Biochemical Essays (Examples)

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Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Can Be Divided

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46092219

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells do not have any membrane-bound organelles inside them, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or lysosome as eukaryotic cells do. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is linear and is contained within the nucleus, while DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular and is contained within the nuclear body, a non-membrane surrounded structure (Murray & Baron, 2007). The number of ribosomes inside a prokaryotic cell is a lot less than those contained in a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are about 70s while…… [Read More]

References:

Murray, Patrick R., and Ellen Jo. Baron. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: ASM, 2007. Print.

Nester, E., Anderson, D., & Roberts, C.E. (2012).Microbiology: A human perspective. (7th ed). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
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Manic Depressive Insanity or the Term Melancholia

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40132750

Manic-Depressive Insanity or the Term Melancholia

Manic-depressive Insanity

The main topic that will be considered in the paper is manic depression. Two papers from different historical periods will be chosen for the paper for a detailed analysis and for any change of concepts of manic depression over time. The first chosen article is from the year 1910, "Diagnosis in States of Depression," written by Bedford Pierce. Second article chosen for the paper is from 1950s, "Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in a Manic Depressive with Short Cycles," written by . Klein. The search and selection of these two articles is based on the fact that the importance of the manic depression was realized. Based on these facts, two articles were chosen. The comparison of the concepts given in the two articles will be compared with respect to the timelines.

Summary of the articles

The first article published in 1910 refers to…… [Read More]

References

Klein, R. (1950). Clinical and Biochemical Investigations in A Manic Depressive with Short Cycles. British journal of Psychiatry 96:293-297.

Pierce, P. (1910). Diagnosis in States of Depression. The British Medical Journal, p. 1333-1338.
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Nutrition John Frewin Is a Young Child

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70065893

Nutrition

John Frewin is a young child who lives with his parents. The 12-year-old is on a sustaining income of his parents. The parents of the child are low-income earners. The amount they receive can only sustain partial needs of the family thus aspects of the poor state of the society. John Frewin was diagnosis of Crohn's disease was at the age of 10 through a critical examination in the health institution. The main objective of this research exercise is to integrate ABCD's of nutritional assessment in the evaluation of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease or Crohn syndrome refers to a condition involving inflammation of the lining of the digestive system (Ferrara & Saccomano, 2012). This disease affects the intestines as well as rare cases in any place from the mouth to the end of the rectum. The cause of Crohn syndrome is unknown. Despite this aspect, various elements might contribute…… [Read More]

References

Triantafillidis, J.K., Durakis, S., & Merikas, E. (2013). Crohn's disease of the small bowel, complicated by primary biliary cirrhosis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Raynaud's phenomenon: favorable response of all disorders to adalimumab treatment.

Gastroenterology & Hepatology From Bed To Bench, 6(2), 101-105.

Rochelle, T., & Fidler, H. (2013). The importance of illness perceptions, quality of life and psychological status in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Journal Of

Health Psychology, 18(7), 972-983.
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Effectiveness of Emergency Management and Readiness in Connecticut

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30023404

Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography

Biochemical terrorism, nuclear or other terrorism is everyone's nightmare since the anthrax scares in Washington D.C. In September of 2001 and the Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to document the effectiveness of emergency management and readiness in Connecticut. It has been more than 5 years since the TOPOFF 3 emergency exercises in 2006 and literature published since then needs to be annotated and review for homeland security studies.

Annotated Bibliography

Petersen, R.E., Lindsay, B.R., Kapp, L., Liu, E.C., & Peterman, D.R. Congressional Reporting

Service, United States Congress. (2008). Homeland emergency preparedness and the national exercise program: Background, policy implications, and issues for congress. Washington, D.C.:

Government Printing Office.

In the CRS report, the series of ongoing TOPOFF exercises is documented in detail, including the 2006 exercise in Connecticut as well as other exercises are documented in detail. The…… [Read More]

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Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97922192

Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.

Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).

Duration and Intensity of Different…… [Read More]

References

1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998

2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.

3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.

4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
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Compare and Contrast the Nature and Action in Metabolism of Several Secondary Messengers

Words: 781 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13836732

Role of Secondary (Hormone) Messengers in the Process of Metabolism in Cellular Communication

As the primary unit of human living, cells have multi-function tasks that need to be accomplished spontaneously within the body, especially if the body needs to accomplish many tasks and activities at the same time. That is why cells have an elaborate form of communication, which is primarily chemical and biological in nature. The biochemical cellular communication in cells coordinates all tasks that are essential for the survival of the human body. These tasks include cell communication for motion and active transport of substances within the body; biosynthesis, or the production of chemical substances as a result of the biological activities of the cell; cell reproduction, growth, and death; and signal amplification, which is one of the primary phases in the process of cellular communication.

The signal amplification phase, apart from acting as an 'intermediary' phase towards…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cellular Communication." (2002). CSS Web site. Available at http://saints.css.edu/bio/schroeder/communication.html.

Metabolism." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002.

Metabolism." (2003). Biology Pages Web site. Available at  http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Metabolism.html .
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Role of CDC25 Protein and

Words: 1274 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49655151

Some evidence indicates tobacco and alcohol use as predisposing factors for ESCC (Shou et al., 2008, p. 19), but further studies are needed to explore this important question.

A final notable feature of the results is that they indicate widespread agreement on the implication of CDC25 protein and mNA expression levels and subcellular localization in ESCC. Few studies of CDC25 enzymatic function/dysfunction appeared in the search results.

The results of the literature search highlight the importance of the problem of ESCC for two main reasons. First, the results suggest that a substantial amount of research has been done into this major clinical problem, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in China and a highly lethal form of carcinoma (Dong et al., 2010, p. 82). Second, the results suggest that ESCC could be a good system for studying the molecular basis of cell cycle progression. This is because ESCC involves…… [Read More]

References

Dong, J., Zeng, B., Xu, L., Wang, J, Li, M., Zeng, M., Liu, W. 2010. Anti-CDC25 autoantibody predicts poor prognosis in patients with advance esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Journal of Translational Medicine, 8, 81-88.

Liu, W., Zhang, G., Wang, J., Cao, J., Guo, X., Xu, L., Li, M., Song, L., Huang, W., Zen, M.

2008. Proteomics-based identification of autoantibody against CDC25B as a novel serum marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Biochemical and Biophysical Research
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Teratology and Teratogens Congenital Malformations

Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13771608

Teratology

Define the term Teratology

Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…… [Read More]

References

Adam, M.P., Polifka, J.E. & Friedman, J.M. (2011). Evolving knowledge of the teratogenicity of medications in human pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 157C:175.

Finnell, R.H. (1999). Teratology: General considerations and principles. J Allergy ClinImmunol.Vol. 103, No. 2. S337-s342

Jelinek, R. (2005). The Contribution of New Findings and Ideas to the Old Principles of Teratology. Reproductive Toxicology 20: 295-300.

Jones, K.L. (August 17, 2005). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, Sixth edition Saunders.
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New Drug Development and Approval

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49692904

Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.

Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.

Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…… [Read More]

References

Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.

"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
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Psychology & Nbsp general Taumatic Brain

Words: 5753 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54980300

The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)

However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.

Severe Traumatic Brain njury

The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]

In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)

In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.

I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
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Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and

Words: 1880 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57684873

The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]

References

Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.

Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.

Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.

Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
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Biological and Psychological Basis of Learning and

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85925061

Biological and Psychological Basis of Learning and Memory:

The human brain is the core of each function of the body that controls operational learning and memory and the interdependence of each of the concepts. The way with which the brain functions is basically referred to as neural processes that are linked to learning and memory. The link between learning and memory is evident through the fact that learning takes place when memory is stirred while memory is stimulated after the learning process has occurred. Notably, every process that characterizes human activity originates from the brain because it's the center of each functioning part of the body. Actually, Wickens (2005) stated that learning cannot take place without memory though some memories can be inborn such as indispensable reflexes and intuitions (p.260). This implies that the learning process is intricately intertwined with memory through a procedure that is continually transformed and updated…… [Read More]

References:

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Memory -- An Overview of Memory. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/a/memory.htm

Okano, H., Hirano, T. & Balaban, E. (2000, November 7). Learning and Memory. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(23), 12403-12404. Retrieved from  http://www.pnas.org/content/97/23/12403.full 

Wickens, A.P. (2005). Foundations of biopsychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY:

Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Robert Downey Jr Drug Abuse

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49950141

Breaking the Cycle of Addiction

Addiction

Breaking the Addiction Cycle

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the addictions and drug use faced by obert Downey Jr., and discusses the effects these abuses had on Downey Jr. And his career. The paper will also analyze alternative courses Downey could have taken, and propose potential advice for Jr.

obert Downey Jr. purportedly began using drugs at just eight years old, when his father began dispersing drugs to the child. This is not uncommon among young child stars that face much pressure and often grow up in homes where drug abuse and addictions are common. It was not until the age of 22 however, that Downey would first enter a drug rehabilitation facility for cocaine and heroin abuse. Many of his first films during this time, approximately during the late 80s and early 90s won much acclaim, even Academy Award nominations.…… [Read More]

References:

"Biography for Robert Downey Jr." 2011. Retrieved:

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000375/bio

Deans, D.A. 1997. "Drug addiction." California State University, Northridge Retrieved:

 http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/drugs.htm
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Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Words: 6318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11568926

ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.

Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.

Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
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Pleural Effusion in Children

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50132599

Pleural Effusion in Children -- An Overview

Pleural Effusion is a disease resulting from excess production of fluids or a decrease in absorption or in some instances both thereby leading to an abnormal collection of fluids in the pleural space. It is the commonest pleural disease and has etiologies that include symptomatic inflammatory, cardiopulmonary disorders and malignant diseases that require speedy evaluation as well as treatment (Jeffery ubins 2016).

Disorders like an infection are some of the primary afflictions that could lead to the collection of fluids in the pleural space leading to pediatrics pleural effusion. The fluid accumulation can result from poor absorption or an increase in filtration. While mild effusion is asymptomatic, complications like septicemia, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, bronchopleural fistula, and respiratory failure might accompany it (Shahla Afsharpaiman, et al. 2016). a chest ultrasound or lateral decubitus indicates the probability of the existence of a large pleural effusion.…… [Read More]

References

Andrews CO & Gora ML., 1994. Pleural effusions: pathophysiology and management. SAGE Publications - Anual Pharma, 28(8), pp. 894-903.

Hyeon Yu, 2011. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess. Seminars in Interventional Radiology, 28(1), pp. 75-86.

Jeffrey Rubins, 2016. Pleural Effusion. [Online]

Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/299959-overview
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Impact of Acidic Concentration on Enzymatic Activity

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11910160

Acidic Fluid on Enzymatic Activity

The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity.

Enzymes are the class of molecules referred as proteins having one or more chains of amino acids, which are joined together by peptide bonds. The role of an enzyme is to speed up or catalyze the chemical reactions as well as reducing the amount of energy that an enzyme needs to enhance a chemical reaction. (Al-Hakimi, 2008). In other words, enzymes are the protein molecules found in living cell used to speed up a reaction in the cell. Catalyze is an example of an enzyme found on liver and potato. However, the level of enzyme activity is affected by factors such as PH, temperature and salinity. (El-Beltagin, Mohamed, Mekki, et al. 2011). For example, PH has the ability to affect the state of ionization of basic or acidic…… [Read More]

Reference

Al-Hakimi A.M.A. (2008). Effect of salicylic acid on biochemical changes in wheat plants under khat leaves residues. Plant Soil Environ, 54: 288 -- 293.

El-Beltagin H. S., Mohamed, A. A., Mekki, B., et al. (2011). Differences in some constituents, enzymes activity and electrophoretic characterization of different rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Tom. XVIII (1): 45-52.

Lin, K. Zhang, Q. Lu, Z. et al. (2015). Effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on rat

cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. Int J. Clin Exp Pathol. 8(5):5584-5590
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Morning After Pill & Abortion

Words: 2626 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37687506

That decision though is generally influenced by which methods are socially acceptable within an individual's community, and which methods are most completely understood. It is important, then, for educators and physicians to not only inform women that the pill exists, but they must also explain how it works and why it should be used.

Emergency contraception in pill form is a dose of estrogen and/or progestin, generally taken in two doses twelve hours apart following intercourse. Currently the IUD method of emergency contraception has been largely replaced by pill regimens either a combination of estrogen and progestin or progestin only (Grimes, & aymond 2002). Depending on the timing of administration the mode of action of these oral regimens differs. Taken before ovulation, emergency contraceptives prevent ovulation. There is also a possibility that the hormones affect the mucus of the cervix effectively trapping semen, or possibly even affecting the mode of…… [Read More]

References

1. Burton, R., & Savage, W. (1990). Knowledge and use of postcoital contraception: A survey among health professionals in Tower Hamlets. British Journal of General Practice, 326- 330.

2. Glasier, A. (1997). Emergency postcoital contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1058- 1064.

3. Glasier, A., airhurst, K., Wyke, S., Ziebland, s., Seaman, P, Walker, J., & Lakha, F. (2004). Advanced provision of emergency contraception does not reduce abortion rates. Contraception, 69, 361-366.

4. Grimes, D., & Raymond, E. (2002). Emergency Contraception. Annals of Internal Medicine, 180- 189.
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Homeland Security & Terrorism the

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68463001

S. faced during the Cold ar. And unlike in environmental and health issues, the debate on homeland security is one-sided, almost bi-partisan, both conservatives and liberals calling for gigantic security budget for homeland security and anti-terrorist activities. Friedman explains, "[b]oth parties see political reward in preaching danger. The massive U.S. national security establishment relies on a sense of threat to stay in business" ("The Terrible 'Ifs'" 38). The stakeholders financially benefitting from the colossal homeland security budget are allied with leaders of both political camps and thus are interested in perpetuating fear.

This is not, of course, to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security is unnecessary, or that there is no terrorist threat directed against the United States. The fact that terrorists were unable to strike at the United States in the American soil suggests that the law enforcement agencies have been successful in thwarting terrorist plots. It would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Friedman, Benjamin. "HOMELAND SECURITY." Foreign Policy 149 (2005): 22-28. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.

Friedman, Benjamin. "The Terrible 'If.'" Regulation 30.4 (2008): 32-40.

Light, Paul. "The Homeland Security Hash." Wilson Quarterly 31.2 (2007): 36-44. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.

Niskanen, William a., "The Several Costs of Responding to the Threat of Terrorism," Public Choice 128 (2006): 351-356.
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Professionals Who Are Trained in

Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91184450

Beyond the ability of the individual to carry out daily activities, there is the issue of quality of life. So a person who can get up and go to work but finds no pleasure in normal activities is someone whose symptoms still merit concern from the mental health professional (Hood & Johnson, 2006, pp. 27-9.)

Psychiatrists: The Medical Model of Treatment

For many people the most obvious professional to seek treatment from when faced with the symptoms of mental disorders is a psychiatrist. (Maybe because we've grown up reading the psychiatry cartoons in The New Yorker!) Psychiatrists are medical doctors and so their basic response to the symptoms of mental disorders will tend to be a medical one. This encompasses an overall examination of the person's health. (For example, a psychiatrist might run a series of thyroid function tests to determine if a patient's depressive symptoms were related to thyroid…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition.

Davies, T. (1997, 24 May.). ABC of mental health: Mental health assessment. BMJ: 314.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. New York: Wiley.

Hood, A. & Johnson, R. (2006). Assessment in counseling: A guide to the use of psychological procedures. Washington DC: American Counseling Association.
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Advice - Smoking Cessation Advice

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584562

Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.

The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]

References

Brody, Jane. In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy. The New York Times. (February 2, 2008).

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes. The New York Daily News (March 30, 2008).
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Positive Effects of Taking Vitamins

Words: 2458 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12787912

For instance, British researchers of late administered natural Vitamin E supplements at the rate of 40-800 IU daily to men and women who had suffered a heart attack. Following an average of eighteen months, people who got Vitamin E were seen to have 77% less heart attacks compared to those given a dummy tablet. An additional example can be taken of Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD of Victoria, Canada who has been treating terminal cases of cancer with a severe potency vitamin/mineral regimen. He began performing this several years back to treat their depression and tension associated with the diagnosis of cancer. He observed that 30% of the patients in early states who were long-term users of vitamin supplements have survived ten-year more than comparable patients who were given solely conventional treatment which is a stupendous success. Hence the message drives home that vitamins can reverse cases of very serious diseases.…… [Read More]

References

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Cheraskin, E. The Health of the Naturopath: Vitamin Supplementation and Psychologic State.  http://www.doctoryourself.com/cheraskin_naturopath.html 

Dharmananda, Subhuti. Do herbs, Vitamins and antioxidants adversely affect cancer therapies.  http://www.itmonline.org/arts/antioxidants.htm 

Icheku, Vincent. Degenerative Diseases of Ageing: Causes and Prevention. De-Ichekus (UK)
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New Technology the Best Cure

Words: 13809 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56996011

Taken in isolation, some of the new, minimally-invasive procedures are less expensive by far, when analyzed on a procedure-by-procedure basis, than previous significant surgical interventions, as demonstrated below:

Procedure

Cost

Estimated duration of 'cure'

CAG

5-7 years

PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention

3-5 years

ased on the above analysis, it would appear to be clear that a PCI is more cost-effective than CAG procedures. This may not be true when all costs are considered, however. The logic of comparison needs to include additional factors than the 'cure' period and the direct procedural costs.

CAG cost discussion

CAG can vary from a simple mammary artery, single bypass to a 3- to 5-vessel bypass graft operation with the use of saphenous vein grafts from the leg. Many of the single-artery bypass operations have been overtaken by PCI in the past few years, as the need to 'open' single vessels has been taken in…… [Read More]

Bibliography: Note -- these are additional articles which I included, which you may wish to delete.

Chen, J. a. (2008). Treatment of Restenotic Drug-Eluting Stents: Ultrasound Analysis... Recurrent Coronary Stent Thromboses and Myocardial Infarctions. J of Invasive Cardiology, n.p.

Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.

Edwards. (2008). PVT valve. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from Edwards: www.edwards.com

Glassman, a. (2007). Depression and cardiovascular comorbidity. Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience, 9-17.
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Corporate Universities -Investigation of Their Development

Words: 16387 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62224137

In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).

There will also be an all-time…… [Read More]

References

Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, a. (2004). "Organizational behavior," 6e; [Chap. 17]; [Chap. 18]. Accessed December 19, 2007, from MBA520, eResource, week 5, eBook Collection database.

McShane, and Von Glinow. (2005). "Organizational behavior" (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

); Muret, Don. (1999). "Former Disney VP stresses teamwork at cafe." Amusement Business, 111(49), 22. Accessed August 17, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.

Frazee, Bonnie. (2004). "Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process" Accessed December 19, 2007, at http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_feature.asp?articleid=698&zoneid=29
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Nutrition Research Study Comparison of

Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36049055

They discovered various anthropometric variables such as calculating body mass index, pediatric calculation capabilities, etc. They found that none of the computers used Internationale units, only English and/or metric. They compared user instruction booklets for ease of understanding and found that none of the five included a toll-free telephone number. They also found variations between the calculators when basal energy expenditure and ideal body weight were calculated, but could only speculate about causes of the variations.

Conclusions: The researchers conclude that there is no single "best" calculator. "Each user needs to determine whether the device is user-friendly and adaptable to his or her clinical situation" (p. 5). They also provide a complete list of features and functions for the nutritionist to consider before choosing a particular hand-held computer to buy and a systematic six-point strategy for making the decision.

eferences

Orta, J. And einarts, C.L. (1994). Comparison of handheld computers…… [Read More]

References

Orta, J. And Reinarts, C.L. (1994). Comparison of handheld computers for nutrition assessment and support. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 94 (12). Retrieved on 10 March 2007 from Expanded Academic ASAP database.
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Death the Four Categories of

Words: 2676 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34163404

As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.

Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL

Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
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Malnutrition and Starvation Are Common

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11288727



Tissues that are likely to suffer the most irreversible damage are nervous tissue. Children who are chronically malnourished during development show a number of nervous system defects, including reduced behavioral and social functioning, and increased anxiety, irritability, apathy, and neuromuscular diseases. Further, heart tissue and kidney tissue are also vulnerable, as congenital heart disease and chronic renal failure are associated with malnutrition (Grigsby, 2003). In contrast, subcutaneous tissues can often increase to a near-normal level when adequate calories are introduced.

In conclusion, children are highly vulnerable to lasting cellular and tissue damage as a result of malnutrition or starvation. The risk is highest during early childhood and infancy, and lack of energy, protein and nutrients can interfere with functions of individual cells and tissues by disrupting biochemical, metabolic processes and protein synthesis.

eferences

Grigsby, Donna G., MD. 2003. Malnutrition. EMedicine, Last Updated: December 18, 2003.…… [Read More]

References

Grigsby, Donna G., MD. 2003. Malnutrition. EMedicine, Last Updated: December 18, 2003. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1360.htm
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Biological Weapons How Real Is

Words: 4788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67241031

Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.

The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
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Anti-Depressants -- Brain Chemistry the

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69463714

Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.

However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.

Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…… [Read More]

References

Davis, Joel. (1984). Endorphins: New Waves in Brain Chemistry. New York: Dial Press.

Dunn, Adrian J. (1989). Functional Chemistry of the Brain. New York: Spectrum Publications.

Enna, J.S., Ed., et al. (1991). Antidepressants: Neurochemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Raven Press.

Kendler, K.S., et al. (1992). "Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder." Archives of General Psychiatry. 49: 716-22.
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Collective Rights

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85715131

Collective argaining and Civil Rights

Postal Service (USPS) entered into a Collective argaining Agreement (CA) with the American Postal Workers Union (APWU) in November of 2000. This CA addressed issues such as wage increase and promotion procedure, reassignment and reduction in force protection, as well as accommodation for deaf and hard of hearing postal employees. Specific measures for accommodating deaf and hard of hearing employees were established. Instituting the use of training videos with captions and using sign language interpreters during meetings, especially safety meetings, are a couple of measures outlined in the 2000 CA.

With the events that occurred on September 11th, 2001, and subsequent mailings of the potentially deadly biochemical Anthrax, safety of our U.S. Postal Service workers became a top priority. Numerous meetings were held to inform and instruct employees of potential hazards and proper handling procedure for packages suspected of containing anthrax. Vital information and procedures…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Deaf/Hard of Hearing Task Force Update. Retrieved 8/17/05, from APWU http://apwu.org/doh/index.htm

2. Goldberg, (11/21/2000). Collective Bargaining Agreement Between American Postal Workers Union, AFL-CIO and U.S. Postal Service. Retrieved 8/17/2005, from APWU http://apwu.org/dept/ind-rel/sc/082002ir2000cba.pdf

3. Kloepfer, Gary, (4/20/2004). Certified Interpreter Should Have Been Used for Safety Talk ((Airs # 40281-K98C-IK-C02029061). Retrieved 8/17/05, from John Durben http://www.newal.org/news/archives/00000138.htm

4. No'l Decker, ( 5/14/2003). Deaf Employees File Class Action Lawsuit Against the United States Postal Service for Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved 8/17/05, from APWU http://apwu.org/doh/stdeafhohlawsuit.htm
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Trait Theories Overview There Are

Words: 954 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36634577

For instance, this theory holds that extraverts have low levels of cortical arousal and introverts high leaves, meaning extraverts need more stimulation for socializing and being outgoing, while introverts receive enough stimulation from their own physical make up. Since each person has differing levels of brain chemicals, there are thousands and thousands of factors that can be combined to make up unique personality dimensions. This view is more biochemical in nature, and believes that expression of traits will emerge regardless of the nurture factor (Eysenck, 2008).

Trait theory has a number of positives and negatives. It takes the general theme of the personality and breaks down certain factors that seem to retain vibrancy throughout the individual's life, at least when compared to larger groups. However, it also assumes that people remain rather stagnant as they age, and do not change in terms of their basic personality. It is likely, according…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Trait Approach. (2010). Leadership Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/30933_Northouse_Chapter_2.pdf

Daft, R. And Lane, D. (2008). The Leadership Experience. Mason, OH: Thompson Learning.

Dholakia, R. (1978). Personality Trait Theory and Consumer Behavior. Vikalpa. 3 (2): 111-119. Retrieved from:  http://www.vikalpa.com/pdf/articles/1978/1978_Apr_Jun_111_119.pdf 

Eyseneck, H. (2008). The Biological Basis of Personality. New York: Transaction Publishers.
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Metamorphic Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks and Their

Words: 1239 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7055696

Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System

The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.

There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Basic Rock Types (2012) Zooinverse. Geology Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.moonzoo.org/Geology_Basics

Major Rock Types (2012) Rocks & Other Mineral Sources. Retrieved from:  http://www.galleries.com/rocks/default.htm 

Nelson, SA (2012) Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles. Tulane University. Retrieved from:  http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/struct%26materials.htm
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Polymer Gels History of the

Words: 2920 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68155382

Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.

Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annaka, Masahiko and Tanaka, Toyoichi, Multiple phases of polymer gels, Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, 2005, pp. 430-432

Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, Joao Carlos, Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis, Materials, ISSN, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 448-456

Heitfeld, Kevin a, Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery, ISBN 9780549027560, 2007, 15.

Hu, Jinlian, Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications, ISBN 1848164750, 2011, p. 416
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Abnormal Psychology Is a Field in Psychology

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15792418

Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.

Origins of Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012).What is Abnormal Psychology? Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/abnormalpsychology/f/abnormal-psychology.htm

Crawford, O. (2010). Psychopathology Analysis: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://voices.yahoo.com/psychopathology-analysis-6147988.html
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Search for the Criminal Man Revisited

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99437899

Criminal Justice -- the Search for the "Criminal Man" Revisited

Numerous theories have been devised in an attempt to understand criminal behavior. iosocial theories focus on the interaction between biological factors with other factors in such a way that certain behaviors result. Ellis, Walsh, Cullen and Mednick are among the theorists supporting biosocial theories of criminology. Mednick focused on criminals' apparent inability to learn from their mistakes and settled on the impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS) interacting with external cues. Other biosocial theorists have studied biochemical factors such as nutritional deficiencies, hormonal influences, allergies and environmental contaminants. In contrast to biosocial theorists, biological theories focus on "the criminal man," a born criminal who exhibits psychological, physical and social traits. Cesare Lombroso, often called "the Father of Modern Criminology," formed the theory of "the criminal man" in the late 19th Century and listed revealing physical characteristics of this instinctive criminal who…… [Read More]

Biosocial theories of criminality study the ways in which biological characteristics interact with other factors to "shape" a person's behavior. Biosocial theories are supported by a number of theorists, including Lee Ellis, Anthony Walsh and Francis T. Cullen (Lilly, 2010, p. 352). The authors of our textbook stress the biosocial theory of Sarnoff A. Mednick, who argues that criminals do not seem to learn from their mistakes because they have impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS). According to Mednick, the normal ANS responds to environmental cues so the individual learns from them; however, a person with an impaired ANS will be slower to pick up on those cues and slower to mature or learn from them. A person with a normal ANS who engages in an antisocial behavior will pick up environmental cues, will feel the positive reinforcement of less fear when the antisocial behavior is suppressed and will learn to inhibit that antisocial behavior because of that positive reinforcement; however, a person with an abnormal ANS will not pick up or will be far slower to pick up on those cues, will not feel the positive reinforcement of less fear from suppressing the antisocial behavior and therefore will not learn or will be slower to learn to inhibit antisocial behavior (Lilly, 2010, pp. 358-9).

Though Mednick's theory is mentioned prominently in our textbook, biosocial theories also consider numerous other factors that may interact with biological characteristics to form criminal behavior. Some biosocial theorists believe that criminal behavior can be caused by biochemical factors such as: nutritional deficiencies, including lack of vitamins and minerals required for normal functioning; hormonal influences by male hormones, including testosterone; allergies, usually to foods such as milk, corn, wheat, chocolate, eggs and nuts; environmental contaminants, including food dyes, copper, artificial coloring, mercury and chlorine (Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010). In any event, a key to understanding biosocial theories is that they study the ways in which some factor interacts with biological characteristics and forms or shapes behavior.

b. Contrast Biosocial And Biological
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Words: 3768 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50250294

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.

Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…… [Read More]

References

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at  http://www.cryonet.org 

Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl

Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.bact.wisc.edu

Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at http://www.plantstress.com
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Computed Tomography

Words: 2585 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21707412

Computed tomography, more commonly know as a CT or CT scan, is an X-ray technique that is used to produce very detailed images of internal organs located in various parts of the body, such as the head, chest, and abdomen. Doctors use the images produced through this procedure to help diagnose and treat diseases. Other terms for the technique are also called computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT). While conventional X-ray exams produce two-dimensional images, CT scans uses an X-ray-sensing unit that rotates around your body and a large computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. This paper will address vital educational information including a brief history, uses for computed tomography, and the effects that it may have on the patient.

Computed Tomography

Brief History

British engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and Allan Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts invented computed tomography. Their…… [Read More]

References

Imaginis.com. Computerized Tomography Imaging. Accessed April 1, 2004, at http://www.imaginis.com/ct-scan/how_ct.asp.

International Medical News Group. (2001). CT scan radiation. Family Practice News, 31 (6) 35.

Frush, D. (2003, Nov. 1). In planning CT dese reduction, one size does not fit all - Body size, imaging indication, and scanner engineering create complex formula for success. Dianostic Imaging, p. NA.

MayoClinic.com. (1998-2004). "Mayo Clinic Health Information." Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
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Counselling Cases of Violent Children Have Become

Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43232078

Counselling

Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…… [Read More]

References

Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine Books.
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Product Safety

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42472287

Public and Community Health

After researching your commonly used products, what do you think about this site?

The website is very innovative in its approach towards environmental and personal safety. First, the website is seamless to use. This is paramount in regards to views and usage of the website. Without a seamless method of navigating the website, consumers could be potentially becomes disgruntled and leave. The website identifies key information with bold, large lettering, designed to impact the consumer. The color scheme is also very inviting as many of the colors create a sense of "freshness" and "cleanliness" within the website. This is evident as the website, in its entirety, generates over 1,000,000 views each month.

The search bar is particular is very easy to use. In regards to this particular website, the search bar is the primary focus for those seeking information. As such, its ease of use is…… [Read More]

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ecdocrine

Words: 1432 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11483904

Subjective
Reason for visit by patient
A female patient aged 48 years old reports to the outpatient clinic that she suffers from persistent fatigue. She says that the problem has persisted for several months. She further says that she also feels depressed and has concentration difficulties. She is further investigated and reveals that she has been constipating over the past couple of months. She reports that she has noticed an increase in her body weight although she has experienced a loss of appetite. The woman says that she has developed brittle hair and her skin has become significantly dry. The lady who is a housewife and lives with her husband and two children does not have any medical history worth noting.
The initial physical exam shows the normal important signs, has no swelling in the face, her tongue is normal, her skin moist enough, her eyebrows aren’t thinned out, the…… [Read More]

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Homeostasis Its Effect on the Critically Ill

Words: 2965 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53247923

Homeostasis Defined
Homeostasis, according to Nirmalan and Nirmalan (2017), is the propensity for living organisms to maintain relative stability in the internal environment. Homeostasis is made possible through the cooperation of several regulatory mechanisms and separate sub-systems which make up the normal physiology of a living organism (Nirmalan & Nirmalan, 2017). During critical illnesses internal or external stress can make an attempt at interfering with the self-regulation systems beyond what is considered as normal range in physiology. According to Palaparthi and Med (2017), the word homeostasis is derived from two Greek words i.e. ‘homeo’ (stands for similar) and ‘stasis’ (standing for stable). Homeostasis is the balance, equilibrium and the stability of the body or of the cell (Palaparthi & Med, 2017). Living organisms exhibit this character. The process of maintaining stability in the internal environment necessitates occasional internal adjustments as the environmental conditions continue to change outside and inside the…… [Read More]

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Intervention & Addiction Therapy Theory

Words: 3133 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96162245

.

The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]

References

1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.

2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.

3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.

4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
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Micrornas Mirnas Belong to a

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36917013

Elegans; and anterior and posterior patterning of the hox-mediated development pathway group in vertebrates and insects (Pasquinelli, Hunter and Bracht). Other hypothesized functions include regulation of "viral function and human cancer" (Miska).

Identification

Scientists Ke, Liu, Liu, and Liang (2003) have listed the identification markers for miNAs. To be identified as miNAs, NAs must: be single-stranded and between 21 and 25 nucleotides; be "cleaved from one arm of a longer endogenous double-stranded hairpin precursor" by the enzyme Dicer; exactly match genomic regions for encoding double-stranded precursor NAs; be phylogenetically conserved with their "predicted precursor secondary structures"; be able to be confirmed with their precursors by northern blots; and miNA precursors must aggregate whenever Dicer is wiped out in its original form (Ke and al).

ole in Gene Expression

miNAs are uniquely suited for gene regulation, even more so than traditional protein regulators (Ke and al). For example, miNAs are matched…… [Read More]

References

Fang, Chen and Yin Q. James. "Gene Expression Regulators: MicroRNAs." Chinese Science Bulletin 50.13 (2005): 1281-1292.

He, Lin and Gregory Hannon. "MicroRNAs: Small RNAs With a Big Role in Gene Expression." Nature Reviews 5 (2004): 522-531.

Ke, Xi-Song and et al. "MicroRNAs: key participants in gene regulatory networks." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 7 (2003): 516-523.

Miska, Eric. "How MicroRNAs control cell division, differentiation, and death." Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 15 (2005): 563-568.
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Redox Reduction-Oxidation Redox Reactions and

Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81258286

al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).

Conclusion

Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…… [Read More]

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in redox signaling in ways somewhat similar to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); both are purposefully produced toxic elements used to cleanse wound areas of infectious agents and used to signal other healing processes to start, while at the same time becoming dangerous in and of themselves if not properly regulated (Nunoshiba et. al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of NO, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).

Conclusion

Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal of conjecture. Still, enormous advancements have been made in this area of biochemical knowledge. As redox signaling and other aspects of wound healing are better understood, more effective methods for dealing with infections and slow healing times can be developed, and many in the world will truly experience better living through chemistry in a very direct way.
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Occupational Stress in a Public

Words: 5453 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35693330

The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The response to the stress under the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, provided that the exceptions held by the employee are positive, is healthy and necessary for survival and productivity. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). Under this theory, emotional and physical health within the individual is sustained through a positive expectation for the outcomes, compliance with the expectations, or through resisting the stress altogether. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). A summary chart outlining these different theories on stress and their potential effects on the organization follows.

A Comparison of Theories of Stress and How They Affect Organizational Operations

Theory

Basic Concept

Basic eaction

Effect on the Organization

Fight or Flight

The stress produces physiological…… [Read More]

References

Afzalur, R. (1996). Stress, strain, and their moderators: An empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and managers. The Journal of Small Business Management, 34, 1-12.

Cooper, C.L. ed. (2002). Theories of organizational stress. New York, NY: Oxford University

Press,

Inc.
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Parasitic and Non-Parasitic Organisms Specifically

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15536626

This sets them apart from most other worms, which usually enter through the stomach. They usually live in human feces, and that is how they are transmitted to humans, they walk through, sit, or lie in contaminated dirt, and the worms transfer to their human hosts. They travel through the blood vessels to the lungs, where they can cause shortness of breath and coughing, and then they move on to the throat, where the host swallows them and they flow to the small intestine. They can grow to about .4 inches long, and they suck blood out of the walls of the intestine, which can cause anemia and abdominal pain. They mostly affect people living in African, China, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, and the World Health Organization believes that as many as 740 million people suffer from hookworm (Ballantyne, 2010). They are treated with medications that are extremely effective…… [Read More]

References

Ballantyne, C. (2010). Worms "n" us. Retrieved Sept. 7, 2010 from the Scientific American Web site: http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=worms-human-parasites.

Editors. (2010). Biochemical theory of memory. Retrieved Sept. 7, 2010 from the Shelton Preservation Web site:  http://www.sheltonpreservation.org/tag/rna/ .

Editors. (2010). Overview. Retrieved from the Sabin.org Web site: http://www.sabin.org/vaccine-development/overview.

Sauter, S. (2010). Planarians. Retrieved Sept. 7, 2010 from the Planrains.org Web site:  http://www.stevesauter.com/planarians/ .
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Marriage Preparation From the Perspective

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58560674



SBFT focuses on the aim a couple wants to achieve. It centers on talking about the present and future conditions of both the partners. Some of the major contributions in the field were made by Milton Erickon, who provided the basics of hypnotic techniques. He asserted the use of hypnosis techniques to discuss with couples the existing and potential problems in their marital life. He focused on the effective and open two way communication regarding all issues of marital life including trust, expectations, sex, and excessive alcohol use (or abuse) by one of the partners and other similar issues (Erickson, 1976). Erickson made use of his proposed hypnosis techniques in counseling couples for solution of all the problems by letting them speak their heart. A

wide variety of hypnotic techniques is of great importance in marriage preparation for the couples who have some issues between them before marriage.

The basis…… [Read More]

References

Bowen, Murray (1990) Family Therapy in Clinical Practice: Jason Aronson Publishing.

De Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.

Erickson & Rossi (1976) Two-Level Communication and the Microdynamics of Trance and Suggestion, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1976 Reprinted in Collected Papers Vol.1

Fisch, R., Weakland, J.H., & Segal, L. (1982). The tactics of change. San Francisco:
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Young Man Steven We Analyze

Words: 2015 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64692167

Social modeling has therefore been floated to be a factor in the basic etiology of self cutting and other studies also indicate that many teens engage in the act as a result of their peers being engaged in the same act as outline by Nock and Prinstein (2005).There is therefore a strong warning that group counseling of persons who take part in this act should be avoided as a result of the contagion effect (Walsh, 2006). This in other words cancels the possibility of Steven receiving counseling at the same time for their problems. They can however be exposed to activities such as regulation of their emotions (Lieberman, 2004; oss, et. al., 2009).

Personal thoughts

I do believe that there are various issues that affect the youth of the contemporary society. It is therefore important that the various technological changes as well as social-economic changes have adverse effects in their…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.) Washington DC: Author.

Dulit, R., Fryer, M., Leon, A., Brodsky, B., & Frances, A. (1994) Clinical correlates of self-mutilation in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(9), 1305-1311.

Gardner, A.R., & Gardner, A.J. (1975). Self-mutilation, obsessionality and narcissism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 127-132.

Kaplan, H. And Johnson, R. (1992) Relationships between circumstances surrounding initial illicit drug use and escalation of drug use: moderating effects of gender and early adolescent experiences. In Vulnerability to Drug Abuse (eds M. Glantz and E.W. Pickens) pp 299-358.
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Biology Function of the Metabolic

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64208353

d.).

The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).

BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]

References

Basal Metabolic Rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Buzzle Web site:

 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/basal-metabolic-rate.html 

Basal metabolic rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Wellness.com Web site:

http://www.wellness.com/reference/fitness/basal-metabolic-rate/practice-theory-and-evidence
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Geographies of Global Change 1

Words: 2794 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35757888

Loans needed to buy the equipment and seeds create indebtedness to Western banks. Western professionals are needed to intervene and to manage. The productivity of monocrops (e.g., rice or maize) undermines other native crops. Routledge writes, "The project destabilized traditional farming methods, which further rationalized the use of new technologies from the West, and the displacement of traditional foodstuffs by the HYVs" (316). The whole agro-food system has damaged the soil fertility and made dependent the poorer nations, who are compelled to use the seeds of the manufacturers and their means of industrial growth (fertilizer, experts, credit, etc.). People are viewed as irrational and a hindrance to progress. State control over natural and financial resources consolidates the power of the national ruling party who serves the interests of transnational corporations. Routledge writes, "In the process, traditional subsistence economies and their associated cultures are being destroyed; people face displacement from their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Johnson, R.J., Peter J. Taylor, and Michael J. Watts, eds. Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World at the End of the Twentieth Century. 2nd edition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2002; reprint, 2007.
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Independence Less Than Half a

Words: 12705 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94035562

Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.

Purpose of Study

The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…… [Read More]

References

About us. 2010. The Gambia Experience. Retrieved from http://www.gambia.co.uk/Docs/About-

Us/Default.aspx.

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
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Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications

Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2190458



Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.

Hypnosis

In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]

bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
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Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cell

Words: 2758 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80723122

3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).

The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…… [Read More]

References

Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:

Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.

Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
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Hazards Present in This Situation

Words: 1980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71846835

However, with large nuclear weapons the majority of the harm is caused by the explosion itself and the harm caused by the radioactivity is peripheral, although obviously still potentially horrific.)

The damage caused by a dirty bomb would be twofold: There would be damage caused by the conventional parts of the bomb (in this case, the det cord) and damage caused by the radioactive elements. A dirty bomb's effects would be greater in terms of the conventional aspects of the weapon, and we are not given enough information in this scenario to determine the amount of energy that will result in an explosion of the detonation cord. There is no single standard for detonating cord, although given that we know that it has come from a mining company we can assume that it is some of the stronger -- or more explosive -- type. We also do not know how…… [Read More]

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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at'  http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at:  http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]