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For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
Genetic makeup also shapes the talents and interests of individuals (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). Genes help to determine what talents and interests an individual develops. At the same time, individuals tend to befriend others with the same talents and interests as a way to relate. Just the same as a football player will befriend other football players, a delinquent will befriend other delinquents as a way to relate to others. All research shows that genetic effects are more powerful in high-risk environments as opposed to low-risk environments (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). The effects of the delinquents will be more powerful in scope than the example of football players. High-risk environments, such as abuse and violence, drugs and alcohol, and poverty can enhance the effects of the genetic makeup.
iological factors combined with environmental factors play huge roles in the way individuals behave. Where the…
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 2: The Stability of Criminal and Anologous Behaviors. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 16-34). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 91-108). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Wright, J.T. (2008). Chapter 4: Genetics and Crime. In J.T. Wright, Criminals in the making: Criminality across the life course (pp. 55-70). Los Angelos: Sage.
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
he findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. here are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.
Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). his must continue. here are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). hat…
There are several key research themes in the article, and these include emerging employment relations, goal-setting and self-management, managing the performance paradox, organizational learning, organizational change, individual transitions, discontinuous information processing, and implications for change based on work-nonwork relationships (Rousseau, 1997). The findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. There are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.
Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). This must continue. There are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). That is important because it shows a lot of progress, but there are still questions to be answered. The most pressing of these questions is whether the changes that are taking place apply to all types of organizations or whether the size of the organization and the culture of it are larger factors than the 'fact' that the organizational behavior seems to be changing overall. Without being able to look at organizations from all different types of groups and cultures it is truly very difficult to say that organizational behavior overall is really that different. One must have a clear definition of what makes up an organization, what kind of behavior that organization had in the past, and then how it changed and why in order to really present a clear picture of the entire issue.
Rousseau, Denise M. 1997. Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 515-546.
The study's findings indicate that high technology brands are exceptionally effective in defining the prestige aspects of their products and through the use of market branding, showing their value from a personal brand standpoint (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The study also showed that the more utilitarian aspects of products aren't relevant to positioning or branding, which is a point marketers have been making for decades in high technology (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The authors concluded the study with an extensive statistical analysis which is shown in the following table as well. This analysis indicates how powerful product quality is in defining the brand experience and perception of customers. Shortcomings of the study include the lack of statistical reliability of the sample, the lack of in-depth analysis of the key areas within quality and the need for greater depth of insight into the four components of quality defined in this iteration…
Hamann, D., Williams, R.L., & Omar, M. (2007). Branding strategy and consumer high-technology product. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(2), 98-111.
Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205-223.
Latour, M.S., Hanna, J.B., Miller, M.D., & Pitts, R.E. (2002). Consumer involvement with personal computer technology: A multi-sample analysis. American Business Review, 20(2), 1-11.
Williams, K.C., Page, R.A., Petrosky, a.R., & Hernandez, E.H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 21-36.
Students Smoking Behavior
The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…
Leadership in Organizations
Leadership refers to the process of influencing other people towards attainment of organizational or group goals. Leadership entails three key factors: first, leadership is a process of social influence. It is non-existent without followers and a leader. Second, leadership requires that the followers act voluntarily. The nature of compliance is voluntary thus differentiating leadership from other forms of influence based on formal authority. Finally, leadership elicits behavior in followers that are goal directed in an organized setting (Griffiin, 2010).
Most organizational sciences focus on the topic of leader-behavior approach. There is enough documentation showing that thousands of leader-behavior approach studies have undergone publication. However, the precise nature and correlation of leadership with key criterion variables such as commitment, subordinate satisfaction, and performance remains uncertain (Green & obinson, 2010). This paper focuses on leader-behavior research approach for studying leadership. It also incorporates the strengths and weaknesses…
Green. G., P. & Robinson, J.W. (2010). Introduction to Community Development: Theory,
Practice, and Service-Learning. Michigan: SAGE
Griffiin, R. (2010). Management. New York: Cengage Learning
Organizational behavior is a broad area within management which focusses on how people act in organizations. This is the study and application of knowledge on how individuals and groups within an organization act it achieves this through taking a system approach whereby it interprets the people-organization relationships in terms of a whole individual, entire group, entire organization or entire social system. Managers can use the theories and knowledge in organizational behavior to improve their management practices for working effectively with employees and influencing them to attain the goals set by the organization. The organizational behavior field has evolved from being a scientific study of management in the industrial era, to administrative theories of the role of managers, to bureaucracy principles and to the human relations studies of the needs of employees.
Organizational behavior is thus an interdisciplinary field which gets its ideas and research from disciplines that focus on human…
Lewis, J. (2012). Organizational Behavior practices that foster positive change in the workplace. RetrievedAugust 7, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-behavior-practices-foster-positive-change-workplace-26247.html
Brief, A. & Weiss, H. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the workplace. RetrievedAugust 7, 2014 from http://mario.gsia.cmu.edu/micro_2007/readings/Brief_Weiss_2002.pdf
Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:
The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…
Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.
Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.
Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.
Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at
Relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior
Research Questions & Sub-questions
Research Design & Methodology
Organization of Study
his report explores Customer Relationship management. In [articular the investigation seeks to understand the impact of relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior. his issue has proven problematic for businesses because many do not have the ability to form effective relationships with customers. his deficiency costs companies customers and profits. he report sought to present effective ways to better customer relations at the business level. More specifically, the investigation saught to determine how businesses can determine what their customers really need and how will meeting these needs affect the customers' behavior? A review of the literature suggest the customers are effected by the attitudes of employees that they come into contact with. he attitude of a saleclerk can often have an impact on a customers decision to do…
These relationships can be with co-workers, with casual acquaintances, with spouses, and with many others. Even though they have these relationships very few of them are committed and close in nature (Clark, 1990). More of them are much more open and lacking a commitment that would really be needed to have a close personal relationship with someone (Clark, 1990). Because many of the relationships in their personal lives are not close and committed it is difficult to understand how businesses can actually expect these same individuals to hold close and committed relationships with a particular company (Clark, 1990). Some consumers have argued that the amount of requests that they receive for improving relationships between customers and businesses is so staggering that people find them meaningless (Clark, 1990).
Some people indicate that they receive as many as 10 mailings from various companies every single day and if they ever leave on vacation the accumulated amount of these offers is so great that they end up throwing them away instead of opening them and looking to see if there is something really worthwhile inside (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). In other words, so many companies seem interested in marketing a relationship that their efforts become meaningless because they do not offer anything unique to the consumer (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). Even those companies that do offer something that may be unique and valuable to a particular consumer often do not get any benefit from marketing to them. The benefit is never realized because there are so many other pieces of marketing given to these consumers that they do not take the time to read them and look for the value contained in all of the meaningless mail (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983).
Because so many companies flood individuals with advertisements regarding their relationships, some believe that it really makes no difference which company
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Unit of Analysis
A unit of analysis constitutes an object of study in research undertakings (Cole, 2018). Definition and bounding of the case may prove challenging since a number of variables and points of interest overlap and intersect within cases researches. Development of research questions, propositions for case selection, focus identification, and boundary refining has been recommended for effective establishment of the aforementioned components in the study design. Case bounding proves crucial when it comes to information acquisition and analysis management, focusing, and framing. This entails selectiveness and specificity in the identification of case parameters such as respondents, process and location, in addition to the establishment of a timeframe for investigation of the case. To be more specific, units of analyses (UoIs) are decided by research questions (Merriam, 2009; Stake, 2006; Yin, 2014). Consider, for instance, Francis, Anderson and Stokes’ 1999 research “City Markets as a Unit of Analysis in…
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
2. In your opinion, would stakeholders benefit from external reports that use variable costing for reporting? Give examples.
Variable costing is a costing method under which those costs of production that vary in relation to output are treated as product costs, it is commonly compared to absorption costing which is a method that treats all production costs as product costs regardless whether they are fixed or variable. Using variable costing can be beneficial to stakeholders due to the advantages in holds over the absorption costing. For instance, under variable costing, profits move in the same direction as sales since the profit for a period is not affected by changes in inventories considering factors such as costs, selling prices etc. are constant. This is an advantage to the stakeholders who are more concerned about the profits from which they benefit. When variable costing is used it is also easier to estimate…
Accountingformanagement.com (2009). Advantages of variable or direct or marginal costing system. Retrieved on March 27, 2010 from http://www.accountingformanagement.com/advantages_of_variable_costing.htm
Eldenburg, L.G. & Wolcott, S. (2005). Cost management: Measuring, monitoring, and motivating performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pg. 86-99
As mentioned above, communication issues are frequent in this company in the case of top-down communication. This is probably because managers do not appreciate the importance of communication, or they prefer not to include their subordinates in the decision making process. The availability of top managers for their subordinates is another issue that must be modified in order to develop a fair organizational culture.
The Glaser test has also revealed some interesting facts about my company that I did not manage to observe previously, probably because of the involvement in the company's processes. For example, the rather high score in the teamwork and conflict scale reveals that the company is characterized by frequent conflict. Although the atmosphere at work is a rather friendly, collegial, and supportive one, small conflicts tend to develop quickly. This can be attributed to the reduced level of control exerted by the managers as a result…
1. Moss, N. (2001). Quiz: What Is your Corporate Culture? Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/08/23312.html# .
behaviors inherent in e-tailing (in business-to-Consumer relationships / communications). Note the communications medium in which each behavior occurs.
Explain how each medium enables e-commerce.
E-tailing is the business of electronic retailing or retailing over the Internet (*). There are three types of e-tailing behavior: independent, intervening variables, and dependent variables.
The independent retailer will want to know two variables of the people who generally resort to e-commerce. These are: (a) personal characteristics and (b) environmental characteristics. The retailer will want to know the buying habits of the consumers in order to target a given market. These demographics include age, gender, marital status, occupation and income.
The retailer, too, will want to know the environmental variables, namely background variables of what or who influence the consumer; where the consumer shops; what the consumer would like to buy and so forth. This is so in order that the retailer would know…
Clark, Brian. 2010. Ten Timeless Persuasive Writing Techniques. CopyBlogger Media, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.copyblogger.com/persuasive-writing/
Turban, E., King, D., McKay, J., Marshall, P., Lee, J., & Viehland, D. (2006). Electronic commerce Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Cost behaviors in health care organizations are complex, and the costs are classified according to the relationship they have with the volume of the care provided. It is, therefore, important to address the cost allocation and how health care organizations can leverage costs to operate more effectively. There are five ways in which health care is funded. These include taxation of a municipality, state, or county, private (voluntary) health insurance, payments made out-of-pocket by patients, socialized health insurance (such as government-run options), and donations that are made to health care charities (Bond & Bond, 1994). Most countries offer a mix of those models for paying health care costs, and what the health care organizations do with that money is dependent on the needs of the organization itself and the patients in need of health care from that organization. In cost allocation, a business unit (a department, for example)…
Bond, J. & Bond, S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Simmons, J. (2009). Primary Care Needs New Innovations to Meet Growing Demands. HealthLeaders Media.
Tulenko, et al., (2009). Framework and measurement issues for monitoring entry into the health workforce. Handbook on monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
police officers should follow to stop people for questioning.
"High-crime zones" are recognized by constitutional law: people in such areas have Fourth Amendment safeguards, distinct from those within different areas of those towns, states or cities. This step is representative of a big shift from equality of constitutional protections of every citizen. In some cases, regarding the Fourth Amendment, ranging from Adams v. Williams to the Illinois v. Wardlow case, the U.S. Supreme Court has considered neighborhood's character as one of the aspects in finding "sensible suspicion" in order to stop an individual. The neighborhood's character is not a sole validation criterion for stopping someone, but it has given two factors as the required circumstances: "high-crime zone" and 'unwarranted' running away from the police (Ferguson and Bernache, 2008). Lower level courts have also allowed high-crime zones and other otherwise innocent deeds to be considered reasonable enough suspicion to stop…
Casebriefs - Law Cases & Case Briefs for Students. (n.d.). Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada - Casebriefs. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-procedure/criminal-procedure-keyed-to-weinreb/the-fourth-amendment-arrest-and-search-and-seizure/hiibel-v-sixth-judicial-district-court-of-nevada/
Ferguson, A., & Bernache, D. (2008). The "High-Crime Area" Question: Requiring Verifiable and Quantifiable Evidence for Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis. AMERICAN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW, 57(6). Retrieved, from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=aulr
Language selection -Department of Justice / Selection de la langue - Ministere de la Justice. (n.d.). What You Need to Know About Making a Citizen's Arrest. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/other-autre/wyntk.html
Rice. (n.d.). Legalzoom: Start a Business, Protect Your Family: LLC, Incorporate, Wills, Trademark, Legal Advice. When Can the Police Stop and Frisk You on the Street? - legalzoom.com. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.legalzoom.com/articles/when-can-the-police-stop-and-frisk-you-on-the-street
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
.....contemporary, there is a great deal of dynamism and competition, and therefore it is fundamental for organizations to produce newfangled ideas of high quality to develop or sustain their competitive edge. Customarily, an approach of generating ideas has been verbal brainstorming, which encompasses a practice where groups of individuals, commonly in the similar space, work in tandem to form and interchange notions (Stevens et al., 2009). The design of the user interface of a system is vital and fundamental to the success of the software. The presentation and unveiling of concepts through an information system interface can play a significant part in facilitating and encouraging the integration of conceptions in the electronic brainstorming system (EBS), which as a result can give rise to enhancing the level of productivity. In delineation, EBS is a computer-based system that simplifies and enables brainstorming between the group members. The aspect in this case is…
Behavior of Concrete in ivers and Marine Areas
The marine atmosphere and also the river atmosphere are infamously harsh on man-made structures; furthermore, the materials employed for construction are seriously examined through these elements and how they would impact each other. Strengthened concrete is among the materials frequently employed for near shoreline, as well as off the shore, structures. These structures, whether submerged in or suspended within the marine or river area are susceptible to high amounts of chlorides, sulphates and magnesium -- all of which are hazardous to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they are also exposed to high velocity of waves, the potentially harmful results of that are well recorded. This paper will indicate whether another method of strengthened concrete design, inside the limits from the codes, for marine as well as river structures may be more beneficial in the perspectives of engineering, construction, sturdiness and financial aspects. This…
Castro P., Rincon O.T. de and Pazini E.J., (2001), Interpretation of chloride profiles from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 529 -- 537. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants.
Choong K.Y. (2003), Durability performance of fifties years old concrete jetties in tropical marine environment, International Conference on Port and Maritime R&D and Technology, 97 -- 103, Singapore. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants
Costa A. And Appleton J. (2002), Case studies of concrete deterioration in marine environment in Portugal, Cement & Concrete Composites, 24, 169 -- 179.
Dehwah, H.A.F., Maslehuddin, M., and Austin, S.A. (2002). Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Pore Solution Chemistry and Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion, ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No.3, pp. 227-233. Taken from: Islam, M., Islam, S., Mondal, B.C. And Islam, M.R. (2010). Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 38 (2): 129-140.
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
The product that will be analyzed in this case is represented by loose green tea. The product is sold to customers in clip sealed bags of different weights.
There is little design associated with this product. Basically, the tea leaves are hand-picked and taken through the production process. The quality standards on the product's appearance must be followed.
Procurement document control
In the tea industry, products must follow specific quality guidelines. Each loose green tea supplier must provide documents attesting the quality standards their products reach. Although tea price is settled by the stock exchange, specific price offers between suppliers and buyers in this industry reflect the level of quality of each tea type.
Instructions, procedures and drawings
The quality of green tea can be significantly affected by several activities: tea leaves picking, plucking, withering, rolling, fermentation, firing, sorting and packing (Nathmulls, 2014). The duration of each of…
1. Tea Manufacturing Process (2014). Nathmulls. Retrieved February 15, 2015 from http://www.nathmulltea.com/manufacturing.html .
2. Tea Quality Parameters (2014). UPASI Tea Research Foundation. Retrieved February 15, 2015 from http://www.upasitearesearch.org/tea-quality-parameters/ .
persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way.
In a discussion with a colleague about the merits of a certain political leader, I repeated the colleague's concerns back to him to show that I had been listening and that I understood what his issues were. Then I used my knowledge of the subject to answer the objections and to correct some inaccuracies in what he said. I did not do so in a judgmental or affronting manner, but rather intimated that he himself could check up on what I was saying to see for himself. I encouraged him to do just that in a friendly manner, he agreed to do so, and when he returned he agreed that my perspective had been correct because it was based on actual evidence.
Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation that demonstrated your coping skills.
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
CHIMEASChimerasContinued research on human embryonic stem cells leads to formation of more chimeras. The National Academy of Sciences has laid a common ground for ethical research on human embryonic stem cells. Wade (2015) defines chimeras as creatures composed of more than one kind of cell (par 1). In this essay, I will express my thoughts on why chimeras are weird to many and also why they may be of importance to humans.It is interesting that Mermaids, werewolves, sphinxes, and centaurs are viewed as half-human chimeras while the original chimaera was a monster. It is also interesting that these creatures possess powerful evil powers and that people who possess big heart valves are chimeric. I agree with the articles assertion to the effect that chimeras are weird creatures. This is more so the case owing to the fact that, as Wade (2005) points out, testing and developing new organs by biologists…
ReferencesWade, N. (2005). Chimeras on the horizon, but Dont Expect Centaurs. https://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/03/science/chimeras-on-the-horizon-but-dont-expect-centaurs.html
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
Watch at least three different episodes of the same television program. Analyze what behaviors are repeatedly observed, what influence these behaviors may have on individuals who watch the program regularly, what stereotypes are reinforced by the program, and what long-term effects may result from the program. Also examine the advertising content with regard to the target market of the ads (gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES)). Be sure to include SCHOLALY* research to help make sense of your results (with proper citations).
History of the Simpsons
The Simpsons is a TV sitcom that is full of stereotypes and that has been used for entertainment for years. In fact, it is the longest running sitcom in American history (Susman, 2003). The show is ranked 17th of today's most popular shows and is ranked 25th of all time. The program features the typical American dysfunctional family exaggerated to a comedic extent. There is…
Davis, Brian. (2009, October 12). Ratings: The Great Wife Hope. Message posted to http://www.simpsonschannel.com/2009/10/ratings-the-great-wife-hope/
Graves, SB (1999) Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? Journal of Social Issues
Volume 55, Issue 4, pages 707 -- 727,
Susman, Gary. (2003, January 17). Ay, Carumba. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,409190,00.html
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…
Instrument, validity, reliability. (2014). Research Rundowns. Retrieved:
Korb, K. (2012). Select sampling technique. Conducting Educational Research.
Retrieved from: http://korbedpsych.com/R06Sample.html
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315
Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135
Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68
Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).
This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…
Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.
Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…
Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.
Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.
Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology
Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
future research agenda that Judge, et al. (2008) present addresses their critique of personality research in organizational behavior.
According to Judge, Klinger, Simon and Yang (2008), the various criticisms directed at early organizational behavioral theories have been countered by a growing body of evidence that supports these fundamental precepts. In this regard Judge et al. report that there have been three main pieces of evidence to date that have been particularly influential:
The growth of meta-analysis allowed for cumulation of results across studies. This development was particularly important in the area of personality, given the myriad traits that had been considered over decades of scientific research.
The widespread acceptance of the five-factor model (or the 'Big Five' -- Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) of personality provided a framework to organize the diverse set of traits. While the gains from the five-factor model have been considerable, its acceptance…
Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology change successfully? A
discussion from a human resources perspective. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 3, 85-
Judge, T.A., Klinger, R., Simon, L.S., & Yang, I.W.F. (2008). The contributions of personality to organizational behavior and psychology: Findings, criticisms, and future research directions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1982-2000.
Now that InterClean has created a new product outlook, part of its restructuring should involve a creating a reformed performance review system that truly rewards top employees.
Describe the types of management action that align with employment laws and those that do not.
The InterClean Corporation is attempting to reformulate its product package and sales approach in light of its upcoming merger, which will require a new organizational structure and likely a different type of employee profile. As its employees are hired 'at will' the company is free to let go any employees it chooses, within the parameters of staff contracts. However, keeping a watch over employees by surreptitiously observing their conversations is unacceptable. Hiring and firing must be based upon merit, as demonstrated in documented performance reviews and seniority. Also, firings should not seem biased against entire demographic groups of workers such as the non-white or female, or be…
The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…
Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).
Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.
Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.
Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.
This study used quantitative techniques to measure the dependent variables, but the answers obtained have a high level of subjectivity present in them.
Aside from the independent and dependent variables, almost every study has a number of factors present that affect the results obtained in the study and the ability to interpret them. In this study, there are a number of factors that must be addressed in regards to the teacher responses to the survey. Confounding variables can be internal or external factors over which the researcher has no control. It id difficult to find a study that has absolutely no confounding variables that could affect the results.
In this study, the first confounding variable is dependent on the interactions of other confounding variables. The student's type and severity of emotional disturbance are the first factors that affect the results obtained in this study. Neither the teachers, nor…
Hyatt, K. & Filler, J. (2007). A Comparison of the Effects of Two Social Skill Training
Approaches on Teacher and Child Behavior. Journal of Research in Childhood
Education. 22 (1): 85.
Lane, K., Wehby, J., Robertson, J. & Rogers, L. (2007). How Do Different Types of High
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
online purchases?" using the two-part approach provided below.
Description of the Participants
In most cases, the more subjects that are surveyed, the more trustworthy the results, but there are some diminishing returns involved in qualitative analyses that limit the usefulness of increasingly larger sample sizes. In this regard, Neuman (2003) reports that, "One principle of sample size is the smaller the population, the bigger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. Larger populations permit smaller sampling ratios for equally good samples. This is because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink" (p. 232). esearchers who employ survey methods for data-gathering purposes may have a general idea about how many subjects they would like to recruit, but the harsh realities of recruiting sufficient numbers of subjects to participate in surveys means that sometimes researchers must simply accept what they get…
Chaudron, D. (2008). Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys. Organized Change.com. Retrieved from http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs/employee surveys.pdf.
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field.
Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Mauch, J.E. & Park, N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Online Consumer Behaviors
Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping and how this Influences Purchasing Decisions
Exploring Online Consumer Behavior
Internet usage has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Accompanying this trend has been the increase in online retail shopping by consumers. However, many consumer behaviors, motivations, and attitudes toward shopping via this medium are still being researched and there are many opportunities for further research. This paper will examine the following research questions: (1) How do factors previously researched affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers and (2) what are the significant consumer behaviors both positive and negative that affect internet consumerism? The purpose of this research paper is to integrate the varied research information together and draw coherent linkages to how consumer thoughts, attitudes and motivational behavior affect online buying, thus building a broader framework of analysis in which to build upon. By identifying these relevant factors,…
Vazquez, D., & Xu, X. (2009). Investigating linkages between online purchase behaviour variables. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 37, 408-419. doi: 10.1108/09590550910954900
Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao/
"Research & Reporting": How does the hotel membership system (Sands Rewards Club) affect the Venetian Macao Hotel itself?
How does the Hotel Membership System (Sands Rewards Club)
Affect The Venetian Macao Hotel itself?
Module Title & Code
Authors, names and Class designations
This work describes the affect of the Sands Rewards Club on the Venetian Macao Hotel through an exploration of three key themes. 1.The role of loyalty program membership on customer loyalty in the hotel industry as influenced by repetition of stays at Sands Hotels and specifically at The Venetian Macau Hotel. 2. The influence of loyalty program membership on customer purchase behavior, by comparing both member and non-member purchases. 3. The relationship between membership purchase discounts and/or privileges and purchasing behavior by comparing member and non-member purchases of a single promoted hotel package that is marketed and discounted for members. Research Question:…
2011, 'Hotels.com Expands Its Successful welcomerewards Loyalty Program', Hispanic PR Wire, 28 October, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
Bareham, JR 2004, "Can consumers be predicted or are they unmanageable?," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16, 3, pp.159-165
Barsky, J 2011, 'Hotel reward programs attracting more consumers', Hotel Management (21582122), 226, 14, p. 12, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
Berman, B 2006, 'Developing an Effective Customer Loyalty Program', California Management Review, 49, 1, pp. 123-148, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
However, the scores in the test reveal that my opinion and self-assessment might not be objective.
The organizational business test also revealed some interesting facts. The results in the survey are the following: autocratic -- 18, custodial -- 19, supportive -- 20, and collegial -- 18. The scores in these categories are quite close, making it difficult to determine what the regular behavior of the company is. However, given the fact that the supportive behavior has the highest scores, it means that the company encourages this type of behavior. Based on my observations at the workplace, this is mostly true. The environment within the company is supportive of employees' development and encourages collegial relationships. However, there are situations that require autocratic and custodial management.
It is obvious that my leadership style that seems to not be clearly perceived needs improvement. Therefore, I intend to continue with professional assessment and with…
1. Miner, J. (2007). Organizational Behavior M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=E_NoJzUp1dcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=organizational+behavior&source=bl&ots=hZLt3eh1jo&sig=O6uVpr5ycF8z2y1l0WaR4dtH5ak&hl=ro#v=onepage&q&f=false .
There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).
Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).
Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…
Dews, P.B. (1984). Behavioral effects of caffeine. Caffeine. Springer: New York.
Foxx, R.M. & Rubinoff, a. (1979). Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis,12(3): 335-
Greden, J.F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry,131: 1089-1092.
Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E. & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Human coffee drinking:
Smith provided the appropriate managerial direction which struck the right balance between creativity, performance and productivity. His farsightedness which encompassed a wide vision was long-term, ambitious and the same time entirely practical and feasible. (Section 7: Leadership and Management, p. 243)
Having earlier steered a floundering company towards a successful path, Smith's work was uphill. He had to drastically change the organizational culture and structure while reducing conflict within the very talented set of employees and provide them with a collective direction. He was also expected to reduce the atmosphere of uncertainty prevailing in the organization and use the "countercultures" of the earlier two companies to foster innovation and creativity and thus get a competitive advantage for the new organization. (Section 2: Organizations & Culture, p. 64)
d. Organizational goals, vision, mission, objectives and values
Organizational mission defines the very reason for its existence. It basically refers to a general…
Banerjee, M., 1995. Organization behaviour. Allied Publishers Limited.
Bryan, Lowell. L; Joyce, Claudia I., 2007. Better strategy through organizational design. McKinsey Quarterly, no. 2, pp: 22-29.
De Laurentis, Giacomo., 2004. Strategy and organization of corporate banking. Springer.
Gitman, Lawrence J; McDaniel, Carl. 2009., The Future of Business: The Essentials. South Western Cengage Learning.
IV: How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically
It would be perfectly normal for any organization or individual that is often faced with ethical dilemmas to be assisted by someone who is experienced in decision making and who is better qualified to deal with ethical dilemmas. Shareholders often tend to be biased in decision making, as they are aware that their wealth can be put at serious risk if they perform a wrong move. In contrast, stakeholders are more likely to behave objectively when they know that their decisions will not necessarily affect their social position. Thus, stakeholders can behave more ethically than shareholders, but the downside on this is that the former have more chances of performing mistakes, as they know that the risks involved in most conditions that they encounter are lesser on their side.
In particular situations, stakeholders can feel more inclined to behave unethically,…
1. Klein, Linda S. "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
2. Sauer, Wolfgang "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
Linda S. Klein, "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
Wolfgang Sauer, "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
" (ND, p.1) According to Ryan the human brain is an "evolved system" and one that is organized "to an underlying evolutionary logic." (ND, p.1) It is the claim of evolutionary psychologists that "the human brain has not changed" and furthermore, that it has not been "under any evolutionary pressure to do so -- in any significant way over the past 100,000 years, and therefore, modern man maintains the 'mind' of his Stone Age ancestors." (ND, p.1)
Lynch (2004) author of 'The Neuro Revolution: How rain Science is Changing Our World" states that "emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neural systems. Whereas emotions are automatic responses to stimuli, feelings are 'private, subjective experiences' that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state."(p.1) Therefore, it can be understood that indeed human brains are to some extent hardwired however, the individual's cognitive processing capacity has a great deal to…
Clark, William R. & Grunstein, Michael. Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2000.
Benderly, B.L. Are We Hardwired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Genome News Network. 2000 Nov 3. Online available at: http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/11_00/Hardwired_review.php
Tancredi, L. Hardwired Behavior. What Neuroscience Reveals about Morality. 2005. Cambridge University Press. Online available at: http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/60017/sample/9780521860017ws.pdf
Ryan, Terry. Review: How Hardwired is Human Behavior? The 21st Century Learning Initiative. Online available at: http://www.21learn.org/archive/articles/ryan_nicholson.php
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.