types of e-tailing behavior: independent, intervening variables, and dependent variables.
The independent retailer will want to know two variables of the people who generally resort to e-commerce. These are: (a) personal characteristics and (b) environmental characteristics. The retailer will want to know the buying habits of the consumers in order to target a given market. These demographics include age, gender, marital status, occupation and income.
The retailer, too, will want to know the environmental variables, namely background variables of what or who influence the consumer; where the consumer shops; what the consumer would like to buy and so forth. This is so in order that the retailer would know…
Clark, Brian. 2010. Ten Timeless Persuasive Writing Techniques. CopyBlogger Media, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.copyblogger.com/persuasive-writing/
Turban, E., King, D., McKay, J., Marshall, P., Lee, J., & Viehland, D. (2006). Electronic commerce Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Behavior Change Chart
Janesta takes the doll Emily was playing with.
Emily bit Janesta.
Emily was picked up and told, "We don't bite," and held in lap for a few minutes before she runs to play with blocks.
Emily bit someone that was taking something from her in order to defend herself and received individual attention.
Without provocation Emily bites a boy
Emily bit the boy on the shoulder.
Emily was picked up by the assistant and moved her to the reading area where a book is read to her. Emily stayed there for ten minutes, quietly turning pages.
Emily bit the boy because she learned that she would get individual attention when she acted out in this way.
CE300 Unit 6 Project: Behavior Change Chart
How would you change the antecedent?
What do you expect to happen and why?
Behavior unraveled. (2011). Retrieved from http://behaviorunraveled.com/
2. In your opinion, would stakeholders benefit from external reports that use variable costing for reporting? Give examples.
Variable costing is a costing method under which those costs of production that vary in relation to output are treated as product costs, it is commonly compared to absorption costing which is a method that treats all production costs as product costs regardless whether they are fixed or variable. Using variable costing can be beneficial to stakeholders due to the advantages in holds over the absorption costing. For instance, under variable costing, profits move in the same direction as sales since the profit for a period is not affected by changes in inventories considering factors such as costs, selling prices etc. are constant. This is an advantage to the stakeholders who are more concerned about the profits from which they benefit. When variable costing is used it is also easier to estimate…
Accountingformanagement.com (2009). Advantages of variable or direct or marginal costing system. Retrieved on March 27, 2010 from http://www.accountingformanagement.com/advantages_of_variable_costing.htm
Eldenburg, L.G. & Wolcott, S. (2005). Cost management: Measuring, monitoring, and motivating performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pg. 86-99
decision to search the residence for the fugitive is largely in order as this move would yield the greatest benefit -- particularly if the fugitive is captured. In my reasoning, I am largely relying on the principle of benefit maximization, which as Perez and Moore (2012) observe, advocates for the distribution of good to more people. Failure to apprehend the suspect would result in a higher probability of the continued commission of an offense that impacts negatively on the masses.
As Jones and Carlson (2004, p. 129) points out, "we live in a technological age, and one of the curses or blessings of this age -- depending on one's perspective -- is the video camera." I do not conduct myself as if I am on video at all times. This means that I have not done things that I wouldn't be comfortable doing in the presence of, as you would…
Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections (2nd ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Perez, D. & Moore, J. (2012). Police Ethics: A Matter of Ethics (2nd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…
Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
As mentioned above, communication issues are frequent in this company in the case of top-down communication. This is probably because managers do not appreciate the importance of communication, or they prefer not to include their subordinates in the decision making process. The availability of top managers for their subordinates is another issue that must be modified in order to develop a fair organizational culture.
The Glaser test has also revealed some interesting facts about my company that I did not manage to observe previously, probably because of the involvement in the company's processes. For example, the rather high score in the teamwork and conflict scale reveals that the company is characterized by frequent conflict. Although the atmosphere at work is a rather friendly, collegial, and supportive one, small conflicts tend to develop quickly. This can be attributed to the reduced level of control exerted by the managers as a result…
1. Moss, N. (2001). Quiz: What Is your Corporate Culture? Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/08/23312.html# .
Behavior of Concrete in ivers and Marine Areas
The marine atmosphere and also the river atmosphere are infamously harsh on man-made structures; furthermore, the materials employed for construction are seriously examined through these elements and how they would impact each other. Strengthened concrete is among the materials frequently employed for near shoreline, as well as off the shore, structures. These structures, whether submerged in or suspended within the marine or river area are susceptible to high amounts of chlorides, sulphates and magnesium -- all of which are hazardous to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they are also exposed to high velocity of waves, the potentially harmful results of that are well recorded. This paper will indicate whether another method of strengthened concrete design, inside the limits from the codes, for marine as well as river structures may be more beneficial in the perspectives of engineering, construction, sturdiness and financial aspects. This…
Castro P., Rincon O.T. de and Pazini E.J., (2001), Interpretation of chloride profiles from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 529 -- 537. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants.
Choong K.Y. (2003), Durability performance of fifties years old concrete jetties in tropical marine environment, International Conference on Port and Maritime R&D and Technology, 97 -- 103, Singapore. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants
Costa A. And Appleton J. (2002), Case studies of concrete deterioration in marine environment in Portugal, Cement & Concrete Composites, 24, 169 -- 179.
Dehwah, H.A.F., Maslehuddin, M., and Austin, S.A. (2002). Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Pore Solution Chemistry and Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion, ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No.3, pp. 227-233. Taken from: Islam, M., Islam, S., Mondal, B.C. And Islam, M.R. (2010). Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 38 (2): 129-140.
Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)
Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…
The company selected is Dar Almanthour for Fragrance. The company was established in the year 2000 by the owner, Mr. Therar AlTararwa. The key products retailed by the company comprise of Bakhour, perfumes, scents, perfume oil and designed boxes for formal events. It started off with his friend at work wanting to sell his own made up fragrance and offered Mr. Therar AlTararwa to sell these fragrances to his family and when he did Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity that selling these fragrances made money and so he wanted to get in the game he bought dozens of fragrances from his friend and made a guy sell them and he had his percentage of the sales. So then and there, Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity and offered his friend money to sell him the mixture ingredients of the fragrance so he can open up a fragrance…
diverse populations in a study, the implications of crisis/trauma-causing events on adolescent depression, implications of resiliency, the implications of neurobiology, and looks into a relevant development theory. It also covers different categories of adolescent depression. Causes of this problem, available diagnosis techniques, and the best treatment methods are also considered. Its relationship with other health issues, such as obesity and cancer, are also considered. There is a provision of some quantitative information about this problem. This paper also pays attention to important studies other experts have conducted. To some experts, this problem is in no way a medical ailment. There is also emphasis on the role adequate exercises and balanced diets play in curbing depression in adolescents. In conclusion, it is emphasized that a depressed adolescent can turn out to become a very normal and happy individual. The Cognitive Theory of Depression as postulated by Beck gives a description of…
Allen, J.P. (2009). An Overview of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Contemporary Literature. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/allen.html
Brian, K. (2012). Adolescent Depression. http://www.healthline.com/health/adolescentdepression#Overview1
Bujoreanu, S., PhD., Benhayon, David, M.D., PhD., & Szigethy, Eva, M.D., PhD. (2011). Treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Pediatric Annals, 40(11), 548-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20111007-05
Corry, M., & Tubridy, A. (2005). Depression: An emotion not a disease . Dublin: Mercier Press.
Davis Health Care/QI Plan
Data Collection Tools
Explain data needed to monitor improvements.
There exist several data sources concerning Davis Health Care that one can utilize to aim at an aspect for improvement. Data sources vary from nursing home rates for CM' Nursing Home Quality Measures on internal data which are gathered by CNAs on check sheets to follow their work with the individual residents (GMRF, 2015).
Explain at least three data collection tools you can use to collect performance information
Various tools can be utilized to collect information. Examples of Qualitative and quantitative tools utilized to assemble information are questionnaires and surveys, unobtrusive measure, participant and observation behavior (Farifax County, 2007).
Explain the types of information each tool collects.
Quantitative Data (GMRF, 2015)
Questionnaires and surveys usually comprise of questions which contain structured response groups and might entail a few which are open-ended. The survey might be conducted via…
SPC Excel. (2011). The Purpose of Control Charts. BPI Consulting, LLC. Retrieved on 19th September, 2015 from https://www.spcforexcel.com/knowledge/control-chart-basics/purpose-control-charts
Sonkiya, S. (2015). Check Sheet as a Component of Seven Basic Quality Tool. General. iZenBridge: PMI Agile Certification. Retrieved on 19th September, 2015 from http://www.izenbridge.com/blog/check-sheet-as-a-component-of-seven-basic-quality-tool/
Woodall, W.H. (2006). The Use of Control Charts in Health-Care and Public-Health Surveillance. Journal of Quality Technology.38 (2). Available on www.asq.org
Power Does Each of These Individuals, Including You, Possess on This Team?
The individuals within the team have power, which they hold, and in turn, can make a difference in their capacity to influence the rest of the team. They have different sources of power. To begin with, Harry Starker possesses legitimate power. Legitimate power originates from a person's role or position within an organization (Bal et al., 2008). Individuals act in passivity with the appeals made by the persons for the reason that they heed to the legitimacy of the position, irrespective of whether they support or of such appeals or not. In this case, Janna has a source of legitimate power by having worked for two decades within the company and understanding its history (Bauer and Erdogan, 2009). Secondly, Tanisha Downey possesses reward power. In delineation, reward power is the capability to give out a reward; for example,…
Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (2008). The role of power in effective leadership. Center for Creative Leadership. Retrieved from www. ccl. org.
Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Handbook of leadership (Vol. 11). New York: Free Press.
Bauer, T., Erdogan, B. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
Blanchard, K. H., Zigarmi, P., Zigarmi, D. (2005). Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness through Situational Leadership. New York: Morrow.
persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way.
In a discussion with a colleague about the merits of a certain political leader, I repeated the colleague's concerns back to him to show that I had been listening and that I understood what his issues were. Then I used my knowledge of the subject to answer the objections and to correct some inaccuracies in what he said. I did not do so in a judgmental or affronting manner, but rather intimated that he himself could check up on what I was saying to see for himself. I encouraged him to do just that in a friendly manner, he agreed to do so, and when he returned he agreed that my perspective had been correct because it was based on actual evidence.
Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation that demonstrated your coping skills.
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
The main objective of this research is to examine the various factors affecting job satisfaction given that satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon that includes a person's attitudes and behaviors. The author also seeks to examine organizational injustices and how they affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizations in the modern business environment consider job satisfaction as a legitimate factor that has strong impacts on organizational commitment. In light of this significance, it's important for organizations to evaluate and identify factors that affect job satisfaction. Therefore, this research primarily seeks to study the various factors affecting job satisfaction.
Data Analysis Methodology
To achieve the aims of this study, the researcher conducted 26 surveys on 26 different employees to determine issues that are affecting the job satisfaction in their different working environments. The researcher developed surveys with open ended questions that act as a framework of understanding what employees want…
Lumley et al. 2011, Exploring the Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Employees in the Information Technology Environment, Southern African Business Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.100-118.
Research Methods Knowledge Base 2006, Deduction & Induction, Research Methods Knowledge Base, viewed 22 April 2016
Satterfield, LM 2015, Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Radiologic Sciences Faculty: Implications for Recruitment and Retention, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, viewed 21 April 2016,
Soiferman, LK 2010, Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches, Institute of Education Sciences, viewed 22 April 2016,
UEFA Certificate in Football Management -- The Turkish Edition
Each participant is expected to submit his/her assignment for Module 1, 2 & 3 by the 07.05.2017 directly to IDHEAP project manager. Participants should provide concrete evidence facts and references) to consolidate observations and assess the feasibility of the recommendations made. We emphasise the fact that these observations should be personal ones, drawn from their own assessment and not necessarily reflecting those of their institution. You are expected to write 250 words or more) for each of the questions.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Assignment grades will be communicated three weeks after they have been submitted which will give participants ample opportunity to take into consideration the constructive feedback they have been given and use this to improve their subsequent submission. The criteria for grading are listed in the table below.
Criteria for Grading Written Assignments
(Hughen, Lulseged, & Upton, 2014)
(Jimoh & Danlami, 2011)
Erik Kramer Story
Erik Kramer is a man that has been surrounded by a major tragedy and has himself been majorly tragic. Between the drug-related death of his son and his attempted suicide that may or may not be tied to head trauma induced during his time in the National Football League, Erik Kramer is a man that is obviously very tortured and may not be acting under his own devices. The burning question is whether he is more like Chris Benoit in that his mind and his faculties are leaving him or if there is any hope for Kramer after the tragedy, trauma and pain he has endured for much of his life. He is a hero in the sense in that he is the only man to win an NFL playoff game for the Detroit Lions since the 1950's but so much of the rest of his life…
Fainaru-Wada, M., Avila, J., & Fainaru, S. (2013). Study -- Junior Seau's brain shows chronic brain damage found in other NFL football players. ESPN.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://espn.go.com/espn/otl/story/_/id/8830344/study-junior-seau-brain-shows-chronic-brain-damage-found-other-nfl-football-players
Nolo. (2015). Homicide: Murder and Manslaughter -- Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/homicide-murder-manslaughter-32637.html
USA Today. (2015). Report: Ex-Detroit Lions QB Kramer survives apparent suicide attempt. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.freep.com/story/sports/nfl/lions/2015/08/20/detroit%C2%ADlions%C2%ADerik%C2%ADkramer/32043849/%
Psychotherapy integration is distinguished by dissatisfaction with single school advances and a related longing to look across boundaries to view how patients could gain from other means of carrying out psychotherapy. Even though certain labels are implemented to this movement, treatment adaptation, prescriptive therapy, integration eclecticism, responsiveness, and matching, the objectives are the same. The ultimate objective is to improve the efficiency as well as the applicability of psychotherapy. Given the maturity of the psychotherapy field, integration has surfaced as a stronghold. oth a drop in ideological struggle and movement toward rapprochement has been witnessed. Clinicians now recognize the insufficiencies and potential value in all theoretical systems. Actually, majority of the young psychotherapy students display astonishment when they learn about the ideological cold war of the earlier generations (Norcross & eutler, 2014).
Integrative Psychotherapy and Theory of Personality
Stating that integrative therapies do not respond to…
Norcross, J., & Beutler, L. (2014). Integrative Psychotherapies. In D. Wedding, & R. Corsini, Current Psychotherapies (pp. 499-526). Boston: Cengage Learning.
Christian gospel is love. Christian love is conceived of as the divine love of God for Creation, but equally as important to Christ's teachings is human love. Human love can manifest in a number of different ways or types of relationships. Marriage and friendship are two of the most important and universal types of human relationships that are based on love. In spite of differences in culture, language, and ethnicity, all Christians perceive and communicate love in similar ways. Christian love as a strong theological component, as for the first time in recorded history, God became equal to love: "God is love," (1 John 4:8). The Bible also shows how and why love can be psychologically as well as spiritually transformative, which is why the theme of love remains constant throughout the New Testament. Essentially, there are three distinct but related types of love in Christian doctrine: agape, eros, and…
Carmichael, E.DH Friendship: Interpreting Christian Love. New York: T&T Clark, 2004.
Cooke, Bernard. "Christian Marriage: Basic Sacrament." In Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Lawler, Michael G. "Marriage in the Bible." In Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Scott, Kieran and Warren, Michael. Perspectives on Marriage. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Supersize Me, Morgan Spurlock undergoes one of the most masochistic eating experiments imaginable, eating only McDonald's food for thirty days. He tracks his mental and physical health throughout the experiment to reveal the drastic ill effects of regular fast food consumption. Both his girlfriend and his doctors are appalled at the rapid changes taking place in Spurlock, not just to his body but to his emotional and sex life as well. The film is engaging, persuasive, and often intentionally nauseating. It critiques American culture while decrying the fast food industry's marketing tactics. The filmmaker wants viewers to feel disgust and revulsion at fast food in general.
Supersize Me reflects growing awareness among Americans about the harmful nature of a diet filled with processed foods and particularly fast foods like McDonalds. The film is one of many that illustrate the power of the media to promote positive change, counteracting and subverting…
Gimenez, E.H. & Shattuck, A. (2011). Food crises, food regimes and food movements. Journal of Peasant Studies 38(1): 109-144.
Spurlock, M. (2004). Supersize Me. [Feature Film].
Similarly, I have learned that counter-transference is also a risk within any relationship potentially prone to transference (Mitchell & Black, 2003). As a practical matter, I intend to maintain awareness of any tendencies on my part toward counter-transference by being aware of any tendency to think about clients in between sessions in any manner other than in direct connection to their clinical issues. At the first sign of any potential risk of counter-transference, I would consider discontinuing the relationship and referring the patient to a colleague.
What qualities do you have that will make you an effective psychologist?
I believe my most important personal quality that will make me an effective psychologist is empathy, because I genuinely care about other people. There is empirical evidence suggesting that this is, indeed, one of the most important qualities of good psychologists (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). I believe that I am conscientious and…
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Krasner, M., Epstein, R., Beckman, H., Suchman, a., Chapman, B., and Mooney, C. "Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 302, No. 12 (2009): 1284-1292.
McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…
Malgarini, M. (2005, November). Efficient sample design and weighting methodologies: Analysis of key issues and recommendations. [Paper presented at the Joint European Commission - OECD Workshop on International Development of Business and Consumer Tendency Surveys in Brussels on November 14 -- 15, 2005, for the Task Force on Harmonisation of Survey Operation and Technical Design}. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/37/35493506.pdf
Monitoring the Future. Retrieved http://monitoringthefuture.org/purpose.html
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Multiple Levels of Analysis
Models for single-level and multi-level research
Multiple levels of analysis in organizational research:
Advantages and disadvantages to using this approach
Given today's increasingly complex organizational structures, equally nuanced levels of organizational research are required to ensure a full and comprehensive portrait of the environment. Different approaches have been created to deal with the need for organizational complexity. Two dominant approaches are that of multilevel and comparative approaches, both of which "present rather distinct traditions in organization studies, each with its own epistemological assumptions and associated methods" (Lacey & Fiss 2009: 3). Organizations can be compared with other organizations as a whole or they can be compared in terms of their different internal 'levels.' According to the multilevel approach organizations are made up of a series of interconnected individuals, dyads, groups, organizations, industries, markets, and other components based upon the belief that "to examine organizational phenomena is…
Kidwell, R.E., Mossholder, K.E., and Bennett, N. (1997) Cohesiveness and organizational citizenship behavior: a multilevel analysis using work groups and individuals. Journal of Management, 26.7: 775.
Klein, K. & Kozlowski, S. (2003). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations: Foundations, Extensions, and New Directions
Lacey, R, & Fiss, P. (2009). Comparative organizational analysis across multiple levels: A set theoretic approach. From Studying differences between organizations: Comparative approaches to organizational research. B. King, T. Felin, & D. Whetten. (Ed).
Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 26. Bingley, UK: Emerald/JA. Retrieved:
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities
For most of the developing countries tourism industry is playing a very important role in boosting their economies. In 2004, it was found out that Asia Pacific was one of the fastest growing tourism regions (Cruey, 2005). According to WTO, up to 3% of world's tourism market is made up of Thailand, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka. It was in 1970's that the development of Thai international tourism started (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). Tourism industry accounts for 5.1% of Thailand's National Gross Domestic Product (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2009). For the purpose of providing a proper development direction, the National Economics and Social Development Plan (NESDP) served as a guide (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). The result of the survey which was conducted by the Universities of USA and Thailand, showed that Thailand stood on the first place as best hospital city for all the…
Blamey, R.K. (2001). Principles of ecotourism. In Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, Weaver D (ed). CAB International: Wallingford, England; 5 -- 22.
Brass, J.L. (1997). Community Tourism Assessment Handbook. Western Rural Development Centre, Utah State University, ed.
Business Day, (2005). Tourist Sector Wins 3.65BN Baht Budget. [Electronic bulletin board], February 24, 2005.
Carter, R. And Fabricius, M. (2007). UNWTO Conference in Topic is Creating campetitve advantage for your destination, Budapest, UNWTO Consultants (TEAM tourism Consulting).
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
Because other research has indicated that nonverbal cues can be laden with emotion, and even be important indicators of deception, understanding the use of nonverbal cues in response to certain questions by therapists can give those therapists an important point of reference in evaluating responses.
Unfortunately, despite some significance in the statistical findings of Hill and Stephany (1990), there are complications and limitations to the usefulness of this research study. In theory, this could be an incredibly useful research study because it could provide therapists with a new, statistically proven, tool for evaluating the responses of clients and improving their therapeutic methods. Unfortunately, even Hill and Stephany (1990) admit that they had difficulty reconciling their findings with the research already extant or hypothesized in the relevant literature. For example, previous research has indicated that less controllable nonverbal cues such as leg movements or posture shifts should be more significant than…
Hill, C.E. And Stephany, a. (1990). Relation of nonverbal behavior to client reactions. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION
NIKE Marketing Analysis
Business environment consists of numerous factors and forces that impact the business organizations' ability to operate competitively and profitably in their industry. These forces exist at both micro and macro levels and require the business organizations to show quick response to the uncertainties and complexities which may arise in the business environment from time to time (Cadle, Paul, & Yeates 2010). These forces impact each and every aspect of the business operations like marketing decisions, segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategies, consumers' buying behavior, marketing or promotional activities, and others (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). This paper presents a report on the marketing analysis of Nike, Inc. -- a well-recognized brand in the clothing, sportswear, and footwear manufacturing industry of the world. The major sections include; impacts of micro and macro environments on Nike's marketing decisions, the segmentation criteria which it uses in different markets, the…
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Yeates, D. 2010, Business Analysis, 2nd Edition. Swindon: British Informatics Society
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. 2010, Contemporary Marketing, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education
Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. 2012, Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning
Nike, Inc. 2012, About Nike, Inc. Available from [Accessed September 30th, 2012]
However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.
2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.
3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…
Barak Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved: http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369
MacFarquhar, Larissa. (2007). The conciliator. The New Yorker. Retrieved: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar#ixzz1pbLlZHPI