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Hash Values in Digital Forensics
Hash values denote condensed representations of digitized or binary content within digital material; however, they offer no additional information pertaining to the contents of any material interpretable by an individual. Moreover, the hash function is algorithms that convert variable-sized text quantities into hash values (which are fixed-sized outputs). Also called “cryptographic hash functions,” they facilitate the development of digital signatures, short textual condensations, and hash tables for the purpose of analysis (Fang et al., 2011; Kumar et al., 2012). In this paper, hash functions and their significance will be addressed.
H (hash function) represents a transformation taking variable-sized input „m? and returning fixed-sized strings (h or hash value; i.e., h = H (m)) (Kumar et al., 2012). The hash functions possessing only the above property can be put to various broad computational uses; however, when applied to cryptography, they normally possess a few…
Sareen (2014) describes biometrics as the technology or the science that determines and assesses biological data. Biometrics is measurable behavioral and physiological characteristics applicable in the verification process of people’s identity (Sareen, 2014). In layman terms biometrics may be understood as a science that involves measuring behavioral and physical characteristics unique to an individual (Xiao, 2007). Biometrics verifies that any person is who they claim to be. The term biometrics refers to life measurements although the terms have been associated with the unique physiological qualities used in identifying a person. Biometric applications are often associated with security. However, the identification of the unique human characteristics scientifically has broader meaning and relevance bearing in mind that computer interface has become increasingly natural (Sareen, 2014).
Jaiswal (2011) describes biometric as any robust, measurable, physical, and distinctive personal traits or characteristic of individuals usable in their identification or verification of their claimed…
In a physical security system, there are a number of different ways to identify employees for the purpose of granting them different levels of access to parts of a facility. In many instances, a combination of methods will be used for maximum effectiveness. Passcards are usually one of the lowest levels of identification. They are easy to create and implement, but they have a key weakness in that they are transferrable. As such, a passcard offers only the lowest level of security.
Because of this, security professionals look at things that are unique to an individual, but are not transferable. This typically involves some form of biometrics -- retina scans, iris texture scans, fingerprints, facial recognition, voice recognition or even the shape of your ear (Moren, 2014). Things like body shape and gait recognition have also been explored, as a means of identifying a person based on what…
Boulgouris, N., Hatzinakos, D. & Plataniotis, K. (2005). Gait recognition: A challening signal processing technology for biometric identification. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.comm.toronto.edu/~kostas/Publications2008/pub/60.pdf
DeChant, T. (2013). The boring and exciting world of biometrics. Nova Next. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/tech/biometrics-and-the-future-of-identification/
Moren, D. (2014). 7 surprising biometric identification methods. Popular Science. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.popsci.com/seven-surprising-biometric-identification-methods
Zhu, Y., Tan, T. & Wang, Y. (2000). Biometric personal identification based on handwriting. National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.cbsr.ia.ac.cn/publications/yzhu/Biometric%20Personal%20Identification%20Based%20on%20Handwriting.pdf
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
advances in technology. The Internet has brought the idea of instantaneous global communication to a reality; smaller and smarter chips are now included in inexpensive Smart Phones, and our ability to understand and manipulate data has vastly increased. New technologies can certainly offer law enforcement a number of new tools that aid in their job. Essentially, these can be divided into different segments, all of which are useful during different situations:
Aviation Technology -- Helicopters and light planes have both improved and become more cost effective, although they are still more appropriate for larger urban areas. They are able to help with traffic issues, and with the addition of cameras and nigh vision, help track suspects or increase surveillance on large events or potential gang related activities. They are also able to be equipment with special weapons (SWAT), firefighting, and emergency medical equipment (Langton, 2009).
Biometrics -- Biometrics is a…
Communications Technology. (2007, November 13). Retrieved from National Institue of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/communication/welcome.htm
Types of Less Lethal Devices. (2008, July 11). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/less-lethal/types.htm
Body Armor. (2012, September 13). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/body-armor/welcome.htm
Harries, K. (1999, December). Mapping Crime: Principles and Practices. Retrieved from NCJRS.GOV: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/nij/mapping/ch1_18.html
Chester has been using for several years a "Cost Leader with product life cycle focus" strategy, which implies a focus on the product life cycle diagram, with the introduction of products in the high tech area of consumers and their continuance in the low tech area, until they become obsolete and have to be drawn out of the market.
The strategy that Chester has been using implies, first of all, a keen look on the product's life cycle. Indeed, a product that Chester sends out to the market will follow through on all four of the different phases in the life cycle of a product, namely its introduction, growth, maturity and decline.
According to the company's vision, the product is first of all introduced in the high tech area of the market, addressing specific customers from this respective group. Nevertheless, we do take into consideration the fact that a product…
Measurement: Coordinate all deployment processing for all task order personnel in a timely and professional manner.
This can be seen in my duties where for instance I set up tracking documents for subcontractors and a checklist for contractors deploying. I am also administer and control maintenance of Task Order personnel data in internal and external (prime master and government SPOT) personnel databases. My responsibilities include coordinating training and deployment requirements prior to personnel deploying to CONUS, OCONUS, or to contingency locations; ensuring contract compliance, monitoring project and personnel performance, and managing technical aspects of the project; ensuring requirements are fulfilled in accordance with statements of work, task orders, and ensuring executed work meets quality assurance standards and the customers' expectations. All is done in a timely and professional manner.
Data Call Support
Measurement: Provide responsive and accurate data call support in a timely manner.
I attempt to do so particularly…
As with many consumer-oriented businesses, fast food restaurants need to maintain a strong but unobtrusive security profile. Their structures and access points need to remain accessible while still preventing malicious behavior. This security survey of a fast food restaurant provides an example of how to perform a total security audit, identify weaknesses and risks particularly with regards to customer and employee safety, and offer suggestions for improvement.
Property and Perimeter
The outermost boundaries of the fast food restaurant are the limits of the company’s locus of control. There is a lot the fast food restaurant can do to improve its perimeter security, without deterring customers. In fact, making upgrades to the perimeter security can serve a dual purpose as improving aesthetics. The current perimeter is empty, dark, and exposed. These weaknesses open the possibility for criminal behavior, as the access points are “obscured by low light,” (Locknet, n.d., p. 1).…
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…
Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.
Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.
Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.
wireless Web is truly' the next major wave of Internet computing
A its potential for bringing people together and expanding commerce is even greater than that of the wired Internet."
Edward Kozel, board member and former CTO of Cisco systems (AlterEgo, 2000, p. 12)
The integration of the Internet into our modern culture as a driving force behind business, convenience, services and merchandise acquisition has created a new set of desires for modern consumers. The trend started with the ease and availability of services and products being offer4ed through radio and television advertising, and then infomercials and shopping channels. The internet brought the availability to purchase products, goods, and information from our desks and kitchens. Now trough wireless hotspots and wireless devices, society is following their desires toward a marketing distribution channel which motivates them to pay for internet access, and mobile commerce (m-commerce) anytime, anywhere, and instantly. These sets…
AlterEgo (2000). Building the intelligent internet: Making the case for adaptive network services. [www.alterego.com].
Albright, B. (2000). Mobilize this!. Frontline Solutions, May, 28-32.
Bansal, P. (1.1.2001) Smart cards come of age. The Banker.
Barnett, N., Hodges, S. & Wilshire, M. (2000). M-commerce: An operator's manual. McKinsey Quarterly, 3,162-171.
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at
Cell Phone as an Electronic Wallet
apid advances in technology in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people work, transact and communicate. Yet, it is widely believed that there is still ample scope for technology to make life even more convenient and efficient. For instance, the cell phone is already showing the promise of functioning as an electronic wallet. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that using the cell phone, as an electronic wallet, will in fact add a great deal to convenience and safety, especially in the area of replacing plastic credit, debit and smart cards.
paid card; convenience; efficiency; safety; security; electronic; identification; business; bank; credit card company; consumer; transaction; identity theft; fraud; charge back; commissions.
Advances in Information Technology and Communication in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people live, work and play.…
Batista, E. (2002, Nov. 25). Shopping by cell phone? No thanks. Wired News.
Retrieved Aug. 29, 2004: http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,56511,00.html?tw=wn_story_page_prev2
Beaudette, M. (2002, Aug. 5). Firms offer cell phone users services to dial for; devices not just for talking anymore. The Washington Times. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2004 from the Cellbucks Web site: http://www.cellbucks.com/en_US/news/080502WT.html
Bhatnagar, P. (2004, Feb.3). New cards: Flash but don't swipe. CNN Money.
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
Zeltser, L. (September 2011). Social Networking Safety. OUCH! The Monthly Security Awareness Newsletter for Computer Users. etrieved September 18, 2011 from http://www.securingthehuman.org/newsletters/ouch/issues/OUCH-201109_en.pdf
The SpyEye Hacking Toolkit ingeniously is being promoted online as an Android application that will guard against exactly what it does, which is steal online logins and passwords. What makes this application so state-of-the-art and unique is that it uses an Android client application on smart phones and other devices running the operating system to transmit data to the command and control (C2) server. The hackers then have the ability to capture logins and passwords and without the user's knowledge, transmit them to the server completely independent of any action taken by the user (Keizer, 2011). While this threat is most predominant in Europe and Australia, the potential exists for it to become global in scope within days due to the pervasive distribution of Android…
Keizer, G. (2011, September 13). SpyEye hacking kit adds Android infection to bag of tricks. Computerworld. Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9219963/SpyEye_hacking_kit_adds_Android_infection_to_bag_of_tricks
As it applies specifically to the ISO 9001:2008 which replaced the ISO9002: 1994, the ISO 9001 concerns itself with quality management. In fact it is a quality management system that establishes various requirements ("ISO 9001:2008"). In order to gain certification the organization must:
1. Demonstrate its capacity to consistently offer product that meets customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements ("ISO 9001:2008").
2. Plan to improve customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system ("ISO 9001:2008"). This plan will include procedures that enforce continual improvement of the system and the pledge of conformity to customer and proper statutory and regulatory requirements ("ISO 9001:2008").
It is also the case that all the provisions established by the ISO 9001:2008 are universal and intended to be pertinent to all organizations, despite their nature, size or product manufactured ("ISO 9001:2008"). Additionally
"Where any requirement(s) of ISO 9001:2008 cannot be applied due to…
Benner, M.J., F.M. Veloso. 2008. ISO 9000 practices and financial performance: A technology coherence perspective. Journal of Operations Management 26: 611 -- 629.
Corbett, C., Luca, A., Pan, J. (2003), "Global perspectives on global standards," ISO Management Systems, No.January-February, .
"ISO 9001:2008." http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=46486
This conclusion is based on the high degree of commonality of its components, the length of time it has been in the market and potential for very low TCO over the life of the laptop,
Venkatesha Babu. (2007, April). "Lenovo Is At A Tipping Point." Business Today,96. etrieved April 10, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1267755651).
Britt, P. (2009, April). Securing the Mobile Landscape. Information Today, 26(4), 1-11. etrieved April 12, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.
Cisco Cheng. (2006, August). Ultraportable Notebooks; Whether you're flying first-class around the country or backpacking through rush hour, you want a laptop that's petite and portable, yet powerful and feature-rich. PC Magazine, 25(13), Fl05. etrieved April 10, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1105509881).
Steven Cherry. (2008). Wi-Fi Takes On Bluetooth. IEEE Spectrum, 45(8), 14. etrieved April 11, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1537186951).
Venkatesha Babu. (2007, April). "Lenovo Is At A Tipping Point." Business Today,96. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1267755651).
Britt, P. (2009, April). Securing the Mobile Landscape. Information Today, 26(4), 1-11. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Business Source Premier database.
Cisco Cheng. (2006, August). Ultraportable Notebooks; Whether you're flying first-class around the country or backpacking through rush hour, you want a laptop that's petite and portable, yet powerful and feature-rich. PC Magazine, 25(13), Fl05. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1105509881).
Steven Cherry. (2008). Wi-Fi Takes On Bluetooth. IEEE Spectrum, 45(8), 14. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1537186951).
Collecting fingerprints of every foreign visitor is time consuming and difficult, and it cannot keep every terrorist or criminal out of America, they will simply enter through another location. It is creating a loss of tourism and tourism revenue at a time when the dollar is low and more foreign visitors should be enjoying the U.S.
Checking the fingerprints of every foreign visitor who arrives at a U.S. port of entry is time consuming, it can be very embarrassing for foreign visitors, and it casts America in a bad light. It targets foreign visitors, but does not target American citizens, who can also be criminals or terrorists. It violates human rights, as well, because everyone has a right to privacy and to maintaining their dignity.
Many tourists say they will no longer visit the United States as a result of this practice, and it makes Americans seem paranoid and over-protective.…
Press Secretary. (2007). DHS begins collecting 10 fingerprints from international visitors at Washington Dulles International Airport. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 from the Department of Homeland Security Web site: http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/pr_1197300742984.shtm
Yee, a. (2005). U.S. tourism 'Losing billions because of image.' Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 from the Common Dreams.org Web site: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0509-06.htm
E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)
E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them…
Basu, A. And Muylle, S. (2007). How to Plan E-Business Initiatives in Established Companies. MIT Sloan Management Review.49 pp.27-36 Retrieved from: http://www.business.ulst.ac.uk/intlbusiness/courses/bmg814m1/BasuEBusiness.pdf [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Beal, V. (2010). 4 E-commerce Regulations Need to Know. E-Commerce Guide. Retrieved from http://www.e-commerce-guide.com/solutions/building/article.php/3910211/4-E-commerce-Regulations-to-Need-to-Know.htm [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Coburn, R. (2012). The Essential Elements of Computer Network Security. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Essential-Elements-of-Computer-Network-Security&id=7039466 [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
FBI (2011). Internet Social Networking Risks. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/counterintelligence/internet-social-networking-risks [Accessed: 5 Jun 2013].
Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120203519.html
These certificates are issued by the certification authorities (CAs) and they contain the name, expiration dates as well as serial numbers of the certificates.
Operating system hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest Operating system patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Application hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest application patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Transmission / emote access protection protocols
The transmission protocols that are necessary for the information assurance include the used of https as well as FTP. Https…
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…
Krull, a.R. (1995). Controls in the next millennium: Anticipating the it-enabled future. Computers & Security, 14(6), 491-491.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to security: Operations and management. (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
SP's Special. (2012, India's slybird MAV maturing fast. SP's Aviation,
Sproule, C.M. (2002). The effect of the U.S.A. patriot act on workplace privacy. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 65-73.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the network security measures that are available. The research found that the proper configuration provides the first line of defense as it relates to securing a network.
In addition, firewalls serve an essential role in securing networks against outside intrusions. The research also indicates that anti-virus software, encryption software and biometrics allow organizations to secure networks in a more comprehensive manner. There are also specific strategies and technologies that should be considered if an organization chooses to use a wireless network.
Davis J.P.(2006) Telecommute Safely: Use Internet Technology to Keep Cost Down. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Journal of Accountancy. Volume: 202. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 39+.
Hoover M. (2005) Network Security: The New Perimeter; Security Threats Can No Longer Be Contained in the DMZ. How Do You Protect Every esource, and Every User's Traffic, No Matter…
Davis J.P.(2006) Telecommute Safely: Use Internet Technology to Keep Cost Down. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Journal of Accountancy. Volume: 202. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 39+.
Hoover M. (2005) Network Security: The New Perimeter; Security Threats Can No Longer Be Contained in the DMZ. How Do You Protect Every Resource, and Every User's Traffic, No Matter Where it's Coming From?. Business Communications Review. Volume: 35(7). Page Number: 40+.
Intel Glossary. Retrieved November 7, 2007 at http://www.intel.com/products/glossary/body.htm
Karygiannis T. & Owens L., 2002. Wireless Network security. National Institute of Standards in technology. Retrieved November 7, 2007 at http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-48/NIST_SP_800-48.pdf
On one hand, this may alter the consumers' trust in the company's products which are perceived as intangible compared with those goods that can be purchased from the shelves of specialized stores. On the other hand, resorting to intermediaries implies paying a certain commission which results in higher prices for the respective products. Moreover, the success of selling through indirect channels depends, to a great extent, on the distributors' efforts and knowledge. Although they receive tuition from the producer's technical staff, there may be several interests leading to a prominent discordance between the distributors' behavior and the company's expectations towards it.
Threats primary problem that ADEL could encounter is the Australians' lack of information on biometrics secondly, Australians have a favorable attitude towards traditional security methods based on patrolmen or alarm systems the Australians' misconception about prices (most of them think that the price of an effective security system exceeds…
Brown, C., 2000. Australians' attitude to security, [Online], Available:
http://www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx [2007, January 24].
Brabender, T., 2004. I Can't Afford a Publicity/Public Relations Campaign - Can I? [Online], Available:
http://www.mplans.com/dpm/article.cfm/135 [2007, January 24].
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…
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Arend, M. (1992). Check Imaging: Banks Are Getting the Picture. ABA Banking Journal, 84(5), 44.
Bar Coding Basics. (2005). System ID Warehouse Bar Code Learning Center. Available: http://www.systemid.com/education/index.asp.
Bildirici, I.O. (2004). Building and Road Generalization with the CHANGE Generalization Software Using Turkish Topographic Base Map Data. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 31(1), 43.
Bowman, G.W., Hakim, S., & Seidenstat. (Eds). (1996). Privatizing transportation systems. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Subtopic 6: Job management and protection; include a serious discussion of security aspects
The most commonly leveled criticism of operating systems is the inherent lack of security they have (Funell, 2010). Defining operating systems to have partitioned memory is just the start, as Microsoft learned with their Windows NT platform. Dedicated memory partitions by user account can be hacked and have been (Funell, 2010). The need for greater levels of user authentication is required, including the use of biometrics for advanced systems that have highly confidential data within them. The reliance on security-based algorithms that also seek to analyze patterns of use to anticipate security threats are increasingly in use today (Volkel, Haller, 2009). This aspect of an operating system can capture the levels of activity and the patterns they exhibit, which can provide insights into when a threat is present or not. The use of predictive security technologies, in…
Boudreau, K.. (2010). Open Platform Strategies and Innovation: Granting Access vs. Devolving Control. Management Science, 56(10), 1849-1872.
Jason Dedrick, & Kenneth L. Kraemer. (2005). The Impacts of it on Firm and Industry Structure: The Personal Computer Industry. California Management Review, 47(3), 122-142.
Furnell, S.. (2010). Usability vs. complexity - striking the balance in end-user security. Network Security, 2010(12), 13-17.
Larus, J.. (2009). Spending Moore's Dividend. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 52(5), 62.
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…
AL-KAYALI a. (2004) Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Smart Cards GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC). Retrieved October 8 at http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/vpns/1378.php
ECC. Retrieved October 8 at http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/EllipticCurveCryptography.html
Frauenfelder M. (2005) Make: Technology on Your Time. Oreily Misra, S.K., Javalgi, R. (., & Scherer, R.F. (2004). Global Electronic Money and Related Issues. Review of Business, 25(2), 15+.
Mitrou N. (2004) Networking 2004: Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols. Springer Murphy S., Piper F. (2002) Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England.
An Eigenface representation (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) created using primary "components" (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) of the covariance matrix of a training set of facial images (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005). his method converts the facial data into eigenvectors projected into Eigenspace (a subspace), (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) allowing copious "data compression because surprisingly few Eigenvector terms are needed to give a fair likeness of most faces. he method of catches the imagination because the vectors form images that look like strange, bland human faces. he projections into Eigenspace are compared and the nearest neighbors are assumed to be matches." (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005)
he differences in the algorithms are reflective in the output of the resulting match or non-match of real facial features against the biometric database or artificial intelligence generated via algorithm. he variances generated by either the Eigenspace or the PCA will vary according to the…
Thus, finding a principal subspace where the data exist reduces the noise. Besides, when the number of parameters is larger, as compared to the number of data pints, the estimation of those parameters becomes very difficult and often leads to over-learning. Over learning ICA typically produces estimates of the independent components that have a single spike or bump and are practically zero everywhere else
. This is because in the space of source signals of unit variance, nongaussianity is more or less maximized by such spike/bump signals." (Acharya, Panda, 2008)
The use of differing algorithms can provide
The self-encrypting hard drives technology enables the automatic encryption of every data written to the disk while restricting access to people without the correct password immediately the computer starts up. Furthermore, since the encryption is built in to the hard drive, it automatically encrypts and decrypts with no performance delay.
Pros and Cons of Using Security Technologies:
The use of these emerging technologies in protecting information and sensitive data within an organization has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the major advantages of these technologies they help in protecting an organization in addition to being an important element of the general security puzzle. Secondly, along with others, the three emerging technologies make the jobs of employees and administrators easier since they don't have to spend a lot of time trying to figure how to protect information and sensitive data.
The major disadvantages of using these technologies is that they don't…
Greengard, S. (n.d.). 5 Emerging Security Technologies to Watch. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.microsoft.com/midsizebusiness/security/technologies.mspx
"Protect Sensitive Computer Files With New Security Technology." (2009, May 25). Jakarta
Globe: Great Stories, Global News. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/lifeandtimes/protect-sensitive-computer-files-with-new-security-technology/277082
It also has only printable characters
The character is unsuitable since it contains more than 8 characters. It can be guessed by dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is unsuitable since it has more than 8 characters. Can be guessed by a dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is suitable since the character length does not exceed eight characters and it contains printable characters
The password is too obvious so it is unsuitable
The password is suitable since it does not contain more than 8 characters. It also contains printable characters.
95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95 + 6.4 million
DAC is used to define the basic access control policies to various objects. These are set according to the needs of the object owners. The MAC are access control policies that are system-controlled. The…
Welcome to the 21st Century, my friends. This is your century of reward and your day of awards. The Eagle Award, established in 2001, is organized and sponsored by Transcoast London Ltd. It aims to create, or rather -- to recognize -- the astounding role models and leaders like yourselves. As leaders you are important, for others may feel inspired by your achievements. The word "inspired" is an important one, because it is further defined as "in-spirited." What controls our lives are the meanings we associate with things in our lives, which are shaped by our own personal psychology, our world view, and the beliefs and values that we have created. You, as role models and leaders, have a unique spirit in you, and "inspiring" spirit, and that what makes you leaders is that this spirit touches others and gives that spirit to them. You have added…
Counterterrorism Training Program
Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.
Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…
Alibek, K., and S. Handelman. (1999). Biohazard. New York: Random House.
Almog, D. (2004) Cumulative Deterrence and the War on Terrorism. Parameters, 34(4), p. 4+.
Block, S.M. (2001, January) The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 889(1), p. 28.
Bush, G.W. (2003, February) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (Washington: The White House, February 2003), p. 15,
As one would expect, the police are aggressive, noticeable and thespian. It is easy for them to happen to be the objects and representatives of order, jeopardy, and inscrutability. They not only mark the boundaries of an urbane organization and regulation but also are the boundary markers themselves. They have vast authority over the legal resources including lethal and nonlethal weapons, specialized vehicles, adequate personnel etc. (Manning, 2008). In American society, the most significant revolution taking place in policing today is possibly associated with information technology. A majority of the police agencies are using the Internet to transmit information to the public. They are also making use of cell phones to be in touch with others while in the field. Moreover, mobile computers are also being used in order to retrieve information straight away. Nevertheless, it is crystal clear that this is just the beginning. The information technology…
Grant, H.B., & Terry, K.J. (2008). Law Enforcement in the 21st Century. (2 ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Print.
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Johnson, C.P. (2000). Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.cdac.in/html/pdf/geom4.pdf
Manning, P.K. (2008). The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved May 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=118077707
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
attended a lecture on wireless LAN security that outlined security threats and discussed measures a company needs to take to mitigate risks. The presentation focused on the IEEE 802.11b standard for port-based network access control that provides authenticated and somewhat encrypted network access to 802.11 wireless networks. The findings of the lecture indicated that this standard is still too immature to adequately secure wireless networks.
IEEE 802.11b deploys Wireless Equivalent Privacy for encrypting wireless traffic, which is basically insecure with its current implementation of static keys. A firmware upgrade known as Temporary Key Integrity Protocol has been introduced to offer better encryption by using fast-packet rekeying to change encryption keys frequently. However, security may still be compromised even though it may be harder to do so since there is less traffic with identical keys. The 802.11b standard requires the use of the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service server for authentication…
Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures
ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…
Kizza, J.M. (2015). Guide to Computer Network Security. Springer.
Krogh, P. (2009). The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, 2nd Edition, p. 207. O'Reilly Media.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
The Cincom CRM system also has areas where the sales teams can also enter in total contract value and the total budget for a given initiative as well. Both internally gained financial information from within the customer and the reported financial results, more easily obtained if the customer is publicly held, go into deciding which customers are the most worth investing in over time. There are also analyses completed of the churn characteristics of certain customers. These profiles of high probability churn clients are used for narrowing down the customers who are going to be invested in for the long-term as well. The company also looks at the average lifecycles of the customers' enterprise systems, creating an index of opportunity by system type over the life of a customer relationship. All of these factors are used for rank-ordering new prospect sales and for defining where up-sell and new contract renewals…
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
This source is relevant to the project because of the implications of IT development and civil rights, most notably, the Fourth Amendment protections against unwarranted search and seizure.
Burnett, E. "Crime Analysis Reporting and Mapping for Small Agencies: A
Low-Cost and Simplified Approach." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Vol. 76, No.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional law enforcement journal published by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). This article details the manner in which evolving IT technology and IT systems have generated new crime-mapping systems such as the first such system pioneered in New York City by Howard Safir in 2000 during his tenure as New York City Police (NYP) Commissioner. Since the introduction of this method of tracking crime statistics by neighborhood and police precinct or service area, other police agencies have implemented similar systems with equally promising results. The article explains how…
Dornan, A. "Biometrics Becomes a Commodity." IT Architect Vol. 21, No. 2.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional IT technology journal. The article outlines the growing use of biometric technology and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in business applications. Specifically, it details the extent to which large wholesale organizations such as Walmart and Target have already incorporated biometric systems into their supply chain management functions. Small computer chips attached
Design citeia exist at the levels of the technical, system integation aspects of the database to othe systems though XML. This integation is citically impotant to ensue that the applications ceated can be effectively used ove time and not have any scalability issues. Thee is also the need fo designing the databases at the pesentation laye to povide fo scalability and flexibility of being able to ceate applications elatively quickly at the potal level. This is especially impotant fom a Business Pocess Management (BPM) standpoint as databases must be able to suppot the vaious pocess wokflows as defined as pat of business pocess e-engineeing effots ove time. Thee is also the need fom a design standpoint to have a continued development initiative going to captue use needs ove time and include them into the next geneation of database updates. The use of councils to ceate update plans and define the…
references and real-time workload in information services. Information Systems Research, 11(2), 177-196.
Pangalos, George (1994). A tutorial on secure database systems. Information and Software Technology, 36(12), 717.
Gerald Post & Albert Kagan (2001). Database management systems: Design considerations and attribute facilities. The Journal of Systems and Software, 56(2), 183-193.
Ji Ma, Mehmet A Orgun. (2008). Formalising theories of trust for authentication protocols. Information Systems Frontiers, 10(1), 19-32.
Reagan, J., & Rowlands, I.. (2007, January). Key Technologies Enabling a Seismic Shift in Enterprise Data Management. Business Intelligence Journal, 12(1), 17-25.
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
They also found that there has been no adequate study on the effects of ageing and facial recognition. Despite these concerns, the report did acknowledge that biometric facial scanning was suitable for use when verifying photo documents, given that the preconditions, such as controlled ambient lighting, are met (cf. An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I, 2004).
III. Viability for Use in Large-Scale Venues
The success of facial recognition technology for wide-scale security augmentation is hindered by the inherent limitations of current technology, as well as environmental and physiological factors. Given that venues for major sporting events traditionally have security measures already in place, such as video surveillance and gated access, facial recognition technology might be useful in augmenting other, more traditional forms of security. For facial recognition to be successfully implemented, it is necessary to…
An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I. (2004). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.bsi.de/english/publications/studies/BioPfinalreport.pdf.
John D. Woodward, J., Horn, C., Gatune, J., & Thomas, a. (2003). Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition. Arlington, VA: RAND.
Summary of NIST Standards for Biometric Accuracy, Tamper Resistance, and Interoperability. (2002). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.itl.nist.gov/iad/894.03/NISTAPP_Nov02.pdf.
Picard: Like this hearing.
With this acknowledged, Maddox admits Data is intelligent, but lacks self-awareness and consciousness.
Picard: What about self-awareness? What does that mean? Why am I self-aware?
Maddox: Because you are conscious of your existence and actions. You are aware of your own self and your own ego.
Picard: Commander Data. What are you doing now?
Data: I am taking part in a legal hearing to determine my rights and status. Am I a person or am I property?
Picard: And what is at stake?
Data: My right to choose, perhaps my very life.
Really, then, we see that if Data has information about his own beliefs and can extrapolate those consequences, he must then be self-aware and therefore, closer to being human.
Picard: Now tell me Commander [Maddox], what is Data?
Maddox: I don't understand.
Picard: What is he?
Maddox: A machine.
Picard: Are you…
Star Trek: The Next Generation. "Measure of a Man."
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PM1DidyG-I
Capek, K.R.U.R. Retrieved from:
Retrieved from: Http://wbooks.adelaide.edu.au/c/capek/karel/rur/
Online banking, the ability to conduct banking transactions on the Web, is revolutionizing the way that consumers bank. ehind this transformation is information technology. With its use, banks have been able to scale and secure transactions, provide the same and often more functionality than brick-and-mortar banks and evolve from mass marketing to one-to-one marketing.
The popularity of online banking is soaring with more than fifty million adults banking online in the United States as of November, 2004, an increase of forty-seven percent during the past two years (Sullivan, 2005). It is the fastest-growing Internet activity. Home broadband connections are credited with driving consumer adoption. Those with broadband access are about twice as likely to have tried online banking as users with dial-up connections because broadband encourages users to do more activities online. Demographic characteristics of those more likely to have broadband access include consumers between the ages of…
Fields, J.(2001, September). CRM and financial Services: like money in the bank. CRM Magazine. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.destinationcrm.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=1043
Hoffman, K.E.(2003, March/April). Beyond the firewalls. BAI Banking Strategies. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.bai.org/bankingstrategies/2003-mar-apr/beyond/print.asp
Katz, I. (2005, February 5). Online banking victim files suit; $90,000 lifted from account traced to Latvia. Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/local/southflorida/sfl-zlopez05feb05,0,7861225.story?coll=sfla-home-headlines
Miranda, A.L. (2002, June 21). Information technology in financial services. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inimr-ri.nsf/fr/gr111851f.html
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).
Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.
elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.
A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…
Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.
Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.
Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
However, cursory studies that have been conducted are either biased because they seem to present a biased review of certain products or are insufficient because of their limitations and shallowness. Those studies that have been considered to be useful are mentioned below.
Robert D. oerner, Joanne ourquard, Pam Greenberg (2000) comprehensively elaborates the legal aspect of spam. He provides an in-depth review of the present laws in actions and the future of legislation against spam. He concludes his study by revealing, "Most of the laws target spammers who misrepresent, falsify or forge the point of origin or the routing information of messages. Several states also prohibit the sale or distribution of software that is primarily designed for this type of falsification (Robert D. oerner, Joanne ourquard, Pam Greenberg, 2000)." Also, "Most states have specified that the laws apply only to spam that is sent to or generated from locations within…
Andy Dornan. Lesson 188: Bayesian Spam Filtering. Network Magazine; 3/1/2004.
Celia Wren. Spam Wars: Battling the Relentless Web Tide. Commonweal, Vol. 130, February 14, 2003
Eric Krapf. Do Not Spam. Business Communications Review, Vol. 33, October 2003
Fred S. Knight. Spam-Help Is on the Way. Business Communications Review, Vol. 34, May 2004
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
ENTEPISE INFOMATION SYSTEMS ON AN OGANIZATION'S PEFOMANCE?
What is the effect of enterprise information systems on an organization's performance?
There is need for any organization operating in today's rapidly changing and competitive business environment to be dynamic and flexible in its daily operations Hevner, March, Park, & am, 2004.
Using enterprise information systems, an organization is able to improve its business efficiency and reduce costs. Embracing information technology will allow an organization to succeed in the rapidly changing business world. Information technology has made it possible for organizations to develop information systems that allow for effective communication, support decision making, and provide mutual understanding amongst the staff members.
Modern business comprises of complex multicomponent systems, the primary component being information technology. Each business has its own unique financial and economic activities, but there are problems which would face all business. Some of the problems include marketing, financial resources,…
Breath, C.M., & Ives, B. (1986). Competitive Information Systems in Support of Pricing. MIS Quarterly, 10(1), 85-96.
Chen, M. (1995). A Model-Driven Approach to Accessing Managerial Information: The Development of a Repository-Based Executive Information System. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(4), 33-63.
Creswell, J.W. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, CA 91320: SAGE Publications.
Hakim, C. (2000). Research Design. 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, Kentucky: Taylor & Francis.
This 1996 Act was part of a Civil ights concern that as information became more electronically disseminated, it would lead to misuse of that information (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Certainly, one of the benefits of electronic information is that on one hand it is available to a larger number of people, but it is also verifiable on who views that information at what time. This protection, though, is part of the ethics of individual rights. It has, however, affected scholarly research and the ability to perform retrospective, chart-based research and evaluations. One study, in fact, said that HIPAA managed rules led to a 73% decrease in patient accrual, triple the time recruiting patients, and tripling (at least) of mean recruiting costs (Wold and Bennett, 2005). However, despite the few incidents in which the regulation of this information is detrimental, most civil rights advocates praise the legislation…
Study: Patients Believe EMR's Bring Accuracy to Their Records. (April 21, 2011). Healthcare it News. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/study-patients-believe-emrs-bring-accuracy-their-records
Telehealth. (2012). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.hrsa.gov/ruralhealth/about/telehealth/
Ten Steps to a Successful EMR Transition. (2012). Ames. Retrieved from: http://www.ameshealthrecords.com
Aeritae Consulting Group (2010). Service Asset and Configuration Management. Retrieved from: http://aeritae.com/our-services/service-management/itsm-service-transition / configurationmanagement/
"As a manager, how would you plan on securing organizational data? How does security effectiveness and relative cost figure into those plans?"
The more critical aspect of any enterprise-wide security management strategy is to align system resources to the strategic initiatives and goals of an organization. Increasingly this is being accomplished through the use of role-based access and authentication privileges and process workflows that audit and evaluate use of sensitive information (Shih, Wen, 2005). The role of enterprise security management drastically changes however when ubiquitous Web Services are used for capturing, aggregating, analyzing and effectively using confidential data to make financial decisions (Phifer, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how intrusion and intrusion detection systems can be used in the 21st century, state-of-the-art IT systems that are to a large extent Cloud-based and often have remote access points that make them particularly vulnerable (Phifer, 2011).…
Microsoft TechNet. (2011). Enterprise security best practices. Microsoft. Retrieved from http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd277328.aspx
Thibodeau, P. (2011, July 18). U.S. government CIO warns of IT vendor cartel. Computerworld. Retrieved from http://www.computerworlduk.com/news/public-sector/3291866/us-government-cio-warns-of-it-vendor-cartel/
Phifer, L. (2011, July 11). 5 best practices for securing remote access. E-security Planet. Retrieved from http://www.esecurityplanet.com/views/article.php/3937121/5-Best-Practices-for-Securing-Remote-Access.htm
Shih, S.C., & Wen, H.J. (2005). E-enterprise security management life cycle. Information Management & Computer Security, 13(2), 121-134.
This can be defined at the system level of the consultancy's network architecture. Finally the firewall of the systems will be defined also through the definition of system parameters throughout the network operating system running the entire firm (Malecki, 2012). There will be little resistance to change for each of these implementations as they are designed to protect and streamline the work being completed in the firm. There will also be a clearer sense of accountability over data security once the Practice Leaders and senior consultants realize that if they accidentally lose their iPhone, iPad or laptop all data will be erased immediately, which forces them to be more vigilant how they uses these systems and also how they are backed up.
Impact of the egulatory Environment
As the proposed research and advisory firm is a private corporation, it does not need to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act as…
Cox, J. (2009). iPhone winning over it security skeptics. Network World, 26(34), 1-1,12.
Hamblen, M. (2012). iPhone 5: Pros and cons in the enterprise. Computerworld, 46(17), 6-6.
Henry, E., Lin, S., & Ya-wen Yang. (2009). The European-U.S. "GAAP gap": IFRS to U.S. GAAP form 20-F reconciliations. Accounting Horizons, 23(2), 121-150.
Malecki, F. (2012). Next-generation firewalls: Security with performance. Network Security, 2012(12), 19-20.
Protection of Digital Health Information
With increase health information technology store access patient information, likelihood security breaches risen. In fact, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ): In United States, a whopping 97% increase number health records breached 2010-2011
Ensuring that patient information is protected at all times is vital for any health care institution. Patient information records contain sensitive information that can be used for malicious purposes like identity theft, credit card fraud, and leaking of information for malicious intent. The advancement and use of technology has made it easier for patient information to be accessed within the health care facility Shoniregun, Dube, & Mtenzi, 2010.
This increases the speed of service delivery to the patient and improves the care given to the patient. Technology has allowed for the use of portable electronic devices by the healthcare practitioners in entering and accessing patient records and information. Portable electronic devices are small…
Green, M.A., & Bowie, M.J. (2005). ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH INFORMATION Management: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES: Principles and Practices. Independence, KY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Harman, L.B., & Association, A.H.I.M. (2006). Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Laurinda B. Harman, C.A.F., and Kesa Bond. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 14(9), 712-719.
Shoniregun, C.A., Dube, K., & Mtenzi, F. (2010). Electronic Healthcare Information Security. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.
USAA Online Banking Analysis:
Assessment of Positive & negative Impacts & ecommendations
The USAA online banking system has been specifically designed to provide the financial institution's customers with reliable, secure and virtual access to their accounts and supporting banking transactions globally. Through the use of any Internet browser, USAA banking customers can quickly sign in, access and view account information, transfer funds, and set up and use automated payments for their personal and business-related bills. There are also a series of preferences which can be configured by customers to further tailor their online bank accounts to their specific needs. This is particularly useful for creating automated bill payment alerts and transactions to make sure bills are paid on or before the due date, new loan or savings accounts are securely created and managed, and enabling cash transfers to USAA and other financial institutions' accounts. One of the most…
Chong, A.Y., Keng-Boon Ooi, Lin, B., & Tan, B. (2010). Online banking adoption: An empirical analysis. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28(4), 267-287.
Claessens, J., Dem, V., De Cock, D., Preneel, B., & Vandewalle, J. (2002). On the security of Today's online electronic banking systems. Computers & Security, 21(3), 253-265.
Lim, N., Yeow, P.H.P., & Yuen, Y.Y. (2010). An online banking security framework and a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 13(3), 39-62.
Mavri, M., & Ioannou, G. (2006). Consumers' perspectives on online banking services. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(6), 552.
esearch shows that Social media is playing a huge part when it comes to the health care industry. One study done by DC and Interactive Group shows that beyond 90% of individuals from the ages 18-24 mentioned they would rely on health data discovered on social media channels. The study showed that one in two adults utilize their smart phone to find health information. Even patients are going to the internet to converse about the care they are getting: 50% of individuals mentioned they would share negative or positive situations of a medical facility or hospital, and 52% made the point they would not waver to post comments about a nurse, doctor, or healthcare supplier on social media (iberio, 2013).
Monitoring Patient Vital Signs via Mobile Computing vs. In-Patient Visits
The Internet is exceptional for the reason that it provides the chance to the public and healthcare professionals…
Freeman, K. (2012, May 23). How Social Media, Mobile Are Playing a Bigger Part in Healthcare. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2012/12/18/social-media-mobile-healthcare/
Riberio, A.M. (2013, August 7). Wireless Monitoring of Patients Vital Signs. Retrieved from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/31522/InTech Wireless_monitoring_of_patient_s_vital_signs.pdf
VanVactor, J.D. (2011). Strategic health care logistics planning in emergency management. Disaster Prevention and Management,, 21(3), 299-309.
The Joint Commission outlines Patient Safety Goals for a number of different areas of health care service. One of those areas is behavioral health. The 2012 National Patient Safety Goals include the accurate identification of clients using name and date of birth. This is suggested "to make sure that each client gets the correct medicine and treatment," (NPSG.01.01.01). This Patient Safety Goal is important for increasing patient safety and outcomes. A mistaken identity can mean giving the wrong treatment at the wrong time to the wrong patient, which could be disastrous or deadly. Similarly, misidentification can lead to medication errors that can also be deadly. This Patient Safety Goal is important from an administrative standpoint, because it suggests that nurse practitioner and all healthcare workers be aware of intake procedures.
In addition to NPSG 01.01.01, the Joint Commission Patient Safety Goals for Behavioral Health includes the use of medicines…
Behavioral Health Care National Patient Safety Goals: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/2012_NPSG_BHC.pdf
Miller, R.H. & Sim, I. (2004). Physicians' use of electronic medical records: Barriers and solutions. Health Affairs 23(2): 116-126.
Steward, M. (2005). Electronic medical records. Journal of Legal Medicine 26(4): 491-506.
Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement
Police methods have changed dramatically around the world in recent years due to the advent of geo-positioning and improved computer-aided mapping techniques. As has happened throughout the history of policing, law enforcement officials have always tried to use new scientific research to their benefit. Since the object is the safety and comfort of local citizens, a major aspect of the mission for police departments is to always use the most up-to-date methods for the detection and apprehension of criminals. With the advent of computer-aided geographic information systems (GIS), police now have the ability to approach crime in an entirely new way.
According to ich and Shively (2004) "geographical profiling was "born" in 1980 when a UK police investigator analyzed the locations of crime scenes of the Yorkshire ipper and computed the "center of gravity" of the crime scenes…." This beginning…
Alexander, M., Groff, E., & Hibdon, L. (1997). An Automated System for the Identification and Prioritization of Rape Suspects Proceedings of the Environmental Systems Research Institute International User Conference. Retrieved from http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap333/p333.htm
Canter, P. (1990). Using a Geographic Information System for Tactical Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.uml.edu/apattavina/44.594/Tactical%20Crime%20Analysis.pdf
Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Wiles, P. (2000). A comparative evaluation of approaches to urban crime pattern analysis. Urban Studies, 37(4), 711-729.
ESRI. (2008). GIS Solutions for Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/crime-analysis.pdf
The relevance of physical security cannot be overstated when it comes to the prevention or minimization of instances of unauthorized access, loss, or even theft. In this text, I concern myself with physical security and the relevance of several of its components. The components I will address in this discussion are building security, grounds security, access control systems, perimeter security, and information systems and technology security.
Physical Security: Brief Overview
In the assessment of security vulnerabilities, physical security is generally regarded a critical issue. This is particularly the case given that it is the said physical security that presents the most serious obstacle to an attacker seeking to execute a break-in. In that regard therefore, the various components of physical security, some of which are discussed in significant detail in this text, should seek to secure people and organizational assets from intruders. For this reason, physical security could…
Dempsey, J.S. (2010). Introduction to Private Security (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fennelly, L.J. (2012). Effective Physical Security (4th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith, C. & Brooks, D.J. (2012). Security Science: The Theory and Practice of Security. Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
security crisis that is plaguing e-commerce as it transforms into the epitome of global business. It attempts to analyze the possible repercussions of this problem and then put forward various possible solutions to rectify the biggest obstacle limiting the path of e-commerce progress. The ideas and references used in this proposal have been cited from five different sources.
E-commerce has changed the way the world do business, plain and simple. It has single-handedly brought more people, countries, enterprises and governments together to the same world market than all other forms of conducting methods, combined. This name, given to the electronic method of executing business, has made the task of buying every available merchandise exponentially easier and has therefore made all the more products accessible to the general population as well as businesses and industries. The boom in online trade is gaining alacrity and is destined to become the method of…
1) Ghosh, AK, 1st edition - January 21, 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, John Wiley & Sons.
2) Raisinghani, M, (editor), January 7, 2002, Cases on Worldwide E-Commerce: Theory in Action (Cases on Information Technology Series, Vol 4, Part 3), Idea Group Publishing
3) Hills, R, 23 April 2003, Key risks to e-commerce security, "My IT Adviser," Retreived on 20th February, 2004, from: