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Thus the indifference curve II passing through D. must have a negative slope. It is generally assumed that such curves are convex to the origin.
Now I-I is a particular indifference curve. We may think of the consumption of any bundle of goods on it as yielding a particular level of satisfaction, or utility, to the consumer. However there are indifference curves passing through every point on figure 2, each one negatively sloped and each one convex to the origin. Those which pass through points above and to the right of D. link
Indifference curves that cross are incompatible with the assumption that consumers order bundles of goods consistently.
Up bundles of goods that yield higher levels of satisfaction than those on I-I and those below and to the left yield lower levels of satisfaction. Such curves can never cross one another, for this would violate the rationality assumption. Consider…
Bailey, M.J., The Marshallian Demand Curve, Journal of Political Economy, June 1994, reprinted in Breit and Hochman (op. cit).
Hicks, J.R., Value and Capital (2nd edition), New York (Oxford University Press) 1946, Chs 1-3.
Marshall, A., Principles of Economics (8th edition), London (Macmillan) 1936, Book 3.
Skurski, Roger. New Directions in Economic Justice. University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…
Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf
Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/
Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html
Firm, Labor Markets, and Imperfect Information
Perfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition
A perfectly competitive market does not have barriers to entry or exit and is characterized by many producers and many consumers, all of whom are price takers -- a term that means the suppliers and the buyers cannot effect the price as they do not have market power ("Competitive Markets," 2014). Monopolistic competitive markets are do have some barriers to entry and exit. Consumers can find substitutes for all of the goods in a competitive market, whereas high product differentiation is seen in a monopolistic competitive market ("Competitive Markets," 2014). Indeed, one of the reasons that a firm can achieve a monopoly for a product is that the business has been successful in its efforts to differentiate a product, as perceived by its customers. The ability of a business to make profits in the long-run is referred to…
Blanding, M. (2014, August 11). The business of behavioral economics. HBS Working Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review. Retreived from http://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2014/08/11/the-business-of-behavioral-economics/
Cardon, J.H., and Hendel, I. (2001). Asymmetric information in health insurance: evidence from the National Medical Expenditure Survey. Rand Journal of Economics, 32 (3), 408 -- 427. JSTOR 2696362. Retreived from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/262111?uid=3739920&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21105862412373
Chiappori, P.A., and Salanie, B. (2000). Testing for asymmetric information in insurance markets. Journal of Political Economy, 108(1), 56 -- 78. doi:10.1086/262111. Retrieved from
Behavioral Finance Concept v. Efficient Market Hypothesis:
For more than a century, the concept of efficient markets has been the subject of numerous academic researches and huge debates. An efficient market is described as a market with a large number of balanced profit maximizers that are actively competing against each other to forecast the future market values for individual securities. The efficient market is also defined as a market where current information is nearly freely available and accessible to all participants. Generally, in an efficient market, competition will make complete effects of new information on essential values to be reflected instantly in real prices (Singh, 2010). The efficient market hypothesis has developed to become a significant cornerstone of contemporary financial theory even though the market seems to be more modern and characterized by increased inefficiencies. As a result, the standard finance for rational analysis framework has been placed in an…
"Analysis of Behavioral Finance Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Amendment and Innovation." (n.d.). Tastecaste.com. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.tastecate.com/freepages336095_Analysis-of-behavioral-finance-efficient-market-hypothesis-for-the-amendment-and-Innovation#
"Behavioral Finance -- A Challenge to the EMH." (2010). Accredited Portfolio Management
Advisor. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.cffpinfo.com/pdfs/APMA_Sample.pdf
Cunningham, L.A. (2002, January 6). Behavioral Finance and Investor Governance. Washington and Lee Law Review, 59(3), 767-837. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1346&context=wlulr
Behavioral Finance and Analysis of American Financial Crisis
Financial theories are the cornerstone of the modern corporate world. They lay the foundation for most tools used in areas like asset pricing and investment banking. Most theoretical concepts like general equilibrium analysis and information economics are planted in the field of microeconomics. There are several different financial theories based on both consumer behavior, as well as how they impact decisions made by financial managers.
One financial theory that many business managers use is The Modern Portfolio Theory,
or MPT. It suggests how investors use diversification to enhance their portfolios, as well as how to price an asset based on the risk, in relation to the market as a whole. Modern portfolio theory displays the return of an asset as a variable, and the portfolio as a combination of all of the assets. The return of a portfolio is also a random…
Klier, Thomas H. "From Tail Fins to Hybrids: How Detroit Lost its Dominance of the U.S. Auto Market." Economic Perspectives 33.2 (2009), 2-17. Web.
Heakal, Reem, 2008. Macroeconomic Analysis: Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
Krumm, Paul, 2007. How Money is Created Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
Inevitably, the level of economic development has a direct contact with the marketing strategy of a company. Basically a company's marketing strategy is a mixture of three things which are distribution, promotion and pricing.
Companies usually make its marketing strategies according to the level of economic development in both the multinational and global context. For a developed country, the organizations have an idea that promotion and pricing strategies will be crucial for them merely to accelerate the level of their earnings. There can be a marginal difference between the standardized form of marketing and local method of marketing. Standardized form of marketing compel the organizations to facilitate the consumers in the same way as they wanted while the domestic marketing makes their own rules of entertaining the consumers, this is the main thing why the standardized form is more productive than the domestic form. Standardized form of marketing includes tailoring…
Economic Development, retrieved from < http://www.edrgroup.com/library/economic-development / >, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
John, E (1999), Economic Development, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Michael, P & Stephen, S (2009), Economic Development, McGraw Hill Publications
What is Economic Development, retrieved from http://www.valleycountyeconomicdevelopment.com/pages/what_is_econ.htm, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…
Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/
Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run
Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill
Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
Why Do Consumers Make Irrational, Decisions?
In economics there is usually the underlying assumption that people who make choices will act in a rational manner, weighing up the costs and the benefits and determining a course of action dependent which choice provides them with the greatest benefit. The assumption may appeal to logic, and is seen in rational choice theory, but the reality is many consumers will not act in a rational manner, making choices that result disadvantages or costs rather than benefits. There are a number of influences which may explain how and why consumers do not always make the rational or optimal choices in economic terms.
One of the key aspects of rational choice theory, which dictates individuals will make rational choices are the underlying assumption that individuals making the choices will be in possession of perfect information regarding the choices and the potential outcomes, and that…
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
For a product category of your choice show how you would segment the market. Discuss what variables you would use to segment the market and why you selected those variables. Then identify the market segment you see being the least served and discuss the possibilities of developing a product to serve that market. Then make a recommendation on if developing the product to serve that segment makes sense financially. Be sure to support your analysis with references.
The Coca-Cola Company is in the process of introducing a new drink: a pocketbook drink called Dasani Drops. These are drops carried in one's handbag that people can carry around with them in a compact way and then drop into water when that water is accessible turning the liquid into a healthy, tasty drink. The aim of the new drink is to use artificial sweeteners (that are considered healthier) and to lower…
Kotler, P., & Keller, KL (2006) Marketing Management. Prentice Hall,
Strom, S. (May 14, 2012) Coca-Cola Tests Sweeteners in Battle of Lower Calories
Why does GE finance poorly-rated airlines with its aircraft financing? GE benefits in three ways: (1) its lower cost of capital than the airlines means that it can charge a risk premium, and make more money on the airline debt, (2) it sells aircraft engines and, more critically, spare parts, which are the biggest long-term source of revenue for the company, and (3) the loans are well-collateralized. Even in a bankruptcy procedure, the airlines have relatively little recourse to the assets, and GE would be free to sell or lease the airlines to others. Other leasing companies, while they don't have GE's aircraft engine business, are able to lure tax-advantaged investors (offshore, those receiving tax credits, others) who also give them a lower cost of capital; their expertise in leasing and selling planes, as well as their leverage in pricing negotiations with the major airframe manufacturers gives them an advantage…
Business Week. "Why GE Is Keeping Loser Airlines Aloft." Business Week 7 February 2005: n.p.
Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San. Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry. Economic Report. San Francisco: Federal Reserve, 2002.
Gittell, JH, Cameron, K, Lim, S and Rivas, V. "Relationships, Layoffs and Organizational REsiliance." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2006): 300-329.
Mackinac. Price Elasticity of Demand. Economic. Mackinac: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1997.
Expenditures on health care has been mounting faster than the economy for many years, representing a challenge not only for the government's health insurance programs, but also for the private sector. As health care expenditures consume a larger share of the nation's economic output, Virginians along with all Americans will be faced with progressively harder choices to make (the Long-Term Outlook for Health Care Spending, n.d.).
"About Your Benefits." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
"Benefits Descriptions." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
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"Five health insurers raise rates in Virginia."2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
Martin, Keith L. 2010, "Virginia passes budget cutting Medicaid, other health services," viewed
14 February 2011, from < http://ifawebnews.com/2010/03/15/virginia-passes-budget-cutting-medicaid-other-health-services/>
"Monthly Premiums for Non-Medicare Eligible Retiree Group." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011,
"About Your Benefits." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
"Benefits Descriptions." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
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"Eligibility, Enrollment and Plan Choices." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
S. And that, as much as anything else, has allowed the U.S. To fall behind other nations in upward mobility of the population.
Foroohar also suggests that some European nations (such as Germany) responded better to the recent economic crisis than the U.S., such as by artificially preventing unemployment rates from rising by subsidizing companies to retain them through hard times. As a result, consumer spending did not drop of the way it has in the U.S., resulting in a cycle of decreasing demand and increasing unemployment predicted by traditional macroeconomic principles. Finally, Foroohar points to the more equitable and les complicated tax codes in European nations that omit corporate tax loopholes and reduce the pressures that have resulted in the loss of upward socioeconomic mobility in the U.S.
ana Foroohar's article highlights the manner in which recent trends in American society have demonstrated classic macroeconomic principles in…
Foroohar, R. "What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility?" Time, Vol. 178, No. 19 (2011):
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…
3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.
4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial
5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Respiratory Issues Complicated by Economic Disadvantage
Socio-economic status, commonly referred to as SES can be describes as the economic or social standing of an individual, and is a measure of the person’s economic or social position in a social group. SES is a composition of different measures such as education, earnings, location of housing or job. According to studies, a lower socio-economic status can be related to unequal access to healthcare in several illnesses. There exists emerging data and information on respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis and other pulmonary ailments which suggest a similar observation also noticed in other chronic ailments (Sahni, Talwar, Khanijo & Talwar, 2017).
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory illness that presents permanent condition with varying severity levels all through the life of the affected persons. It affects individuals of all ages and presents its highest frequency in childhood. Latest data gathered…
Economics: Neoclassical, Keynesian, And Marxian Theories
Social theories attempt to explain how people interact with each other, and with their surroundings. For this reason, it is believed that social theories shape society, so much so that people will theorize elements in their surroundings based on their life situations and what they experience in their interactions. Towards this end, what one person thinks or believes about a certain aspect may not necessarily be what another person thinks; people hold different theories about how the economy works, and how it influences human interactions - and this is particularly why we have multiple economic theories today. Social theories are broadly categorized into three -- humanism, structuralism, and dialectics. These three have been applied to economic theory to explain how the various elements of the economy interact to realize maximum outcomes. This text demonstrates how the aforementioned social theories have been used to shape…
Hackett, Steven. Environmental and Natural Resources Economics: Theory, Policy, and the Sustainable Society (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 2012. Print
Wolff, Richard and Resnick Stephen. Contending Economic Theories: Neoclassical, Keynesian, and Marxian. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012. Print
Wolff, Richard. "The New Reading of Karl Marx's Capital in the United States." Professor Wolff's Social Movement Project, 2007. Web. 3 March 2015 http://www.rdwolff.com/content/new-reading-karl-marx%E2%80%99s-capital-united-states
This aspect of the study were inclusive of works of "economic historians on the development of financial systems" most particularly the "banking systems" worldwide and exactly what the resulting impact will be. (Rousseau & Sylla, 2001) hile the two identified "strands of literature" one dealing with domestic and the other international developments, are no always related to one another" but are however, both elements of the story called financial globalization." Definition of a "Good Financial System" states that there are five key components which are: (1) Sound public finances and public debt management; (2) Stable monetary arrangements; (3) a variety of banks, some with domestic and others with international orientations, and perhaps some with both orientations; (4) a central bank to stabilize domestic finances and manage international financial relations; and: (5) ell-forming security markets."
Impacts of Globalization on National Economies
Impacts on the economies of the world have been stated…
Rousseau, Peter L. And Sylla, Richard (2001) "Financial Systems, Economic Growth and Globalization"
Financial Systems, Economic Growth and Globalization" 2001 Oct 15 Online available at http://www.nber.org/~confer/2001/globes01/sylla.pdfr.org/~confer/2001/globes01/sylla.pdf
Bruno, Giovanni S.F. et al. (2003) Measuring the effect of globalization on labor demand elasticity: An empirical application to OECD Countries ISBN 1616-4814. FLOWENLA Discussion Paper 2 available Online at http://www.eastwestmi gration.org retrieved from the Internet 26 May 2006
Gartzke, Erik (2003) War, Peace, and the Invisible Hand: Positive Political Externalities of Economic Globalization International Studies Quarterly Volume 47 Issue 4-Page 561 - December 2003 doi:10.1046/j.0020-8833.2003.00279.x Quan Li21Columbia University, 2 the Pennsylvania State University
he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.
he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).
he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…
The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.
Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.
Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally
There is a lot of predictability and patterns when it comes to economics. There are many examples that one can point to. First, there is a bit of a cycle to things. Even when there are economic "booms" in the United States or other capitalistic countries, there are eventually "busts" of varying size and degree called recessions. Most of the time, the recessions are fairly brief and not a lot of damage is done. Other times, one sees recessions like the Great Depression in the 1930's and the Great Recession in the 2000's. There was also the fairly dark period that occurred during the latter part of Jimmy Carter's Presidency and into the early 1980's when Reagan took over (24/7 all Street). Of course, there are behaviors that are expected and realized when economic travails come. People tend to tighten their spending, stick to their current job if…
24/7 Wall Street. "The 13 Worst Recessions, Depressions, And Panics In AmericanA History." 247wallst.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Car Scoops. "Want A Car 'Made In The U.S.A.'? Then Check The First Digit Of The VIN Code." Carscoops. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Crawford, Steve. "How Does Consumer Spending Change During Boom, Recession, And Recovery?: Beyond The Numbers: U.S. Bureau Of Labor Statistics." Bls.gov. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Fiat. "Fiat.Com - Homepage." fiat.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
The company that I am going to write about is Apple, Inc., which designs and markets personal electronics devices, software and accessories. Apple is known for its strategic control systems, both in terms of behavior control and information control. Chapter 9 notes that there are two different approaches to informational control, the traditional approach and the contemporary approach. The traditional approach compares performance against standards while the contemporary approach requires continuous monitoring of the internal and external environments and then adjustments to strategy where needed (Chapter 9). Chenhall (2003) notes that firms often weigh the environment, the industry, the technology and the size and structure of the firm when considering which strategic control systems they want to implement. In the case of Apple, these factors have led it to an informational control system that can reasonably be classified as contemporary. The company's industry is characterized by short product…
Chenhall, R. (2003). Management control systems design within its organizational context: Findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 28 (2003) 127-168
Gewald, H. & Helbig, K. (2006). A governance model for managing outsourcing partnerships: A view from practice. Systems Sciences Vol. 8 (2006) 194.
Satariano, A. (2013). Apple CEO adjusts bonus in shift to performance rewards. Bloomberg. Retrieved September 27, 2013 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-06-21/apple-ceo-adjusts-bonus-in-shift-to-performance-rewards.html
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
Hidden Order: The Economics of Everyday Life" by David Friedman. The paper will discuss various articles that have been written to elaborate various points from the book.
The Hidden Order: Economics of Everyday Life
David Friedman's book "The Hidden Order: Economics of Everyday Life" is a classic read, it highlights all the possible encounters a person can have in the field of economics. He has tried to highlight the problems and rational of everyday life that are encountered in the field of economics. His books cover various parts and aspects of everyday life of the general population.
The Hidden Order: Economics of Everyday Life
Friedman has covered various topics in his book; they include topics like, price, value and cost of a simple economy, relations between employers and employees in the real world, implementation of economics in everyday life with emphasis on the criminal activities that take lace in the…
David Friedman, last viewed: 24th May'04
David Friedman Homepage, Last viewed: 24th may'04
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
Issues of resistance are also high on the list of concerns about the school system, with the popular view being that race and economic class are the primary motivators and influencers of the way students resist teacher authority, assignments, and classroom/school activities. Definant behavior is increasing in some demographic areas, and seems to peak in secondary school. Often, disaffected or disadvantaged students are more defiant, sometimes due to that being the only psychological way they feel any control in their lives. Definance in the form of student conflicts exists, just as it would in the adult world, with the difference being that students do not yet have developed frontal-coretex areas, and therefore lose control more often. Understanding the link between psychological issues and definance often gives educators a better way to deal with individual problems (McFarland, 2001).
This leads quite succinctly to the idea that a number of at-risk youth…
Brenninkmeijer, J. (2010, February). Taking Care of One's Brain. Retrieved September 2010, from History of the Human Sciences: http://hhs.sagepub.com/content/23/1/107.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
Capuzzi and Gross. (1996). Youth at Risk. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Cooper, Heron and Heward. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. New York: Prentice Hall.
Fields, B. (2000). School Discipline: Is there a Crisis in Our Schools? Australian Journal of Social Issues, 35(1), 73+.
Employer's Attitude: Their Perception And Awareness About Disability
Organizations have a lot to gain from employing people with disabilities, as that improves the perception of the masses and clients alike as being sensitive, reasonable, and conscientious. The team has to be led from the front in this regard by the employers: the heads of the organization (Siperstein, omano, Mohler, & Parker, 2005). The growing demand for labor supply in the 21st century cannot be ignored any longer. The labor market is getting tighter with the supply diminishing owing to many factors (Copeland, 2007). Employers have to consider the fact that employing people with disabilities is not simply a good business and economic decision; it is also a way of building up the reputation of their organization.
The facts point to a scenario where the population growth will be slower than at any previous time. The couple of decades to follow…
Braddock, D., & Bachelder, L. (1994, February 24). The Glass Ceiling and Persons With Disabilities. Federal Publications. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace
Bullock, R., Jr. (1993, February). Tax provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (Federal Taxation) [online journal]. Retrieved May 23, 2015, from http://www.cpajournal.com/old/13808661.htm
Conlin, M. (2000, March 20). The New Workforce. Businessweek Online. Retrieved from http://www.business week.com/2000/00_12/b3673022.htm
Cook, J.A., & Burke, J. (2002). Public policy and employment of people with disabilities: exploring new paradigms. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 20(6), 541 -- 557. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.515
Chaney Allen Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
One approach that has gained a great deal of attention, particularly in the treatment of substance abuse, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Originating with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. There are, of course, any number of observable and latent factors that contribute to substance abuse, most early non-cognitive therapies focusing then on only the observable dynamics. Over time, however, research and mediation models have shown that CBT represents more of an integration of principles derived from both behavioral and cognitive theories, and allows for the treatment of a broader range of issues through social learning, cultural framing, and the appraisals, self-efficacy expectations, and individual attributions (an individual's explanation of why an event occurred)…
Chaney Allen Women's Continuum of Care. (2011). The Crossroads Center. Cited in:
Allen, C. And Mayfield, E. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:
A b) Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/index.html. Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles. Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas?
In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.
Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.
It's proved by a number of applied researches held…
Backhouse, Roger the ordinary business of life
Krugman, Paul Two cheers for Formalism available at http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/ formal.html
Whalen, Charles J. Putting a Human Face on Economics Business week online 2001 available at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/behav-finance.htm
Diop, Julie Explaining the Irrational Technology Review, November 2002
What is Neuroeconomics? Provide two examples that standard economics failed to explain but the Neuroeconomics can.
The term is a combination of two sciences that, until recently, were thought to not connected. Neuroscience looks at what areas of the brain are stimulated by different activities, and tries to determine connections and see differences where anecdotal evidence would imagine similarities. Economics looks at the behavior of people where money is concerned and tries to understand why people behave the way they do looking at the action and the result. Of course both sciences are much more complicated than this, but when looking at where they intersect these functions matter the most. Neuroeconomics tries to determine the reasons people act in a certain way, based on a stimulus, by using imaging tools such as fMI, Pet scans, and other imaging software to show which areas of the brain activate during the…
Balasubramanian, A. (2010). Merkel in trouble: Greek debt, the EU, and politics. Harvard International Review, 32(2), 9-10.
Brown, S.B.R.E., & Ridderinkhof, K.R., (2009). Aging and the neuroeconomics of decision making. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 9(4), 365- 380.
Camerer, C.F., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D., (2004). Neuroeconomics: Why economics needs brains. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106(3), 555-579.
Cherry, P. (2012). The neuroeconomics of sales: How buyers really decide. Retrieved from http://www.pbresults.com/sales-article/neuroeconomics-sales-how-buyers - really-decide.html
A company may be profitable, but not growing, and vice versa, thus affecting leverage (Aggaral and Zhao, 2007).
b. induce a negative relationship between firm value and leverage; conversely, if a firm is perceived with negative or flat growth, leverage is affected. Interestingly enough, new research shows that there are some micro-factors outside of growth that correlate to value and leverage. These include the way a corporation is managed, the size of the Board, the impression of large dividends and lack of focus on shareholder value, and milking of an industry (e.g. yellow pages in the day of the Internet). In addition, certain governmental regulations that are perceived as heavy handed and/or not conducive to growth or -- what is most critical -- perceived growth have considerable negative effects on leverage. Whether this psychological perception is valid or not, the research does not comment -- but it is surprising that…
Iyer, Khwaja, Luttmer and Shue. (2009). Screening in New Credit Markets. Retrieved July 2010, from Harvard University: www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/akhwaja/papers/PeerLending_09.pdf
THe Economics of Financial Intermediation. (2007, January). Retrieved July 2010, from Oswego.edu: http://www.oswego.edu/~edunne/340ch11.htm
Internal Governance. (2009, January). Retrieved July 2010, from IT Business Edge: http://www.itbusinessedge.com/topics/show.aspx?t=542
Stakeholders - Interests and Power. (2009, January). Retrieved July 2010, from Tutor2u.net: http://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/stakeholders-interests-and-power.html
o wit: In 1990, short-term interest rates were driven from 9% down to 3%, and in 2001, the rates were driven from 6.5% to 1%. he 2008-2009 recession saw rates drop from 5.25% to zero. But this "zero lower bound" just caused investors to hoard cash and not lend -- the recession deepen and monetary policy could not gain traction. When the private sector won't spend and monetary policy is ineffective, the government must step up to the plate. Although economists assume positions in different camps -- and tend to exhibit an exaggerated loyalty to their theories, a Keynesian approach is a solid framework for addressing depressions and recessions. Moreover, behavioral economics makes it plain that the realities of the finance markets need to be integrated into macroeconomics. he Fed's quarterly easing remains a viable tool for positive impact, but the time lags in monetary policy are unpredictable, other than…
The real target of the short-term interest rate manipulation is inflation: the Fed's goal is 2% inflation in the long-term. The index most commonly used by the Fed to gauge inflation is the core personal consumption expenditure price index or PCE. The chart below illustrates the Fed's performance with respect to the 2% inflation target over the past decade and a half.
Historical Fed action is interesting, but not instructive for the present economic climate. To wit: In 1990, short-term interest rates were driven from 9% down to 3%, and in 2001, the rates were driven from 6.5% to 1%. The 2008-2009 recession saw rates drop from 5.25% to zero. But this "zero lower bound" just caused investors to hoard cash and not lend -- the recession deepen and monetary policy could not gain traction. When the private sector won't spend and monetary policy is ineffective, the government must step up to the plate. Although economists assume positions in different camps -- and tend to exhibit an exaggerated loyalty to their theories, a Keynesian approach is a solid framework for addressing depressions and recessions. Moreover, behavioral economics makes it plain that the realities of the finance markets need to be integrated into macroeconomics. The Fed's quarterly easing remains a viable tool for positive impact, but the time lags in monetary policy are unpredictable, other than they are long. The Fed should continue the current interest rate for several quarters -- all things remaining equal.
Open-market operations impact the level of reserves that are in the banking systems through the Fed's continuous buying and selling of U.S. government securities in the financial markets. The Fed bases its decisions about transactions with securities dealers according the open market in which the securities dealers compete. This most commonly used tool of monetary policy influences the volume and the price of credit, and is particularly important with respect to the rate at which banks borrow reserves from each other. The actual rate is determined by the open market -- but the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) sets a target rate, and this is the subject of news reports on the Fed's action
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Economics and Healthcare:Incentivizing Better Healthcare ChoicesAlthough health is priceless, affording good health and healthcare has grown increasingly costly, particularly in the United States. Stakeholders with an interest in improving both the populations health while still keeping healthcare costs contained include patients, patients families, providers, employers who provide health insurance to employees and wish to keep employees sick days at a minimum, insurance providers, and government policy-makers. Healthcare considerations encompass reducing the pervasiveness of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, as well as reducing the spread of infectious disease. These concerns are not limited to the current concerns about coronavirus but also the spread of measles, mumps, and other diseases once thought to be eradicated by vaccination.It is true that economic incentives to encourage good health can be used to promote healthy behavior. These may include techniques using positive and negative reinforcement. In terms of positive reinforcement, offering care at…
ReferencesHale, J. (2000). What contribution can health economics make to health promotion? HealthPromotion International, 15(4) 341-348.Hostetter, M. & Klein, S. (2020). In focus: Using behavioral economics to advance population health and improve the quality of health care servicesCommonwealth Fund. Retrieved from: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/focus-using-behavioral-economics-advance-population-health-and
Adam Smith (Biographies, N.d.)
The Wealth of Nations
Book I: Of the Causes of Improvement in the productive Powers of Labor
Book II: Of the Nature, Accumulation, and Employment of Stock
Book III -- IV
Adam Smith was one of the most influential thinkers of the modern era. Smith's work laid the foundation for our modern economic system of capitalism -- he is sometimes referred to as the "father of capitalism." This analysis will cover his life and a brief biographical section, followed by his theoretical contribution to capitalism. Smith was far ahead of his time relative to political economy and argued that markets were an ideal form of resources allocation. However, in Smith's day, markets actually looked like small markets composed of buyers and sellers. Today, the concept of markets has become far more abstract and markets seldom resemble the form that Smith himself was familiar with.…
Biographies. (N.d.). Adam Smith (1723-1790). Retrieved from Biographies: http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Smith.htm
Brown, M. (2012). A Review: Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life. Review of Social Economy, 520-524.
Kaufman, H. (2001). What Would Adam Smith Say Now?: He would Like Much of What he Sees, But he would Also be Worried. Business Economics, 7-13.
Peaucelle, J. (2012). Rhetoric and logic in Smith's Description of the Division of Labor. European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 385-409.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Psychology, Financial Decision-Making, and Household Management
Reason for Selecting Subject
The reason I chose this subject is that in the recent times, the aspect of financial education and understanding has become a contentious and significant one. Its importance has been realized largely because there is increasing intricacy of financial products and also the increasing accountability and liability of people with respect to their own financial well-being. It is imperative to note that knowledgeable, financially educated customers are more capable of making proper decisions for their households and as a result are better suited to enhance their economic and financial security and welfare (Hilgert and Hogarth, 2003). What is more, in accordance to behavioral economics, psychology plays a significant role in the financial and economic decisions made within the household. For instance, consumers with a great amount of money will spend less as compared to consumers with smaller amounts. The same…
Spheres of Influence
Politics is that one course of action by which the choices and decision that influences our lives directly are reached. In simple words, politics can be described as a tool that is responsible for the shaping up and changing peoples' lives. It is not an untold secret that it is the sole responsibility of the government to fulfill the needs of its people. Society changes due to politics. Thus, politics influence almost every aspect of our lives. Not only does it tell us how much tax we are obliged to pay, it also sets the price of gasoline. The political leaders are not the same. However, they all affect our mentalities in one way or another by their leadership styles and decisions they make for the betterment or nuisance for the people. Everything that a person loves about his/her country (apart from the scenic beauty)…
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Sociology of Gender: Studying the Relationship between Gender and Society. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Gender.htm
Hardegree, E. (n.d.). 5 Economic Factors that Influence People's Behavior. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6951654_5-factors-influence-people_s-behavior.html
Hudson, C. (2007, March 02). How Politics Affects Our Lives. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.novanewsnow.com/News/Politics/2007-03-02/article-603796/How-Politics-Affects-Our-Lives/1
Triandis, H.C., & Suh, E.M. (2002). Cultural Influences on Personality. Annual Reviews Psychology, 53, 133-160. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/suh/file/Cultural influences on personality.pdf
Unethical/Criminal Conduct following the Equities Market Crash 2000 to 2002
This paper is a discussion of the identification and analysis of unethical and criminal conduct following the equities market crash from 2000 to 2002. The paper begins with an Introduction to the problem in Chapter One that also contains the hypothesis for the paper, the definition of terms section, and other valuable information. This information sets up the rest of the paper and gives rise to the belief that there was a great deal of unethical and criminal conduct in this country following this event.
A review of the literature follows in Chapter Two where information available about the issue will be presented and discussed. At least 60 sources will be analyzed in order to receive a complete picture of the issue. Chapter Three will then set up the methodology for analyzing this literature and determining what, if any, decision…
Arkes, R. 1991. Costs and Benefits of Judgment Errors." Implications for Debiasing, 110 PSYCHOL. BULL. 486, 486-87
Arlen, J. 1998. The Future of Behavioral Economic Analysis of Law, 51 VAND. L. REV. 1765, 1769
Arlen, J., Spitzer, M. & Talley, E. (2002). Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, 31 J. LEG. STUD. 1, 31
Bainbridge, SM. (2000)Mandatory Disclosure: A Behavioral Analysis, 68 U. CINN. L. REV. 1023, 1027
strong practices which produce solid results. Questionnaires are often used in research to provide raw data to the researcher in order to support or deny his hypothesis. My approach in developing a high quality questionnaire revolves around the purpose of the research. The purpose should be clear cut and not ambiguous. The purpose of the questionnaire needs to answer the following questions: hat do I need to know? hy is this knowledge important? hat information will be produced as a result of this questionnaire.
It is also important in developing a questionnaire to determine what specifically is being measured. Narrowing down the appropriate audience is also important when developing a questionnaire for research. The question of who is being targeted and all the demographic information associated with that task must be considered in the development.
It is also imperative that the data is collected in a practical manner when designing…
Dorio, G. (2005). A few kind words counted more than my therapy. Cortlandt Forum;4/25/2005, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p24.
Engels, F. (1869). Karl Mark. Die Zukunft, No. 185, August 11, 1869. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/marx/eng-1869.htm
Miller, R. (2012). Fed Data Center Consolidation Flawed, Says GAO. Data Center Knowledge, 23 July, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2012/07/23/fed-data-center- consolidation-effort-flawed-says-gao/
Russell Sage Foundation. Web Page. Viewed 12 Jan, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.russellsage.org/
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle .
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle .
The main purpose of this research study is to understand the psychology of decision-making and management of households with respect to Arab students living abroad. The study will take into consideration the impact of the difference in culture and also the influence of such culture in dealing with bank interest. The research model used in this study is the addition of a moderating variable. The data will be collected through questionnaires that will be designed, piloted, and distributed to the target population. Questionnaires will be designed in a way that can manage to gather accurate information on the aspects of psychology, financial decision-making and management of households. It is expected that the construction of accounts subsequent to considering the ambiguous expense, classification of expenses into different categories and psychology of belief in Islamic law, have a positive relationship with the level of spending and financial decision-making. Secondly, classification of expenses…
ubstance abuse greatly impacts many, if not all, aspects of an individual's life and is typically linked to behavioral, economic, educational, legal, medical, psychological, public health, and social problems. In the past 10-15 years, attention has been increasingly focused on the correlation between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Numerous researchers have discovered a strong contemporaneous relationship between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse in both clinical and general population samples of adolescents (Boyle and Offord, 1991; Brook and Brook, 1990; Kessler et al., 1996) and adults (Breslau et al., 1993; Helzer and Pryzbeck, 1998; Kessler et al., 1996). For example, Kessler et al. (1996) found that psychiatric disorders generally preceded the development of addictive disorders in individuals with both co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Other researchers have found a correlation between the diagnosis of behavior or psychiatric disorder and the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use (Boyle and Offord, 1991).…
Seven out of every ten men and eight out of every ten women in the criminal justice system used drugs with some regularity prior to entering the criminal justice system (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). With that many people in prisons that are using drugs and the connection between drug use and crime, then if there was any success at all it seems like it would be a step in the right direction. Many of these offenders will not seek any type of reform when they are in the community. They feel that they do not have the time to commit to go through a program of rehabilitation. It makes sense, then, that they should receive treatment while in prison because one thing they have plenty of is time.
In most therapeutic communities, recovered drug users are placed in a therapeutic environment, isolated from the general prison population. This is due to the fact that if they live with the general population, it is much harder to break away from old habits. The primary clinical staff is usually made up of former substance abusers that at one time were rehabilitated in therapeutic communities. The perspective of the treatment is that the problem is with the whole person and not the drug. The addiction is a symptom and not the core of the disorder.
The primary goal is to change patterns of behavior, thinking,
Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community
Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…
Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.
Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.
Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
Business eport on Dental Prima
The Firm's Specific Advantages for its Internal Environmental Assessment
Accessing Foreign Markets and their Buyers
Key Global Environmental Issues
Political, Economic, Social and Technological Environments
Key Challenges and Opportunities in Foreign Markets
Market Entry Modes
Structure and Control Mechanisms
Logistics & International Business Operations
Prima Dental is based in Gloucester in the United Kingdom and has a legacy of more than 150 years. It is among the oldest of dental companies in the UK (Primadental.com, 2016). The company produces a wide range of high-tech tools that are used for dental treatments the company has business all over the world. The company has been achieving double-digit sales growth in the last few years and considers itself a global leader in precision dental products. The core competencies of the company include its extensive research work that helps it to come up with new and innovative…
Amante Garcia, B. and Martinez Martinez, M. (2014). Internationalization: Changes and challenges chasing internationalization targeting. J. Technol. Sci. Educ., 4(1).
Bateman, I., Lovett, A. and Brainard, J. (2003). Applied environmental economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cadle, J., Eva, M., Hindle, K., Paul, D., Rollason, C., Turner, P., Yeates, D. and Cadle, J. (2014).Business Analysis. Swindon: BCS Learning & Development Limited.
Chanakira, M. (2012). Factors Affecting the Choice of Market Entry Modes in the African Telephony Industry. International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, 1(2), pp.1-15.
policy cycle might work for texas house bilee 692 (hr692)
Describe how the Policy Cycle Might Work for Texas House Bill 692 (H 692)
Problem Definition and Agenda Setting
In Texas, how many SNAP participants are affected by this bill?
A citation for the number of SNAP participants in Texas is required. Please see Blackboard. Look for "Column: Number of ecipients" "ow: State Total"
3,306,288 SNAP participants in Texas are affected by the Texas House Bills 692 (H 692) (Texas Health & Human Services Commission, 2014).
Why is there an emphasis on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among SNAP participants?
Using at least1 empirical article describe the typical diet or nutrient quality of a SNAP participant. An in-text citation and the corresponding reference source are required.
With the latest focus of the nutrition program, SNAP has the ability of influencing the diets of millions of the low-income Americans. Additional considerations…
Just, D. R., Mancino, L., & Wansink, B. (2007). Could behavioral economics help improve diet quality for nutrition assistance program participants?.USDA-ERS Economic Research Report, (43).
Leung, C. W., Ding, E. L., Catalano, P. J., Villamor, E., Rimm, E. B., & Willett, W. C. (2012). Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. The American journal of clinical nutrition, ajcn-040014.
Mancino, Lisa. (2003) Americans' Food Choices: The Interaction of Information, Intentions and Convenience. Ph.D. dissertation. St. Paul: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
Mancino, Lisa, and Jean Kinsey. (2004) "Diet Quality and Calories Consumed: The Impact of Being Hungrier, Busier, and Eating Out." Working Paper 04-02, The Food Industry Center, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.Texas Health & Human Services Commission (2014).Texas SNAP Cases & Recipients by County May 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/research/TANF-FS-results.asp
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
It is often said that 'we eat with our eyes' first, and children are no different. hen hamburgers are in attractive packaging emblazoned with cartoon characters, children will want to eat the burgers more than broiled chicken and whole wheat pasta. Conversely, Cornell's Center for Behavioral Economics in Child Nutrition Programs found that children eat more fruit when the fruit is displayed in attractive baskets rather than in stainless-steel buckets (Aubrey 2011). However, the presence of fast food offerings is too powerful to resist, even when fruit is present. In my own experience, I notice that when children beg to go to McDonald's, they show no interest in the healthier menu. One study of McDonald's located on hospital premises found: "hen apple dippers and milk jugs were on the menu...families rarely ordered them. Apple dippers were purchased by anywhere from 0.3% to 3.6% of kids; milk from 1.1% to 6.6%…
Aubrey, Alison. "Cheap marketing techniques help kids choose more fruit." NPR.
October 3, 2011. [October 4, 2011] NPR. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2011/10/03/141003800/cheap-marketing-techniques-help-kids-choose-more-fruit
"Fast food linked to child obesity." CBS. January 1, 2004. [October 4, 2011]
The purpose of the project plan is to identify the behavior of consumers in relation to not only income but also pricing and a number of other factors in relation to the car industry. Effort will also be taken to find the buyers' economy as well as their purchase preferences to the car industry.
Consumer behavior: the Automobile Industry
It is important to note that today, the automobile marketplace is increasingly becoming competitive and in such a competitive environment; only those automobile firms that are able to understand consumer demand as well as shopping patterns and trends are most likely to maintain their profitability. Hence in that regard, the analysis of consumer behavior in relation to a number of variables including but not limited to income and pricing is not only relevant but also timely.
Consumer Behavior in elation to Pricing
According to Hoyer and Macinnis (2009), a…
Heather, N. (2003). Choice, behavioral Economics, and Addiction. Elsevier Hoyer, W.D., & Macinnis, D.J. (2009). Consumer Behavior. Cengage Learning
Cass Robert unstein was born eptember 21, 1954 and has a background as an American legal scholar in law, specifically: administrative, environmental, and constitutional law. He also has experience in behavioral economics. Along with time as an American legal scholar, he also held a position at the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs as an Administrator. For nearly three decades, unstein also instructed at the University of Chicago Law chool. His current job is professor at the Robert Walmsley University and Harvard Law chool. uch experience and expertise provides unstein with enough expert ability to write such a well thought out book as impler: The Future of Government. The book itself is loaded with interesting and insightful information not only on law, but on the inner workings of President Barack Obama's administration. As previously mentioned, unstein worked as the Adminstrator of OIRA. He managed and supervised the regulatory…
Sunstein provides a good example of this kind of decision making process towards the end of the book by explaining that although some things may cost more than benefit in a monetary sense, they can benefit more in other ways. "Suppose that a workplace safety rule would cost $400 million and produce benefits of $350 million. At first glance the rule fails a cost-benefit test. But suppose that the costs would be incurred by those who sell and use a luxury good" (Sunstein, 2013, p. 160). He goes on to use pollution and explains in terms of human welfare, the importance of certain actions that may seem more costly than beneficial, financially, but socially, health wise, may be worth it. Ultimately what OIRA's main goal is, is to prevent accidents, disease, and save lives. All of these are important to consider and may represent hurdles when trying to figure out and budget government expenses through agency actions.
Sunstein does a great job of explaining how these hurdles are often dealt with and what it takes to get to a point of agreement and conclusion. People often fail to understand what goes on behind the curtain and assume that the government is full of corrupt individuals that ignore the facts and instead go by the way of lobbyists and people who fund political campaigns. However, Sunstein shows that although facts are not completely ignored, it's not just the facts that are being taken under consideration, but also the impact on one's individual value system. "When people disagree about a rule that would protect clean air or increase highway safety, it is because of what they most value, not because of disagreements about the evidence. Facts are not irrelevant, but they are hardly the main event" (Sunstein, 2013, p. 147).
Sunstein has always had a clear voice when it came to politics and regulation. In a recent article, he explains his ideas under the context of Hayek, as well as his thoughts on regulation of government. "Instead of conservatism, Hayek argued for a principled commitment to liberty -- an approach that would sharply constrain government and "take an essentially radical position, directed against popular prejudices, entrenched positions and firmly established privileges" (Washington Post, 2014). So often one cannot see the voice behind a writer as clear as is seen in this book and in Sunstein. He has the ability to concisely and clearly show his own perspective as well as the overall perspective of the government as it relates to people, agencies, processes, law, and oversight.
Hilsenrath, suggests that there are several inferences, which can be drawn from the growing view that poorly informed investors can make markets less efficient than suggested by the "free market" theories of the 1980s. According to the author, the first major implication is that behaviorist theories were now gaining wider acceptance in mainstream economics. Second, the fact that investors can be irrational implies that governments may have to re-evaluate issues such as market regulation and Social Security privatization. Third, if markets are sometimes inefficient, corporations would now have to rethink the way they judge management performance and compensation so that executives become less focused on stock price movements. Fourth, the fact that irrational investor behavior can lead markets astray does not, however, mean that the global emphasis on free markets and open economies will be reversed. For, all it really signifies is that the efficient market theory does not hold…
Hilsenrath, J. "As Two Economists Debate Markets, The Tide Shifts." The Wall Street
Journal. New York: October 18, 2004, p. A1.
The criteria for successful Alliances in Emerging Country Economies
Economic shifts and globalization caused by the development of emerging economies and the recent financial crisis have affected various industries. Firms must adapt appropriately to the new standard where time to market is shortened even with their shrinking capital bases and growing global competition. At a period when alliances and partnerships are fundamental, particular emerging economies are subject to become critical partners. This paper seeks to give a theoretical foundation for analyzing the prevalence, the nature, and the location of global strategic alliances of firms in emerging economies. The focus will be on the criteria for alliances in these economies compared to alliances in developed countries. Propositions will be posted with respect to Small Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs).
Emerging economies previously used for contract manufacturing are evolving at a rapid speed. In a number of industries propelled by local…
Arogyaswamy, B. (2008). The Asian miracle, myth, and mirage: The economic slowdown is here to stay. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Chang, S.-J. (2013). Multinational firms in china: Entry strategies, competition, and firm performance. S.l.: Oxford University Press.
Corbo, V., Krueger, A.O., & Ossa, F.J. (2010). Export-oriented development strategies: The success of five newly industrializing countries. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
Dalal-Clayton, D.B., Swiderska, K., Bass, S., & Aguilar, A. (2012). Stakeholder dialogues on sustainable development strategies: Lessons, opportunities and developing country case studies. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Herding in Bank Panics
The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)
It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…
Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .
Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.
Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).
Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.
efficient market hypothesis and its relation to securities prices, their response to new market information, investor opportunities, and behavioral finance challenges.
hat does the efficient market hypothesis say about a) securities prices?
An efficient market is one in which "the market price of a security is an unbiased estimate of its intrinsic value" (Chandra, 2008). That is not to say that the market price for a security will equal its intrinsic value all the time. But what it does say is that there will be errors in market prices but they are not biased; and it does also say that while the price of securities can and will diverge from the intrinsic value of the securities but that deviation will be (in most cases) random. The divergence of the price from the intrinsic value will not be linked "with any observable variable" (Chandra, 422).
Because the deviations of the market…
Beggs, Jodi. "The Efficient Markets Hypothesis." About.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://economics.about.com . 2011.
Chandra, Prasanna. Financial Management. Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2008.
Kiplinger. "Can you beat the stock averages? Whole-house fans can cut cooling costs.
Singles need estate plans, too." Changing Times. 1980.
Terrorist Attacks on New York City
Consumer ehavior and Risk
Terrorism and Consumerism in the Melting Pot
How has September 11 Impacted Americans
Economic Impact of terrorism
Outlook for the New York Economy
Examination of the Effects on usiness
Regaining Consumer Confidence
Recommendations for Further Studies
Survey of Consumer Patterns After The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Towers
Survey Results presented Graphically
Store Owner Interviews
The Impact of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: One Year Later Chapter 1
The attacks on the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001 threatened the American People's sense of security in a way that had not been felt since the attack on Pearl Harbor. To say that the attacks changed the lives of many people would be an understatement. The attacks literally brought the country to a halt for nearly three days. It can…
American Bankers Association. 2001. "Post Sept. 11 Survey Shows Nation's Bankers Are Optimistic." ABA Press Release, December 3, 2001.
Atkinson, J.W. 1957. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review,
Barone, Ronald; M. Rigby, Peter;Schwartz, Bruce; Simonson; Arthur F; Chew; William H;
Eiseman, Barbara A, and Shipman, Todd A. 2002. Consequences of Sept. 11 Attacks Put
Are there potential risk reduction and diversification opportunities in adding commodities to a Norwegian investor's asset portfolio?
ecent global economic turmoil has inspired investors all over the globe to look for ways to protect their portfolios and to continue to make them grow despite a weak economy. Investments in commodities have been suggested as a solid hedge against future turmoil in the markets. The question is whether this is good advice or not for investors of all types and operating in different home economies. It is difficult to make a suggestion that will work for every investor and in all parts of the world. Therefore, the potential for commodity investing as a hedge against future instability is a question that must be answered for every country in the world on an individual investor basis. This research will explore whether commodity futures can be added to the portfolios of…
Bahattin, A. Haigh, M. And Robe, M. 2010. Commodities and Equities: Ever a "Market of One"? The Journal of Investments, Winter 2010, pp. 76-95.
Batten, J., Ciner, C. And Lucey, B. 2010 . The Macroeconomic Determinants of Volatility in Precious Metals Markets. Resources Policy . 35, pp. 65 -- 71.
Bodie, Z. And Rosansky, V. 1980. Risk and Return in Commodity Futures. Financial Analysts
Journal. May-June 1980. pp.27-39.
globalize barriers are coming down and societies are being given a bird's eye view of the inner workings of other cultures. One of the most important aspects of any given culture or society is the economic aspect. The economic policy and practices of any culture or group sets the tone and stage for the success or failure of that group of people. The economic policies of a particular group or society is often founded in the overall beliefs and traditions of that culture. If the society it predominately single minded in the concerns that the individuals have, and those individuals believe in the good of the one more than the good of the whole then the society may use a capitalist system of economic policy by which to exist. Conversely the alternative economic standards include the Buddhist Economics which overall is a different structure, would not survive in a capitalist…
Henderson, Hazel. Building a Win-Win World: Life Beyond Global Economic Warfare
Berrett-Koehler Publishers; (October 1997)
Sociology 411: http://www2.eou.edu/socwomen/lecture/waysoftheworld.htm
This would play a role in helping to bring the Czech Republic into the EU in 2004. The effect that this would have on the Prague Stock Exchange is that it would cause it to rise to 1,940. At which point, it would have a severe down trend economy during 2008 and into 2009. The only difference is: that the various reforms and economic policies that the government was using at the time, helped to contribute to mitigating the effects of the slowdown (as the economy would experience a less severe economic contraction of 3.4%). ("Czech Republic")
The price movements of the Slovak equity market in the last 10-15 years
The ratislava Stock Exchange was founded in 1991 and has been in operation since 1993. ("asic Information") Like what occurred in the Czech Republic the Slovak stock market went through two bear markets that would last until 1998 -- 1999.…
"Basic Information." Bratislava Stock Exchange. 2010. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
"Czech Republic." State Department. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
"History of the Exchange." Prague Stock Exchange. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010