Black Panther Party
Bobby Seale and his contribution to Black Panthers
Charles E. Jones and the analysis he conducted in his book has basically been used by us in this paper to conduct an assessment of the contribution made by Bobby Seale to the Black Panthers. We chose Jones' book for this paper because all the essays that were written by the previous Black Panther Party members as well as the essays that were written by the historical scholars are accurately presented in Jones's book. Furthermore, various characteristics of the Black Panther Party through and past its active days have been included in the book by Jones himself (Jones 1998).
Jones (1998) has summarized the achievements of Bobby Seale by categorizing him as an activist of the civil rights with an African-American origin who founded the Black Panthers along with Huey Newton. This was a leftist party whose initial purpose…… [Read More]
Authenticity and Legacy of the Black Panther Party
Authentic is when someone is true to their heritage and culture and a growing number of modern observers agree that despite their otherwise militant activities, the Black Panther Party was an authentic representation of the blacks in America at the time. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a background and overview of the Black Panther Party, an analysis concerning whether the Black Panther Party was authentic or not with respect to black authenticity, whether such a standard is applied to other black people with different political views and the positive and negative effects of their activities. Finally, an assessment of the extent to which the Black Panther Party succeeded in achieving its goals is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Background and Overview of the Black…… [Read More]
Real History of the lack Panther Party
The lack Panther Party may be one of the most misunderstood organizations in American History. Often thought of as a militant and violent separatist organization, few people understood the true origins or goals of the lack Panther Party. Part of this is due to the fact that people intentionally distorted the role that the lack Panther's sought to play in American society. Rather than a group that advocated violence, the lack Panthers were actually an anti-violence organization. At the time that the lack Panthers was founded, police brutality against African-Americans was not only widespread, but also went unpunished in many instances. The lack Panthers was an answer to that brutality. Unlike the more moderate civil rights organizations of its time period, the lack Panther Party did not advocate passive resistance or the peaceful acceptance of police brutality; instead, it advocated that African-Americans defend…… [Read More]
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…… [Read More]
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…… [Read More]
" He explained that the ballot of 1964 represented a catalyst for the time being, "When all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and my community ... with their false promises which they don't intend to keep." He stated further that the Democrats lied about their support of the civil rights bill and had no actual intentions of passing it. He stated that they were simply out to play games and were using African-Americans as bait. Essentially, Malcolm stated that all African-Americans must use the ballot or the bullet. They must defend themselves and also push for equality and black nationalism as well as human rights (Malcolm X).
The experiences of the Black Panther were decidedly more militant but took their inspiration directly from him. In Oakland, California, in October of 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The…… [Read More]
hat Birdie learns is that race, like many other issues of identity is mutable, if your appearance is "passable." One thing that is particualy interesting is that blackness is an ideal in the work, and the white daughter (Birdie) is not the favored daughter. "Danzy Senna's 1998 novel, Caucasia, casts blackness as the ideal, desired identity. For protagonist Birdie Lee and her sister, Cole -- offspring of a civil rights movement union between their white activist mother and black intellectual father -- whiteness simply pales in comparison. (Harrison-Kahan 19) to a great degree whiteness is constructed as a lesser identity to blackness, based on cultural richness and identity, through appearance and inner knowledge. This is reflective of the Black Power movement that is idealized in this work by the Black Panther movement. To be black was to be a personal source of pride and any lessor version of it elicited…… [Read More]
The Black Arts Movement refers specifically to the rise of African-American literature in the 1960s. Writer and activist Amiri Baraka started the movement in Harlem in response to the assassination of Malcolm X and actively encouraged black writers to use their voices to tell their stories. The movement went outside of the realm of written art to include theater and other forms of expression. It led to the development of cultural studies programs at universities that focused on the idea that being black in the United States was a different cultural experience than being white, and helped highlight social differences between black and white America.
The Black Student Movement is an organization at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. It was established because of Black student dissatisfaction with both the growth of the black student population at the school and the NAACP chapter at the school. It became an…… [Read More]
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…… [Read More]
Le OI Jones was the original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking his new name. As a writer, he was able to contribute a literate voice to the civil rights and Black Power movements. This paper will outline those contributions that he made to both of these movements, including founding the Black Arts Movement.
Jones was born and raised in Newark and took an interest in both music and writing at an early age. After graduating Howard University with a degree in English in 1954, he joined the Air Force. He was dishonorably discharged and then relocated to Manhattan. He attended Columbia University and became an artist in Greenwich Village, before becoming affiliated with the Beat Movement (Biography, 2014). He married Hettie Cohen and the two started a literary magazine together,…… [Read More]
Martin Luther King's contribution to the Civil Rights movement in America was certainly significant. He was more than just a figurehead with tremendous oratory skills. As an advocate of non-violent protest he helped formulate, and implement, one of the most important strategies of the Civil Rights era. However, his most important contribution to the Movement was his ability to connect with a majority of Americans. His message concerning injustice and equality swept away divisions based on class or color because he reminded the nation that its very foundations were based on such ideals. Without King's message it is unlikely that history of the Civil Rights Movement would even be recognisable. Consequently, King's contribution to the Civil Rights Movement in America was undoubtable extremely significant.
ryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "lack Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss." The Journal of lacks in Higher Education (53): 60 --…… [Read More]
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…… [Read More]
Assata Shakur's Autobiography
Assata Shakur is a member of the Black Panthers and an activist. She is also an escaped convict and has been linked to the Black Liberation Army (BLA). She was accused of various crimes between 1971 and 1973, and became the subject of a police hunt that reached across several states (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). In 1973 she was part of a New Jersey Turnpike shootout where she was wounded along with a trooper. Another trooper and a BLA member were killed in that altercation. Between then and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other crimes, including armed robbery, murder and attempted murder, kidnapping, and robbing a bank (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). Three charges were dismissed, and she was acquitted on the other three charges. Then she was convicted in 1977 on eight felony counts including first-degree murder for the New Jersey Turnpike…… [Read More]
In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…… [Read More]
notes in "Public Enemy: Power to the People and the Beats," the Civil ights Movement did not change living conditions for many black Americans:
The famous Civil ights movement, which began in the fifties with Martin Luther King and reached a climax in the late sixties with the spread of the Black Panther Party, in reality failed to bring a significant improvement in the living standard for the oppressed black minority within the United States."
Public Enemy rejects at least some of the teaching of the Civil ights Movement, including the notion that people are all the same, implying that there are a special set of problems and circumstances suffered by blacks that need to be addressed specifically. Chuck D. pleads for awareness of this crucial truth, thereby taking a much more radical approach to racial issues that had been accepted by mainstream society. Certainly, other voices existed in the…… [Read More]
Elaine Brown, a Taste of Power
Elaine Brown's autobiography A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story provides a snapshot of life in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Brown briefly rose to the leadership of the Black Panther Party. In North Philadelphia born and raised, Brown dropped out of Temple University and traveled west seeking a musical career in Hollywood, much like another noteworthy figure from this period obsessed with the mass insurrection of America's black population, Charles Manson. Brown, however, ended up not at the Spahn Ranch but at the Pink Pussycat, working as a cocktail waitress in "the hottest spot in West Hollywood" (74). She soon acquired a white lover, who talks of Stokely Carmichael over a meal of "Piper Heidieck champagne, bottled in 1952…beluga caviar…cracked crab with a mustard sauce. Our dinner was lamb, served on skewers, with wild rice" (80). After this a "radicalization"…… [Read More]
Pecola Breedlove's experiences in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye symbolize the internalization of sexism and racism. On the contrary, Anita Hill's willingness to stand up and speak out against a powerful male official represents the externalization of sexism and racism. Anita Hill lacks the self-hatred embodied by the character of Pecola, but in spite of her confidence and poise, lacks the power or wherewithal to undermine institutionalized sexism. Although Hill had an opportunity to make the personal political, her failure to convince members of the Senate about Clarence Thomas's misconduct highlights the ongoing struggles for all women and especially women of color to reclaim power. When The Bluest Eye was written, the prospects for women of color were even poorer than they were when Anita Hill testified. Yet the outcome of Hill's testimony proves that patriarchy remains entrenched in American society.
A core similarity between Anita Hill's experience and that…… [Read More]
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…… [Read More]
The strengths and deficiencies of Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi's account of Charles Manson, his followers, and his trial and subsequent conviction both stem from one single fact about the author. Vincent Bugliosi was the Prosecutor who tried the state's case against Manson, a trial which he ultimately won. Yet we must recollect that Manson -- recently making his obligatory appearance in the tabloid press after announcing his engagement to a much younger woman, an engagment later called off -- remains in prison in California for a number of murders that he himself did not actually commit. Bugliosi in the courtroom was required to paint the picture so that Manson could be tried for conspiracy, and succeeded. He intends to do the same thing in Helter Skelter. I hope to examine Bugliosi's book as a way of considering Manson as a historical figure.
This seeming emphasis on Manson's criminality…… [Read More]
Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn
Karl Marlantes' novel of the Vietnam War, Matterhorn, seems to want to offer the reader an immersive approach towards the experience of Vietnam. If we can say of earlier Vietnam narratives -- whether in film, such as Oliver Stone's Platoon or Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket, or in fiction, such as Tim O'Brien's novels Going After Cacciato and The Things They Carried or Gustav Hasford's The Short-Timers (a cult classic of Vietnam fiction and the basis for Kubrick's film) -- that they have a sort of expressionistic technique, seeking to capture the experience of the war in a series of vignettes, we can see the originality of Marlantes' approach in greater relief to what has come before: his approach is not so much expressionistic as it is encyclopedic, an attempt to catalogue (in fiction) every single aspect of the one small event, the movement of a Marine…… [Read More]
Tupac Sahkur's Poetry
Compare and Contrast Tupac Shakur's Poetry
For most people the life of Tupac Shakur, symbolizes one of tremendous talent and tragedy. Where, he was gunned down in the prime of his career, because of a rival dispute that occurred with another record label and their artists. This was a part of the violent culture and image that he embraced. ("Rap Star Tupac Shakur Dies" 62 -- 64) As he had severed time in prison for: assault and sexual abuse. (Golus 76 -- 88) This is important because it shows the background and environment that Tupac was exposed to at an early age; would have an influence upon him. Despite these different challenges, he was able to take the emotions and experiences that would go through to create a host of songs as well as poetry. Two of the most notable include: the poem The Rose that Grew…… [Read More]
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…… [Read More]
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…… [Read More]
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…… [Read More]
Over time -- in fairly short order, in fact -- Davis got over this sense of secretiveness, and soon many of her actions were matters of national news. She reflects that this celebrity has made it difficult at times both for her to arrive at and explain the truth of her own role in the movement, and the motives and constructs that allowed for the movement to happen in the manner it did: "I know that almost inevitably my image is associated with a certain representation of Black nationalism that privileges those particular nationalisms with which some of us were locked in constant battle" (Davis 322). Davis (somewhat) clarifies this statement in explaining that the "nationalism" with which many typify the Civil Rights struggle -- especially the Black Panthers -- was perhaps radical but did not aim at isolation, and she cites several instances where cooperation with other marginalized groups…… [Read More]
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]
On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…… [Read More]
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery
Walter Lippmann wrote Drift and Mastery in 1914, at a time when party politics in the United States were in a distinct state of flux. The 1912 election of Woodrow Wilson was the first time since the Civil War that a Democrat was elected President -- if we recall that Grover Cleveland (the only other Democrat elected in this half-century) was only elected by the support of the renegade "Mugwump" Republicans, who were dissatisfied with corruption within their own party. The split between traditionalism and reform among the Republicans, however, that permitted Cleveland's election had widened into an actual party split -- Theodore Roosevelt ran as a "ull Moose" Progressive against Taft, while Eugene V. Debs ran to Wilson's left as a Socialist. In some sense, Lippmann's Drift and Mastery is a response to the strange condition of partisan politics at this moment in American…… [Read More]
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message?
Music is one of the most powerful forms of communication. It utilizes different types of information networks to cut across linguistic and social boundaries. In several occasions music has the potential to relate to politics and power. From the songs of sorrow sung by slaves in the south, to the revolutionary nature of jazz, blues, and rhythym and blues (R&) during the activist days of the Civil Rights Movements, music has been an important part of many social and political changes. In the recent past the power of music has definitely been amplified by increasingly globalized communications such as social media. Nowadays more rapidly than ever, music links and influences people from all over the world (Malone and Martinez).
Hip-hop is considered by some to be one of the most important genres of music. It originated in the ronx, New York in the…… [Read More]
However, when I visited Big Thicket National Preserve, I got an entirely different view of Texas, which actually seems to capture the essence of the state. Driving through Texas, I learned that it is an incredibly biologically diverse land, and nowhere is this biological diversity more evident than in the Big Thicket. t the park I learned that the Big Thicket has an extremely unusual level of biological diversity, and actually represents almost all of the major North merican geography types including swamps, forests, deserts, and plains. I was lucky enough to see some of the alligators that populate the park, but which are rarely seen by people. I also met some "hunters" who were at the preserve hoping to photograph some of the rarer wildlife in the park: black panthers. The problem is that the panther population is not large, and they are not seen reliably at any set…… [Read More]
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…… [Read More]
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Unanswered…… [Read More]
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…… [Read More]
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997).
Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of the gangsta, which may be a factor in getting adolescent and vulnerable teenagers to join gangs for the sake of being accepted and being part of a family. The outcome of which, if not death or imprisonment, is even if a gangsta decides to become a regular citizen, he will be held with contempt and suspicion by the community.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus…… [Read More]
The empathy which comes through here is not fabricated either. Thompson's very approach in "Fear and Loathing," and another cornerstone to the gonzo movement, is the concept of full immersion into his own stories. The long-suffering tone that shrouds all of his work is the repercussion of Thompson's journalism-by-personal-experience, an ongoing quest to find America in himself and those around him. For better and worse, his writing illustrates that he succeeded in doing so.
The rebellion of the 1960's, guided as it was by an optimistic emphasis on peace, love and cultural freedom, would take on a far more militant imperative as the decade wound to a close. Thompson takes this transition head on, highlighting the violence which had invaded an insular world of counter-cultural ideology. The hostility of the mainstream, which the activist culture had rallied so hard to reject, had infected its thinking and its approach to action.…… [Read More]
A&P and the Lesson
The short stories A&P and The Lesson John Updike and Toni Cade Bambara explore the perceptions of young people as they stand at the threshold of adulthood. Updike's story, set in a grocery store in a small New England town, is about Sammy, a young white male cashier. Bambara's takes place in New York City outside the famous F.A.O. Schwartz Department Store, and is told from the perspective of Sylvia, a young African-American female.
A&P was published in 1961 at a time when the beliefs and values of the status quo were beginning to be questioned by the next generation. Rock n Roll was relatively new and the beat generation was a precursor to the hippie movement. The counter culture was yet to go main stream.
Briefly, Sammy is working at the cash register when three young ladies came into the store in their bathing suits.…… [Read More]
" It is thus unclear how Cohen exactly deems when these silences or transformations occur.
This ambiguous approach to identifying when transformation begins does not negate Cohen's argument regarding the fragmentation in the black community. After all, in her content analysis of media reports, Cohen has shown ample proof of the "silence" regarding the AIDS crisis. However, a discussion of when transformations in leaderships occur will be helpful if future scholars want to replicate Cohen's research in other minority groups.
Another issue that could be raised regarding Cohen's book concerns her argument regarding the transformation of the African-American political agenda in general. Cohen obviously takes a "trickle up" approach to political action. She argues that the political agenda of marginalized groups in general can be reshaped by pressure from below. Based on this framework, gay and lesbian African-Americans had power to shape the thinking of the black community regarding AIDS.…… [Read More]
Too bad the only thing suave about him was his outfit. Even if it was only as suave as it could have been if he'd kept the Armani from Barney's" (qtd in Naugle 52).
In addition to this, is the constant spreading of lies and rumors to climb up the social ladder and the constant intrusion into the lives of other people could also teach teenagers to be uncompassionate and cruel in order to get the things that they desire.
It is true that Cecily von Ziegesar wrote about her own teenage experiences (Naugle 19). She also and tried to avoid preaching to teens and creating overly good characters, as she herself hated these types of novels (Ibid). The Gossip Girl novels and the television show do not intend to cause the readers or viewers harm or expect them to imitate what they see on television or read in books.…… [Read More]
This has led to reconciliation among the divided states. It is this unifying theme that is also expressed in both the book, Friday Night Lights, as well as the movie, Miracle.
The Unifying Effects of Representative Sports as Demonstrated in Friday Night Lights and Miracle:
In Bissinger's Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream, the author explores the societal webwork that is Odessa, Texas. An oil town that soars and plummets as oil comes and goes, is held together by the local high school football team -- the Permian Panthers. In the book, Odessa is a town that is both metaphorically and literally divided. There is the racial division of hites vs. Blacks and Hispanics. Reminiscent of a far earlier time in America, hites in Odessa in the late 1980s, on the whole are bigots, who feel Blacks are inferior.
There is only thing Blacks are valued…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]