I am here at the Berlin Wall reporting on a historic day for the German nation. The Berlin Wall, a symbol of oppression and division of the German people for decades, is being torn down. After World War II, the defeated Germany was split evenly between the four Allied powers, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Berlin, residing in the far east of Germany, yet being the power center of the country, was also divided at the end of World War II, and became an island of freedom within the East German state. Now as Perestroika has been in effect in the Soviet Union, and Poland has been successful with its Solidarity movement, Germany is once again to be united for the first time since 1945.
The momentous occasion has been precipitated for months by peaceful demonstrations in Berlin, applying tremendous pressure to the…… [Read More]
Berlin Wall 1961
The construction of the wall and the global impacts
The city of Berlin lies on the eastern side of Germany approximately thirty five miles west of the post 1945 border of Poland. When Germany created its German stated, Berlin was declared as the capital city of New Germany. Berlin remained the capital up until the end of World War Two during which the super powers ussia, France, Britain and the United States captured four distinct zones of the city of Berlin. In the cooperation between the West and Soviet Union, Germany was divided into two separate countries (odriguez, Niland, 2011).
The events that led to the creation of Berlin Wall
In 1949, the Western powers decided to sponsor the formation of the West Germany whereas the Soviets sponsored the creation of East Germany. One problem that arose with this division was the fact that Berlin was physically…… [Read More]
In such situations, no rescue could be attempted without costing more lives, but the incident captured by the Western media increased international resolve against the Soviets (Buckley, 2004).
esolution of Issues:
Throughout the nearly half-century-long Cold War between East and West, the military expenditures dominated the respective fiscal budgets of the U.S. And Soviet Union. As military technology evolved, military tactics demanded continual development of more and more sophisticated weapons and warning systems on both sides. However, what was constituted a drain on the U.S. economy virtually bankrupted the Soviet Union. Poverty, at least by comparison to living standards in the Western
Hemisphere, were dismal throughout the Soviet Communist sphere of influence (Buckley, 2004).
Furthermore, the strategic use of proxies to conduct war against enemies of the Soviet Union also helped bring about the eventual collapse of Communist ussia as a world power. Originally, the Soviets pioneered the use of…… [Read More]
erlin Wall's History And Significance
The erlin Wall was a physical, concrete barrier erected to divide East Germany from West Germany during the Cold War Era. The wall was constructed in 1961 and stayed erected until the early 1990s when it began to be demolished as a result of the Cold War ending and the fuller implementation of the Soviet policies of perestroika and glasnost under Gorbachev.[footnoteRef:1] While the Wall had practical applications, it ultimately served as a symbol of the ideological divide between the East and the West -- between the social, economic and political forces of the U.S. in particularly and the social, economic and political forces of the Soviet Union. [1: Rupert Cornwell, "Fall of the erlin Wall: It was thanks to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that this symbol of division fell." Independent, 2014. Accessed Apr 25, 2017. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/world-history/fall-of-the-berlin-wall-it-was-thanks-to-soviet-leader-mikhail-gorbachev-that-this-symbol-of-9829298.html]
This paper asks how the Wall came into…… [Read More]
Modernism made its mark on Berlin's architectural trends, too. The Bauhaus style of modernism is characteristic of many of Berlin's social housing projects that sprouted up in the 1920s, and which recently became designated UNESCO orld Heritage Sites. The early twentieth century marked the birth of the eimar Republic, which gave rise to an industrial aesthetic that has become a hallmark of Berlin's look as well as symbolic of socialist ideology (Hake). For example, the Potzdammer Platz was conceived of as a symbolic collective space, a sentimental communal property made manifest in a massive public square.
Throughout Berlin's history, architectural development has paralleled social and political realities, and the Nazi years were no exception. Nazi monumentalist structures mirrored the warped dreams of the party. Hitler and his team of architects, designers, and builders helped create a network of structures in Berlin that enabled massive demonstrations and also imposed party ideology…… [Read More]
Great all of America? A Bad Idea.
It is widely known that the United States is a country of immigrants. The country's indigenous population constitutes a tiny miniscule of its population, while the rest came mostly from Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, immigration to the United States has always been a divisive and controversial issue. In the nineteenth century, nativist feelings among the ASP (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made the East Coast a very inhospitable place for Catholic Irish immigrants, while the legislators in the est Coast targeted immigrants and migrants from the Far East, singling out the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Chinese Exclusion Act"). Today, cross-border movement of people through the southern border of the United States has become a hotly debated issue for ordinary folks, legislators, anti-terrorist law enforcement agencies, Congressmen and Congresswomen as well as Presidential candidates. Criticizing the…… [Read More]
While in Berlin, I visited a large art museum where, as in most parts of Europe, I was surrounded by people from all over the world. Docents guided small groups of people through the museum, talking about the art in the native language of the groups of people. A group of Japanese people were guided by a quiet, polite, and diminutive middle-aged woman. I don't understand Japanese so I couldn't effectively eavesdrop -- but it wouldn't have mattered if I did because she was so soft spoken -- her group members pressed close around her -- that I wouldn't have been able to hear what she said without closing the physical gap in an obvious manner. The group of Spanish-speaking visitors enthusiastically gave eye contact to those around them, gave way to others as they moved about the room, and often linked arms or touched the hands of…… [Read More]
Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin all coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold ar. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?
Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. hen Reagan entered office the Cold ar was forty years old. The Soviet Union and…… [Read More]
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…… [Read More]
hen Alex tries to find out what his father looked like, his sister says she saw him at the Burger King. He wore gold rimmed glasses and drove a Volvo. That's not a very specific description; but she also said he eats cheeseburgers, so the director cuts to a scene of a very morbidly obese man stuffing a triple cheeseburger into his fat face. The place that the cheeseburger man is in seems quite opulent, and Alex says, "He lived in his world, and I lived in mine." This is poignant because throughout the movie Alex has indicated that he wants to know something about his father.
Another scene that relates to the geographic portion of the movie is Alex roaring along on a motor bike, saying life in East Berlin was moving faster and faster, "e were all like tiny atoms in a huge particle accelerator." But his mother,…… [Read More]
Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism
The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .
In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…… [Read More]
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…… [Read More]
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…… [Read More]
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…… [Read More]
There, they get the work done their way, with their tools and in their own space, but with much lower costs that in their native country.
Friedman is a firm believer in offshoring and states that such a process is a strong stimulant for fair and international competition. He criticizes the countries that did not yet adopt it saying that all countries should be members of the international market, regardless of their social or economical background.
To explain this idea, the author makes an exaggerated comparison. He says: "Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you…… [Read More]
Holocaust Memory in East and West Germany
In Bernhard Schlink’s Guilt about the Past, the author writes about it what it is like to live under the “long shadow of the past” (26). Schlink states that the Germans felt oppressed by this guilt that their soldiers committed. They are happy to forget it, for example, when the German soccer team scores a goal at the World Cup and shouts, “We are somebody again!” as though the goal erased everything, as though the German soccer team somehow brought respectability to the German nation once more. It was an instance of a man wanting to get back into the light. Yet, after WWII, there was not much light to get into. Just like after WWI, the Germans were saddled with guilt. Only this time, after WWII, they were really made to feel it. They learned that their people had committed a…… [Read More]
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…… [Read More]
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]
As his mother begins to recuperate, Alex, Lara, Ariane, Paula (Ariane's daughter), Rainer (Araine's boyfriend), and Christiane take a trip to the country where Christiane reveals that Robert did not abandon his family, but rather fled because he feared political persecution and had planned on sending for his family as soon as he was able to, however, Christiane never coordinated -- and in fact, blew off -- Robert. Christiane almost immediately suffers a second heart attack and is rushed to the hospital where Alex plans to carry out one last con and finally let his mother know that Germany had been reunified, a ruse that Christiane goes along with since she had already been informed by Lara that the Berlin Wall had been torn down and Alex has been trying to shield her from all the changes society has undergone.
Through Alex's and Christiane's actions, the viewer is able to…… [Read More]
When the wall fell, the United States could somewhat smugly say, "I told you so" to the former Soviet sympathizers. Political and ideological victory was a key advantage of reunification for the United States.
The Socialist Unity Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), headed by Ulbrecht for decades, laid the foundations for the state-controlled industrial economy that would characterize East Germany and which might have crippled the Eastern provinces' potential to thrive as part of the EU. Like the former GD, West Germany also emphasized heavy industry during the Cold War as a key to their economic growth, but the FG permitted at least some form of free enterprise and also enjoyed having the United States as a wealthy trading partner.
Many of the lessons derived from reunification can also be incorporated into American foreign and domestic policy, informing for instance, methods of reviving economically depressed regions at home and abroad. However,…… [Read More]
Watts (L.A) race riots - racial tension explodes in the big city.
he Watts Riots were a civil disturbance in Los Angeles, California. he riots took place from August 11 through August 15, 1965. he incident resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. he riots began when a white police officer pulled over a 21-year-old black man on suspicion of drunk driving in the Watts neighborhood where he lived on the evening of August 11. A crowd soon gathered and the officer called for back-up, who attempted to arrest Frye using physical force to subdue him. he growing crowd of local residents watching the exchange began yelling and throwing rocks. After the arrest, the crowd continued to grow. Police came to the scene to break up the crowd a few times that night, but were attacked by rocks and concrete. Until the…… [Read More]
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]
For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)
Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…… [Read More]
However, since terrorism has finally struck on the soil of powerful nations like the U.S. And their key allies like the U.K., resources and attention have been focused on the eradication of terrorism like never before. Because of this, polarization has taken place among the people of the world as far as the approach that should be taken in response. There are those who feel that the only way to neutralize terrorism is to attack it head-on through armed intervention in the nations that are suspected, right or wrong, of promoting terrorism. Conversely, there are those who feel that diplomacy and negotiation are the path to what is being called "peace in our time."
However one feels the problem of terrorism should be tackled, either alternative comes down once again to the key question of peace and harmony or violence and disruption of the established order in the world, although…… [Read More]
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…… [Read More]
" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).
Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).
The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…… [Read More]
There are events throughout history that are tragic, historic and/or are forever burned into the minds of those that experience and witness them. The burning question asked by many is how to (or how NOT to) commemorate and memorialize such events. Just a few examples of events that could be cited are the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Columbine shootings and 9/11. This report shall compare and contrast the perspectives of Marschall and Mitchell. While people generally agree that remembrance of the fallen and of events is a good thing, the "how" that is used to do that is sometimes a question with many different answers.
Marschall has her primary focus, at least initially, on the aftermath and memorials relating to South Africa and the time of Apartheid. Indeed, she notes that "many new monuments and memorials have been built or proposed since the advent of the post-apartheid…… [Read More]
During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.
With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.
The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.
Conservative Ascendancy in Austria
The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]
As all these human needs are connected with each other, it is not surprising then, that the human need to connect is inherently connected with the human need for knowledge. In 11/9/89, the Berlin all fell because it prevented people from physically knowing and hearing about worlds that existed beyond the wall. In 8/9/95, Netscape was launced and made public because it would not only connect people with each other, but its usage would generate "more incentive…to create content and applications and tools" (64). ork Flow Software, Uploading, and In-forming were further developments that negotiated people's need for knowledge -- whether they are free and readily available or not. ork Flow Software satisfied people's need for knowledge as it allowed information to travel seamlessly through integrated networks. Uploading and In-forming, however, paved the way for (selected) new media technologies to remain "open" and continuously expanding, respectively. Uploading allowed users to…… [Read More]
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…… [Read More]
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…… [Read More]
It is a farce, founded on dishonesty: like the old regime itself. And Alex has become the neurotic, control-freak prime minister, acting on behalf of an ageing, debilitated monarch" notes Peter Bradshaw, the film reviewer of the Guardian. A real-life parallel might be that of a child in a nursing home who carefully controls his or her parent's visitors, diet, and lifestyle. Politically, Bradshaw's implication is that the love parents and children feel can mirror a kind of tyranny. The love of an old parent can distort the feelings that the young have a changing world as they become dependant upon propping up the lies of parents. This suggest that love the young for elderly people can inhibit and even unconsciously prevent the ability of the world to change, as they live for a dying, rather than a new ideal.
The film at its best shows how love, perhaps too…… [Read More]
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…… [Read More]
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]
The discussion here remains open and this is one of the points where the author is merely raising a question rather than coming with a straight answer. One could argue here in favor of a positive globalization effect involving countries that joined the new economic world after a change of regime, using the example of Nokia. The company first moved with the production from Finland to Germany and this was the first time when some voices were raised against the stealing of legitimate jobs from honest hard working Finns in order to offer them to the Germans who were equally honest and hard working, but nevertheless not participants in the development of the company. The same story happened with Nokia when it decided to drastically reduce its production in Germany and to move over to a city in the Western area of omania, a recently free country who is fitting…… [Read More]
American History -- journal
In the September 2000 issue of the highly-prestigious history journal American Heritage, the main topic of discussion has to do with "ales From the Cold War," a period in American history following World War II when the U.S. And the Soviet Union were engaged in detente and threats related to the use of nuclear weapons.
he first article, "he Day We Shot Down the U-2" by Sergei Khrushchev, the son of Premier Nikita Khrushchev, makes it clear that the U-2 incident of May 1, 1960 involving U.S. pilot Gary Powers was far more complicated than has previously been realized. Khrushchev states that "In the 1950's, years of deep freeze in the Cold War caused politician and ordinary people on both sides to be gripped by the same fear," being "whether Moscow or Washington would seize the opportunity to deal the first, and possibly the last, nuclear…… [Read More]
West Germany sustained what many call an "economic miracle" rebuilding after the war. Their social market economy allowed for individuals to be entrepeneurial and yet be socially responsible to the state. With so much rebuilding necessary, but an entire Western Europe and the United tates ripe for importing and exporting, the economic future of the West was in high gear (Erhard, 2000). In contrast, East Germany as a client state to the oviet Union, was part of the large buffer zone Moscow set up between themselves and the West. Because so much of the GDP either went back to Moscow or to run the tasi, economic growth was typically stagnant, and there was little motivation for increased production or free spirit workers (Leonhard, 2000).
This also bled over politically; West Germany had free elections, East Germany's a ruse and the ruling elite chosen by Moscow. ocially, West German standards of…… [Read More]
Perhaps the most memorable example of the cross-pollination of ideas, however, was that of the Chinese ten-meter-tall, Styrofoam "Goddess of Democracy" in Tiananmen Square. The Chinese demonstrations openly used estern symbols and quoted estern ideologues until they were silenced by the government. As with 1789, some of the 1989 revolts were successful, some unsuccessful, but all shared certain qualities in common, according to Manning. Manning concedes that all social movements draw upon pre-existing conflicts and debates, combined with a new intensification of flaring up of such issues but both years of multiple revolutions all show a common rhetoric between nations. In 1989 the "equivalent debates included rights to self-expression, freedom from government restraint, recognition of individual rights, renunciation of racial and ethnic discrimination, and recognition of communities" and a cross-cultural language of common cause, along with a desire for great change (Manning par. 66). The common, sympathetic language was non-specific…… [Read More]
They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.
However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…… [Read More]
(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.
It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…… [Read More]
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18
Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies
http://www.ces.uj.edu.pl/reeves/beyond.htm, last…… [Read More]
In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…… [Read More]
Deterrence in the Post-Cold War Era
The same types of deterrence strategies that were used to good effect in the Cold War may not be as effective against non-state actors as with nation states in the 21st century. This paper discusses the factors involved in developing timely and effective responses to non-state actors to determine whether the concepts of cumulative deterrence and/or tailored deterrence can also be effective against non-state actors today. A summary of the research and important findings concerning security and deterrence in the post-Cold War era are provided in the conclusion.
Many military and political strategists today may lament the "good old days of Communism" when the actors were well-known and their geographic locations were established with certainty. At that time, it was a straightforward matter to convince political leaders in Western Europe of the need for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to counter the Soviet-led…… [Read More]
Shop Goes Global" tells the meaningful story of the tenacity, beneficial opportunism and importance of capitalism. The article opens memorably, discussing one of the most historical moments of the 20th century -- the destruction and removal of the Berlin Wall. While the eradication of the Berlin wall symbolized many things to many people, for the most part it symbolized the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe. And the unraveling of communist rule in Eastern Europe meant opportunities for all -- not just opportunities for citizens of Eastern Europe, but for everyone, because the 20th century demonstrated how the world was becoming more and more of a global society. The article tells the story of Paul Panitz, an American who went to a government-run copy center in Budapest, which was apparently one of the very few copy centers in Hungary at all; however this was no surprise. As the article…… [Read More]
Germany has had many tumultuous events in its past, especially before and after World War II. Although Germany experienced turmoil before the start of the war, after the war, they decided to take a different approach to foreign policy and focused on rebuilding their economy as well as improving their skilled labor force. Now Germany has a stable economy and healthy and skilled workforce. The old saying: "German engineering" shows the caliber of artisanship involved in German manufacturing. They reduced their need to prove their military might in lieu for labor force development and reduction of foreign military interference.
In a recent article by Kundnani, the writer details the determination of Germany to remain out of foreign affairs. "…it illustrates the strength of Germany's ongoing reluctance to use military force as a foreign-policy tool even in a multilateral context and to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe" (Kundnani, 2011, p. 31). This…… [Read More]
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…… [Read More]
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as part of the post-war effort among the nations of the West to work together to establish the peace. Throughout the Cold War, NATO was more of a symbol than an actual military alliance. It was not until the Cold War ended that the first joint military NATO operations were conducted. The first was in 1990 and the second in 1991—Anchor Guard and Ace Guard were NATO’s response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The Gulf War that followed, based on Bush’s trumpeting of the same kind of unsubstantiated claims that his son would make with U.S.’s second Middle Eastern intervention, was the first demonstration of NATO’s force[footnoteRef:2]—i.e., NATO as a wing of the U.S. military and a kind of political and international justification and show of support for what Bush wanted to do to Saddam Hussein. Bush used NATO…… [Read More]
He learned quickly, showed political prowess, was not afraid to lead his followers in troubled times (like the Screen Actors' strike), and he could think on his feet, develop his own very moving speeches, and he had very strong beliefs which he was not afraid to voice. All of these are qualities of a leader, and they developed as he made his way thorough life.
eagan, with support of some friends and political leaders, began toying with the notion of running for governor in California. Cannon notes,
eagan, despite never having spent a day in public office, had political assets that his opponents failed to recognize. Foremost among these was that he was widely known and liked [...] He was an effective speaker -- in person, on radio, and on television -- with an intangible quality of identifying with his audiences and reflecting their values (Cannon 38).
In 1966, eagan…… [Read More]
influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…… [Read More]
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…… [Read More]
And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…… [Read More]
The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.
Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the…… [Read More]
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…… [Read More]
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…… [Read More]
Nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers was profoundly frightening, not just for those who would have borne the full brunt of any nuclear exchange... But for the international community as a whole. Quite literally, the prospect of nuclear war constituted a threat of truly global dimensions. (O'Neil A. 2004)
There are many other important aspects that mark the beginning of the Cold War Era. One was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO in 1949. NATO as a joint military group was created to "... defend against Soviet forces in Europe." (Cold War) The first members of NATO were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United States. (Cold War) A similar organization was formed by the Soviet Union and its east European allies known as the Warsaw Pact. This also serves to emphasize the entrenchment of the Cold War into…… [Read More]
marked the history of the world represents the Cold War. It has often been considered as one of the most interesting and at the same time mysterious conflicts in modern history because it did not incur any face-to-face conflict between the two sides, the U.S. And the U.S.S.. However, the conflicts that took place on the sphere of influence determined the way in which the Cold War eventually ended, with the demise of the U.S.S.. And the victory of Western democracies. The historical episode from 1947 (the year of the Truman Doctrine) to 1989-91 (the fall of the Berlin Wall in Eastern Germany and the demise of the U.S.S.. (1989-91) that international theory experts define as the Cold War is however extremely significant for the way in which the aftermath defined the world as we know it today. There are several reasons for this consideration.
Firstly, it must be pointed…… [Read More]
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]
role of individual: the titular "Hedwig" of "Hedwig and the Angry Inch" and the protagonist of "Magnolia"
The individual's sexual orientation and sexual identity and of identification is of supreme importance in "Hedwig and the Angry Inch," as well as in "Magnolia." However, in the latter film, the protagonists' senses of lived selfhood regarding the nature of life and death comes to the forefront, rather than notions of mere gender identification. In the film, of "Hedwig" regarding the "internationally ignored" rock singer from behind the Iron Curtain, the individual is defined almost entirely in terms of his/her sexuality. In "Magnolia," the closeness of different individuals towards their eventual end is what is at issue in terms of their sense of self as individuals.
This fact is evidenced in terms of Hansel/Hedwig's marginal social status as a transvestite and vocationally in terms of his/her manifested, simultaneous roles as a drag queen…… [Read More]