Bf Skinner Essays (Examples)

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Skinner Vers Huxley

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45078716

.F. Skinner, a behavioral learning theorist, states that behaviors are learned and learning is represented by a permanent change in behavior. The components of this theory are reinforcers -- good or bad. Most people think of reinforcers as rewards for good behavior. There are actually two types of reinforcers -- positive and negative. Positive reinforcers are when a stimulus is given, and negative reinforcers are when a stimulus is taken away. However, negative reinforcers are different than punishments. Punishing is when either taking away a positive reinforcer or adding a negative reinforcer.

He also says that changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events, or stimuli, in the environment. When a particular Stimulus-Response pattern is reinforced, the individual is conditioned to respond. This pattern is known as Operant Conditioning, and the distinct characteristic of this is relative to previous forms of behaviorism, when the organism can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blavatsky, H.P. Psychology -- The Science of the Soul. 12 December 2002. www.blavatsky.net/blavatsky/arts/PsychologyTheScienceOfTheSoul.htm

Brave New Look at Behavioral Psychology. Ed. Kilburn-Peterson, Christopher. May 11, 1999. 12 December 2002. www.princeton.edu/~wws320/projects/99Fiction/ChrisKilburn-Peterson.htm

Rozycki, Edward G. Skinner's Concept of Person. 12 December 2002. http://mywebpages.comcast.net/erozycki/PracPerson.html

Operant Conditioning." TIP: Theories. 12 December 2002. http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html
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Skinner and Harlow to Investigating Influences on

Words: 786 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41877117

Skinner and Harlow to Investigating Influences on Behaviors.

One of the most common challenges for psychologists is: understanding the underlying motivations behind specific behavior. This is because there are a wide variety of theories that are providing different interpretations surrounding the primary causes. A good example of this can be seen with disparities in the philosophies of Skinner and Harlow in explaining human motivation. To fully understand each theory requires comparing and contrasting both approaches with one another. These elements will offer the greatest insights about the rationale behind individual behavior.

Skinner

Skinner was focused on the behaviorist approach. This is when there is an emphasis on how the actions (i.e. thoughts, feelings and deeds) of an individual will influence their conduct. According to Skinner, everyone is impacted by these actions throughout the course of their lives with a principal known as operant conditioning. This takes place based upon positive…… [Read More]

Maultsby, M, 1998, Behavior Therapy, Acrobem. Available from:

Ratcliff, D, 1988, BF Skinner, Rationalpi, Available from:
Schrier, R, 1977, Behavioral Primatology, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillside.
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Freud Skinner Freud vs Skinner

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48064502

Childhood history for Skinner is a series of learning opportunities, which may or may not facilitate healthy adult functioning.

Focus of counseling and therapy

Getting to the root of childhood traumas is at the heart of Freudian therapy. This is often done by free association, or tapping into associations that the individual might not be immediately aware of, but inhibit mature social relationships. There is also a focus on understanding how a crisis at a stage during the child's psychosexual development has lead to a regression or a fixation in one of these states, and resulted in a malformed personality, such as an antisocial personality. Therapy for Skinner is focused on reconditioning the individual to no longer perform negative behaviors, and conditioning them to perform positive behaviors.

Human learning

Human learning in Freud is the imposition of the superego, or social rules and emotions (such as guilt) that curtail the…… [Read More]

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Chomsky's and Skinner There Are

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29179318

Also, I believe that every kind of animal have their own natural instinct to communicate. Just like how Chomsky explains, a child is "built" to learn how to talk. It is part of survival. Chomsky coins the terms generative grammar and transformational grammar which explain the natural ability of the child to organize language according to a set of rules that would give rise to the formulation of an infinite set of sentences and the process that takes place in the evolution of these sentences to more complex forms. This, for me, is a more complete explanation of language acquisition. Although Skinner's may also play a part in the whole process, his theory seems incomplete.

ibliography:

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). ".F. Skinner." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.F._Skinner

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). "Language acquisition." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_acquisition

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). "Noam…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). "B.F. Skinner." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). "Language acquisition." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_acquisition

Wikipedia Contributors (2006). "Noam Chomsky." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 2, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky
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Psychological Work of John B Watson B F

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992265

psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.

Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baars, Bernard J. (1986). The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Geary, Eric. (2002). Psyography: Edward C. Tolman. Psyography. Retrieved October 27, 2012,

from  http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html .

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Behaviorism / John B. Watson: Early
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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Technological Culture

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9664932

Technological Culture. Discussed: how it effects our life; B.F. Skinner; Aldous Huxley, and Zbigniew Brzezinski.

Technological Culture

The world has become a technological mecca, filled with gadgets and wonders that only a generation ago would have been impossible for the average citizen to envision, except perhaps in science fiction novels. However, today, the majority of households have at least one computer, if not more. The Internet allows one to access endless sources of information and to communicate with people around the world with a click of the mouse. Cell phones, once a handy luxury for professionals, are now carried by children and parents as a way to keep in touch. Technological advances in genetics has enabled scientists to clone species, and make remarkable leaps in medical research. The last one hundred years has brought mankind from the horse and buggy days to space age technology as a part of daily…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology B.F. Skinner." The Dictionary of Cultural

Literacy. January 01, 1988.

August 7, 2002: Death ray weapons 'ready in a decade.'" http://gpgwebdesign.com.au/haarp.htm.(accessed 12-12-2002).

B.F. Skinner." Francis Marion University. http://www.fmarion.edu/psych/bio/skinner.htm.(accessed 12-12-2002).
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Adult Learning Through the Filters of B F

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91441607

Adult Learning Through the Filters of B.F. Skinner & The Color Purple

Adult Learning as Seen Through B.F. Skinner and The Color Purple

The main character in the novel, musical play, and film The Color Purple is Celie, a fourteen-year-old girl living in rural Georgia between the years 1909 to 1949. Celie has been abused and oppressed by men throughout her life. Her father raped and impregnated her. He took her children away from her and let her think they were dead. Finally, her father gives Celie to Albert in marriage, even though Albert wanted to marry Celie's younger and prettier sister, Nettie. Shug is Albert's mistress who rotates in and out of his life, and in so doing, eventually aligns with Celie, becoming her mentor, protector, and lover. Celie's time with Shug is instructive and fosters many changes in Celie's thinking about religion, her own body, sexual relations, independence…… [Read More]

References

Skinner, B.F. (1972). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Vintage Books.

Smith, L.D.; Woodward, W.R. (1996) B.F. Skinner and behaviorism in American culture. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press.

The Color Purple (1985). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved http://www.rottentomatoes.com / m/color_purple/.
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Ed Theorists Glasser Espouses Fourteen

Words: 1548 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82101333

She developed "Cooperative Discipline' a new K-12 in-service training program...offers exactly what many schools are looking for." (Kyle 1991) the problem, as I see it, of Cooperative Discipline is that the students will always try for the least amount of 'punishment' for any perceived wrong committed. The teacher would have to be especially tough in order to counteract the attempt at leniency which would put the teacher and student back into an adversarial position. My classroom will have a set of rules that will be followed. Any flaunting of the rules will result in consequences that have been shared with the classroom since the initial class.

orks Cited

Curwin, R.L., (2002) Finding Jewels in the Rubble, Educational Leadership, Vol. 59 Issue

Glasser, . (2002) Unhappy Teenagers, New York: Harper Collins Publishing

James, G. (2006) Skinner's Utopia, ilson Quarterly, Vol. 30 Issue

Kounin., J., (1983)

Classrooms: Individuals or Behavior Settings? Monographs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Curwin, R.L., (2002) Finding Jewels in the Rubble, Educational Leadership, Vol. 59 Issue

Glasser, W. (2002) Unhappy Teenagers, New York: Harper Collins Publishing

James, G. (2006) Skinner's Utopia, Wilson Quarterly, Vol. 30 Issue

Kounin., J., (1983)
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Ideals Which Have Lighted My

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54525138

Human history shows us that the ruling elite have always tried to set the economic, educational, and social systems up in their favor and I don't believe it to be any different even in today's modern times.

"Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten." B.F. Skinner

Skinner's quote illustrates the unfortunate disconnect between what is learned and what is taught. There are many students who, when presented with a subject that is particularly interesting or motivating, actually learn about it. Skinner is saying that when people do not care about what they are learning about, and are no longer motivated to use the information, they forget it. But the fact that they were "educated" at one time or another never goes away. I agree with Mr. Skinner here because there are many examples of people who are not very intelligent who have gone to school…… [Read More]

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Speed of Mental Processes F C

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49411162



Kenneth Kotovsky and Herbert A. Simon are concerned with the "Human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns." Their goal is to understand how an individual can produce a serial pattern. The process is based upon a rule which was learned by the individual under discussion through induction. Their research involves the use of computer programming and formal languages. Its goal is to understand which problems are likely to be more challenging for the human mind. The program is presented in various types and its results are evaluated as being successful.

B.F. Skinner in "About behaviorism" presents his views regarding the human behaviour patterns. According to him, the manner in which people behave is deeply influenced by the environment where they live. One of the things which differentiates his view is the importance given to subjective factors, such as the individuals' personal thoughts and feelings (which the author considers to be…… [Read More]

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Philosophy While There Is Plenty to Criticize

Words: 3858 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51871612

Philosophy

While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]

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Motivation of Behavior

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28858537

Motivation in Behavior

a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.

Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
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Mind in Theories Concept of

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93887655



Additionally, Edward C. Tolman was essentially aiming to understand cognitive processes through the implementation of behavioral methods. Through his experiments using rats, Tolman posited the idea that behavior was not simply a reaction to a particular stimulus (Walker 1984). ather, he believed that the concept of the mind could make actual connections between various stimuli. His concept of latent learning illustrates how the mind can learn without having to express an explicit response to a present stimulus. Instead, the mind learns with less obvious reinforcement that can occur after the removal of the stimulus that triggered the learning in the first place. Essentially, the knowledge gained from latent learning is not always expressed immediately, and rather develops inside the mind through unconscious processes that are drawn upon only when the environment would require them. The mind holds on to these pieces of memory to assist in more overt learning later…… [Read More]

References

Kazantzis, Nikolaos, Reinecke, Mark a., & Freeman, Arthur. (2009). Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice. Guilford Press.

Walker, Stephen. (1984). New Essential Psychology: Learning Theory and Behavior Modification. Methuen Publishing.
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Self-Confidence Theory Adler Influence According

Words: 1954 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27742129

Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. And the rest is history.

Considering her past, childhood and experiences and positive outlook in life, she didn't let anything deter her from reaching her goal and becoming successful. In fact, she uses them to inspire and reach out to others.

Conclusion

Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect.

Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result of focusing too much on the unrealistic…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Self-Confidence. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/New_Site/defaultwinter.html

Dr. C. George Boeree. (2006). B.F. Skinner, Personality Theories. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html 

Oprah Winfrey. (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oprah_Winfrey

Alfred Adler, Core of Personality. Retrieved April 26, 2007 from http://psych.eiu.edu/spencer/Adler.html
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Walden Two Human Nature and Society the

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28468199

Walden Two: Human Nature and Society

The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best.

Karl Marx

People throughout history, since the beginning of time began, have been expressing dissatisfaction with the way the world is and trying to find ways to make it better. Along the way various fictional societies called "Utopias," after the book of the same name written by Thomas More in 1515 and 1516, were created in an image of perfectionism. These utopian communities, all somewhat different in many ways and often ultimately oppositional in form and function, nevertheless had one thing in common. Each one boasted proudly that it alone was worthy of the ultimate claim: a foundation of consummate judicial and moral principles with the ultimate result of effortless happiness and true freedom for all its people.

.F. Skinner admits that when he wrote Walden Two in 1945…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bruce, Susan. Introduction to Three Early Modern Utopias. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.

Skinner, B.F. Walden Two. (1948) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.

- . Walden Two Revisited: Preface to Walden Two. (January 1976) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.

Three Early Modern Utopias: Utopia, New Atlantis, The Isle of Pines. Edited by Susan Bruce. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
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Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73466531

In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]

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Free Will vs Determinism to Define His

Words: 923 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20211761

Free will vs. Determinism

To define his evolving notions of Original Sin in Christian theology, Augustine solidified in the doctrine Christianity a notion of the radical freedom of the human will -- what made human beings wonderfully distinct from animals, he argued, was the human ability to freely choose good or evil in action. Augustine's approach to the "free choice of the will" assumed that "humans had a will" and a good will was "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which, of course, assumes that humans have the ability to choose the opposite. Jean Paul Sartre also argued for a radical freedom of the will, but argued that this freedom was often awful, rather than awe inspiring, good or bad. Sartre's notion of the will's freedom was derived from atheism, of human being's aloneness in the world.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. "Freud: The Wish Fulfillment of Oedipus." From the Interpretation of Dreams. Elpenor Greek World. 10 Dec 2004.  http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greeks-us/freud-oedipus.asp 

Marx, Karl. "Estranged Labor." From "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844." 10 Dec 2004 athttp://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/labour.htm

Murray, Christine. "Augustine and Free Will." Catholic online. August 27, 2004. 10 Dec 2004

 http://www.catholic.org/featured/headline.php?ID=1282
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Skills for Business Leadership Executive

Words: 3879 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56409084

" Nevertheless, the research to date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), "Employee perceptions of the extent to which their work climate is participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior."

The research to date has confirmed that employees in highly participative work environments outperformed their counterparts in nonparticipative management organizations (Angermeier et al. 2009). For example, a study by Angermeier and his associates found that employees working in participative management settings provided 14% better customer service, committed 26% fewer clinical errors, demonstrated 79% lower burnout, and were 61% less likely to leave the organization than employees in more authoritarian work environment. According to Angermeier et al. (2009, p. 128), "These findings suggest that participative management initiatives have a significant impact on the commitment and productivity of individual employees."…… [Read More]

References

Angermeier, I, Dunford, BB & Boss, AD 2009, March-April, 'The Impact of Participative

Management Perceptions on Customer Service, Medical Errors, Burnout, and Turnover

Intentions,' Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 127-134.

Biech, E 2001, the Pfeiffer Book of Successful Team-Building Tools: Best of the Annuals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
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Vygotsky Freud's Theories of Development Have Been

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46596661

Vygotsky

Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.

While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…… [Read More]

References

Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved:  http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/blake.pdf 

Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQY2oB3Rqdg

The refrigerator mother. (2010). Neuroskeptic. Retrieved:
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Personality Development

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99876368

human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory.

Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the proprium, or sense of self was made up of seven different components that include sense of body, self-image, self-esteem, and rational coping. Carl Rogers was a humanistic theorist who felt that people have a basic "actualizing tendency" that drives all of their behaviors and thoughts. The personality, or "self" in Roger's terms is created by the sum of a person's conscious and unconscious experiences. Abraham Maslow's famed hierarchy of needs, in which he argues that all humans move toward self-actualization,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boeree, George. Personality Theories. 10 December 2003. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html

Hall, Calvin S., Lindzey, Gardner, Loehlin, John C. And Manosevitz, Martin. 1985. Introduction to Theories of Personality. Wiley.

Wikipedia. Edward O. Wilson. 10 December 2003. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_O._Wilson
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Man on the Moon Actually

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89445205

In fact, Piaget also identified empathy as part of the development process. Empathy "is more than the recognition of someone else's feelings, but rather a deeper understanding. Thus, empathetic reactions allow people to recognize that something is different from what is already familiar or acceptable to them, yet not be prejudiced by its unfamiliarity." (Piaget)

James anks incorporates all of these theories and many more into his belief that it is important in education to teach children how to think, rather than teaching them what to think.

y teaching children to understand all things and to be active in creating their own interpretations of past and current events. y helping students become critical thinkers, they will have the foundation to build a better society. James anks' concept of the Canon Debate identifies a major problem with schools. Western traditionalists believe that the history, culture, and literature of the Western civilization…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ardoin, Beth D. "Theories." Multiculturalism. 6 December 2000.  http://www.start-at-zero.com/papers/multiculturalism/theories.htm 

Banks, James. Introduction to Multicultural Education.

Banks, James. "The Canon Debate, Knowledge Construction, and Multicultural Education." Educational Researcher. 19993, June-July.

McLaughlin, B. And McLeod, B. "Educating All Our Students: Improving Education for Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds." June, 1996. http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/miscpubs/ncrcdsll/edall.htm
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Psychological Treatment for Gender Dysphoria

Words: 3198 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11557244

Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria

Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria

Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, J.F. (2003). History and systems of psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Colomb, J., & Brembs, B. (2010). The biology of psychology:'Simple'conditioning? Communicative & integrative biology, 3(2), 142.

Eliason, M.J., Dibble, S.L., & Robertson, P.A. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians' experiences in the workplace. Journal of homosexuality, 58(10), 1355-1371.

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
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Morris Smith and Altus 2005 the Work

Words: 1060 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41124631

Morris, Smith and Altus (2005)

The work of Morris, Smith, and Altus (2005) entitled "B.F. Skinner's Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis" states that the contributions made by B.F. Skinner were both "profound and practical." (p. 99) The behavioral pharmacologist, Dews describes such contributions as made by B.F. Skinner to be scientific advances that impact society through either bringing about a shift in the view of the individual of self or otherwise by "leading to substantive changes in his environment." (cited in Morris, Smith, and Altus, 2005, p. 99) Dews relates that Skinner established "a science of behavior -- the experimental analysis of behavior." (Morris, Smith and Altus, 2005, p. 99)

The definition of applied behavior analysis at the time of Skinner's founding of this field is reported to be found in JABA's first issue stating that it is "primarily for the publication of reports of experimental work involving applications of…… [Read More]

References

Johnston, JM (1996) Distinguishing Between Applied Research and Practice. The Behavior Analyst. 1996, 19, 35-47.

Morris, EK, Smith, NG. And Altus, DE (2005) B.F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis. The Behavior Analyst. 2005, 28, 99-131.
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Respondent Learning Theory and the

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77575647



An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.

OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction

Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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Personal Philo One of the

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74764397

" (7)

Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.

Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]

9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.

10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.

11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
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Prime Gold Motivation the Leadership

Words: 6329 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81114031

" (Herbig et al., 563) These motivational priorities, manifesting concretely in such terms as pay rate and personal interest, are relatively common throughout the working world. However, a point of distinction in this discussion may be raised from the fact that different cultures often produce distinct motivational forces. To this extent, the differences that are accounted for betwixt nations and demographics may be seen as directly pertinent to specific cultural realities within each of these contexts. Moreover, as our reading on the subject of significantly culturally divergent nations suggests, "the type of work goals whose pursuit is encouraged and rewarded depend in part on the prevailing cultural value emphasized in society." (Jaw et al., 2) This is consistent with our findings here thus far, including the intrinsic ideals of Maslow, which may be read to suggest that the exact manifestation of work values will be reflected on a larger social…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Becker, Brian & Barry Gerhart. (1996). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospect. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779-801.

Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.

Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer.

Herbig, Paul & Alain Genestre. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas A&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
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Group Social Influence Group Orientation and Social

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99931012

Group Social Influence

Group Orientation and Social Influence

Human behaviors are not always guided by personal feelings or internal urges. To the contrary, human behavior is inextricably linked to the context with in which it is committed. In other words, we often behave according to certain standards, norms, expectations and ideals that have originated outside of us and typically in broader systems like families, cultural identities, communities, ethnicities and nationalities. These social systems are often directly at the root of behavioral patterns and tendencies, and may help us to explain human behaviors as they occur en masse.

In the field of behavioral psychology, B.F. Skinner stands above others for the insight which he would provide on the relationship between individual behaviors and their broader social contexts. B.F. Skinner's ideas regarding operant behavior are crucial to understanding the way that group orientation causes individuals to behave. Human beings, Skinner would surmise,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.

Janis, I. (2003). Groupthink. Group and Public Communication: McGraw-Hill.

Lahey, Benjamin B. (2007). Psychology, introduction (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
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Counseling Giving a Hand Counseling

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38221058

Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).

Person-Centered Therapy

This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,

2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html 

Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:

EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills -- an-Introduction&id-2748802

Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.
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Behavioral vs Freud's Psychoanalysis

Words: 1907 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57399492

Labor

ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis

Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.

Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well

Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm.

Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .

Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html.

HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5001570

Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
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Dr Bandura Is the Classic

Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77157523

Violence is not just programmed and imitated, it is also chosen and controlled by the participant in a complex continuum of stimulus, response and participant interaction via other factors (Hoffman, 2007, 9).

Abstract

In an article by Stefan G. Hofmann entitled Cognitive Factors that Maintain Social Anxiety Disorder, it discusses the effects of social cognitive theory on social anxiety disorder (SAD). ecent studies have identified multiple psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the disorder. The model that is constructed in the article makes the assumption that social apprehension is to be associated with unrealistic social standards. This also includes a deficiency in the selection of attainable social goals. When a person is confronted with challenging social situations, people with SAD shift their attention toward the anxiety. They view themselves negatively as a social object. In addition, they overestimate the negative consequences of a social encounter, believing that they…… [Read More]

References

Hofmann, Stefan G. (2007). Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: a comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 36(4), 193-209.

Fountain, Jeffrey, Finley, Laura L., & Finley, Peter S. (2009). "Beyond the box office: an analysis of violent and deviant behavior in popular sport films." Smart Journal, 5(1), 1-66.

Strassburger, Victor C. (2006). "risky business: what primary care practitioners need to know about the influence of the media on adolescents." Primary Care-Clinics in Office

Practice, 1-32.
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Evolution of Psychology Rationality the

Words: 2796 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12933369

Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.

Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.

While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]

References

Consciousness: Section PS13D

Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology

Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.

Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
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Psychology of Learning and Obesity

Words: 2133 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51315269



Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.

Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]

References

David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from  http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm 

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight

Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap

Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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How Educational Theories Contribute to an IEP

Words: 1502 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50745286

Individual Education Plan

In education it is important to understand the pedagogy and historical philosophical perspectives on educational theories to fully understand the educational plan in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding this element of an education plan can provide insights to education that can have practical consequences on implementation. This analysis will provide a background into three of such theories -- behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Furthermore, it will discuss how these theories may or may not be consistent with each of the thirteen disability categories under the IDEA and what challenges and obstacles may be present relative to these perspectives and an individual student's circumstances. It will further provide insights into how these theories may be relevant to different stakeholder involvement strategies in the individual education plan (IEP) for students. Finally, it will discuss how these learning theories can influence the style of instruction in the IEP.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is a…… [Read More]

References

Brooks, M., & Brooks, J. (1999). The Courage to Be Constructivist. The Constructivist Classroom, 18-24.

Feldman, R. (2015). Child Development. Pearson.

McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from Simply Psychology:  http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html 

Peoples, S., O'dwyer, L., Wang, B., Rosca, J., & Camelia, V. (2014). Development and application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): measuring student perceptions of constructivism within the science classroom. Learning Envrionment Research, 49-73.
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Adult Learning Fodor 1987 Offers

Words: 3581 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14163239

Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.

Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…… [Read More]

Reference:

Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.

Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:

  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ chinese-room/ .
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Christian Counseling for Autism Spectrum

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97620614

She references Romans 3: 23, 24: "…(23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (24) and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus." (New International Version).

Ultimately, Hendricks informs, the comfort and safety of parents with autistic children must be revealed through "their faith that a sovereign God designed their child and planned all the days of his life before any had yet occurred"; to understand that, she references the words of the Old Testament, Psalm 139: 16: "Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book, before one of them came to be…" (New International Version).

In the eb site Finding Noah a Christian mother explains that if you are a Christian and you are told your child has autism, remember what Jesus said (John 16: 33): "In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Finding Noah. (2007). Autism in the Christian Family. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from  http://findingnoah.org /?page_id=20.

Google Health. (2010). Autism. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2010, from https://health.google.com/health/ref/autism.

Hendrickson, Laura. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders. Christian Counseling. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://www.christiancounseling.com/en/articles/printview.asp?544.

Hendrickson, Laura. (2009). Finding Your Child's Way on the Autism Spectrum: Discovering
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Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments Philip

Words: 2079 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73324050

Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments

Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.

What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banyard, Philip. Just Following Orders? Chapter 2.

Edgar, Helen, and Edgar, Graham. Paying Attention. Chapter 8.

Toates, Frederick. Changing Behaviour. Chapter 4
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Behavioral Theories

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80311294

Behaviorism

Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.

For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…… [Read More]

References

Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional

Technology. Retrieved:  http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm 

Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:

 http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/operant-conditioning.html
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How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression

Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90202356

Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
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Attitude Theories

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32317263

cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).

The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]

References:

Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478
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Behavioral Theory Influence on Personality

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83372965

In case a reinforcing stimulus does not ensue as a result of a behavior, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. Again, if a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. The removal of an aversive stimulus by an experimenter results in a negative reinforcement. If an aversive stimulus, which follows a certain type of behavior, is removed, the chance of repetition of such a behavior increases. The operant conditioning behavioral theory may find applications in the educational sphere for understanding and manipulating the behavior of students. However, it may not always be possible for teachers to determine positive and negative reinforcements for every situation or behavior. (Davis, 2006)

Another behaviorist whose theories added to the understanding of human behavior and how it influences personality was Albert Bandura. According to Bandura, people may learn new behavior by…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C. George. (2006) "Alberta Bandura: 1925-Present" Retrieved 28 March,

2009 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html 

Colarelli, Stephen M. (2003) "No best way"

Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Psychological Study of Personality Psychoanalytic

Words: 1813 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60715447



andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).

From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.

The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.

Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
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Theories of Human Development

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60540562

Terrell

One approach from the chapter that explains Terrell's behavior very well is the behavioral approach, especially the behaviorism of B.F. Skinner. By looking at the antecedents and consequences of the behavior we can determine what is being reinforced and Terrell's case. The vignette clearly states that Terrell's symptoms are disappearing once he is allowed to stay home, informing us that Terrell is being allowed to stay home when he feigns sickness. It is quite obvious that Terrell is being reinforced for feigning that he is ill according to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning paradigm. The vignette does not allow us to determine the reason why he wants to stay home; however, it is not unusual for it a six-year-old boy to feel some anxiety regarding a new environment and separation from mother and we could hypothesize that Terrell is feeling some mild anxiety before going to school, this anxiety leads…… [Read More]

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Theories of Behavior Applied

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37297642

Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory

Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]

References

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
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Punished by Rewards Do You

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73108814

The hold of behaviorism is emotional and cultural, and it has become such an invisible part of our educational system that we assume it is natural, rather than question its validity. Again, one returns to the idea of gold stars in the classroom -- it seems like they were always 'there' and no one ever introduced them as a 'learning theory.'

So why do we cling to our behaviorist beliefs? Several explanations are offered. Almost everyone alive today was educated and inculcated in behaviorism and a rewards system their entire life. Behaviorism is also superficially similar to the American system of meritocracy, where every person gets his or her just desserts and rewards also seem like a natural part of the capitalist system of exchange, of monetary transaction. The concept that 'I get this if I do this,' even the religious belief in heaven and hell, is a kind of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohn, Alfie. Punished by Rewards the Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, a's,

Praise and Other Bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993 / 1999.
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Jones Stanton L And Richard

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" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.

However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.

One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's…… [Read More]

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Psychology - History of Psychology

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Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.

The Cognitive Perspective:

The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.

According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]

REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Humans Have Been Intrigued by the Workings

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99071998

humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.

Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-

Hill Companies.

Schultz, Duane & Schultz, Sydney Ellen (1994). Theories of Personality. California:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
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Personality Theoretical Perspective of the Approach According

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42749887

ersonality

Theoretical perspective of the approach

According to behavioral approach human behavior can be learned and unlearned. When a behavior is unlearned, new behaviors are learned in its place. This approach is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Unacceptable behaviors are unlearned. This approach views development as a continuous process in which children play a positive role. This approach can be used in a clinical and educational set up. Behavioral theorists posit that real things are things that can be seen and observed (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant, & Ramo, 1996). The mind, the id, or the unconscious, cannot be seen, but people's actions, how they react, and behave can be seen. From ones behavior inferences can be made about the minds and the brain. However, the mind and the brain are not the primary focus of investigation. It is what people do that is subject of study and…… [Read More]

Pavlov is one of the pioneer behaviorist theorists. He was the first person who came up with the idea of conditioning. According to him behavior was reflexive. It took him some time to distinguish reflexive behaviors from instinctive behaviors. Instinctive behaviors are at times thought to be motivated. An animal has to hungry, be sexually aroused, or have nest building hormones before the instinctive behaviors can occur (SparkNotes, 2013). Pavlov averred that there was no basis for distinguishing between reflexes and reflexive behaviors. Pavlov was more concerned with the nervous system and to be specific the cerebral cortex. Pavlov thought that learning of elicited responses in animals and conceptual behaviors in humans was due to mechanisms of classical conditioning. This has thus been proved wrong (SparkNotes, 2013). None the less, his ideas were one of the greatest ideas of our culture.

John B. Watson is considered one of the most colorful personalities in realms of psychology. He was behaviorism's chief spokesman and protagonist. He believed that mechanism had a thing in explaining behavior. He averred that the study of mind is the province of philosophy and that the mind is the realm of speculation and endless word games. He was categorical that the mind has no place in psychology (SparkNotes, 2013). To him psychology has to be based on objective phenomena and ultimate explanation must be found in the central nervous system. Watson convinced psychologists that the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous system. When the brain is understood a little better, most mysteries would be demystified. It was for Watson that many psychologists believed that what they called conditioning was so important.

Skinner described the principles of operant conditioning. He strongly believed that environment is a stimulus of ones behavior. He attributed certain behavior patterns to particular kinds of response tendencies. People will therefore learn to behave in particular ways over time. Behaviors with positive consequences will increase while those with negative consequences will decrease. Skinner never believed that childhood had a role in shaping ones personality (SparkNotes, 2013). To him, personality is something that whose development is lifelong process. People's responses change as they encounter new situations. Take the example of a man who lived in the suburbs when he was young who had developed a liking for fast driving because his friends rode with him and he never got speeding tickets. After leaving, college this man moved to the city. Whenever he drove