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iodiversity in Lake aikal
We are in a world where there is a continuous exploitation of natural resources and very little care about the environmental consequences. Rapid industrialization has created havoc to the delicately balanced ecosystems. The effect that human population has had on global ecosystem is certainly undeniable and global biodiversity is being seriously challenged. The rapid deforestation of Amazon forest, the irreparable damage that we have done to the coral reefs along the Great arrier Reef and the Caribbean coasts are examples of man made ecological disasters. Environmentalists world over are alarmed at the pace at which our economic ambitions are driving the ecosystem out of balance. The case of 'Lake aikal' offers an excellent example of one of the largest and oldest fresh water eco systems which sustains a wide variety of flora and fauna and in particular innumerable endemic species. For millennia Lake aikal's ecosystem has…
1) Anthony J. Brunello, Dr. Valery C. Molotov, "Lake Baikal Watershed," Accessed on Oct 17th 2004, http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads/Baikal_24Dec03.pdf
2) Valentin Rasputin, "Scientist Vladimir Fialkov Focuses on the Future of a Unique
Natural Wonder: crystalline Lake Baikal," People Weekly; 4/6/1987
3) Living Lakes, "Lake Baikal: Lake Characteristics," Accessed on Oct 17th 2004
Because society is built upon the concept of money, the first and most important advantage of biodiversity is economic. Commercial, agricultural and pharmaceutical value can be derived from greater biodiversity. Indeed, increased biodiversity in rainforests is beneficial, because it derives a greater likelihood for the discovery of life-saving products. Critics might however argue that the likelihood of this is not very significant, and the process of "bioprospecting" for the purpose of conservation does not compare well in terms of costs and benefits. The prospect of benefits is somewhat small and unlikely in terms of the cost incurred. Another economic possibility Atkinson addresses is the possibility of ecotourism. This is a somewhat better prospect in terms of money that tourists are willing to invest in seeing animals in their natural habitats.
In conclusion, I do not think that biodiversity is overprotected, if one is to understand the term quite literally. On…
Atkinson, Giles. (no data avail.). The Economics of Biodiversity Conservation. The London School of Economics and Political Science. http://www.fathom.com/course/21701792/session1.html
Ghista, Garda (2004). Biodiversity - Underprotected or Overprotected? Proutist Universal: Biodiversity. http://www.proutist-universal.org/archives/000416.html
Mayell, Hillary. (2001, May 17). Agriculture Viodiversity Protection Must Co-Exist in Conservation, Sutdy Says. National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/05/0516_ecoag.html
Valdegamberi, Stafano Antonio. (2006). Biodiversity and Agriculture. http://www.ambitalia.org.uk/organic_folder/Valdegamberi.pdf
The human-caused change that is the greatest threat to biodiversity is anthropogenic climate change, which is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. This will create massive climate change, affecting the habitats where species live, causing significant issues that could affect their future survival, if they cannot adapt. This paper focuses on how these changes will affect biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The authors choose this focus because the ecosystem is a set of related entities -- individual species, for example -- but their interrelation is critical. If climate change affects a single species, it could disrupt the entire ecosystem even if the other species are not affected by the climate change. This example highlights the destructive capabilities of climate change.
One of the main points that the authors make is that a single species can and does affect an entire ecosystem. They discuss the removal of a single…
Chapin, F., Zavaleta, E., Eviner, V., Naylor, R., Vitousek, P., Reynolds, H., Hooper, D., Lavorel, S., Sala, O., Hobbie, S., Mack, M. & Diaz, S. (2000). Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature. Vol. 405 (2000). 234-242.
Cardinale, B., Duffy, E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D, Venail, P., Narwani, A., Mace, G., Tilman, D., Wardle, D., Kinzig, A., Daily, G., Loreau, M., Grace, J., Larigauderie, A., Srivastava, D., Naeem, S. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature. Vol. 486, pp. 59-67.
When increased funding is made available via investments and tourism, the space problem can also be managed with greater ease. It is vitally important to preserve as much biodiversity as possible, and to do so particularly in countries where biodiversity is richest. For this reason, conservation managers need to put practices in place to target potential investors for the future preservation of the earth and its resources.
Brown, David. 1998. Participatory biodiversity conservation: rethinking the strategy in the low tourist potential areas of tropical Africa. Forest Policy and Environment Programme. http://www.odifpeg.org.uk/publications/policybriefs/nrp/33.html
Brown, Rick, Vickerman, ara & utton, Wink. 2004. Forest Management. Issues in cience and Technology, Fall. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3622/is_200410/ai_n9457080
Bruner, Aaron G., Gullison, Raymond E., Rice, Richard E. & da Fonseca, Gustavo a.B. 2001. Effectiveness of Parks in protecting Tropical Biodiversity. cience, Vol. 291, Jan. 5
Charnley, usan. 2005. From nature tourism to ecotourism? The case of the Ngorongoro Conservation…
Brown, David. 1998. Participatory biodiversity conservation: rethinking the strategy in the low tourist potential areas of tropical Africa. Forest Policy and Environment Programme. http://www.odifpeg.org.uk/publications/policybriefs/nrp/33.html
Brown, Rick, Vickerman, Sara & Sutton, Wink. 2004. Forest Management. Issues in Science and Technology, Fall. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3622/is_200410/ai_n9457080
Bruner, Aaron G., Gullison, Raymond E., Rice, Richard E. & da Fonseca, Gustavo a.B. 2001. Effectiveness of Parks in protecting Tropical Biodiversity. Science, Vol. 291, Jan. 5
Charnley, Susan. 2005. From nature tourism to ecotourism? The case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Human Organization, Spring.
Many nations have developed their own laws aimed at protecting and even increasing biodiversity when possible; some well-known pieces of legislature in the United States include the Endangered Species Act, which was actually passed more than a decade before the term biodiversity was coined, and the Soil and Water Conservation Act and Clean Air Act, both of which were not specifically aimed at maintaining levels of biodiversity or slowing the rate of biodiversity oss, but which have these effects regardless (Faith 2007). Following the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992, many other nations also began passing laws, and international laws and standards were also set (Pethiyagoda 2004). Ironically, some scientists claim, some of these laws are actually so restrictive that they are prohibitive to research attempts that would aid in the conservation effort by providing deeper and richer understandings of specific ecosystems and environments that are high in biodiversity (Pethiyagoda…
Faith, D. (2007). "Biodiversity." Stanford Encyclopedia f Philosophy. Accessed 5 August 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/biodiversity/
Pethiyagoda, R. (2004). "Biodiversity laws alienate and criminalise taxonomists." Nature 429, pp. 129.
Shah, a. (2009). "Biodiversity." Global Issues. Accessed 5 August 2009. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/169/biodiversity
Interdependence of Species Results: Round Species Missing (Bead Color and Name)
If trees and flowers were not part of the ecosystem, then there would be a lack of food for bees, lack of pollination for flowers, and then lack of agriculture for humans.
Explain how the ecosystem was affected by the missing species for each round of the demonstration.
Round 1 = Flowers removed
Round 2= Bees removed
Round 3= Trees removed
Round 4= Humans removed
In the first round, the flowers were removed which also removed food for the bees; in the second round there were no bees to pollinate the remaining trees; in the third round there were no trees to protect, shelter and encourage flora; in the last round no humans, which had the least effect on the entire ecosystem, but without flowers, bees and trees;…
Cleland, E. (2012, March). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability. Retrieved from nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/biodiversity-and-ecosystem-stability-17059965
Hogan, C. (2010, October 26). Causes of extinction. Retrieved from The Encyclopdia of Earth: http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150962/
Pacific NW National Laboratory. (2013, October). Reduce the Environmental Effects of Human Activities. Retrieved from pnnl.gov: http://www.pnnl.gov/missions/environment.asp
The natural environment is the source of all our resources for life. Environmental processes provide a wealth of services to the living world -- providing us with air to breathe, water to drink and food to eat, as well as materials to use in our daily lives and natural beauty to enjoy.
Complex ecosystems with a wide variety of plants and animals tend to be more stable. A highly diverse ecosystem is a sign of a healthy system. Since all the living world relies on the natural environment, especially us, it is in our best interests and the interests of future generations to conserve biodiversity and our resources.
I know that some may argue that some species have become extinct, with no obvious effect on the environment. I put forth an answer to that statement; the Earth's systems are so complex that we are still learning about environmental processes…
Meadows, DH, Meadows, D.L., Randers, J. & Behrens III, W.W. 1972. Limits to Growth. London, Potomac Associates Book
Lomborg Bjorn The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the real state of the world.
Dr. Gretchen C. Daily Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems
Preserving Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Services it Provides
The diversity of life found on Earth represents an enormous asset. The extent of how this asset is valued is far from understood and its value most likely far exceeds any economic estimate. However, by framing the issue in terms of economics and the benefits that the ecosystem services provide to mankind this concept will likely garner more support than using vague and disconnected rhetoric. The services nature provides are incredibly valuable to the health and well-being of humans and they need to be made aware of this fact in way in which they can begin to appreciate the value of the services nature provides them in terms in which they can appreciate. If this approach can resonate with people then it will certainly gather more support than previous attempt to engage with the population.
The most important step is to…
Dennis, R., Dapporto, L., Dover, J., & Shreeve, T. (2013). Corridors and barriers in biodiversity conservation: a novel resource-based habitat perspective for butterflies. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2709-2734.
Wilheim-Rechmann, A., & Cowling, R. (2011). Framing biodiversity conservation for decision makers: insights from four South African municipalities. Conservation Letters, 73-80.
These forests "loose their leaves during the dry winter but are lush and verdant in the summer rainy season" (Lewis 82).
Some of the varieties of flora in these regions include the pink trumpet, cardinal sage and the spider lily. Along the dry Pacific coastal plain, from the southern end of the Sonora desert to the state of Guerrero, the predominant vegetation is thorny bushes and small trees, including morning glory, acacias and savanna. Some of this flora occurs naturally, while others occur on over-grazed grasslands or abandoned slash-and-burn farmlands. Patches of semi-deciduous tropical forest reach almost to the sea near the Guerrero-Michoacan border. The coastal lagoons that dot the Pacific coast are home to dense mangrove forests that have thick, leathery leaves and small seasonal flowers.
As to the fauna, many animals can be found living among the lowland plains and along the edges of the vast mountainous areas…
Annerino, John. The Wild Country of Mexico. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994.
Arbingast, Stanley a. Atlas of Mexico. Austin, TX: University of Texas, 1975.
Butland, Gilbert J. Latin America: A Regional Geography. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1972.
Calvert, Peter. Mexico. New York: Praeger, 1973.
Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human ell-Being" the authors list a number of components of biodiversity that contribute to the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services. Those components include the amount and stability of the total biomass produced, preservation of the soil, regulation of water availability, pollination and seed dispersal, resistance to invasive species, pest control, regulation of climatic conditions through a feedback mechanism, regulation of carbon sequestration in the biosphere, and protection against natural hazards (storms, floods, fires, etc.). (Diaz 1300) hile all of these are important, the regulation of water may be the most important as water is the basis of all life. The amount of water is the limiting factor in any ecosystem and therefore is the most important aspect.
In the event that scientists are asked to restore and preserve ecosystem services the most important components would include "restoring the biological integrity in terms of species, composition, relative abundance,…
Diaz, Sandra, et al. Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human Well-Being. PLoS Biology
4.8 (2006): 1300-1305. Print.
The definition of "biodiversity" can be somewhat complicated, but in simple terms, "biological diversity is the variety of life and its processes; and it includes the variety of living organisms, the genetic differences among them, and the communities and ecosystems in which they occur." ("Scientific Definitions") While this definition contains several aspects, including the variety of species, their processes, and genetics, a major aspect of biodiversity is the communities, or ecosystems where they exist. This aspect of biodiversity also implies that the species, or organisms in a particular area are naturally occurring; and are not what are known as "invasive species." These particular species are not part of the naturally occurring ecosystem and can also cause great harm to the naturally occurring biodiversity of an area.
According to the National Invasive Species Council (NISC), and invasive species can be defined as "a non-native species whose introduction does or is…
"Invasive Species Definition Clarification and Guidance White Paper." (27 April 2006).
The National Invasive Species Council (NISC). Retrieved from http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/council/isacdef.pdf
"Scientific Definitions of Biodiversity." California Biodiversity Council. Retrieved from http://biodiversity.ca.gov/Biodiversity/biodiv_def2.html
Incentives to Conserve Marine Biodiversity Conservation ithin the Framework of Impure Public Goods
On the surface, environmentalism might seem like an 'easy' thing to sell to the American public. After all, marine biodiversity (to take one example) might seem like an uncomplicatedly 'good' thing -- it is necessary to preserve the health of the planet and by extension, the human species. "Biodiversity or biological diversity is defined [as] the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia [among other things], terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems" ("hat is Biological Diversity or Biodiversity," Marine Bio). Species, genetic, and ecosystem diversity are all comprised within this definition ("hat is Biological Diversity or Biodiversity," Marine Bio). However, preserving adequate biodiversity has still proven to be challenging, despite the profound need to do…
Arriagada, Roderigo, & Perrings, Charles. "Paying for International Environmental
Public Goods." Ambio. 40.798 (2011): 789-806
Bulte, E., Van Kooten, G. & Swanson, T. "Economic Incentives and Wildlife
Conservation." Working Paper. 2003.
e., caused by humans) mass extinction (2009). It is has been noted by scientists that it takes approximately 10 million years before biological diversity can even begin to get near what it existed before it died off. Over 10,000 scientists in the World Conservation Union have come up with data showing that "51% of known reptiles, 62% of known insects, and 73% of known flowering plants are in danger along with many mammals, birds and amphibians" (2009).
McKinney and Lockwood (1999) came up with a list of traits that influence whether species are "winners" or "losers" in a human-dominated world. Traits promoting range expansion were: selected traits (small size, high fecundity); high variability; widespread; rapid dispersal; generalist (eurytopy); and human commensalism. Some of the traits promoting extinction were: selected traits (large sixe, low fecundity); low variability; rare; slow dispersal; specialist (stenotopy); and poorly adapted to human activities (1999).
Biologists say planet is undergoing mass species extinction. Daily Galaxy. 2009.
Retrieved 27 Jul 2010 from:
McKinney, Michael L. & Lockwood, Julie L. (11 Nov 1999). Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Elsevier science,
Lake Tahoe Biodiversity
Lake Tahoe is hailed as one of the most beautiful lakes in the United States. Over the last century or two, the fish biodiversity of the area has been a sight to behold. However, biodiversity tends to change over time. This particular report focuses on fish and there is much to be said even about fish in particular. This report will consult multiple sources and will create a rough timeline of what has been happening with the fish biodiversity of Lake Tahoe over the last one hundred and sixteen years. While some fish biodiversity changes are caused by entirely natural factors, human presence and activity has surely played a role as well.
One rather odd and vexing thing that has happened with the Lake Tahoe fish population over the years has been the introduction of non-native species to the ecosystem that is the lake. Indeed, there have…
Associated Press. (2011). Aggressive, non-native bass discovered in Tahoe. AP Regional State
Report -- Nevada.
Goldman, C. R. (1989). Lake Tahoe: Preserving a Fragile Ecosystem. (Cover
story). Environment, 31(7), 6.
Loss of Biodiversity
Biodiversity Loss and Mitigation
This essay will discuss the environmental citizenship concept and the different theoretical debates in the context of loss of biodiversity as well as its mitigation:
In our society, the life of human beings and business management have their foundation on a multitude of benefits from ecosystems -- many blessings of nature that come from natural assets such as water, air, soil, animals and plants. To continue benefitting from these natural assets, preservation of biodiversity is very important; however, there is a lot damage taking place on biodiversity and unfortunately, the rate at which it is happening is alarming ("Biodiversity Conservation - Environment - Sustainability - About Us - Panasonic," n.d.) mostly due to large scale globalization that engenders mass production, often at the cost of biodiversity. Therefore, it is expected that corporate enterprises should see to the conservation and sustainability of resources.
Biodiversity Conservation - Environment - Sustainability - About Us - Panasonic [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://www.panasonic.com/global/corporate/sustainability/eco/biodiversity.html (accessed 5.23.16).
Qatar Foundation -- Documenting The Ocean's Gentle Giants [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://www.qf.org.qa/content/the-foundation/issue-63/documenting-the-ocean-gentle - giants (accessed 5.23.16).
Doha. (2013). Study focuses on whale sharks in Arabian Gulf. Available: http://www.gulf-times.com/story/338297/Study-focuses-on-whale-sharks-in-Arabian-Gulf . Last accessed 16 May 2016
Environmental Citizenship. 2001. Available: http://www.cep.unt.edu/citizen.htm . Last accessed 14 May 2016.
Economist on impacts of growth, "The Effects of Growth: The Long View" discusses, in brief, how economic development of human societies is actually beneficial to biodiversity, in spite of some negative aspects linked to it. It starts with a comparison of two nations -- South and North Korea -- and the way their economics and politics contribute to local biodiversity, that is, the region's forest cover. An identical comparison has been done of the Dominican Republic and Haiti; but this comparison has employed the nations' gross domestic products (GDPs) for proving impacts on biodiversity.
The next half of the article discusses how poverty poses the greatest challenge to biodiversity. It states that poverty has a greater adverse impact than human development on biodiversity. Furthermore, it remarks that poverty minus the presence of growth, together with an increasing population, proves disastrous to biodiversity. Meanwhile, even if growth accompanies poverty, the impact…
Colman, Jacob. Academia. 26 September 2013. Web. 6 May 2016.
The Economist. The Effects of Growth. 14 September 2013. Web. 6 May 2016
67). Two additional mammals that belong to these two orders are the zebra and the donkey (Perissodactyla) and the jaguar and the bobcat (Felidae).
A other insects are the boll weevil and the ladybug; in the order of Hymenoptera, two other insects are bees and wasps.
As to birds, they all share four specific characteristics, being that they have feathered wings (although some birds are flightless like the penguin), beaks, stereoscopic vision and are endothermic or warm-blooded. The differences between the pelican and the eagle are that pelicans generally live in a marine, saltwater environment and eat mostly fish, while the eagle lives predominantly in forested or mountainous areas and eats not only fish but also various land animals such as rabbits and other small mammals. As to order, the pelican belongs to Pelecanidae, due to exhibiting a pouch under their beaks, while the eagle belongs to Accipitriformes, due to…
Biodiversity is a term which refers to the amount and degree of diversity found within living biology. Biodiversity is likely best measured as the sum total of the number of existent creatures, systems, and variety of creatures found within the world at large (National Geographic, 2016). In order to best understand the significance of this statement, it is necessary to codify biodiversity into three different varieties. There are ecosystems, species, and genes which comprise all of the variety found within the notion of biodiversity (National Wildlife Federation, 2016). Therefore, all that is needed to determine biodiversity is to simply add the number of each ecosystem, species, and gene variation found.
The importance and benefits of biodiversity
Biodiversity is important because of the way that different living systems found within it interact with one another. Oftentimes there is a degree of dependence between those systems. It is worth noting…
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
The essence of Zapatista philosophy and action is the discovery of a new order of revolution. In the wake of failures of other socialist movements from Lenin to in Russia to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, the small group of Mayan farmers in southwestern Mexico contend not only with reconstructing revolutionary tactics but also with the massive opposition from dominant governments, including those in Mexico and the United States. Governments that continually uphold the principles of capitalism will find in the Zapatistas an idealistic, hopeless cause of swimming against the tide of globalization. Even before the ratification of the North American Free trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexicans struggled with political and economic oppression. The indigenous peoples of Mexico, like the Mayan nations of Chiapas, fared worst. Lowest on the scale of economical, social, and political power, these individuals hearkened to the voice of their martyred namesake Zapata, who was murdered on…
De Angelis, Massimo. "Globalization, New Internationalism and the Zapatistas." Capital and Class 70 (2000): 9-35.
Mills, C. Wright. "The Sociological Imagination." The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Harvey, Neil. "Globalisation and resistance in post-cold war Mexico: difference, citizenship and biodiversity conflicts in Chiapas." Third World Quarterly 22 (2001): 1045-1061.
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
In this regard, Green and her colleagues emphasize that, "The corporate wealth of logging giant Gunns, Ltd. (which controls over 85% of the state's logging, is the world's largest hardwood woodchip exporter, and is worth over one billion dollars) has not trickled down into the state's economy" (2007, p. 95).
Despite the enormous range of wood products, particularly its valuable hardwoods, that could be produced from Tasmania's forests, more than 90 per cent of the country's hardwood timber is simply processed into woodchips annually, representing 5,000,000 tons of Tasmanian native forest which are then marketed to paper mills in Asia, primarily in Japan but in South Korea and increasingly China as well, accounting for around 70 per cent of Tasmania's total woodchip export production (Green et al., 2007). The sustainment practices used by the forestry industry, though, have been insufficient to replenish what is being extracted.
Forestry Tasmania. The Board…
Australia. (2010). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html.
Brown, B. (2001). Revelations of a green senator. In H. Gee (ed.), for the forests: A history of the Tasmania Forest Campaigns. Hobart: The Wilderness Society, 2001, p. 334 in Owen
Carter, N. (2007). The Politics of the Environment. Ideas. Activism. Policy. 2nd Edn. Cambridge:
Phenotype, Genotype, Systematics, Sporangium, Archegonium, Antheridium, Sporophyte, Gametophyte, Aminoacids, Cereal Grain
IC: phenotype, genotype, systematics, sporangium,
Archegonium, antheridium, sporophyte, gametophyte, amino acids, cereal grain
What can the phenotype tell you about the genotype of an individual?
The genotype describes the genes inherited by an organism. Phenotype refers to an individual's anatomical structure, physiology and behavior. The phenotype refers to everything that can be easily observed and measured about a plant, animal or human being. Our phenotype is the product of Genes inherited from our biological parents,
And developmental noise
Phenotype is the constellation of observable traits; genotype is the genetic endowment of the individual. Phenotype = genotype + development (in a given environment). In a narrow "genetic" sense, the genotype defines the phenotype. But how, in and evolutionary sense, does the phenotype "determine" the genotype? Selection acts on phenotypes because differential reproduction and survivorship depend on phenotype. If…
Systematics is one of the main fields of study in biology wherein the historical relationships of groups of biological organisms are studied. Through systematics, scientists are able to identify organisms existing in this world in accordance to their classification, group, phylum, and other hierarchical positions in the biological strata. Apart from studying the relationship of organisms with each other and in their environment, systematics also aims to determine patterns in the organism population where groups of organisms are most likely to thrive and survive. Systematics as scientific methodology in biology is essential to the establishment and maintenance of biodiversity. This is because through systematics, biodiversity existing in the Earth are identified and documented, converting these information into understandable / comprehensible and thereby useful information to other people. It is also a method and study where the life history of the Earth is documented. Systematics also makes it easier for…
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…
i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).
The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.
Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…
Barnes, C. et al. (2006). "The Ecosystem Goal Team of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Management." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved online at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/eam_lit_review.pdf
CBC News. "Manitoba to Blast Zebra Mussels in Unique Experiment." May 11, 2014. Retrieved online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-to-blast-zebra-mussels-in-unique-experiment-1.2639258
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
So far, this is not the case, and oil companies only pay royalties on production. This is another area under scrutiny in the MMS scandal. There are reports, dating back to 2008, that the royalty offices of the MMS, located in Denver, routinely accepted oil company numbers on the amount of oil they produced, rather than independently auditing the numbers. No one knows how much lost revenue to the government that practice resulted in, and there is no way of finding out now. Clearly, future policy formation on the industry needs to include more oversight, more regulations, and a much less cozy relationship between the regulators and the companies they are regulating.
Future policy formation on other energy sources
The Gulf spill has helped to change public opinion on oil and its production, and on how it is regulated. It seems much clearer after the spill that we are a…
Editor. (2010). Update on oiled wildlife and marine life recovered along Louisiana's coastline. Retrieved 16 July 2010 from the Louisiana.gov Web site: http://emergency.louisiana.gov/Releases/07142010-wildlife.html .
Editors. (2010). Oil dispersants. Retrieved 16 July 2010 from the Prairie View A&M University Web site: http://www.extension.org/pages/Oil_Dispersants .
Falola, T., & Genova, A. (2005). The politics of the global oil industry: An introduction. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Green groups bolster lobby against offshore drilling; Democrats struggle to pacify uneasy voters. (2008, July 16). The Washington Times, p. A06.
The combintion of the complexity of the forest model nd economic needs from forest products results in the need for greter mrrige of ecology, sttistics, economics, nd lnd nd forestry mngement. There re severl connections between forest nd ecosystem mngement. By plnning nd reserching forest growth nd forest stnd tending this industry cn form the bsis for vrious politicl guidelines nd policies to ensure tht timber resources re vilble for future genertions. The forests lso provide hundreds of benefits to mny people living in forested res cross the world. These include thousnds of jobs, lumber, pper products, clen ir, wter filtrtion nd mny recretionl opportunities. In order to ensure tht these benefits will exist for future use, studies of the growth rtes of tended nd untended trees re crried out. For exmple, trees cn be thinned out (removing unwnted or less desirble trees) llowing the best trees to…
and Applications. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academics.
Buongiono, J., Gilless, J. (2003). Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management.
San Diego: Academic Press.
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
According to The orld Commission on Environment and Development (CED), "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." There are many issues related to this important concept that have global implications. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issue of consumption and how it affects the ability of the environment to continue sustainable living. This essay will first describe the issue and illustrate key points that relate consumption with sustainability. The next part of this argument will discuss the role of businesses and corporations and their relationship with this issue. The essay will conclude with commentary and conclusions about the current trends and future responses to consumption and the potential implications for businesses.
The Issue of Consumption
Consumption is a unique term that relates to the sustainability of any system. It…
Baumgartner, R.J., & Ebner, D. 2010. Corporate sustainability strategies: sustainability profiles and maturity levels. Sustainable Development, 18(2), 76-89.
Doppelt, B. & Mcdonough, W. 2010. Leading change toward sustainability: a change- management guide for business, government and civil society, (Updated 2nd ed.), Sheffield: Greenleaf, pp57-74.
Friedman, M. 1970/2009. The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Profits. In W. Cragg, M.S. Schwartz and D. Weitzner (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility 31-36. Farnham, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Ihlen, O. & Roper, J. 2011. Corporate Reports on Sustainability and Sustainable Development: We Have Arrived. Sustainable Development, 2 Mar 2011. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1775004/Corporate_reports_on_sustainability_and_sustainable _development_We_have_arrived
Yasuni National Park: Cultural Aspects that May Impact Biodiversity and Sustainability
The biodiversity record of Yasuni National Park is amazing – with the park being “the most biologically diverse hotspot in the Western Hemisphere” (Andrianos, Sneep, and Kerber, 2014, p. 32). It is important to note that in addition to having a healthy vertebrae assembly, Yasuni National Park also covers a relatively huge wilderness area and is home to a wide range of species (Andrianos, Sneep, and Kerber, 2014, p. 32). In addition to the Waorani communities, who have largely been seen as having been the ancestral guardians of Yasuni National Park, other indigenous groups who continue to live within the Yasuni National Park territory (in voluntary isolation) include the Taromenanes and the Tagaeris (Waller, 2016). The relationship of these indigenous populations with the environment has historically been harmonious. All along, they have mostly made use of natural resources for…
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's sense of direction and purpose in terms of its environment. In the conservation effort, it is therefore very important to consider the influence of current upon animal movement.
Conservation can only be effectively applied when behavior and movement are interpreted to the highest degree of accuracy. The study reveals the importance of current influence on marine life movement. Although larger and faster marine animals will not be as influenced by the current as the leatherback turtle, there will certainly be an impact. While important to study the movements of marine life, the influence of currents on the study of foraging behavior is even more important. This will determine the focus of conservation on specific foraging areas in order to ensure sustainability…
aising awareness about the presence of the disease amongst amphibian owners is essential, so they do not dispose of unwanted pets and infect wild populations. It is also essential that hikers and casual outdoor observers do not move frogs from one area to another, for fear of spreading the illness. Signs of the sickness in the frogs include discolored, peeling, or rough skin; lethargy, and lack of appetite. However, people should be aware that many frogs initially show no sign of the illness. Additionally, campers and hikers should "clean and dry all equipment and wet or muddy footwear before and between visiting frog sites. This may include cleaning the tires of your vehicle before visiting known high-risk sites where threatened frog species may live" (Frog, 2008, DECC). Zoos should also be made aware of the need to carefully monitor their amphibians, particularly because captive populations can be treated for the…
Borrell, Brian. (2009). Is the frog-killing chytrid fungus fueled by climate fluctuations?
Scientific American. Retrieved July 27, 2010 at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=frog-killing-chytrid-fungus-climate-fluctuations
Frog Chytrid fungus. (2008). DECC. Retrieved July 27, 2010 at http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/animals/FrogChytridFungus.htm
Pessier, Allan. (2010). Chytrid fungus. Amphibian ark. Retrieved July 27, 2010 at http://www.amphibianark.org/chytrid.htm#CanAmphibiansRecover
Damns on Wildlife and the Environment
Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…
Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Habitat/damsolutions.html
Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from: http://openagricola.nal.usda.gov/Record/IND87078020
I would also like to know the suggested length of the canopy trees and the measurements of this 'partial shade'. (a third variable that I would like to know is what type of cacao they experimented with since there are different kinds).
These three aspects are important for the following reasons:
. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like…
1. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like to know whether researchers met these in order to know whether to accept study http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0305-sulawesi.html#DR35bKAtoweXgSRq.99
2. The height of the trees as well as diameter of shade is important in order to recreate study
3. Cacao comes in various types. I would like to know whether researchers experimented with just one kind or several in order to know whether to generalize to cacao as a whole.
firms have been focused on social responsibility. This is when a company will engage in different practices that take into account the viewpoints of various stakeholders (such as: communities, the environment and the impact on the firm).
In the case of Chevron, they claim that they are committed to protecting the environment at all costs.
Evidence of this can be seen with company's Operational Excellence Management System. Implemented in 2007, this is designed to take into account a number of different viewpoints when starting any kind of new project. The most notable include: possible social, environmental and safety issues. This program is illustrating how the company is focused on addressing issues that will be impacted by their activities.
However, Chevron is also dealing with challenges where they contributed to incidents that harmed the environment, health or interests of other stakeholders (i.e. The Brazilian offshore oil slick). The combination of these…
"2010 Corporate Social Responsibility." Chevron. Last modified 2010 http://www.chevron.com/globalissues/corporateresponsibility/2010/documents/Chevron_CR_Report_2010.pdf
"Barrow Island." Government of Western Australia. Last modified November 2009 http://www.dsd.wa.gov.au/7599.aspx
"Brazil to Charge Chevron Executives." BBC. Last modified March 18, 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-17419404
"China, Angola to Further Deepen Strategic Partnership." Xinhaunet. Last modified March 23, 2011 http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-03/23/c_13794266.htm
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Saudi Arabian Community: Problems and Solutions
The Saudi Arabian Community: Current Issues and Proposed Solutions
There are many problems affecting the Saudi Arabian community today. The said problems could be political, cultural, economic, or even environmental. This text concerns itself with a problem of an environmental nature. Two of the animals currently under threat of extinction in Saudi Arabia are the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle. ecently, pictures posted on the internet depicting slayed gazelles caused an outrage with most commentators branding the act irresponsible and intolerable (Toumi, 2013). If nothing is done to save the Arabian Oryx and the Saudi gazelle, the ecosystem could suffer great (and perhaps irreversible) damage.
I personally believe that we all have a role to play as we seek to save these two endangered species. It is for this reason that I have in the past shown great interest in this particular subject.…
Toumi, H. (2013). Saudis Lash Out at Gazelle Poachers. Gulfnews. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/saudis-lash-out-at-gazelle-poachers-1.1226358
Vincent, P. (2008). Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview. AK Leiden: Taylor and Francis.
In other industrialized countries, however, like Germany, Italy and Japan, the main concern of governments today is that not enough children are being born to even reach the level of the replacement rate. This is almost certainly a mistake since reduction of population should be the main goal in order to save the planet, and additional middle-class consumers in Western nations are the greatest burden on the environment.
Encouragement of voluntary euthanasia will be another method of reducing the excess population. Today many billions of dollars are spent on the last thirty days of life and 65% of physicians and nurses in one survey admitted that had provided unnecessary treatments for the terminally ill. That statistic was mentioned frequently in the debates over health care reform, with the implication that those dollars would be better spent on medical care for younger and healthier people at the start of their productive…
TED talk, Jason Clay talks about how the major buyers in the world like Cargill are the key to creating a sustainable future. Clay started out working on the side of the small farmers, going the traditional route of purchasing products at fair and equitable trade and driving consumer demand for sustainable products like Ben & Jerry's Rainforest Crunch ice cream. Then, Clay and his colleagues realized that they were not going to achieve their goals of massive transformations in the ways goods are produced without working with the big key players -- the organizations responsible for tearing down the rainforests to place cattle pasture or rainforests to plant palm oil plantations. Beef, lumber, soy, and certain types of fishing are among the top fifteen global products that are singularly responsible for much deforestation. ith current consumer-driven demand, there will be insufficient resources on the planet in the near future.…
Clay, Jason. "How Big Brands Can Help Save Biodiversity." Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcp5vvxtEaU
Rutagarama, E. & Martin, a. (2006). Partnerships for protected area conservation in Rwanda.
The Geographical Journal, 172(4), 291-293.
Summary of the content: The authors work at the International Gorilla Conservation Programme, African Wildlife Foundation and School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, respectively, who emphasize the importance of developing networks of partnerships in developing countries that include national, regional and local government agencies as well communities, NGOs and the private sector to promote sustainable biodiversity conservation initiatives. Such partnerships can avoid the tendency to adopt extreme positions with respect to sustainable uses of natural resources such as the "fortress conservation" approach that discourages resource used by human populations on the one hand and the reckless use of natural resources with little regard for future sustainability on the other.
Describe of its potential application to topic: Many of the most valuable biodiverse environments are situated in developing nations, making…
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
Wes Sechrest and Thomas M. rooks and published in the National Academy of Sciences reveals the results of a study they conducted investigating the varying levels of biodiversity distributed throughout the world. The authors employ a fairly novel approach in their measurements of biodiversity, specifically, relying upon two methods approximating the levels of evolutionary history endemic to twenty-five terrestrial "hotspots." The significance of evolutionary history as a measuring stick is that it is associated with the past importance of particular geographic locations, and implies that future evolution is threatened if these locations are threatened. Additionally, Sechrest and rooks find that their twenty-five defined hotspots house not only disproportionately large amounts of evolutionary history, but are also disproportionately threatened by the activities of man. The article stops short of attempting to identify any possible solutions to this impending problem, however, it does help to illuminate some of the shortcomings of our…
1. Allaby M. 1999. Biomes of the World. Danbury: Grolier Educational. 64
2. Dodson S, Allen T. 1998. Ecology. New York: Oxford University. 434
3. Gallant R. The Wonders of Biodiversity. 2003. New York: Benchmark. 80
4. Sechrest W, Brooks T. 2002. Hotspots and the Conservation of Evolutionary History. The National Academy of Sciences. 19; 99(4): 2067-2071.
Additionally, conservationists suggest increasing patrols to improve overall enforcement of existing laws, better boundary demarcation, and the development of stronger hunting quotas. All of these measures require significant and lasting funding.
This Park is in a state of crisis. ith most of its large mammals now extinct from the Park, and illegal users on the rise, Park Rangers are simply outmatched. Poachers can find a thriving market for illegal bushmeat and rare birds. Illegal loggers easily find buyers for rare trees. The Park is under-staffed and under-funded and soon to face new challenges if the upstream dam is built along the Gambia River as planned.
The Galapagos Islands and the Niokola-Koba National Park represent two of Planet Earth's most valuable treasures. They contain biodiversity that not only provides scientific opportunity but may support the health of the entire ecosystem in their respective regions. Both sites are listed…
Novy, Julia W. 2010. Incentive Measures for Conservation of Biodiversity and Sustainability: A Case Study of the Galapagos Islands. United Nations
Environment Program: WWF-USA.
UN Chronicle. 1999. Conservation of Endemic Biodiversity of the Galapagos World
Heritage Site. Available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1309/is_3_36/ai_58675442/
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).
The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…
Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.
Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.
Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291
Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
Ecological Preservation at the Hart of Dynamic Boca de Iguanas Development (2008) St. Michael Strategies (SMS) Press Release. PR.com online available at http://www.pr.com/press-release/35513
Jeffrey Chow, Raymond J. Kopp, Paul R. Portney. (2003). Energy resources and global development. Science, 302(5650), 1528-31. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 490116241).
Mattson, K.M., and Angermeier, P.L. (2007) Integrating Human Impacts and Ecological Integrity into a Risk-Based Protocol for Conservation Planning Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 39, No. 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t13674l78j31jq05/
Maximizing building performance: through environmental strategies (2003) Buildings 1 July 2003. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/operations/facilities/601308-1.html
Negative Secondary Impacts from Oil and Gas Development (nd) the Energy & Biodiversity Initiative. Online available at http://www.theebi.org/pdfs/impacts.pdf
Santopietro, George D. (2005) Raising Environmental Consciousness vs. Creating Economic Incentives as Alternative Policies for Environmental Protection Journal; Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 29, 1995. Excerpt online available at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000322449
Explain what conservation biology is and highlight its goals.
Conservation biology is a branch of biological sciences which is primarily concerned with the preservation of life on earth including organisms which are classified as plants and animals. It examines biodiversity and ways and means in which the biodiversity of life on Earth can best be sustained (Sahney 2008,-page 759). This branch of biological study began as a reaction to the growing concern over extinction of species and disruption of habitats because of natural disasters and/or the actions and behaviors of human beings and industrialization. Interactions between species, particularly the interaction between humans and native populations is of particular interest to conservation biologists, particularly in terms of negative effects of human interaction.
The goals of conversation biologists are to protect various species as well as their habitats and ecosystems. They also want to prevent the extinction of species and…
Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.
David Suzuki Foundation.
Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.
Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.
Forests have long been exploited. They are harvested for their timber, or cleared for agricultural land, both activities being entirely destructive to the ecosystem. The fen exists typically within the forest, and is not usually subject to exploitation until the forest itself is, because the forest acts as a natural barrier for the fen. The destruction of forests for timber is arguably the lesser of the two forms of exploitation, at least in countries with active silviculture programs, as the forests will have the potential to regenerate. However the destruction of forest ecosystems is associated with several negative outcomes. The biodiversity of the forest system is reduced, and this effect is stronger the more forest is cleared. Destruction for agriculture is permanent, which means that the loss of biodiversity is permanent. Endemic and endangered species are rendered extinct, or their numbers reduced (Chediack, 2008).
Fenland is often exploited…
Breward, N. (2003). Heavy-metal contaminated soils associated with drained fenland in Lancashire, England, UK, revealed by BGS Soil Geochemical Survey. Applied Geochemistry. Vol. 18 (11) 1663-1670.
Chediack, S. (2008). The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina. Rev. Bio. Trop. Vol 56 (2) 721-738.
Fredeen, A. (2007) . Climate change and the mountain pine beetle. University of Northern British Columbia. Retrieved April 27, 2015 from http://www.unbc.ca/releases/2007/climate-change-and-mountain-pine-beetle
Sasaki, N. & Putz, F. (2009). Critical need for new definitions of forest and forest degradation in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters. Vol. 2009, 1-7.
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
Compulsory Licensing of Patents
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the causes and affects of the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical products. Initially, the paper highlights the fundamental positions, attitude, inclination and concerns of the developed world and the under developed world with regard to the intellectual property rights of the pharmaceutical products. The paper also concentrates on the subject of the intellectual property rights of the biotechnology products (plants); this is because plants are the major source of almost all pharmaceutical products being used today. Furthermore, it is a matter of fact that the patentability of plants has been given a lot of attention by the developed world, in particular United States of America, as well as, the developing World. The paper also exposes the priorities of both the developed world and the under developed world, priorities that have been a major hurdle in all previous negotiations on…
Bernard Pecoul et al., Access to Essential Drugs in Poor Countries: A Lost Battle? 281 JAMA 361, 365 (1999).
David P. Fidler, International Law and Global Public Health, 48 KAN. L. REV. 1, 29 (1999).
David Benjamin Snyder, Comment, South Africa's Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment Act: A Spoonful of Sugar or a Bitter Pill to Swallow?, 18 DICK. J. INT'L L. 175, 190 (1999).
David P. Fidler, Symposium on Globalization at the Margins: Perspectives on Globalization from Developing States: Neither Science Nor Shamans: Globalization of Markets and Health in the Developing World, 7 IND. J. GLOBAL LEG. STUD. 191, 212-213 (1999).
2. Project Preparation
3. Project Implementation'
4. Facility Operation
These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).
The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).
The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.
Strategic Assessments section
This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
mass tourism on the culture of Ibiza
Ibiza in Spain is one of the best-preserved medieval islands in Europe. The island is closest of all the Balearic Islands to mainland Spain and has a 200 km coastline. Although it has a reputation as a party island, there is much more to it than nightclubs. There are many small coves and over 50 beaches. One can view other Ibiza attractions, museums, events, festivals and travel. Ibiza has earned the title of "Clubbing Capital" of the world. The temperatures range from 20 degrees Celsius in May to around 27 in August. The population hovers around 110000 while the language spoken is Castilian Spanish. The currency accepted is the Euro. During the 1990's, tourism was boosted in the island when it earned the Guinness ecord as the entertainment industry in the world. Since it has around 300 days of sunshine throughout the year,…
Ibiza Information" Retrieved at http://www.ibiza.world-guides.com/ . Accessed on 10 May 2004.
Tourism and Environment on the Island of Ibiza" Retrieved at http://www.ecociencia.com/tourism.htm. Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Tourism and Biodiversity" Retrieved at http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/calpe/calpe125-144.pdf . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Ibiza Uncovered" Retrieved at http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/bellis.htm . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…
ADBI (2002) "Did East Asian Developing Countries lose Export Competitiveness in the pre- Crisis 1990's?" ADBI Research Paper 34; Tokyo.
Altbach, Eric. (1999) "Growing Pains: ASEAN at 30" Japan Economic Institute Report. No. 23; June 19
Author Unkown. (1999) "Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong and the Asian Financial Crisis" Conference sponsored by the Far Eastern Economic Review. Hong Kong. 11 June.
Baietti Aldo. (2001) "Private Infrastructure in East Asia: Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis." Washington, D.C. World Bank.
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…
Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September.
Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
Sustainable tourism does not destroy the environment, economy, or cultural aspects of the tourist destination (David Vaughan, 2000). Sustainable tourism is aimed at ensuring that those concerned are not affected in any way and that a positive development is realized through it. Back in the 1980s, ecotourism which consisted of activities such as wildlife exotic cultures and nature, became more common with remarkably few people understanding what the impacts of such tourism are, this led to its pitfall (Erlet, 1993). Therefore, sustainable tourism helps to improve all associated impact of tourism as a whole, and this can steadily be achieved through seeking partnership between various governments, local community and any stakeholder in the tourism industry.
How sustainable tourism can be achieved
esearches done in this field indicate that for sustainable tourism to be achieved all efforts should be channeled towards fostering co-ordination and cooperation between managers of the tourism destination…
CEVAT, T. 2001. Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey. Tourism Management, 22, 289-303.
COLIN, H. 1997. Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-867.
DAVID A. LERTZMAN & HARRIE VREDENBURG 2005. Indigenous Peoples, Resource Extraction and Sustainable Development: An Ethical Approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 56, 239-254
DAVID VAUGHAN 2000. Tourism and Biodiversity: A Convergence of Interests? International Affairs, 76, 283-297.
Extinction Events or Environmental Catastrophes
Many uncertainties exist over the acts and roles of extinction in the world today. Nonetheless, with all these uncertainties, it is possible to formulate reasonable statements that depict the probable role of extinction. The role of extinction can be thought to have some elements, most of which are instrumental in striking the relationship and power seen in evolution and extinction in the earth's history up to the appearance of hominids (8 million years ago) . For any widespread species or any group of a widespread species, extinction needs some bit of environmental shock that comes in the form of physical or biological aspects that normally occur. Such occurrences take place during the geological lifespans of the given species or groups of species. In this case, the shock that is resulting has to be applied with a rapidness that is enough to take place over a…
Abe, Takuya, Simon A. Levin, and M. Higashi. 1997. Biodiversity and Ecological Perspective. New York, NY: Springer New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1906-4 .
Courtillot, Vincent. 2002. Evolutionary Catastrophes: The Science of Mass Extinction. Cambridge [U.A.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Fry, Iris. 2000. The Emergence of Life on Earth: A Historical and Scientific Overview. New Brunswick, NJ [U.A.]: Rutgers University Press.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2014. The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. New York, Routledge.
2006). According to Branch et al., "Essentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimensions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and situation" (2006, p. 724). Therefore, the EPA's decision-making process in this case would likely have been different had all four of these dimensions being taking into consideration and efforts made to adequately satisfy each of these requirements in the final outcome.
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy esponses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, . & Funkhouser, G.. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
6, no. 3, pp. 366-368.
Branch, K.M., Bradbury, J.A. & Malone, E.…
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy Responses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, R. & Funkhouser, G.R. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
..the giant salamander, 2010, Cryptozooscity).
There are fears that giant salamanders may meet the same fate as dinosaurs, given that modern life has exposed them to quick-moving, larger-brained humans who consider them a delicacy and will hunt them with greater determination than previous predators. The amphibian's size makes them "lucrative prey for hunters, who can sell the flesh for around U.S.$100 per kg (£30 per lb)," a considerable sum when one salamander can grow to over one hundred pounds (Black 2005). "They are protected species; but in China, illegal hunting is bringing them within sight of extinction" (Black 2005). Observed one conservationist: "They are easy to catch, hiding in rock crevasses during the day, and people know where to find them" (Black 2005).
The loss of these giant relics would not merely be a loss of a link to human evolutionary history of the past: the salamanders may also provide…
Black, Richard. (2005, September 19). Hunting threat to big amphibians. BBC News. Retrieved July 27, 2010 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4259596.stm
Giant salamanders may help scientists fight extinction threat. (2010, July 21). CNN. Retrieved
July 27, 2010 at http://www.latimes.com/sns-giant-salamander,0,3628440.story
The living fossil...the giant salamander (2010, February). Cryptozooscity. Retrieved July 27, 2010 at http://cryptozoo-oscity.blogspot.com/2010/02/living-fossilthe-giant-salamander.html