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iomechanics is the application of mechanics to biological systems. iomechanics is alternatively known as Kinesiology. iomechanics finds its origins from the beginning of scientific and social thought. Socrates averred that if we were to understand the world around us, we ought to first understand ourselves. Aristotle (384-322 .C.) is considered the, "Father of Kinesiolgy." His treatises described the actions of the muscles and subjected them to geometric analysis for the first time. Around that time, Archimedes also identified the relationship of a systems' mechanics to identify motion in swimming, taking into account gravity and leverage. Galen, a Roman, can be considered as the first "team physician." He tended to gladiators. Glen worked to identify muscles, bones and nerves in his studies. Later, Galileo applied the laws of trajectory to identify muscle motion. The artist and scientist Leonardo Da Vinci provided the first comprehensive sketch of the human body. His seminal…
ASB-Biomech.org. American Society of Biomechanics. 2003. ASB-Biomech.org. Available:
http://asb-biomech.org/.October , 7 2003.
Huff, S.J. Electromyography. 2002. Emedicine.com. Available:
http://www.emedicine.com/aaem/topic179.htm. October 7, 2003.
Biomechanics of the Shoulder
Since the time of Leonardo di Vinci's pioneering exploration of the human anatomy, man has recognized the perfect union of form and function found in the shoulder joint. Providing a fortuitous combination of mobility and stability, the shoulder joint complex permits a wide range of motion that differentiates human arm movement from that of lower animals. Examined from the unique perspective offered by modern biomechanical research, the shoulder joint is considered to have played a pivotal role in the human evolutionary process, enabling man to better utilize projectile weapons by developing accurate throwing techniques, among other advantageous adaptive qualities. Today, the study of shoulder biomechanics is an essential component of clinical orthopedic care, sports medicine, mechanical injury rehabilitation and a wide array of other fields. By conducting a thorough review of the prevailing research on shoulder biomechanics, the splendidly simple yet efficiently effective structural composition of…
Ludewig, P.M., & Braman, J.P. (2011). Shoulder impingement: biomechanical considerations in rehabilitation. Manual therapy, 16(1), 33-39. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010321/
Lugo, R., Kung, P., & Ma, C.B. (2008). Shoulder biomechanics. European journal of radiology, 68(1), 16-24. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0720048X08001277
Nordin, M., & Frankel, V.H. (Eds.). (2001). Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.
Wolters Kluwer Health.
Biomechanical Description of Technique:
The experimental technique consisted of precise measurements of several knee angles known to be relevant to PFPS symptoms and to acute ACL injuries. Those measurements were ascertained through the use of skin markers distributed on the lower extremities on subjects with no known histories of knee pathology or symptomatic complaints. After measuring VV and IE angles in the neutral barefoot position, the researchers made similar measurements of those angles in several ski boot positions, including standing, canted, and rotated positions within the adjustable limitations of the ski boots. They also conducted measurements of simulated loading positions natural to skiing, achieved through the use of an angled platform duplicating the ski slope angle and a weighted pulley system designed to transmit downward forces between the skier and the sloped platform in the same perpendicular angle experienced during actual skiing.
Critical Analysis of Technique Selected:
The technique selected…
Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) Effect of ski boot settings on tibio-femoral abduction and rotation during standing and simulated skiing; 498-505.
Analysis of the Muscles Involved
The Center of Gravity
Analysis of the Injuries Prone to the Movement
It is not known when leaping first appeared in dance. Many ancient forms of dance involve leaping. The most common connotation of leaping is found in ballet. Ballet reached the height of its popularity during the reign of Louis XIV at the end of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. It was because of leaps that the ballet dancers shortened their skirts. The French Dancer, Marie Camargo broke convention and shortened her skirts to emphasize her leaps and jumps (Thinkquest, 2002).
Leaping refers to a movement taking off from one foot and landing on the other foot. There are five types of jumps in ballet. This particular type of leap is called a jete' A leap in dance is often proceeded by a preparatory move such a one or more approach…
Author unknown. The Physics of Dance. Kent School District. 1998. Retrieved from http://www.kent.k12.wa.us/staff/trobinso/physicspages/PhysOf1998A/Dance -
accessed August, 2002.
Becker, T.J. Kinetic and kinematic parameters of landing impact forces in the dance jump and leap, 1964. Ph.D thesis., Indiana University.
Biomechanics is the study of mechanical and physics principles in relation to motion in sports. Every sport has its biomechanical theories and each one is specialized to that particular skill with equations derived from Newtonian physics and knowledge of the human body and its capabilities. When combined and properly practiced, biomechanics can improve an athletes overall performance, making the athlete superior to their competitors.
The freestyle arm-pull in swimming is a precise study in the art of biomechanics introduced for an efficient result. It is an established fact that water is 773 times as dense as air and 55 times as viscous (Miller, 1975). What this means is that planning an efficient stroke in water is going to require greater strategy than planning an efficient stroke in air. The primary factors that go into creating the ideal stroke in swimming are vectors, motion, force, work, and…
Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.
Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles
Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.
Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…
AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .
Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS
Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved
October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
A perfect example of this is located in Chapter three. Chapter three opens with the camera zooming steadily in on a window. The shot then cuts to a shot of streetlights, establishing the time of day as early morning. Even though simply not enough of the room is exhibited to demonstrate what exactly exists within it, the shot following the streetlight is of a woman in bed, strongly suggesting it was her bedroom that the camera was stealthily creeping up to in order to peep through the lace curtains unbeknownst to the sleeping woman.
This voyeurism keeps going even as the aforementioned woman gets up, washes and dresses in various sequences interspersed in chapter three. Vertov's camera cuts from the sleeping woman to the painting on the wall of an old man, located and leering as if he too were watching her sleep.
This voyeurism is further emphasized by the…
Barnouw, Erik (1993) Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Barsam, Richard M (1973) Nonfiction Film: A Critical History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Beller, Jonathan L (1999) Dziga Vertov and the Film of Money, Boundary 2: An International Journal of Literature and Culture. 26 (3). Duke University Press.
Guynn, William (1990) A Cinema of Nonfiction. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
The field of ergonomics takes into account the following:
Anthropometrics (body measurements)
Biomechanics and physiology
Ergonomics design and evaluation
Ergonomics specific needs
Three Components of Ergonomics and Environmental / Interior Design
• Anthropometry: body size, strength, shape, and work capacity.
• Ergonomics: study of behavior and activities of people; adapting systems and workstations to the needs of users; different applications in various fields such as biomechanics, environmental, cognitive science
• Relation to Environmental / Interior Design: "Anthropometric data are used to design workspaces, safety equipment and personal protection tools considering the differences between the characteristics, abilities, and physical limits of any particular human body," (p 3)
Key Points of Ergonomic Design
Appropriate for the end user (age, gender)
Do not rely on "average man" theory, which rarely works
Keep in mind reach, clearance, and adjustability factors
Time and funding are considerations in…
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
new branch of science called Sports Science that respectively makes use of motor learning and motor control in the sports industry.
Motor learning and motor control is a field of science that is being studied from a sports point-of-view. Motor learning is connected to all the processes and conditions that affect one's ability to acquire skills, while motor control ascertains neuromuscular performance of individuals. Many people are taking great interest in the learning of motor skills and expertise, and the development of coordination. This new field of sports is based on the use of the knowledge base in the movement and sport sciences, cognitive sciences, and also physical therapy.
Sports science is a new area of study that is forcing people to explore the scientific explanation for David Beckham's superb soccer skills, and even wondering what would Wimbledon be like if say Pete Sampras had to use an…
Computational Learning and Motor Control Lab, available at http://www-slab.usc.edu/,accessed on: November 20, 2003
Graduate Programs: Masters in Motor Control, available at http://www.indiana.edu/~kines/ms_motor.html , accessed on: November 20, 2003
JCU - Motor Learning and Motor Control, available at: www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/ises/lev3sub/sp34hbk.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Motor Behavior Specialization - Doctoral Degree Program, available at http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/ess/grad/motrbeh1.htm, accessed on: November 20, 2003
The system also has to undergo thousands of cycles and vibrations and needs to be able to stand up to the same reliability standards as the rest of the components on the bike.
Conventional and Proven ear Suspension Designs
Given all of the previously mentioned considerations, the design itself is important in making sure the rider and the manufacturer are getting the most out of the system.
The Fox acing Homepage (2011) has some excellent examples of both the strut style rear suspension as well as the shock with spring and strut combination system. The latter is typically reserved for use on higher-end advanced bikes since these systems are costlier and requires more maintenance. To be more specific, the Van C product represents the higher-end strut and spring combination while the Float design is a basic, oil dampened design for use on more entry-level designs. The Van C model is…
Bu, Yan; Tian Huang, Zhongxia Xiang, Xiaofan Wu and Chun Chen. (2010). "Optimal design of mountain bicycle based on biomechanics." Transactions of Tianjin University,
Volume 16, Number 1, 45-49.
DT Swiss Homepage. (2011). Accessed Jan. 5 at:
The intrinsic approach revolves around the subjective exhilaration and personal meaning that one receives from physical activity; the 'high' that it gives us and the consequent motivation to persist.
Jeff has to find the exercise component that personally gives him the greatest satisfaction and exhilaration and that is relevant to strengthening his back. Finding an activity that is enjoyable for him to engage in and seeing definite results will merge the subjective and extrinsic approaches causing Jeff to retain the motivation to engage in this exercise on a long-term basis.
Factors primary to the enjoyment of the physical activity are that they must provide Jeff with evenly matched challenges -- it must be neither too difficult for him nor too simple, so that he will neither be discouraged nor bored. He must, also, receive clear goals and feedback so that he will best know how to practice the exercise. Feedback…
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
viable marketing plan for the footwear giant, Nike. The plan has been adequately substantiated with thorough research on different factors affecting the firm along with various ways of addressing future challenges. This research paper highlights that Nike is confronted with multifarious issues which need to be negotiated amicably. Result of the study concludes that there is still a world waiting for the Nike to be exploited, outsmarting its competitors employing its innovative and creative business strategy.
MINI usiness / MARKETING PLAN -- NIKE, INC.
In 1962, two individuals from the University of Oregon established a small company with the name of lue Ribbon Sports (RS). In 1972, the company was renamed to Nike, the name adopted from the Greek goddess of victory. At present, Nike owns facilities in Oregon, Tennessee, North Carolina and The Netherlands. It also operates leased facilities for 15 Nike-towns, over 80 Nike Factory Stores,…
All Products, Nike.com http://nikeid.nike.com/nikeid/index.jhtml?ref=global_home#category,view_all
Andris A. Zoltners, Prabhakant Sinha, Greggor A. Zoltners, Accelerating Sales Force Performance, April 2001
Catherine Colbert, Nike, Inc.
http://www.hoovers.com/nike,-inc./--ID__14254 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml
Crabb's book, Effective Biblical Counseling and the theories presented there. This paper will examine how Crabb treats some of the more popular theories in the book and how he is able to summarize them for the reader -- largely accomplishing this in a very accessible manner.
For instance, Crabb's treatment of Abraham Maslow's theory of classical needs hierarchy is extremely astute and user-friendly. Crabb explains how the need on the lowest rung of the hierarchy needs to be met and completed in order for the individual to be able to have sufficient motivation to get the subsequent need met and so on (Crabb, 1986). According to these ideologies, the lowest needs are the physical ones: food, water and comparable needs -- these are the needs that the organism must fulfill in order to survive (Crabb, 1986). The following need is the need of security, which encompasses a general sense and…
Crabb, L. (1986). Effective Biblical Counseling. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing.
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
Stress Ulcer Prevention
The subject up for study in this report shall be whether stress ulcers in hospital patients induced by being bedridden can be mitigated or even prevented by turning the patient to a new position at least once every two hours. The amount of research on this subject is not pervasive and voluminous. However, some material about the subject does exist. Thus, a conclusion should be possible regarding whether patient-turning is a solution to prevent stress ulcers from forming in the first place. While it may not truly be a fix-all solution, the practice of turning patients at two hour intervals shows some promised based on evidence-based research and results.
Stress ulcers, otherwise commonly referred to as deep tissue injury (DTI) is a pressing and persistent issue in the medical field. This is especially true when speaking of patients that are bedridden for any significant amount of time…
Behrendt, R., Ghaznavi, A.M., Mahan, M., Craft, S., & Siddiqui, A. (2014).
CONTINUOUS BEDSIDE PRESSURE MAPPING AND RATES OF HOSPITAL-
ASSOCIATED PRESSURE ULCERS IN A MEDICAL INTENSIVE CARE
UNIT. American Journal Of Critical Care, 23(2), 127-133.
In the contemporary business environment, businesses are learned to satisfy their customers, however, they are also required to satisfy their employees. For instance, the Fedex has discovered that there is a statistical correlation between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. A decline in employee satisfaction leads to a decline in customer satisfaction. It has also been discovered across different industries that employee satisfaction assists in increasing customer satisfaction as well as increasing their loyalty towards organizations. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs and working conditions will be loyal to firms, offer high-quality services and productivity. However, the case of LegoAssembly4You reveals that the full-time employee is not satisfied with his present job because he is the one completing most of the work tasks and earns the same remuneration with the part time worker. Despite being a full-time worker, he is being offered the same pay per hour with the part…
The condition called Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) denotes a flaw in the tendon functions directly supporting the foot, leading to the compensatory collapse of the arches. The condition is clinically explained as "an inflammation and/or overstretching of the posterior tibial tendon in the foot. An important function of the posterior tibial tendon is to help support the arch. But in PTTD, the tendon's ability to perform that job is impaired, often resulting in a flattening of the foot." (FP, 1)
Other implications to the condition will relate directly to the likelihood of pain and discomfort in the foot itself.
The improper distribution of weight and pressure in one's step can be the close for undue and excessive ground contact with load-bearing parts of the foot. The heel is especially vulnerable to inflammation and pain, contributing to the close connection between the presence of flat feet and the intrusion of…
IntelliHealth Inc. (2007). Fallen Arch. Aetna Intellihealth. Online at http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WS/9339/25652.html
James, E. (2006). Knee Pain.
Comfort Shoes. Online at http://www.comfortshoe.com/knee_pain.html
Jones, B.H.' Thacker, S.B.; Gilchrist, J.; Kimsey, C.D. & Sosin, D.M. (2002). Prevention of Lower Extremity Stress Fracturesin Athletes and Soldiers. Epidemiological Reviews, 24, 228-247.