Black Death Essays (Examples)

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Black Plague in 1347 A D

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27384825

As a result of the death in the church, written language suffered greatly. Carvings, previously mostly of religious scenes or icons, began to reflect the death of the time. Coffin lids were carved with representations of the deceased within. Sculptures reflected the rotting disease, and the consumption of the dead by insects. Paintings reflected the death through depictions of people socializing with skeletons. Previous to the plague, art was upbeat and religious, but following the massive death, most artists lost interest in religious icons, and began to explore the macabre and darker subjects. Music, previously happy and joyous, took on darker undertones with the use of minor chords and haunting instruments (Courie, 134).

There can be no question that the Black Death, or the plague, was a devastating disease that halted progress and took the lives of millions of individuals in the mid-1300's. However, the plague had a far more…… [Read More]


Cartwright, Frederick F. Disease and History. New York: Dorset Press, 1991.

Courie, Leonard W. The Black Death and Peasant's Revolt. New York: Wayland Publishers, 1972.

Getz, Faye M. "Black Death and the Silver Lining." Journal of the History of Biology 24.2 (1998): 265-289.

Gottfried, Robert S. The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster. New York: Simon and Schuester, 1985.
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Death Penalty as Justified Murder

Words: 2596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70372808

However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).

In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…… [Read More]


Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008.

Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009. / FactSheet.pdf  (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)
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What Black Lives Matter Means

Words: 2837 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74382974

Black Lives Matter is a social movement facilitated by social media, which critiques multiple forms of injustice and disparity. The movement can be viewed as the latest in a string of attempts to achieve racial parity and universal civil rights in the United States, but has been more narrowly defined by the movement's concern with race-based police brutality and racialized violence. Beneath this oversimplification of the Black Lives Matter movement is its core commitment to creating a more just society. Black Lives Matter is not just about race-based police brutality. Police brutality and racial discrimination in criminal justice is one of the many facets of Black Lives Matter.

From a sociological perspective, Black Lives Matter encapsulates the core tenets of conflict theory, because the movement highlights the intersectionality between race, class, gender, and power. The Black Lives Matter movement can also be understood within a postmodern framework and within a…… [Read More]


Barnard, A.V. (2015). Keep it contentious. Berkeley Journal of Sociology. 18 Aug, 2015. Retrieved online:

Blauner, B. (1989). Black Lives, White Lives. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Chatelain, M. & Asoka, K. (2015). Women and black lives matter. Dissent 63(3): 54-61.

Garcia, J.J. & Sharif, M.Z. (2015). Black lives matter: A commentary on racism and public health. American Journal of Public Health 105(8): e27-e30.
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Black Films as a Reflection

Words: 4019 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90025348


The Aftermath

Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.

Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…… [Read More]

Reference List

Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights

Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.

King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,

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Black Slaveowners Agriculture and Even

Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97033780

.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)

Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.

The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…… [Read More]


Eltis, D. (1999). 1 Slavery and Freedom in the Early Modern World. In Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor, Engerman, S.L. (Ed.) (pp. 25-49). Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Engerman, S.L. (Ed.). (1999). Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Evans, P. (2003, September/October). The Known World. Book, 87+. Retrieved November 8, 2004, from Questia database,
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Blacks in Florida

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61645206

Blacks in Florida

The history of slavery that has haunted the African-Americans for centuries has allowed the society to forget the heritage of their culture. The shame and considerable violence that surrounds their slave pasts overwhelms people so that they are apt to forget that these peoples had a history before they came or were brought to the 'western' world. Most historians and academics follow the impact of the African-American culture on the U.S. lands and people, much like the influence of the African-Americans on Spanish Colonial Florida as presented by Jane Landers in her article, "Traditions of African-American Freedom and Community in Spanish Colonial Florida" and Hall's "African eligious etentions in Florida" through the basis of slaves being seen as mere 'animals' that had to be civilized. What influence they are seen to have then is seen to emerge from their repressive slave pasts rather than from the time…… [Read More]

Robert Hall and Jane Landers are academics who have studied the influence of African-Americans of the Spanish Colonial region of Florida. Yet, they have narrowed down their study by viewing the heritage of the Africans Americans through the lenses of slavery. Most academics are unable to study the African-American past without bias not because they view the African-Americans as second class citizens but because they associate African-Americans with 'slavery' and cannot see beyond that label. While they realize that the African-Americans immigrated, or were forcefully brought from the regions of Africa to the Americas they are unable to separate the 'slaves' from the 'free' people.

Hall [1990] presents the influence of the African-Americans on Florida by studying the religious facets of the African culture; from the drum beats to black magic to the rich death and burial rites. Hall and Landers [1995] both suggest that the Florida region had been influenced by the African-American more than other states because they were to some extent allowed to retain their moral and religious personalities by the law and church. The slaves colonial Spanish area were till a greater part of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century allowed to continue their own cultural rituals and it was only after annexation of the Florida area to the American states that the slave rights began to be suppressed.

Yet, while both these writers contend that the African-Americans had their basis in Western Africa to some extent they fail to pursue the cultural base. They focus more on the influence of African-Americans on Florida through the kaleidoscope of slavery than actually tracing the origin of the culture from the Africa's. In
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Death in Venice in Thomas Mann's Novella

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50634292

Death in Venice

In Thomas Mann's novella Death in Venice, a writer goes to the title city in order to find inspiration and to ease his writer's block. During his time there, he discovers and then becomes obsessed with a young boy who he sees as incomparably beautiful. Instead of physically expressing his emotions for the boy, he forces the emotions to remain internal, something which eventually leads to his destruction. Although Gustov von Aschenbach, the protagonist of the novella, actually dies of cholera which is widespread in the area, it can be seen that it is actually the internal struggle to possess and also repulse the youth that is really the reason for his death. In this conflict, Gustov represents the perspective of duality theorized by Nietzsche wherein people possess antagonistic characteristics which force the individual to be constantly at war with him or herself. The gods of Greek…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mann, Thomas, Thomas S. Hansen, and Abby J. Hansen. Death in Venice. Boston: Lido Editions, 2012. Print.

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. The Birth of Tragedy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.
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Blackest Bird by Joel Rose

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41173477

Blackest Bird opens on July 26, 1841 at midnight. A man, somewhat reluctantly and with a twinge of guilt, dumps Mary's dead body into the Hudson River. The killer audibly cries out, teeming with guilt as he wonders what have I done? "Oh Mary!" (Rose 11). Therefore, the killer knows Mary, and was likely either in love with her or a close companion. He could even be her relative.

Detective Jacob Hays is sixty-nine years old and in no mood to retire. He has long served the city of New York, as high constable. Known as Old Hays, he is obsessed with crime, and especially solving them. The murder of the as-of-yet unknown Mary captures his attention. hen he realizes that the body belongs not just to any Mary, but to Mary Rogers, Old Hays knows he's got a huge story on his hands. Mary Rogers is the locally famous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

"Who Killed Mary Rogers?" Retrieved online:
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Death in Thomas and Dickinson in Many

Words: 2849 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25523205

Death in Thomas and Dickinson

In many ways, Dylan Thomas' "Do not go gentle into that good night" and Emily Dickinson's "Because I could not stop for death" are ideal texts to consider when attempting to examine human beings anxieties regarding death, dying, and the longing for permanence, because they make vastly different points in strikingly similar ways. That is to say, while they share some elements of form, style, and topic, the commentary they give on the topic could not be more different. As the title suggests, Thomas' poem is a vocal entreaty to struggle for every bit of life in the face of impermanence, while Dickinson's poem takes a positively lackadaisical approach to the concept of death, viewing it as a transition into immortality rather than a fall into obscurity and darkness. However, despite their nearly oppositional statements regarding death, one can actually view the two poems as…… [Read More]


Abbott, C.M. (2000). Dickinson's because I could not stop for death. The Explicator, 58(3), 140-

Brantley, R. (2007). Dickinson's signature conundrum. The Emily Dickinson Journal, 16(1), 27-


Cyr, M.D. (1998). Dylan thomas's "do not go gentle into that good night": Through "lapis lazuli"
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Death Penalty Is the One

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2312320

Our prejudiced minds and clouded vision make us believe that all black men are criminals resulting in a twisted criminal justice system. Thomas Sancton (1991) reveals, "...blacks and Hispanics are proportionally far more likely to be sent to death chambers than whites; that poor defendants are condemned more often than rich ones; that the existence of the death penalty, despite widespread beliefs to the contrary, in fact has no deterrent value. The execution in some states of minors and retarded inmates is profoundly shocking to many people in the U.S. And abroad, as is the multiplicity of judicial errors that have sent innocent people to execution chambers or long terms on death row."

Regardless of what people have to say about death penalty, researches and unbiased studies have shown that this form of punishment doesn't serve any good purpose. It exists because society refuses to operate with compassion but revels…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1) Richard a. Posner, Capital Crimes., the New Republic, 04-01-2002

2) Thomas Sancton/Paris With reporting by James Graff and Gareth Harding/Brussels, Barry Hillenbrand/Washington, Christine Whitehou, a Matter of Life or Death the McVeigh case shows how differently Europe and America view capital punishment., Time International, 05-21-2001, pp 28+.

4) Eric Pooley Reported by Sally B. Donnelly and J.F.O. Mcallister / Washington, Sylvester Monroe/Atmore, Andrea Sac, Nation/Crime and Punishment: Death or Life? Mcveigh Could Be the Best Argument for Executions, but His Case Highlights the Problems That Arise When Death Sentences Are Churned Out in Huge Numbers., Time, 06-16-1997, Pp 31+.

5) the cruel and ever more unusual punishment. Vol. 351, the Economist, 05-15-1999.
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Death Penalty Annotated Bibliography

Words: 3713 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44252530

Death Penalty+ Annotated Bibliography

It has been theorized and even proven that many laws that are in place in America are the product of JudeoChristian religious beliefs, practices and writings, that have over the years been toned down to better meet the needs and standards of the U.S. society. here is a clear sense that some penalties for breaking the law have little if any effect on crime committed in the future, i.e. act as deterrents to crime and penalties for crime range from paying small fines to capital punishment. Opponents of capital punishment have always claimed that it does not deter crime while proponents have claimed that it does. Opponents have also claimed that the death penalty is a violation of the 8th amendment, cruel and unusual punishment and that it does not belong in any civilized society. Proponents on the other hand state that it is important to…… [Read More]

Tonry's book is a detailed and comprehensive look at racial disparity in the U.S. legal system. The work is troubling but based on serious inquiry and serious thought. In the work he discusses how many experts have convened over the years to determine that there is no reason to believe that capital punishment is more of a deterrent to violent crime that life sentences and yet the U.S. government is still alone among all Western nations to retain its legality.

Zimring, F.E. (2003) The contradictions of American capital punishment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Zimring's book is a fascinating discussion about the history of capital punishment in the U.S. with comprehensive look at the ebb and flow of the laws that entrench it and the many theories and contradictions that are embedded in it. He is also very effective at providing a relatively balanced look at just why in a social, political and legal sense that capital punishment exists today and especially at the manner in which it is applied, including an extensive look at why the appeals process is so vast and strict. His thesis is basically that the process is so "moral" and "ethical" because it is the stop gap effort of the nation to come to terms with why the death penalty is still on the books at all.
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Death in Spanish Literature While

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7150930

In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.

In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Academy of American Poets" 1997-2007.

Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.

Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.

Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. .
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Black Experience in American Culture This Is

Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17779611

Black Experience in American Culture

This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.

African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).

These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…… [Read More]


1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996

2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.

3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22

4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).
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Black Elk's Religion Member of

Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74920558

Then they began dancing, wheeling from one quadrant of the sacred circle to the next, drawing everyone into the circle until all were within the center (ink 2000). A stick was planted in the earth that would flower as a sign of life and hope for the Sioux tribe (ink 2000).

Black Elk never doubted that his vision depicted the harmony and life that the Great Spirit wanted for all human beings on earth, yet due to the suffering the Sioux endured by the United States policies, he felt that the vision had failed, and even blamed himself (ink 2000). Toward the end of his life, Black Elk once said,

And now when I look about me upon my people in despair, feel like crying, and I wish and wish that my vision could have been given to a man more worthy. I wonder why it came to me, a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Black Elk. Retrieved November 27, 2006 at

Downey, Anne M. (1994, September 22). A broken and bloody hoop: the intertextuality of 'Black Elk Speaks' and Alice Walker's 'Meridian.' MELUS. Retrieved November 27, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Hoxie, Frederick E. (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin

Company. 1996. Pp. 73,74.
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Blacks in Blues Music

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94972467

Blacks in Blues Music

Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."

Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.

Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.

1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
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Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88288409

Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell Without knowing that a ball turret is small place in a B-17, we would not understand the central metaphor analogizing the mother's womb to the ball turret, which is essential to understanding that the poem is about the contrast between the warmth of a mother's love and the cold dehumanizing treatment of the "State" where he is just another soldier.

Common Ground by Judith Cofer Before reading the poem, the title seemed quite self-explanatory, I figured the poem would be about finding common ground between people, and in a sense it is, but the message, after reading the poem, is much starker. It is more about the inescapability of aging, the common links that tie generations as the young get old and realize the commonalities they share with their parents.

Hazel Tells LaVerne by Katharyn Machan Knowing the fairy tale helps…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty the United States

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67004188

Murder cannot be a decried and yet practiced by the same entity without being hypocritical. Innumerable individuals on death row have been wrongfully convicted due to any number of reasons. The appeals of death row inmates sometimes never get heard. Those inmates who cannot afford to fight a good appeal are the worse off of all. Because DNA testing and more traditional forms of evidence can be used to reverse the death penalty, caution should be used when sentencing a citizen to death. Death is irreversible; life in prison is not. The families of the wrongfully convicted deserve such consideration.

Moreover, the death penalty is meted out unjustly to a greater number of poor, minority, and disabled population. Capital punishment reveals biases and flaws in the American judicial system. The death penalty is also extremely costly even though it would seem that killing a convict costs less than feeding one.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ACLU. "Race and the Death Penalty." 2003. Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at

Amnesty International. "Cost of the Death Penalty." Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at

Bonner, Raymond and Fessenden, Ford. "States With No Death Penalty Share Lower Homicide Rates." The New York Times. 22 Sept 2000. Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at 

Death Penalty Focus. "Cost Studies." Retrieved Feb 21, 2008 at
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Death Penalty Evolution of the Death Penalty

Words: 1773 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64265095

Death Penalty

Evolution of the Death Penalty in Supreme Court Jurisprudence

Capital punishment has been in existence for centuries. As early back as the Eighteenth Century B.C., the use of the death penalty was found in the Code of King Hammurabi (Death Penalty Information Center [DPIC], 2010). The utilization of the death penalty for designated crimes continued through the years and became incorporated in Britain's penal system (DPIC, 2010). Britain's use of capital punishment carried over into colonial America (DPIC, 2010). Since that time, the death penalty has been a part of the American criminal justice system. However, its use has not been without strong opposition. This paper explores the Supreme Court cases exploring this controversial topic and discusses the evolution of jurisprudence on the subject matter.

Much of the legal support or opposition for the use of the death penalty has been at the state level. Where the death…… [Read More]


Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002).

Death Penalty Information Center. (2010). Part I: History of the Death Penalty. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from / part-i-history-death-penalty 

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).

Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976).
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Death Penalty Anti Historically Much

Words: 5884 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76641365

A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.

hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at

American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at

Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at

Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
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Capital Punishment Does it Reduce Crime Capital

Words: 1448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3911568

Capital Punishment: Does it Reduce Crime?

Capital Punishment is a social controversy that epitomizes the axiom "an eye for an eye."

In the United States there are 38 states that utilize the death penalty, and usually for select crimes, including treason, and mass murder. In 2002, 71 inmates were executed, which was 5 more than 2001, and of these 71 inmates, 53 were Caucasian, and 69 were male (Capital Punishment Statistics, 2003).

Capital Punishment has been in effect since the 1970s, despite cases and controversy that it goes against a person's 8th Amendment rights. Nevertheless, there has been changes in Capital Punishment laws and "in 2002 the Court barred the execution of mentally retarded offenders, overturning its 1989 ruling on the matter. In the same year the Court ruled that the death penalty must be imposed through a finding of a jury and not a judge" (Columbia, 2003). In 2002,…… [Read More]


Capital Punishment Statistics

Bureau of Justice Statistics, November 2003.

Printable copy at:

Study # 3667: Capital Punishment in the United States 1973-2000
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Death Penalty and Race Arguments

Words: 4823 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45563116

Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…… [Read More]


Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.

Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.

Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
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Death Penalty the United States

Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8901366

However, this difficulty can be avoided by examining van den Haag's distinction between justice and equality. The physical reality of administering justice can never match its theoretical guidelines. Justice is a necessary tool in the aim of producing a functional society. Accordingly, inequities that arise in its practice must be tolerated -- although fought against. State sanctioned killing, on the other hand, is not a logistic necessity for any society. Death is the most severe and permanent form of punishment American society has to offer. Mistakes and breeches of justice cannot be rectified. The most direct, simplest, and easiest way to eliminate the arbitrary factors in a form of punishment not essential to society is to remove that form of punishment. Justice is intrinsically unequal, so assigning it the responsibility of life and death decisions is unwarrantable. Stephen Nathanson writes,

To do away with punishment entirely would be to do…… [Read More]


Baird, Robert M. And Stuart E. Rosenbaum. (1995). Punishment and the Death Penalty. New York: Prometheus.

Bessler, John D. (2003). Kiss of Death: America's Love Affair with the Death Penalty. Boston: Northeastern University.

Kurtis, Bill. (2004). The Death Penalty on Trial: Crisis in American Justice. New York: Public Affairs.

Sarat, Austin. (2001). When the State Kills: Capital Punishment and the American Condition. Princeton: Princeton University.
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Black Robe Dramatizes the First

Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43941952

The Huron convert out of fear and self-interest, and ultimately the French mission is destroyed after the entire tribe is massacred by the Iroquois.

Black Robe is intensely realistic in its portrayal of disease, inter-tribe conflict, and the worldview of the Jesuit priest. It is also realistic by showing how relationships between white men and native women were common, even though the Europeans would often disparage the native population as inferior. It refuses to show one side as 'good' or 'bad,' given the moral complexities posed by warfare. The Jesuits, unlike later colonizers, do not seem to be self-interested in an economic fashion, and Father Laforgue risks everything in his attempt to reach the Huron. The Indians are not pure, and are just as fractious as the Europeans in their tribal rivalries. However, the incursion of European influence clearly has long-term negative fallout, as symbolized in the death of Chomina,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Black Robe. Directed by Bruce Beresford. 1991.

"The Huron and the Jesuits." Native American Nations.

[21 Nov 2011]
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Death Penalty Thirty-Eight States in

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41962256

The victim is unable to make peace with himself, say goodbye to his family or have his constitutional rights seen too. When a murder is committed, I believe that the perpetrator does not forfeit his rights, but rather some of the respect and convention which is usually given to a dying person. After all, what respect and convention was awarded to his victim?

Many of the states which currently allow the death penalty have victim services via the department of Corrections. The services which they provide range all the way from family support and counseling to the provision for family members of the victim to watch the execution should they so desire. This ability is limited state to state, however. It should also be noted that several of the victims services programs have been severely curtailed due to budget cuts, while the needs of the prisoner in the time surrounding…… [Read More]


John Paul II, Gospel of Life, the (Evangelium Vitae) (1995) Three Rivers Press

Quinto, Morgan "Murder Rate in 2001 National Rate = 5.6 Murders per 100,000 Population" Accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at

No Author Cited "Illinois Suspends Death Penalty Indefinitely" January 30, 2000 accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at

Prejean, Helen, CSJ. "Would Jesus Pull The Switch" Salt of the Earth. 1997 Accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at
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Death Penalty the Supreme Court

Words: 1237 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26741978

Although that case involved jury selection, the Court established a standard for alleging racial discrimination in prosecution. The Court held that the defendant has to show that he is a member of a cognizable racial group, that the prosecutor has acted in a manner having a discriminatory effect, and that the procedure in place allows those who choose to discriminate the leeway to do so. Once a defendant has established a prima facie showing of discrimination, the State then has the burden of proving race-neutrality. (Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79, 96-98 (1986)). The clear reasoning of the Batson decision would suggest that since Bass could show that he is an African-American, that African-Americans are disproportionately subject to the death penalty, and that the decision whether to charge a defendant with the death penalty is left to the discretion of the prosecutor, that he has established a prima facie case…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986).

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).

United States v. Bass, 2001 FED App. 0340P (6th Cir.).
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Death Penalty a Political Science

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42565228

Again, here we see that political disposition is a significant factor in shaping one's position on the subject. Those who support the death penalty tend to take a position of greater trust in the fairness and equality of the government, which is a disposition promoted itself by certain cultural, economic and racial characteristics. From this disposition, a counterargument frequently proposed against the notion of discontinuing the death penalty due to its apparent racial biases cites "a 1987 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that evidence specific to a defendant -- not statistics showing systemwide bias -- is necessary to challenge an individual's death sentence on a racial claim." (Melone, 1) This is to argue that an individual case evaluation, whereupon capital punishment is considered, should inherently protect against the permeation or ethnic, racial or geographical biases. Of course, in order to accept this argument, one must possess a certain degree of faith…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Carlson, T. (2000). Tucker Carlson: Death Penalty Deserves More Vigorous Debate. CNN. Online at

DPIC. (2005). National Polls. Death Penalty Information Center. Online at

DPIC1. (2009). Financial Facts: Information on Costs of the Death Penalty from DPIC. Death penalty Information Center. Online at / costs-death-penalty

Gleick, E. et al. (1995). Rich Justice, Poor Justice. Time Magazine. Online at,9171,983050-2,00.html
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Capital Punishment the Pros and

Words: 2096 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28952904

life imprisonment, we must follow common sense and assume that if one punishment is more fearful than another, it will deter some potential criminals not deterred by the less fearful punishment" (p. 282). In an effort to deconstruct the tenability of van den Haag's assertions, eiman takes the deterrent analogy to an extreme and suggests that the death penalty is insufficient and that death by torture would serve as an even more effective deterrent.

While some observers might suggest that this is precisely what is happening to internees at Guantanamo Bay detention camp, eiman's extreme position concerning capital punishment does serve to highlight the moral and legal ambiguities involved in assessing the value of the death penalty for a modern society. Notwithstanding these moral and legal ambiguities, though, in the case of capital crimes, there is far too much at stake to allow such heinous acts to go unpunished, and…… [Read More]


Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Cahn, S.M. & Markie, P. (1998). Ethics: History, theory, and contemporary issues. New York: Oxford University Press.

Reiman, J.H. (2000). Justice, civilization and the death penalty. In White at 273-283.

A van den Haag, E. (1978). In defense of the death penalty: A practical and moral analysis.
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Death Is a Reality All Human Beings

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92650675

Death is a reality all human beings face. The industry of death care is therefore in the dubiously fortunate position of always being in business. This does not however mean that marketing and public relations are not important. Because of the rising demand for services, the funeral industry has become extremely competitive. This, along with the fact that death and grief should be handled with extreme sensitivity and care, makes public relations a very important part of the funeral home's business.

A further important point regarding the death industry is social, value- and economic change. A funeral home should remain aware of the latest changes in all social areas, and be willing to accommodate their customers with regard to their personal preferences. In society today for example many people prefer to be cremated for a variety of practical as well as spiritual reasons. Funeral businesses should therefore be aware of…… [Read More]


Blair, Gavin. (2003, April). Buzzing on brands: never has image made so much difference in business. In Japan, Inc., Japan, Inc. Communications. Database:

Brown, Monique R. (1999, March). Preparing for the hereafter - funeral planning. In Black Enterprise, Earl G. Graves Publishing Co., Inc. Database:
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Black Church the Redemptive Role

Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2523902

It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]


Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from
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Death Penalty Why Its Wrong

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33771248

Death Penalty Is Wrong

It is often suggested that morality comes from a venerated source - from reason, or from God (Wheatley & Haidt, 2005). Judgments on the basis of morals are important, complex, and intuitive. Moral judgments thus become particularly fertile foundations of motivated reasoning (Ditto, Pizarro, & Tannenbaum, 2009). In view of this respected observation, we chose to develop a broad-based questionnaire based on morality institutional regimens. This has been necessitated as Morality does not have the same rigors as that of logical and reasoning assiduity. The essence of Morality and post hoc deliberations are relative and affect combined societal percepts. There has always been a quandary about the rights of a person when posited in opposition to another. "The consensus view in moral psychology has been that morality is first and foremost about protecting individuals"-- (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Thus, quandaries arise out of morality being…… [Read More]

Right from the times of Plato in the fourth century B.C., philosophers have been intrigued by the dilemma faced by humans between logic and emotion. Emotions have been seen as conceptual errors leading to difficult conditions created by affectual feelings of morality. The model presented in support of such an understanding makes use of the affectations of reasoning of one person, A, on the intuition of another, B whose judgment, consequently in turn affects the intuition of A, thereby becoming a self-feeding mechanism leading to a social acceptance that, as noted earlier is swayed by motivated or manipulated machinations. This is a rationalist model of moral judgment, in which moral judgement is thought to result from moral reasoning (Haidt, 2001). This strategy is perhaps the most persuasive of all three adopted strategies. The audience is made to ponder over what is being presented. It employs facts, statistical data, and authorities, i.e. this approach is fact-based. Logos refers to appeal which is based on reason or logic. Documents that are distributed by corporations or companies are logos-guided, as are scholarly documents. Logos (plural: logoi) refers to rational appeal or its simulation; the word 'logic' stems from 'logos'. Normally, it is used for describing facts or figures to support the topic of the speaker. Logos appeals tend to enhance ethos, as this information makes the individual speaking appear prepared and knowledgeable to the audience (Henning, 1998).

Rationality and logic are greatly valued in the present society, and this kind of strategy for persuasion is more privileged compared to an appeal to the speaker's character or the audience's emotions. However, scientific reasoning and formal logic are not usually apt for the general audience; thus, a dependence on more rhetorical kinds of reasoning should be made (Edlund & Pomona). In particular, an eliciting situation affects senses and by consequence morality that in turn has an effect on the reasoning (or the lack of it) an individual carries, which is the fore bearer of judgement in the rationalist model of judgement

This strategy is opposed by the hypothesis put forward, where moral reasoning does not cause moral judgement; rather, it is an after effect generated when a judgment has been made (Haidt, 2001).. Implying that, the reverse sequence holds
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Bubonic Plague Also Known as the Black

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2084043

bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, has wrought devastation and death across Asia and Europe. In the 1300s, it decimated Europe's population. Despite the carnage, the aftermath of the disease helped usher in a rebirth of European society. The symptoms of the bubonic plague appeared within days of infection. The infected individual would suffer fever, headache, general feeling of weakness, aches in the upper leg and groin, and fatigue (Perlin & Cohen 2002). The most evident sign of the bubonic plague is the painful swelling of the lymph glands called "buboes." The "Black Death" is believed to have originated in China; it spread to Europe through the Silk oad. Trading ships and caravans were infested with rats that contained infected fleas (Sanders et al. 2005). This helped spread the disease quickly and over a large area.

The devastation of the Bubonic Plague created great social and economic unrest.…… [Read More]


Bentley, J., & Ziegler, H. (2010). Traditions & encounters a brief global history. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Willmer, R. (2008). The Life and Times of Michelangelo. In Retrieved on September 19, 2011,

Perlin, D., & Cohen, A. (2002). Epidemics of the past: Bubonic Plague. In infoplease. Retrieved September 19, 2011,

Sanders, T., Nelson, S., Morillo, S., & Ellenberger, N. (2005) Encounters in World History: Sources and Themes from the Global Past. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
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Health Care the Black Plague

Words: 3052 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96435776

What might have otherwise been individual illness, limited to one or two cases of Ebola, was magnified in a hospital setting in which unsterile equipment and needles were used repeatedly on numerous patients." (Garrett 220).

Even with the significant accomplishment of learning to genetically engineer biologic material, the means did not exist to apply this new knowledge where it was needed most. Economic, social, governmental, and geographic barriers prevented this advancement from having the impact it could have. As a result, the microorganisms continued to outpace the medical scientists.

It is important to understand that, largely, what has determined the direction of the American medical industry during the post war -- for profit -- era has been the market for new drugs and treatments. It has already been established that this market is relatively unconcerned with those who cannot afford service: uninsured Americans and poor foreigners. Therefore, it should be…… [Read More]


Eckholm, Erik. (1993). Solving America's Health Care Crisis. New York: Times Books.

Garrett, Laurie. (1994). The Coming Plague. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Herlihy, David. (1997). The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jennings, Ken and Kurt Miller and Sharyn Materna. (1997). Changing Health Care. Santa Monica: Anderson Consulting.
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Capital Punishment Criminal Justice and

Words: 2774 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90115767

esearch reveals that those who kill white victims are much more likely to receive the death penalty than those who kill black victims. One study found that for similar crimes committed by similar defendants, blacks received the death penalty at a 38% higher rate than all others (Dieter, 1998).

It is significant to note that the death penalty is more likely to be imposed on men than woman. Death sentences and actual executions for female offenders are rare in comparison to such events for male offenders. Woman account for 10% of the murder arrests, 2% of the death sentences imposed at the trial level, 1.7% of the persons presently on death row, and 1% of the persons actually executed since 1973 (Streib, 2010).

States vary enormously in the quality of representation they provide to indigent defendants. The quality of legal representation is related to the arbitrary application of the death…… [Read More]


"Arbitrariness." (2010). Arbitariness. Death penalty information center. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from / arbitrariness 

Bae, S. (2008, April). The death penalty and the peculiarity of American political intstitutions. Human rights review. Vol. 9, Issue 2, 233-240. March 19, 2012 from

Baumgartner, F.R. & Richardson, R.J. (2010, October 10). The geography of the death penalty. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from 

Dieter, R.C. (1998). The death penalty in black and white. Death penalty information center. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from  
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Death Penalty Today the United States Is

Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44308057

Death Penalty

Today, the United States is virtually the only remaining industrialized and democractic nation in the world to apply the death penalty, although a few other countries have the options on their books but the punishment is rarely enforcement. The heated debate over the efficacy of the death penalty continues, and the arguments on both sides of the issue are charged with emotion and some convincing evidence in support of their respective views. There are some very compelling reasons, though, to retain the death penalty as a last-resort punishment for some criminals. Despite criticisms of the practice to the contrary, this paper will demonstrate the death penalty is based on solid historic and legal justification, absolutely prevents violent criminals from ever reoffending again, and provides families of murder victims with the closure they desperately need to resume their normal lives.

Review and Discussion

Executed Criminals Cannot Reoffend

Despite criticisms…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bandes, Susan A. 2009. "Victims, 'Closure' and the Sociology of Emotion." Law and Contemporary Problems 72(2): 1-2.

Bedau, Hugo Adam and Paul G. Cassell. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have

Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. New York:

Oxford University Press, 2004.
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Capital Punishment Is Wrong Capital

Words: 1150 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46425929

Hanging, for example, can sometimes produce horrendous results: if the drop is too short, it results in slow and agonising strangulation; if it is too long, it may tear the head off. Electrocution too, at times, fails to kill instantly and the awful stench of burning flesh that follows the process is indicative of the excruciating pain suffered during the killing.

Another reason why capital punishment is wrong is because death is irreversable, human justice is fallible and criminal proceedings would always be prone to errors. There have been several cases of sentencing to death before evidence proving their innocence was uncovered. Since 1973 alone, 119 people in 25 USA states have been released from death row when evidence of their innocence came to light. ("Capital Punishment" ikipedia) Others, not so lucky, have been executed before evidence clearing them was discovered. James Adams, a Black American, who was executed in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baird, Robert M., and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds. Punishment and the Death Penalty: The Current Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995.

Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1992). "The Case Against The Death Penalty." American Civil Liberties Union. 1992. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at

Capital Punishment." From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. On September 29, 2005 at

Death Penalty, Q&A." Amnesty International USA. 2005. Retrieved on September 29, 2005 at
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Blacks in Florida

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71466266

Jim Crow Florida:

Views expressed by James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston

This paper will examine the lives and beliefs of James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston as well as exploring each of these individuals interpretation of class and gender in relation to race. This paper will answer the question as to whether their personal reflections of Jim Crow Florida were similar or different and how so.

Zora Neale Hurston, novelist, dramatist, folklorist, and anthropologist was born in, Eatonville Florida, on the day of the 7th, she "heard tell," of January in 1903. It is fairly certain that she was the fifth child born in a total of eight to her parents. That which Hurston, "heard tell" were her brothers different versions of her date of birth appearing to her that none of the brothers actually remembered exactly when she was actually born.

Her father, after her mother…… [Read More]


Glassman, S. & Seidel, K. eds. "Zora in Florida" Orlando: U. Of Central

Florida P, 1991 [Online] Website avaliable at 

Learning Adventures in Citizenship " Zora Neale Hurston" [Online] available at

Learning Adventures in Citizenship "James Weldon Johnson" [Online] available at
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Black Hawk Down A Story

Words: 1429 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54142012

Thus, he covers both sides of the issue effectively, and notes that while eighteen Americans died, between 500 and 1,000 Somalis died on the ground. Thus, as a journalist, he uses balance and both sides of the issue to make his points and back up his reasoning. That is the mark of a good journalist, and probably one of the reasons the book was considered for a National Book Award. It is an emotional book, but it is also balanced and fair, leading the reader to make their own conclusions about what happened in Somalia.

One of the great strengths of the book is the way the author portrays the soldiers. They are more than a group of men fighting together, they are a team, a cohesive group that care about each other and will never leave another behind. That is one of the enduring themes of the book, and…… [Read More]


Editors. "Mark Bowden: Biography." 2007.

Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.
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Death or Slavery

Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96124838

Toni Morrsion Beloved

Is murder a better alternative than slavery for your children

Toni Morrison's novel "Beloved" presents readers with a terrifying account involving a mother having to choose whether to have her children become slaves or whether to have them dead. Torn between these two options, the central character in the novel, Sethe, makes a hasty choice and decides to kill her own daughter. The protagonist is obviously tormented by her past and it somewhat seems natural for her to take this decision when considering the suffering she must have experienced while being a slave. It would be wrong to consider rational thinking given the circumstances, as Sethe could not possibly take on an objective attitude. The main argument in this paper will focus on emphasizing the contrast between being killed and living life in slavery.

Surely, it would be absurd for anyone to consider the thesis of this…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bataille, Georges, "Georges Bataille: Essential Writings," (SAGE, 7 Aug 1998)

Douglass, Frederick, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, Written by Himself," (Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007)

Jacobs, Harriet Ann, "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl," (MobileReference, 2008)

Morrison, Toni, "Beloved," (Random House, 2010)
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Black Hawk Down Directed by Ridley Scott

Words: 2806 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67969843

Black Hawk Down, directed by idley Scott. Specifically, it will look at a summary of the film, what part of the film was accurate, what impact it had on the period; what impact it had on future periods; and what impact, if any, it may have on you. "Caring about someone's life, rather than your own," is a very powerful and brave belief to breathe under, as declared by producer, Jerry Bruckheimer. "Black Hawk Down" brings out the "heroism under fire" by which every brotherly soldier of the U.S. angers and Delta Force reside.


Somalia - 1993. Two sides were fighting against each other to gain control of Somalia. One was led by "a member of the Abgal (Hawiye) subclan, and the other by General Mohamed Farad Aidid, a member of the Habr Gidir (Hawiye) subclan" (Lefebvre 49). By November 1991, thousands of Mogadishu residents…… [Read More]


Black Hawk Down. Dir. Ridley Scott. Perf. William Fichtner, Josh Hartnett, Ewan McGregor, Jeremy Piven, Sam Shepard, Tom Sizemore. Sony Pictures, 2001.

Clarke, Walter M., and Jeffrey M. Herbst, eds. Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

Lefebvre, Jeffrey A. "The U.S. Military Intervention in Somalia: A Hidden Agenda?" Middle East Policy II.1 (1993): 44-62.

Menkhaus, Ken. "U.S. Foreign Assistance Somalia: Phoenix from the Ashes?" Middle East Policy V.1 (1997): 124-149.
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Death Penalty Is One of

Words: 1381 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70033297

Additionally, although Uniform Crime eports states that women are responsible for approximately 15% of all criminal homicides, the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that they only comprise 1% of all death row inmates. According to the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty, more than 33% of these women were sentenced to death for killing their abusers. Equally disturbing is the fact that, according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, only 10% of those convicted in capital cases were could afford to hire their own attorneys. Because of the disparities with which the death penalty is applied, the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, in a vote of 280 to 117, issued a request for a suspension on all executions because they believed the system in place was "a haphazard maze of unfair practices" (The New York Times, 1997, A 20).

Perhaps the most popular argument…… [Read More]


Bailey and Peterson, "Police killings and Capital Punishment: The post-Fuman period.

Criminology 25 (1987): 1-25.

"Bar Association Leaders Urge Moratorium on Death Penalty," The New York Times, February

4, 1997, 20.
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Death Penalty Debate

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36589286

Legalizing Death Penalty

Pro-death sentence

In civilized states like the U.S.A., there are various means of punishment that are meted out against offenders and capital punishment is one of them. This goes on in chagrin of many pressure groups who argue that this kind of punishment denies the convicts the chance to change and become good to the society and can also fall on the wrongful conviction. This is just one of the major argument fronted by the campaigners against the death sentence within the U.S.A. And several other countries.

It is important to know that deaths sentence, in as much as it is loathed by many people in several countries, it still persists in majority of the countries. In the U.S.A. alone, at the states level, there are 32 states that still have the death penalty as compared to the 18 states where death penalty has been abolished and…… [Read More]


Death Penalty Information Center, (2014). States with and without Death Penalty. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from / states-and-without-death-penalty

Michelle Maiese, (2004). What Retributive Justice is. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from

National Museum of Crime & Punishment, (2008). Crimes Punishable By Death. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from

Stephen & Abigail, (2011). "America in Black and White: One Nation Indivisible." pp. 273.
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Black Elk Speaks

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31449114

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2002), lack Elk (1863-1950) was a Native American religious leader of the Oglala Lakota band of the Sioux tribe. lack Elk, who at the age of 17 had a vision of the Lakota people rising up and freeing their lands from the white settlers, tried to find ways of reconciling his people's traditions with Christianity and the encroaching reality of white dominance. This vision was a famous one among the Sioux in which the Powers of the World told lack Elk of a "fearful road, a road of troubles and of war. On this road you shall walk, and from it you shall have the power to destroy a people's foes" (Neihardt, p. 29). Reality, unfortunately, would prove to be quite different. The whites were eventually successful in obliterating the Native Americans' way of life and subjugating the peoples.

This reality, however, was not easily accepted by…… [Read More]


Black Elk. Retrieved from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, December 10, 2002.

Neihardt, John G. (Flaming Rainbow). Black Elk Speaks: Being the Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.

Ballantine, Betty and Ian Ballantine. Eds. The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing, 1993.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
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Black nor White the Saga

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15311908

hough the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. here were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in…… [Read More]

This story, has countless reminders of the varied degrees of morality that existed in the slave owning culture. Though the white wealthy made everyone aware of their opinions about blacks, slaves and people of other races the morality that dictated did not succeed to wholly keep the races from falling in love with one another, as individuals, marrying outside their race, either legally or illegally or having children together. This is evident in the entire history of the family, from the very first interracial marriage between John and Mocha to the later marriages of Celia to white men. Though the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. There were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in the novel John tells Mr. Ballwell that he loves Mocha and, "That's most important and not the high morality that no one practices, Mr. Ballwell." (8) the reader is clear that color lines are blurred by opportunity and sometimes love, not pure self-righteous morality.

The book affirms that the rather black and white idea of race anywhere in the nation is a false sense of history. The story of this family, though often confusing is colorful and full of adventure, wealth, success, massive failures but especially blurred color lines. The work says more about the real system of slavery than any I have read, thus far and it is a joy to travel through the many generations of this family, a family probably not much like many others of southern origin, with all the secrets of the past coming back to call on the next generations, including our own.

Joseph E. Holloway, Neither Black nor White: The Saga of an American Family, the Complete Story New World African Press, 2006.
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Death Penalty Act as a

Words: 2544 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92239087

However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.

Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archer, D. And Gartner, R (1984). Homicide and the death penalty: A cross-national test of deterrence hypothesis. In Archer and Gartner, Violence and Crime in Cross-

National Perspective, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dezhbaksh, H., Robin, P., and Shepherd, J. (2002). Does capital punishment have a Deterrent effect? New evidence from post-moratorium panel data. American Law and Economics Review 5(2): 344-376.Retrieved February 5, 2007, from:

Fagan, J. (2005). Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of New Evidence.
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Death Penalty and Its Effect on Crime

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60360684

death penalty and its effect on crime. The death penalty does not eliminate murder and it ties up our legal system because of appeals and postponements. One state is now even trying to apply the capital punishment rule to other crimes. The legal system has used the capital punishment laws as a way to control minority groups. I am against the death penalty and capital punishment.

The legal system has been very incompetent when it comes to capital punishment. "There are serious and disturbing questions about the convictions of a number of inmates facing execution, particularly in those cases that were tried years ago by unqualified lawyers lacking adequate resources," Dan Goyette said. "e should not proceed with executions until this independent evaluation is completed and we are assured that due process has been fully and properly provided in each and every case. To do otherwise would cast significant doubt…… [Read More]

Works Cited Kentucky Public Defenders Call for Moratorium on Executions. Retrieved on November 27, 2009 from / .

Sharp, Dudly. Pro & Con: The Death Penalty in Black and White. (Thursday, June 24, 1999). Retrieved on November 27, 2009 from /racism.htm .
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Capital Punishment System Is Still Racially Biased

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93005300

Capital Punishment System is Still acially Biased" by David A. Love asserts that the times when the death penalty tends to be administered is based on generally arbitrary, unfair and racially biased factors, and is seldom based on the merits of the case. One example that Love offers is the acial Justice Act which is legislation in North Carolina that allows a death row prisoner to challenge their sentencing through the use of statistical evidence of racial prejudice in the nation. The very fact that such legislation exists in America is a shining piece of evidence for the fact that our nation is indeed a very skewed one when it comes to racial inequality, and that there is a long history of the legal and illegal persecution of others according to race. Love demonstrates compelling evidence to demonstrate how capital punishment has long been an issue of race, with the…… [Read More]


Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2007). The color of justice. Belmont: Thomson

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Capital Punishment Be Eliminated Death Penalty Is

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96201159

Capital Punishment be Eliminated?

Death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment and is a relic of the times when practices such as slavery, branding, torture and other harsh and arbitrary punishments were common place. As civilized societies developed and evolved they began to follow higher standards of justice and respect for human life. Unfortunately, capital punishment, which is the most cruel of state-sanctioned punishments (being irreversible) has survived in several countries. Although more than half the countries in the world have abolished the death penalty in law or practice, surprisingly, this cruel and inhumane form of punishment is still retained in the United States of America where 976 people have been executed since 1977 and around 3,500 men and women currently sit on the death row. ("Death Penalty," 2005) I strongly feel that taking the life of a person by the state is a gross violation of human rights and…… [Read More]


Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1992). "The Case Against The Death Penalty." American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved on July 30, 2005 from 'Death Penalty." (2005) Amnesty International USA. Retrieved on July 30, 2005 from
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Capital Punishment Deterrence Hypothesis Some

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30395684

Assumptions were made regarding the individual state-level view about the punishment -- it is far more utilitarian to support capital punishment in states that have rising crime rates and proportionally higher rates of murder. Further, because the racial aspect of the death penalty is so controversial, and for some the main focus of the debate, the study measured racial composition in the data as the percentage of nonwhites to the overall state population. Factors regarding levels of urbanization and religion were also factored into the results. Despite these rather rigorous variable sets being included, any sociologist will confirm that cultural factors like urbanization, religiosity, and even political leanings have undergone a massive shift since the 1940s and 1950s; in most cases liberalizing the population factors that approve of the death penalty.

Certainly, this study is both robust and detailed in the sorting and statistical applications run on the data. The…… [Read More]


Dargie, R. (2007). Ancient Greece: Crime and Punishment. Compass Point Books.

Gibbs, Jack. (1975). Crime, Punishment and Deterrence. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Macionis, J. (2006). Society: The basics (8th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Muhlhausen, D. (2007). "The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives." the
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Death in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89687290

Death in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson

In many of her poems Emily Dickinson explores the theme of death. Death is the ultimate experience and reveals the truth about the nature of God and the state of the human soul. Dickinson personifies death in guises, from suitor to tyrant, and her attitude toward death varies from poem to poem, drawing no absolute conclusion about death's nature. The poet portrays death as a terror to be feared and avoided, a trick on humanity played by God, a welcome relief, and a way to heaven.

Poem XXXV begins "I heard a fly buzz when I died;" (Dickinson, p. 153, Line 1). This poem presents death as painless yet gruesome. The image of the buzzing of a fly as the last conscious awareness of a dying soul is both disconcerting and quite possibly a reality. In poem XLV, which begins, "Because I could…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Emily. Selected Poems. New York: Random House, 1992. Print.
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Death of Darryl Town Three

Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59802538

People should bear in mind that in the final analysis we are to blame for our actions. This means that there should be a balance between the excessive exposure to violence and the need to accept responsibly for our actions.

In conclusion, the causes that led to the death of Darryl Town are complex. However the fact that a decent young individual of great potential should die for no real reason is a great tragedy that cannot be allowed to occur in our society. Therefore, efforts should be made by those in power to make people more aware of the influence of the media and the consequences of the use of weapons. There is also a good case for stricter gun controls and the restriction of the sale of guns to young people. The tragedy of Darryl Town's death is something that should waken an awareness of the high degree…… [Read More]


Brady Campaign - Kids and Guns in America. July 25, 2008.
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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004

Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]


Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
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Black Seminoles

Words: 4377 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4635779

Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.

The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.

Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980.

Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
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Black Poem The Convergence of

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13118317

In fact, he identified himself entirely with it, even in his own self-reflection. In the reflective poem "leroy," published in 1969 under his newly adopted name Amiri Baraka, a nostalgic comment on his mother becomes a lofty vision of himself as the bearer of black wisdom -- that "strong nigger feeling" (5) -- from his ancestors forward to the next generation. He refers to this legacy that he is passing on as his "consciousness" (11), an indication that he had by this point in his life entirely adopted his race as his identity.

This wholehearted self-identification with race, along with a keen awareness of his cultural power as a poet, combined to create an artist absorbed with his own capacity for social comment and change. After the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, Baraka became disenchanted with the somewhat passive anti-establishment attitudes of the Greenwich Village artistic community, and moved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Amiri Baraka: Biography and Historical Context." Modern American Poetry. The University of Illinois. Web. 29 May 2010.

Baraka, Amiri. "Speech to Rutgers University." Chicago Review. Chicago: Fall 1997. Vol. 43, Iss. 4, 109. Print.

-, and William Harris. The LeRoi Jones / Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Avalon, 1999. Print.

Lease, Joseph. "Progressive Lit: Amiri Baraka, Bruce Andrews, and the Politics of the Lyric 'I'." African-American Review. Terre Haute: Summer 2003. Vol. 37, Iss. 2, 389. Print.
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Blacks Break the Barriers

Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59954712

African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II

arrier reakers

African-Americans and Non- Combat Jobs

First General: enjamin O. Davis, Sr.

Howard Perry

Doris Miller: "The Hero"

Tuskegee Airmen

Phyllis Mae Daliey

African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II

History shows very well that African-American soldiers were a group of men that played a significant role in World War II. Furthermore, it actually shows that more than half a million had actually served in Europe. In spite of the numbers they still encountered racial discrimination: prior to the war the military maintained a racially segregated force. In recent that have been done by studies from the military, blacks were most of the time classified as not being the best fit but being very unfit for combat and were not permitted on the front lines. It is also important to note that they were typically given support duties, and were not permitted…… [Read More]


Bennie J. McRae, Jr. African-Americans in World War II. December 9, 2013. / (accessed April 18, 2014).

Charleen E. Mcgee, Ph.D. Smith. "Tuskegee Airman: The Biography of Charles E. McGee, Air Force Fighter Combat Record Holder ." 1-204. New York: Branden Pub Co; 2nd edition, 2014.

Miles, Johnnie H. "Educator's Sourcebook of African-American Heritage (Book of Lists)." 1-456. New York: Jossey-Bass; 1 edition, 2005.

Nalty, Bernard C. THE RIGHT TO FIGHT: African-American Marines in World War II. October 8, 2013. (accessed April 18, 2014).
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Opposition To The Death Penalty

Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38616480

3.0 Conclusion

After exploring both sides of the death penalty argument, it's important to remember that neither side supports executions based on racial or financial bias. And, all want to see the defendant having competent defense and receiving the correct verdict. These issues are related to the application of the death penalty rather than the death penalty itself and they can be fixed. The two real differences between those supporting and opposing the death penalty are whether it actually deters crime and whether it is appropriate punishment. There doesn't appear to be a clear answer regarding crime deterrence to put a stake in the ground for one side or the other. The remaining issue, cruel and unusual punishment is entirely subjective based on personal beliefs. Perhaps adequate alternatives to capital punishment such as life without parole would make the abolition of the death penalty more acceptable to some. However, there…… [Read More]


Carmical, Casey. "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" Available:   

Cases of Innocence 1973 - Present." 8 Oct. 2004. Death Penalty Information Center. Available: / article.php?scid=6&did=109
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Right to Counsel and the Death Penalty in Michigan

Words: 4461 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13682228

Death Penalty in Michigan

There are, at present, 38 states with the death penalty and 12 without ( 2004). Michigan is one of the 12. From 1976, there have been 906 executions in the U.S.: 517 were white, 310 blacks; 57 hispanic; and 22, other races. More than 80% of these cases involved white victims, although only 50% of murder victims were white. Case studies on race showed that 96% had racial undertones, whereby 98% of the chief district attorneys were white and only 1% were black. Another study conducted in Philadelphia revealed that more blacks were given the death penalty than white and other races at 38%. Still another study conducted in North Carolina said that the death sentence went up by 3.5 times when the victims were white ( Records show that 37 states with the death penalty used lethal injection method in 739 executions, 151 by electrocution,…… [Read More]

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Result of Re-Imposing the Death Penalty

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8729667

Death Penalty

Since re-imposing the death penalty in 1977, the United States of America has executed more than 1200 persons, and currently has more than 3000 more awaiting execution. Proponents of capital punishment claim that these deaths were necessary for the protection of society and the deterrence of future criminal activity. But opponents reject these arguments and cite scientific studies and statistics which demonstrate the death penalty has been used by courts in an arbitrary and unfair manner, more often given as sentences to the poor and minorities. In addition, opponents point to the fact that over 138 people have been exonerated and released from death rows since the early 1970's, while statistically, at least 10% of those convicted of capital crimes are actually innocent. While there are many more reasons why the death penalty should be permanently abolished, the way it has been misused and the fact that many…… [Read More]


Gross, Samuel, et al. (2004). "Exonerations in the United States 1989 Through 2003:

Social Science Research Network." Going to Search. Retrieved from                         

Information Center. Retrieved from
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Texas' Capital Punishment

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74304655

Capital Punishment in Texas

Khalil, Samy. "Doing the impossible: Appellate reweighing of harm and mitigation in capital cases after Williams v. Taylor, with a special focus on Texas." Texas Law Review, 80(1): November 2001. Proquest Database.

In this article, Khalil examines how state and federal courts have overturned death sentences, from a period covering the reinstitution of the death penalty in 1976 to 2001. The author focuses on sentences that have been upset due to the failure of defense lawyers to both investigate and present mitigating evidence during trial. The author makes a strong argument by referring to Williams v. Taylor, which argues that appellate courts cannot be expected to reweigh harm and mitigation when attorneys present adequate defense representation. In the case of Texas, the author rightly observes that appellate courts would have difficulty reviewing all capital cases arising from Texas, since even fact-finders in Texas are not required…… [Read More]

Owens, Virginia Stem and Owens, David Clinton. Living Next Door to the Death House. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003.

In this book, the authors present the effects of executions in the town of Huntsville, Texas, known as "the death penalty capital of the United States." While other accounts focus on the victims or the offenders, Owens and Owens conduct in-depth interviews with prison guards, wardens, chaplains and other people who are involved in executions, many of which are Huntsville residents. Particularly affecting are the interviews with the technicians who directly administer the lethal injections to the inmates who are executed.

These interviews show that many of the people whose lives are directly affected by the death penalty system have conflicted feelings regarding capital punishment. This honestly written book presents a balanced account regarding a community's views regarding the death penalty. The fact that the community in question is directly involved
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Argument for Abolishing Death Penalty

Words: 2594 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9140475

Capital punishment is defined as the legal infliction of death as a punishment, or the death penalty. The United States is one of a decreasing number of countries who still practice capital punishment, using methods such as lethal injection, electrocution, gas chamber, hanging, and firing squad. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, the first known execution in the United States was carried out in 1608. During the Revolutionary War, capital punishment was widely accepted. After war 11 colonies wrote new constitutions which all authorized capital punishment. In 1790, the First Congress enacted legislation that implemented capital punishment for the crimes of robbery, rape, murder, and forgery of public securities. During the nineteenth century there were 1,391 documented executions. The death penalty continued as an acceptable practice in the United States until 1967 when a national moratorium was enacted while the Supreme Court considered the constitutionality of the death penalty.…… [Read More]


Baltimore Sun. (2011). Death Penalty's Cruel Toll on the Victims. Web 24 May 2011. Retrieved from,0,884276.story

This editorial from the Baltimore Sun presents evidence that the death penalty, rather than providing closure, actually lengthens the burden on victims' families. Quotes from victims' families are provided.

Dieter, Richard C. (2006) New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commission. Web. 19 May 2011. Retrieved from  

In his testimony before the New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commission, Richard Dieter, executive director of the Death Penalty Information Center, provides three arguments against the death penalty -- lack of evidence on deterrence, risk of executing an innocent person, and inconsistent with standards of decency.
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Is Death Penalty Here to Stay

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31367559

Death Penalty: Here to Stay?

Perhaps one of the most controversial aspects about the American criminal justice system today is the fact that the United States is the only Western nation that still uses capital punishment as a "sentence of last resort" for select types of criminal acts (Morris & Vila, 1997; Schmalleger, 2006). This legacy was not carved in stone, though, and the new states that comprised the United States were, at the beginning of the 19th century, among some of the first jurisdictions in the world to restrict the use of the death penalty and to substitute imprisonment in its place; however, today, the United States remains "the singular holdout among western nations, the lone practitioner of capital punishment and a quite vigorous practitioner at that" (Cottroll, 2004, p. 1641). To determine how the death penalty came about in the United States and what changes have taken place…… [Read More]


Bienen, L.B. (1999). The death penalty: A world-wide perspective. Journal of Criminal Law

and Criminology, 89(2), 751.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Cottrol, R.J. (2004). The death penalty: An American history. Stanford Law Review, 56(6),
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Why African Americans do not Support Capital Punishment

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90218813

Capital Punishment Issues

The inconsistency and discrimination issues related to capital punishment are that, first, it is unevenly applied to all persons and, second, it is more commonly supported by Whites than it is by African-Americans (Unnever, Cullen, 2007). The concept that criminal justice and capital punishment are a good fit for one another is not a concept that African-Americans tend to promote; yet the underlying cause of their lack of support is rooted in their view of the criminal justice system itself -- which is generally regarded among them as being more unjust than just, especially with respect to African-American lives. For Whites, on the other hand, capital punishment is viewed as a legitimate form of punishment within the system -- one that works and one that should be doled out to those who deserve in order to maintain society's integrity.

Yet, the problem of capital punishment is that…… [Read More]


Unnever, J., Cullen, F. (2007). Reassessing the Racial Divide in Support for Capital

Punishment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 44(1): 124-158.
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The Future of the Death Penalty

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24325733

Death Penalty

Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). ace as a variable in imposing

and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. ace, ethnicity, sexual orientation, violent crime: The realities and the myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.

The research question was: given the extent to which the death penalty has been arbitrarily imposed, to what extent are there unbalanced racial demographics in death penalty sentencing?

The hypothesis was that race is a factor in terms of how death penalty sentencing is allocated.

esearch was accumulated through the analysis of the FBI's Uniform Crime eports from 1976 to 1995. This source provided information about the race of perpetrators. DOJ capital offender data files were also analyzed for the demographic data for each of the 5,580 of the prisoners condemned to death versus those of offenders from states without death penalties (Schaefer, Hennessey, & Ponterotto, 2000, p. 39).

Q4.…… [Read More]


Schaefer, K., J. Hennessy, & J.G. Ponterotto. (2000). Race as a variable in imposing

and carrying out the death penalty in the U.S. Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Violent Crime: The Realities and the Myths. The Haworth Press, 35-45.

Lambert, E., S. Jiang, O. Elechi, M. Khondaker, & D. Baker. (2014). A preliminary study of gender differences in death penalty views of college students from Bangladesh, China,

Nigeria, and the United States. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 12:44-68.
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Should the Death Penalty Be Outlawed

Words: 1667 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26711161

Death penalty has become a very controversial and high-visibility topic in the recent political and social activities. This is true both in the United States as well as around the world. There has already been a lot of shifts and changes over the years including the abandonment of hanging and firing squads. Even the electric chair has fallen mostly out of favor with the governments and law enforcement agencies of the world. However, even the remaining method commonly used in death penalty executions has started to get difficult, that being the use of lethal injection. hether it be fear of liability or concern about conscience, many of the drug companies that manufacture the drugs that are used in lethal injections are starting to rescind their cooperation with law enforcement and government. This is part of a wider movement around the world to abolish the death penalty due to it allegedly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anckar, Carsten. "Why Countries Choose the Death Penalty." Brown Journal of World

Affairs 21.1 (2014): 7-25. Business Source Premier. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.

Falco, Diana L., and Tina L. Freiburger. "Public Opinion & The Death Penalty: A Qualitative

Approach." Qualitative Report 16.3 (2011): 830-847. ERIC. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.