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I am here at the Berlin Wall reporting on a historic day for the German nation. The Berlin Wall, a symbol of oppression and division of the German people for decades, is being torn down. After World War II, the defeated Germany was split evenly between the four Allied powers, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Berlin, residing in the far east of Germany, yet being the power center of the country, was also divided at the end of World War II, and became an island of freedom within the East German state. Now as Perestroika has been in effect in the Soviet Union, and Poland has been successful with its Solidarity movement, Germany is once again to be united for the first time since 1945.
The momentous occasion has been precipitated for months by peaceful demonstrations in Berlin, applying tremendous pressure to the…
One man speaks of crossing to the West in search of opportunity, choosing to leave his family behind and deciding to send back what money he could. The coming down of the wall means that this man will be reunited with his family after so many years away, a moment of joy. Another reveler tells the story of being whisked away by their parents at a young age right after the end of the war, in a desperate attempt to reach West Germany. It was seen, even at the beginning, that the Soviet Union would be a far more rigid determinant in the post-war era as opposed to the lenient west. All across Europe, it would appear as though big political change is on its way. The scars left behind from World War II are now, forty years later, being healed, and it is unforeseen what will happen to the Soviet Union in the future, now that its power in Eastern Europe is waning.
For many viewers at home who fought in World War II, or who have been directly affected by the war, which surely is the vast majority of the viewing world, the tearing down of the Berlin Wall has a special significance. It signifies victory for the West, and the ideals of Freedom and Democracy, and the magnetic pull of the highly efficient free market. Ultimately it was economics which befell East Germany, as the planned economy tumbled to a halt as innovation and inspiration led to a difficult decade. Now West Germany has the responsibility of tending care to the fragile Eastern economy, forcing billions of dollars of spending by the German Parliament as well as from European and American allies. There is another symbol of the fall of the Berlin Wall, however, and that is the belief that meaningful peace in the world can be accomplished by humanity within a generation after the end of World War II, and it only takes discussion and diplomacy to resolve world issues before another devastating war breaks out somewhere else in the world.
November 9th, 1989 will be remembered forever as the day that East Germany decided to reunify with the West, and here at the Berlin Wall, we see that the German people could not be happier. The ever depressing conditions of the East Berliners compared to their Western counterparts has been visible for years, but this repressed feeling has finally brought change to the nation as a whole.
Berlin Wall 1961
The construction of the wall and the global impacts
The city of Berlin lies on the eastern side of Germany approximately thirty five miles west of the post 1945 border of Poland. When Germany created its German stated, Berlin was declared as the capital city of New Germany. Berlin remained the capital up until the end of World War Two during which the super powers ussia, France, Britain and the United States captured four distinct zones of the city of Berlin. In the cooperation between the West and Soviet Union, Germany was divided into two separate countries (odriguez, Niland, 2011).
The events that led to the creation of Berlin Wall
In 1949, the Western powers decided to sponsor the formation of the West Germany whereas the Soviets sponsored the creation of East Germany. One problem that arose with this division was the fact that Berlin was physically…
Barker, E., (1963). The Berlin Crisis 1958-1962. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-)
Gearson, J.P.S., (1992). British policy and the Berlin Wall Crisis 1958-61.
Halsall, P., (1998). USA and USSR: Exchange of notes on the Berlin Wall, 1961.
Harrison, H., (2000). Driving the Soviets up the Wall: A super-ally, a super-power, and the building of the Berlin Wall, 1958-61. Cold War History
In such situations, no rescue could be attempted without costing more lives, but the incident captured by the Western media increased international resolve against the Soviets (Buckley, 2004).
esolution of Issues:
Throughout the nearly half-century-long Cold War between East and West, the military expenditures dominated the respective fiscal budgets of the U.S. And Soviet Union. As military technology evolved, military tactics demanded continual development of more and more sophisticated weapons and warning systems on both sides. However, what was constituted a drain on the U.S. economy virtually bankrupted the Soviet Union. Poverty, at least by comparison to living standards in the Western
Hemisphere, were dismal throughout the Soviet Communist sphere of influence (Buckley, 2004).
Furthermore, the strategic use of proxies to conduct war against enemies of the Soviet Union also helped bring about the eventual collapse of Communist ussia as a world power. Originally, the Soviets pioneered the use of…
Buckley, W.F. (2004). The Fall of the Berlin Wall. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley & Sons.
Feis, H. (1967). Churchill Roosevelt Stalin: The War They Waged and the Peace They Sought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kalb, M., Kalb, B. (1974). Kissinger. Boston: Little Brown & Co.
Paul, J., Spirit, M. (2002). The Berlin Airlift. Retrieved November 19, 2008, at http://www.spiritoffreedom.org/airlift.html
erlin Wall's History And Significance
The erlin Wall was a physical, concrete barrier erected to divide East Germany from West Germany during the Cold War Era. The wall was constructed in 1961 and stayed erected until the early 1990s when it began to be demolished as a result of the Cold War ending and the fuller implementation of the Soviet policies of perestroika and glasnost under Gorbachev.[footnoteRef:1] While the Wall had practical applications, it ultimately served as a symbol of the ideological divide between the East and the West -- between the social, economic and political forces of the U.S. in particularly and the social, economic and political forces of the Soviet Union. [1: Rupert Cornwell, "Fall of the erlin Wall: It was thanks to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that this symbol of division fell." Independent, 2014. Accessed Apr 25, 2017. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/world-history/fall-of-the-berlin-wall-it-was-thanks-to-soviet-leader-mikhail-gorbachev-that-this-symbol-of-9829298.html]
This paper asks how the Wall came into…
"1961: Berlin is Divided." History. Accessed Apr 25, 2017.
Cleaver, Emily. "Sin City: Decadence and Doom in Weimar Berlin." Litro, 2013.
Cornwell, Rupert. "Fall of the Berlin Wall: It was thanks to Soviet leader Mikhail
Gorbachev that this symbol of division fell." Independent, 2014.
Modernism made its mark on Berlin's architectural trends, too. The Bauhaus style of modernism is characteristic of many of Berlin's social housing projects that sprouted up in the 1920s, and which recently became designated UNESCO orld Heritage Sites. The early twentieth century marked the birth of the eimar Republic, which gave rise to an industrial aesthetic that has become a hallmark of Berlin's look as well as symbolic of socialist ideology (Hake). For example, the Potzdammer Platz was conceived of as a symbolic collective space, a sentimental communal property made manifest in a massive public square.
Throughout Berlin's history, architectural development has paralleled social and political realities, and the Nazi years were no exception. Nazi monumentalist structures mirrored the warped dreams of the party. Hitler and his team of architects, designers, and builders helped create a network of structures in Berlin that enabled massive demonstrations and also imposed party ideology…
"Berlin's Social Housing Gets World Heritage Status." Spiegel Online. 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,564508,00.html
Egert-Romanowska, Joanna and Omilanowska, Malgorzata. Germany. London: Dorling-Kindersley, 2003.
Hake, Sabine. Topographies of Class. University of Michigan Press, 2008
Matthews, K. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel." Great Buildings. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Karl_Friedrich_Schinkel.html
Great all of America? A Bad Idea.
It is widely known that the United States is a country of immigrants. The country's indigenous population constitutes a tiny miniscule of its population, while the rest came mostly from Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, immigration to the United States has always been a divisive and controversial issue. In the nineteenth century, nativist feelings among the ASP (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made the East Coast a very inhospitable place for Catholic Irish immigrants, while the legislators in the est Coast targeted immigrants and migrants from the Far East, singling out the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Chinese Exclusion Act"). Today, cross-border movement of people through the southern border of the United States has become a hotly debated issue for ordinary folks, legislators, anti-terrorist law enforcement agencies, Congressmen and Congresswomen as well as Presidential candidates. Criticizing the…
"Chinese Exclusion Act." Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. Web. 14 March 2012
"Environmental Rules Waived for Border Fence." Associated Press. 15 January 2007. Web. 14 March 2012
Drehle, David Von. "The Great Wall of America." Time. 19 June 2008. Web. 14 March 2012
Kenner, Robert, et al. Food, Inc. Los Angeles, CA: Magnolia Home Entertainment, 2009.
While in Berlin, I visited a large art museum where, as in most parts of Europe, I was surrounded by people from all over the world. Docents guided small groups of people through the museum, talking about the art in the native language of the groups of people. A group of Japanese people were guided by a quiet, polite, and diminutive middle-aged woman. I don't understand Japanese so I couldn't effectively eavesdrop -- but it wouldn't have mattered if I did because she was so soft spoken -- her group members pressed close around her -- that I wouldn't have been able to hear what she said without closing the physical gap in an obvious manner. The group of Spanish-speaking visitors enthusiastically gave eye contact to those around them, gave way to others as they moved about the room, and often linked arms or touched the hands of…
Fietze, S., Holst, E., Tobsch, V. Germany's Next Top Manager: Does Personality Explain the Gender Career Gap?, 2007 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) Retrieved
Tanzania. (2011). Global Integrity Report. Retrieved http://www.globalintegrity.org/report
Why Merkel's Triumph Will Come at a High Price. (2011, December 12). Der Spiegel. Retrieved http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,803097,00.html
Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin all coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold ar. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?
Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. hen Reagan entered office the Cold ar was forty years old. The Soviet Union and…
Address to Members of the British Parliament," June 8, 1982, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1983), 742-48.
Blum, Bill. "Ronald Reagan's supposed role in ending the cold war." 7 June 2004. Centre for Research on Globalisation. 22 May 2011 .
Boyd, Gerald M. "Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan Urges Soviet." New York Times 12 June 1987: 1.
Collins, Susan Margaret. Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the World Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1991.
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
hen Alex tries to find out what his father looked like, his sister says she saw him at the Burger King. He wore gold rimmed glasses and drove a Volvo. That's not a very specific description; but she also said he eats cheeseburgers, so the director cuts to a scene of a very morbidly obese man stuffing a triple cheeseburger into his fat face. The place that the cheeseburger man is in seems quite opulent, and Alex says, "He lived in his world, and I lived in mine." This is poignant because throughout the movie Alex has indicated that he wants to know something about his father.
Another scene that relates to the geographic portion of the movie is Alex roaring along on a motor bike, saying life in East Berlin was moving faster and faster, "e were all like tiny atoms in a huge particle accelerator." But his mother,…
About.com. "Good Bye Lenin!" Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://german.about.com . 2004
Becker, Wolfgang. "Good Bye Lenin!" YouTube. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.imbd.com. 2004.
Ebert, Roger. "Goodbye Lenin!" Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.rogerebert.com .
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…
Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.
Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.
Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…
The Construction of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin.
A competition for the design of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin was held in April of 1994. Twelve artists were invited to submit a design and a stipend of 50, 000 German Marks was provided to each candidate. The proposals would be reviewed by a jury with representatives from architecture, urban design, art, history, administration, and politics. Interest in the project grew and at the end of the competitive period, 528 proposals had been submitted. Rounds of reviews commenced and 13 proposals were selected. But during the interim period between meetings, the jurors -- who ostensibly were then able to review the critiques of their fellow jurors -- asked that 11 proposals be put back in the running. Two proposals were finally recommended to the foundation for feasibility study. One proposal was designed by Simon Ungers architectural group from Hamburg, and one proposal was designed by Christine Jackob-Marks. Jackob-Marks' work included names of murdered Jews engraved in a large concrete plate, with empty spaces signifying Jews who could not be identified by name. Her proposal also included debris from Massada where the Jewish inhabitants avoided capture by invading Romans by killing themselves. Chancellor Helmut Kohl vetoed this proposal. It was considered too "German" and too similar to the Nazi death rosters. The controversy continued under many different guises.
In June of 1998, Peter Eisenman's design was chosen, but it was scaled down to 2,711 blocks, or stelae, after considerable controversy.[footnoteRef:22] Daniel Liebeskind, who was pupil of Eisenman's, claimed that Eisenman stole his design from the Berlin Jewish Museum's Garden of Exile. In July of 2001, billboards reflecting Holocaust denial sentiments appeared in Berlin triggering a funding controversy. [footnoteRef:23] In October of 2003, there was a major disruption to the project. Degesch, a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, was revealed by a Swiss newspaper to be the same firm that made Zyklon-B, the gas used in the gas chambers to murder Jews in the extermination camps. Degussa had been hired to coat the concrete slabs with an anti-graffiti substance. In fact, many stelae had already been coated and the anti-graffiti substance had been discounted as in-kind sponsorship of the memorial. Degussa had National-Socialist leanings during the war and this fact was ostensibly known to the construction management company and to Lea Rosh. Rosh declared that she had no prior knowledge of the connection, and she is reported to have said that, "Zylon-B is obviously the limit."[footnoteRef:24] Another subsidiary of Degussa had, but this time, already poured the concrete foundation for the stelae. Members of the Jewish community were outraged at Degussa's involvement and wanted them out of the project. Politicians on the Board of the foundation did not want to impose further expense on the project by stopping construction, or worse, destroying any construction that Degasse had already accomplished. The cost of this action was estimated at €2.34 million. One Board member, Wolfgang Thierse, was reported to say, "[T]he past intrudes into our society."[footnoteRef:25] The Zentrairat der Juden in Germany was outspoken about not continuing the work with Degrasse. Hezryk Broder emphasized that, "The Jews don't need this memorial, and they are not prepared to declare a pig sty kosher." [footnoteRef:26] Peter Eisenberg, perhaps in a bid to see his work finished, supported continuing the project with Degrasse. In November 2003, work restarted with Degrasse. In May of 2005, the Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas was completed. At the opening ceremony, Peter Eisenberg spoke about the significance of the Mahnmal, saying that, "It is clear that we won't have solved all the problems -- architecture is not a panacea for evil -- nor will we have satisfied all those present today, but this cannot have been our intention."[footnoteRef:27] [22: Historic Sites -- Berlin, Op. Cit. ] [23: Ibid. ] [24: Translated from "Die Grenze ist ganz klar Zyklon B." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294. ] [25: Translated from "Die Vergangenheit ragt in unsere Gesellschaft hinein." Claus Leggewie and Erik Meyer (2005) "Ein Ort, an den man gerne geht." Das Holocaust-Mahnmal und die deutsche Geschichtspolitik nach 1989. Munich, DE: Carl Hanser Verlag Publisher. Munich. p. 294.] [26: Translated from "Di Juden brauchen dieses Mahnmal nicht, und sind nicht beriet, eine Schweinerei als koscher zu erklaren." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294] [27: Berstein, Richard. (2005, May 11) Holocaust Museum opens in Berlin, The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2005/0511/international/europe/11germany . ]
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…
Carlson, P. (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408 -- 412.
Churchill, R. S., & Churchill, W. S. (1967). The six-day war (Vol. 5). Houghton Mifflin.
Cyr, A. I. (2012). Cyr: Cuban missile crisis offers lessons relevant today. Newsday. Retrieved from: http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/cuban-missile-crisis-offers-lessons-relevant-today-arthur-i-cyr-1.4133202
Haas, R. (2011). 9/11 Perspective. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/911-impact/911-perspective/p25735
There, they get the work done their way, with their tools and in their own space, but with much lower costs that in their native country.
Friedman is a firm believer in offshoring and states that such a process is a strong stimulant for fair and international competition. He criticizes the countries that did not yet adopt it saying that all countries should be members of the international market, regardless of their social or economical background.
To explain this idea, the author makes an exaggerated comparison. He says: "Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you…
Thomas L. Friedman, the World is Flat, Chapter two: The Ten Forces that Flatten the World, pages 48 to 172
The Official Web Site of the University of Tennessee, University Libraries, Ready for the World, Thomas Friedman's flatteners, by Martha Rudolph, posted on March 2, 2006 http://www.lib.utk.edu/news/readyfortheworld/archives/the_world_is_flat.html , last accessed on October 5, 2006
James Berry, Review on the book the World is Flat, posted on April 19, 2006 http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/pubs/adanews/adanewsarticle.asp?articleid=1884,last accessed on October 5, 2006
Howard Rheingold, Seven Ways to See What's Next, winter 2005
Holocaust Memory in East and West Germany
In Bernhard Schlink’s Guilt about the Past, the author writes about it what it is like to live under the “long shadow of the past” (26). Schlink states that the Germans felt oppressed by this guilt that their soldiers committed. They are happy to forget it, for example, when the German soccer team scores a goal at the World Cup and shouts, “We are somebody again!” as though the goal erased everything, as though the German soccer team somehow brought respectability to the German nation once more. It was an instance of a man wanting to get back into the light. Yet, after WWII, there was not much light to get into. Just like after WWI, the Germans were saddled with guilt. Only this time, after WWII, they were really made to feel it. They learned that their people had committed a…
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
As his mother begins to recuperate, Alex, Lara, Ariane, Paula (Ariane's daughter), Rainer (Araine's boyfriend), and Christiane take a trip to the country where Christiane reveals that Robert did not abandon his family, but rather fled because he feared political persecution and had planned on sending for his family as soon as he was able to, however, Christiane never coordinated -- and in fact, blew off -- Robert. Christiane almost immediately suffers a second heart attack and is rushed to the hospital where Alex plans to carry out one last con and finally let his mother know that Germany had been reunified, a ruse that Christiane goes along with since she had already been informed by Lara that the Berlin Wall had been torn down and Alex has been trying to shield her from all the changes society has undergone.
Through Alex's and Christiane's actions, the viewer is able to…
When the wall fell, the United States could somewhat smugly say, "I told you so" to the former Soviet sympathizers. Political and ideological victory was a key advantage of reunification for the United States.
The Socialist Unity Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), headed by Ulbrecht for decades, laid the foundations for the state-controlled industrial economy that would characterize East Germany and which might have crippled the Eastern provinces' potential to thrive as part of the EU. Like the former GD, West Germany also emphasized heavy industry during the Cold War as a key to their economic growth, but the FG permitted at least some form of free enterprise and also enjoyed having the United States as a wealthy trading partner.
Many of the lessons derived from reunification can also be incorporated into American foreign and domestic policy, informing for instance, methods of reviving economically depressed regions at home and abroad. However,…
Blacksell, Mark. State and Nation: Germany Since Reunification. Europa. Number 3 Article 5-1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.intellectbooks.com/europa/number3/blacksel.htm
Delaney, Bill. "Germany Still Dealing with Remnants of Cold War." CNN World News. 1995. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www-cgi.cnn.com/WORLD/9510/germany/index.html
East Germany." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com
Manus, Susan. "Perspectives on German Reunification." Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Nov. 1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9711/sommer.html
Watts (L.A) race riots - racial tension explodes in the big city.
he Watts Riots were a civil disturbance in Los Angeles, California. he riots took place from August 11 through August 15, 1965. he incident resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. he riots began when a white police officer pulled over a 21-year-old black man on suspicion of drunk driving in the Watts neighborhood where he lived on the evening of August 11. A crowd soon gathered and the officer called for back-up, who attempted to arrest Frye using physical force to subdue him. he growing crowd of local residents watching the exchange began yelling and throwing rocks. After the arrest, the crowd continued to grow. Police came to the scene to break up the crowd a few times that night, but were attacked by rocks and concrete. Until the…
The Freedom Riders were black and white civil rights activists who rode interstate buses together into the segregated southern United States to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation. The first Freedom Ride began on May 4, 1961 with thirteen riders, seven black and six white. The Freedom Riders' tactics for their journey were to have at least one interracial pair sitting in adjoining seats and at least one black rider sitting up front, where seats under segregation had been reserved for white customers by local custom throughout the South. The rest would sit scattered throughout the rest of the bus. One rider would abide by the South's segregation rules in order to avoid arrest and to arrange bail for those who were arrested. Only minor trouble was encountered in Virginia and North Carolina, but one was attacked in Rock Hill, South Carolina. Some of the Riders were arrested in Charlotte, North Carolina, Winnsboro, South Carolina and Jackson, Mississippi.
5. First heart Transplant - what else can technology do?
On December 3, 1967, South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard conducted the first heart transplant on 53-year-old Lewis Washkansky. The surgery was a success. However, the medications that were given to Washkansky to prevent his immune system from attacking the new heart also suppressed his body's ability to fight off other illnesses. Eighteen days after the operation, Washkansky died of double pneumonia. However, Stanford University's Norman Shumway, and his team of doctors and scientists developed a technique to determine whether a patient's body was gearing up to reject an organ, allowing them to tailor their prescriptions of immunosuppressants. The success of the procedure over the past three decades has created a new problem, rising demand. With far more patients in need than donors, researchers have high hopes for alternative treatments, including stem-cell therapy or heart pumps.
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…
1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.
Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title
Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.
Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)
Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…
Kreis, Steven. (2000) Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down. The history guide, lectures on twentieth century Europe. From http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture16.html
N.A. Biographies and the Division of Europe. February, 1999. http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/TERMINE/1999/kbiog29.htm
N.A. Russia, the Gorbachev Reforms. At http://www.russiansabroad.com/russian_history_205.html
N.A. World War II in the Soviet Union. 2003 http://www.worldwariihistory.info/in/USSR.html
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.
McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
Curry, Tom (2004) Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004: An Indefatibable optimist who set American on a Consdervative Course: MSNBC Online avaialble at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3638299/
Kashani, Tony (2004) Hollywood as an Agent of Hegemony: The War Film. Dissendent Voice Online available at http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Aug04/Kashani0807.htm
However, since terrorism has finally struck on the soil of powerful nations like the U.S. And their key allies like the U.K., resources and attention have been focused on the eradication of terrorism like never before. Because of this, polarization has taken place among the people of the world as far as the approach that should be taken in response. There are those who feel that the only way to neutralize terrorism is to attack it head-on through armed intervention in the nations that are suspected, right or wrong, of promoting terrorism. Conversely, there are those who feel that diplomacy and negotiation are the path to what is being called "peace in our time."
However one feels the problem of terrorism should be tackled, either alternative comes down once again to the key question of peace and harmony or violence and disruption of the established order in the world, although…
Gueron, N.L. (1995). An Idea Whose Time Has Come: A Comparative Procedural History of the Civil Rights Acts of 1960, 1964, and 1991. Yale Law Journal, 104(5), 1201-1234.
Lancaster, P. (2002, October). Poised for Take off? since Gaining Independence from France in 1960, Mauritania Has Been Working to Establish a Better Way of Life for Its Population and a Place on the World Stage. The Middle East 50+.
Williamson, D. (2003). Berlin: The Flash-Point of the Cold War, 1948-1989 David Williamson Explains Why Events in Berlin Twice Threatened to Unleash a Third World War. History Review, (47), 3+.
" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).
Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).
The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…
Barca, F. And Becht, M. (2001). The Control of Corporate Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chun, R. (2001) 'The strategic management of corporate reputation, aligning image and identity, PhD dissertation, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester.
Freidman, Thomas L. (2006), the World is Flat, (Newly Abridged and Revised), Penguin Books, Camberwell Victoria.
Global E-Business Marketing
There are events throughout history that are tragic, historic and/or are forever burned into the minds of those that experience and witness them. The burning question asked by many is how to (or how NOT to) commemorate and memorialize such events. Just a few examples of events that could be cited are the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Columbine shootings and 9/11. This report shall compare and contrast the perspectives of Marschall and Mitchell. While people generally agree that remembrance of the fallen and of events is a good thing, the "how" that is used to do that is sometimes a question with many different answers.
Marschall has her primary focus, at least initially, on the aftermath and memorials relating to South Africa and the time of Apartheid. Indeed, she notes that "many new monuments and memorials have been built or proposed since the advent of the post-apartheid…
Marschall, S. (2006). Visualizing Memories: The Hector Pieterson Memorial in Soweto. Visual Anthropology, 19(2), 145-169. doi:10.1080/08949460600598695
Mitchell, K. (2003). Monuments, Memorials & The Politics of Memory. Urban Geography, 24(5), 442-459.
During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.
With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.
The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.
Conservative Ascendancy in Austria
The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…
Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.
Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.
Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.
Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…
Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995
Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998
Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961
Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
As all these human needs are connected with each other, it is not surprising then, that the human need to connect is inherently connected with the human need for knowledge. In 11/9/89, the Berlin all fell because it prevented people from physically knowing and hearing about worlds that existed beyond the wall. In 8/9/95, Netscape was launced and made public because it would not only connect people with each other, but its usage would generate "more incentive…to create content and applications and tools" (64). ork Flow Software, Uploading, and In-forming were further developments that negotiated people's need for knowledge -- whether they are free and readily available or not. ork Flow Software satisfied people's need for knowledge as it allowed information to travel seamlessly through integrated networks. Uploading and In-forming, however, paved the way for (selected) new media technologies to remain "open" and continuously expanding, respectively. Uploading allowed users to…
Friedman, T. (2006). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. (Release 2.0, Expanded & Updated). NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
It is a farce, founded on dishonesty: like the old regime itself. And Alex has become the neurotic, control-freak prime minister, acting on behalf of an ageing, debilitated monarch" notes Peter Bradshaw, the film reviewer of the Guardian. A real-life parallel might be that of a child in a nursing home who carefully controls his or her parent's visitors, diet, and lifestyle. Politically, Bradshaw's implication is that the love parents and children feel can mirror a kind of tyranny. The love of an old parent can distort the feelings that the young have a changing world as they become dependant upon propping up the lies of parents. This suggest that love the young for elderly people can inhibit and even unconsciously prevent the ability of the world to change, as they live for a dying, rather than a new ideal.
The film at its best shows how love, perhaps too…
Bradshaw, Peter. "Good-bye Lenin." The Guardian. 25 Jul 2003. 1 May 2008. http://film.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/Critic_Review/Guardian_Film_of_the_week/0,1005279,00.html
Good-bye Lenin." Directed by Wolfgang Becker. 2003.
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…
The Post Cold War Army Online at http://www.army.mil.cmh-pg/books/COS/34-42.htm.
Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Russia Country Analysis: A Country Report Online available at: Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Kupchan, Charles (2002) The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century - Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs Online available at http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID / 9/prmID/876
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…
Bruce, D. (2005). Interpreting the body count: South African statistics on lethal police violence. South African Review of Sociology, 36(2), 141-59.
Bush, R. (1985). Reagan and state terrorism in Southern Africa. Crime and Social Justice, 0 (24), i-x.
Reagan, R.W. (1986, Sep. 26). Message to the House of Representatives returning without approval a Bill concerning apartheid in South Africa. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.
Reagan, R.W. (1987, Jun. 12). Remarks on East-West relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.
The discussion here remains open and this is one of the points where the author is merely raising a question rather than coming with a straight answer. One could argue here in favor of a positive globalization effect involving countries that joined the new economic world after a change of regime, using the example of Nokia. The company first moved with the production from Finland to Germany and this was the first time when some voices were raised against the stealing of legitimate jobs from honest hard working Finns in order to offer them to the Germans who were equally honest and hard working, but nevertheless not participants in the development of the company. The same story happened with Nokia when it decided to drastically reduce its production in Germany and to move over to a city in the Western area of omania, a recently free country who is fitting…
Friedman, T.L.(2007) the World is Flat.. Picador
Zineldin, M.(1998). Globalisation and economic integration among Arab countries. Retrieved: Oct 12, 2008. Available at http://www.smi.uib.no/pao/zineldin.html
American History -- journal
In the September 2000 issue of the highly-prestigious history journal American Heritage, the main topic of discussion has to do with "ales From the Cold War," a period in American history following World War II when the U.S. And the Soviet Union were engaged in detente and threats related to the use of nuclear weapons.
he first article, "he Day We Shot Down the U-2" by Sergei Khrushchev, the son of Premier Nikita Khrushchev, makes it clear that the U-2 incident of May 1, 1960 involving U.S. pilot Gary Powers was far more complicated than has previously been realized. Khrushchev states that "In the 1950's, years of deep freeze in the Cold War caused politician and ordinary people on both sides to be gripped by the same fear," being "whether Moscow or Washington would seize the opportunity to deal the first, and possibly the last, nuclear…
The second article, "Aircraft 53-1876A Has Lost a Device" By Clark Rumrill, focuses on how the U.S. Air Force came to drop by mistake an A-bomb on the state of South Carolina in March of 1958 which fortunately did not detonate. Rumrill points out that an Air Force medium bomber accidentally dropped its nuclear weapon "in the woods behind the home of the Gregg family" and that the "high explosive trigger in the bomb blew up on contact with the ground, leaving a crater 50 feet across and 35 feet deep and injuring three girls" (50). This accident came about when a Captain Kulka noticed that the bomb was lodged in the wrong place in the plain and when he tried to fix the problem the bomb-bay doors opened up and the bomb fell from the plane. Moments later, "the plane was rocked by the shock wave of the blast when the bomb hit the ground" (53).
The third article, "Mr. Smith Goes Underground" by Thomas Mallon, concerns a specially-designed bunker, meant to house the President of the United States and his closest confidants, during a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. Mallon reminds the reader that this bunker, located in West Virginia and now open to the public for tours, was "the strangest of all Cold War relics and offers a clue to why (the U.S.) won the Cold War" (60). The current tour guide, Marvin Weikle, who helped maintain the facility for many years, always warns the visitors that what they are about to see can be quite startling, due to costing $14 million to construct in the late 1940's. Once the visitors enter the bunker, they "find themselves standing at the end of a 144 yard-long concrete corridor leading into the 112, 544 square-foot former standby capital of the United States" (63).
The last article, "Visiting the Cold War Today" By Phil Patton, describes various landmarks from Berlin, Germany to Washington, D.C. To Area 51 which as of 2000 were being opened to the public. According to Patton, "these days, there are more and more visitors to the monuments of the Cold War" and tours as often overcrowded at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station and the Nevada Test Sites. Some of the most conspicuous sites include the Titan Missile Museum in Sahaurita, Arizona, the house on Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin (the dividing line between East and West Germany during the Cold War, a.k.a. The "Iron Curtain), the Allied Museum in Berlin and the Cold War Museum which Gary Powers, the U-2 spy plane pilot, created "to honor his father and all Cold War veterans" (72). As of 2000, this museum included "a U-2, a section of the Berlin Wall, a spy satellite, a fallout shelter and other artifacts" (72).
West Germany sustained what many call an "economic miracle" rebuilding after the war. Their social market economy allowed for individuals to be entrepeneurial and yet be socially responsible to the state. With so much rebuilding necessary, but an entire Western Europe and the United tates ripe for importing and exporting, the economic future of the West was in high gear (Erhard, 2000). In contrast, East Germany as a client state to the oviet Union, was part of the large buffer zone Moscow set up between themselves and the West. Because so much of the GDP either went back to Moscow or to run the tasi, economic growth was typically stagnant, and there was little motivation for increased production or free spirit workers (Leonhard, 2000).
This also bled over politically; West Germany had free elections, East Germany's a ruse and the ruling elite chosen by Moscow. ocially, West German standards of…
Sources of Twentieth Century Europe (pp. 338-41). New York: Macmillan.
Wise, M. (1998). Capital Dilemma: Germany's Search for a New Architecture of Democracy. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press.
Perhaps the most memorable example of the cross-pollination of ideas, however, was that of the Chinese ten-meter-tall, Styrofoam "Goddess of Democracy" in Tiananmen Square. The Chinese demonstrations openly used estern symbols and quoted estern ideologues until they were silenced by the government. As with 1789, some of the 1989 revolts were successful, some unsuccessful, but all shared certain qualities in common, according to Manning. Manning concedes that all social movements draw upon pre-existing conflicts and debates, combined with a new intensification of flaring up of such issues but both years of multiple revolutions all show a common rhetoric between nations. In 1989 the "equivalent debates included rights to self-expression, freedom from government restraint, recognition of individual rights, renunciation of racial and ethnic discrimination, and recognition of communities" and a cross-cultural language of common cause, along with a desire for great change (Manning par. 66). The common, sympathetic language was non-specific…
Manning, Patrick. "1789-1792 and 1989-1992: Global Interaction of Social Movements." World
History Connected. May 12, 2010.
They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.
However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…
Au, K.-N. (2006, May 9). The causes and consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from Rutgers University: http://newarkwww.rutgers.edu/guides/glo-sov.html coldwar.org. (n.d.). The cold war museum: Fall of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from coldwar.org: http://www.coldwar.org/articles/90s/fall_of_the_soviet_union.asp
Gorbachev, M. (1991, December 25). Gorbachev speech dissolving the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from publicpurpose.com: http://www.publicpurpose.com/lib-gorb911225.htm
Graham, J. (n.d.). The collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from historyorb.com: http://www.historyorb.com/russia/intro.shtml
Langley, A. (2007). The collapse of the Soviet Union: The end of an empire. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.
(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.
It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…
Lin, Liu (2006) The North Korean Nuclear Test and Its Implications. Central-Asia -- Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program. Online available at: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/2006/LiuLin%20Final061204.pdf.
Yongho, Kim and Yi, Yurim (2005) Security Dilemmas and Signaling During the North Korean Nuclear Standoff. Asian Perspective. Vol. 29, No.3, 2005, pp. 73-97. Online available at: http://www.asianperspective.org/articles/v29n3-d.pdf
Xizhen, Zhang and Brown, Eugene (2000) Policies Toward North Korea: A Time for New Thinking. Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 9, Issue 25, November 2000. pp.535-545.
Sujian, Guo and Stradiotto, Gary A. (2007) The Nature and Direction of Economic Reform in North Korea. Political Studies, Vol.55, No. 4 December 2007. pp. 754-778(25) Blackwell Publishing.
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
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In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…
Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28
August, 2005. Retrieved From
Accessed 31 August, 2005
Deterrence in the Post-Cold War Era
The same types of deterrence strategies that were used to good effect in the Cold War may not be as effective against non-state actors as with nation states in the 21st century. This paper discusses the factors involved in developing timely and effective responses to non-state actors to determine whether the concepts of cumulative deterrence and/or tailored deterrence can also be effective against non-state actors today. A summary of the research and important findings concerning security and deterrence in the post-Cold War era are provided in the conclusion.
Many military and political strategists today may lament the "good old days of Communism" when the actors were well-known and their geographic locations were established with certainty. At that time, it was a straightforward matter to convince political leaders in Western Europe of the need for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to counter the Soviet-led…
Shop Goes Global" tells the meaningful story of the tenacity, beneficial opportunism and importance of capitalism. The article opens memorably, discussing one of the most historical moments of the 20th century -- the destruction and removal of the Berlin Wall. While the eradication of the Berlin wall symbolized many things to many people, for the most part it symbolized the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe. And the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe meant opportunities for all -- not just opportunities for citizens of Eastern Europe, but for everyone, because the 20th century demonstrated how the world was becoming more and more of a global society. The article tells the story of Paul Panitz, an American who went to a government-run copy center in Budapest, which was apparently one of the very few copy centers in Hungary at all; however this was no surprise. As the article…
Germany has had many tumultuous events in its past, especially before and after World War II. Although Germany experienced turmoil before the start of the war, after the war, they decided to take a different approach to foreign policy and focused on rebuilding their economy as well as improving their skilled labor force. Now Germany has a stable economy and healthy and skilled workforce. The old saying: "German engineering" shows the caliber of artisanship involved in German manufacturing. They reduced their need to prove their military might in lieu for labor force development and reduction of foreign military interference.
In a recent article by Kundnani, the writer details the determination of Germany to remain out of foreign affairs. "…it illustrates the strength of Germany's ongoing reluctance to use military force as a foreign-policy tool even in a multilateral context and to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe" (Kundnani, 2011, p. 31). This…
Brakman, S., Garretsen, H., & Schramm, M. (2004). The strategic bombing of German cities during World War II and its impact on city growth. Journal Of Economic Geography, 4(2), 201-218. doi:10.1093/jeg/4.2.201
Crafts, N., & Toniolo, G. (1996). Economic growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kundnani, H. (2011). Germany as a Geo-economic Power. The Washington Quarterly, 34(3), 31-45. doi:10.1080/0163660x.2011.587950
Maier, C. (1977). The politics of productivity: foundations of American international economic policy after World War II. International Organization, 31(04), 607. doi:10.1017/s0020818300018634
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as part of the post-war effort among the nations of the West to work together to establish the peace. Throughout the Cold War, NATO was more of a symbol than an actual military alliance. It was not until the Cold War ended that the first joint military NATO operations were conducted. The first was in 1990 and the second in 1991—Anchor Guard and Ace Guard were NATO’s response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The Gulf War that followed, based on Bush’s trumpeting of the same kind of unsubstantiated claims that his son would make with U.S.’s second Middle Eastern intervention, was the first demonstration of NATO’s force[footnoteRef:2]—i.e., NATO as a wing of the U.S. military and a kind of political and international justification and show of support for what Bush wanted to do to Saddam Hussein. Bush used NATO…
He learned quickly, showed political prowess, was not afraid to lead his followers in troubled times (like the Screen Actors' strike), and he could think on his feet, develop his own very moving speeches, and he had very strong beliefs which he was not afraid to voice. All of these are qualities of a leader, and they developed as he made his way thorough life.
eagan, with support of some friends and political leaders, began toying with the notion of running for governor in California. Cannon notes,
eagan, despite never having spent a day in public office, had political assets that his opponents failed to recognize. Foremost among these was that he was widely known and liked [...] He was an effective speaker -- in person, on radio, and on television -- with an intangible quality of identifying with his audiences and reflecting their values (Cannon 38).
In 1966, eagan…
Cannon, Lou. Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
Joffe, Josef. "The 'Amazing and Mysterious' Life of Ronald Reagan." The National Interest Fall 2004: 85+.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Von Drehle, David. "Reagan Hailed as Leader for 'the Ages'." WashingtonPost.com. 2004. 24 Oct. 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35593-2004Jun11.html
influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…
Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.
Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.
Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…
Bass, G. (2003). Milosevic in the Hague. Foreign Affairs, 82(3), 82-96.
Buchanan, Pat. (2002). A Republic, Not An Empire: Reclaiming America's
Destiny. Regnery Publishing, Inc.
Kunz, D. (1997). The Marshall Plan Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, 76
The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.
Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the…
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…
Dornberg, John. The New Germans: Thirty Years After. New York: MacMillan
Publishing Co., 1976.
Goldman, Marshall I. Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have
Not Worked. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…
Nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers was profoundly frightening, not just for those who would have borne the full brunt of any nuclear exchange... But for the international community as a whole. Quite literally, the prospect of nuclear war constituted a threat of truly global dimensions. (O'Neil A. 2004)
There are many other important aspects that mark the beginning of the Cold War Era. One was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO in 1949. NATO as a joint military group was created to "... defend against Soviet forces in Europe." (Cold War) The first members of NATO were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United States. (Cold War) A similar organization was formed by the Soviet Union and its east European allies known as the Warsaw Pact. This also serves to emphasize the entrenchment of the Cold War into…
Cold War. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm
Harry S, Truman and the War Scare of 1948. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAtrumanD.htm
McGowan M. (2005) American society is in dire need of a wake-up call: Award Would Honor Veterans Who Fought for Freedom against Iron Curtain. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2005/050713-veteran-award.htm
O'Neil A. (2004) Keeping the contemporary threat environment in perspective. Retrieved June 4, 2006, at http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2004/05/oneil.html
marked the history of the world represents the Cold War. It has often been considered as one of the most interesting and at the same time mysterious conflicts in modern history because it did not incur any face-to-face conflict between the two sides, the U.S. And the U.S.S.. However, the conflicts that took place on the sphere of influence determined the way in which the Cold War eventually ended, with the demise of the U.S.S.. And the victory of Western democracies. The historical episode from 1947 (the year of the Truman Doctrine) to 1989-91 (the fall of the Berlin Wall in Eastern Germany and the demise of the U.S.S.. (1989-91) that international theory experts define as the Cold War is however extremely significant for the way in which the aftermath defined the world as we know it today. There are several reasons for this consideration.
Firstly, it must be pointed…
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." The Yale Law School. N.d. Available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…
Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.
Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html .
Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm .
Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
role of individual: the titular "Hedwig" of "Hedwig and the Angry Inch" and the protagonist of "Magnolia"
The individual's sexual orientation and sexual identity and of identification is of supreme importance in "Hedwig and the Angry Inch," as well as in "Magnolia." However, in the latter film, the protagonists' senses of lived selfhood regarding the nature of life and death comes to the forefront, rather than notions of mere gender identification. In the film, of "Hedwig" regarding the "internationally ignored" rock singer from behind the Iron Curtain, the individual is defined almost entirely in terms of his/her sexuality. In "Magnolia," the closeness of different individuals towards their eventual end is what is at issue in terms of their sense of self as individuals.
This fact is evidenced in terms of Hansel/Hedwig's marginal social status as a transvestite and vocationally in terms of his/her manifested, simultaneous roles as a drag queen…
Hedwig and the Angry Inch." 2001.
Friedman considers insourcing to be flattener number eight, because it allows small companies to compete like major supply-chain companies. Insourcing refers to hiring another company to handle a company's supply chain. UPS is the major supplier for insourcing services in the United States. Friedman believes that insourcing flattens in three ways: by letting little companies compete in the global market; by dissolving barriers between companies; and by standardizing business practices across companies.
Finally, Friedman looks at a group of flatteners that he refers to as the steroids. These are small flatteners that have the effect of amplifying the other flatteners. Mobile steroids are those technologies allowing people to work in non-traditional environments and include cellular phones, laptops, and wireless internet access. Personal steroids are those things that give power to the individual, and include personal computers, search engines, and peer-to-peer file sharing. While these flatteners are not powerful enough to…
Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: