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In the first three years of the Second orld ar, the German forces made significant advances in a successful manner and were able to conquer the most part of Europe and a substantial part of Russia's European territory. At the time when the Nazi forces entered into Russia in orld ar 2, the strategic line of attack was planned to be similar to that employed in overpowering France and Poland, initially during the war. The initial success was through the use of Blitzkrieg. This was a very fast, pooled arms attack that consisted of a tank thrust, facilitated by mobile and aircraft weaponry adept of being at par with the tanks and backed by portable infantry to combine expanded territory. Nevertheless, different from the campaigns against Poland and France, which resulted in the immediate laying down of arms of these nations, the campaign against Russia came to be…
Adamsky, Dima.,Bjerga, Kjell. Contemporary Military Innovation: Between Anticipation and Adaption. London: Cass Military Studies, 2012.
Oleinik, Gleb. World War 2: The German Blitzkrieg. Hib Pages, 2015. Retrieved 14 December, 2015 from: http://hubpages.com/education/World-War-2-The-German-Blitzkrieg .
Stahel, David. Operation Barbarossa and Germany's Defeat in the East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Waugh, Steven. Essential Modern World History. United Kingdom: Nelson Thome, 2001.
blitzkrieg not a war-Winning innovation for the Germans during WW2?
During the first stage of the Second World War in Europe, Germans wished to circumvent a long-drawn-out war. The nation's plan was using a succession of short military campaigns for crippling the enemy side. It succeeded quickly in overrunning a large portion of Europe. For over two years, Germany employed a novel military strategy known as lightning war (i.e., "Blitzkrieg," in German) for achieving swift victories. The tactics necessitated a concentration of planes, artillery, tanks, and other offensive weaponry along a limited front. A breach would be driven by these forces into the opponent's defenses, allowing rapid penetration and free movement of armored tanks behind the opponent's lines, leading to disorder in their defenses, and shock. The German air force ensured that enemies didn't get to redeploy their forces or resupply sufficiently, and thus, the latter were unsuccessful in sending…
Bihani, A. (2014, May 15). Why did Blitzkrieg not work for Nazi Germany when they invaded Soviet Russia? Retrieved from Quora: https://www.quora.com/Why-did-Blitzkrieg-not-work-for-Nazi-Germany-when-they-invaded-Soviet-Russia
Buckley, J. (1998). Air Power in the Age of Total War. London: UCL Press.
h2g2. (2006, March 2). The Failure of Blitzkrieg: Russia 1941. Retrieved from h2g2: http://www.h2g2.com/entry/A8341166
Jersak, T. (1999). Ol fur den Fuhrer. Frankfurter: Allgemeine Zeitung.
Some contend that Hitler order Operation Barbarossa because there was the threat of imminent Soviet aggression toward Germany. This claim has been dismissed, for the most part, as Nazi propaganda. Whether or not ussia was going to attack Germany and whether or not Hitler's reasoning for wanting to preemptively strike or simply he had his eyes on the prize, both of these thoughts are make-believe thoughts. What this shows in the terms of war is that discourse is not just between two nations or territories, but discourse often goes on inside the minds of individuals in a somewhat abstract way. Thus, Hitler was obeying his own inner rules by choosing to go forward with Operation Barbarossa. It was attack or be attacked; kill or be killed. Take or be taken. "Thus reasoning in the abstract, the mind cannot stop short of an extreme, because it has to deal with an…
1. Clark, Alan. Barbarossa. Harper Perennial. 1985.
2. Copeland, Dale C. The Origins of Major War (Cornell studies in Security Affairs).
Cornell University Press: 2001.
3. Grant, Gordon R. Operation Barbarossa: The German Campaign in Russia -- Planning
The first world war effectively drilled into Europe and America the terror of modern rifle-based warfare. Rifles could keep people penned in their trenches, or kill anything that moved out of them. Rifle-defended trenches were highly effective at stopping invasions (a fact that the American South should have considered during the Civil War), but one could make very few advances from them. However, by the time of the second world war, the lessons of the rifles had been relatively well learned. In preparing for the next war, Germany invented "lightening strike" capacities, focusing on mobility and range and suppressive fire. "Speed, and still more speed, and always speed was the secret... And that demanded audacity, more audacity and always audacity." During that war, cover was provided for the rifle-bearing infantry by planes and tanks, and once a hole was made in defenses, infantry could pass through without running a…
Civil War Preservation Trust. "Small Arms." Civil War Preservation Trust History Center and Classroom. http://civilwar.org/historyclassroom/hc_smallarmshist.htm .(accessed 21 April 2005).
Columbia University Press. "Total War and Mechanized War." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861328.html .(accessed 21 April 2005).
Dick Weeks. "Weapons of the American Civil War." Home of the Civil War. http://www.civilwarhome.com/weapons.htm .(accessed 21 April 2005).
DDerby. "Rifle." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rifles .(accessed 21 April 2005).
The Germans recognized the evacuation attempt and used all means at their disposal to harass it (Gardner 15). They sent the Luftwaffe aircraft, U-boats, and E-boats to attack the various Allied ships sailing to and from the Belgian Coast (Axelrod 304). The Allied forces countered with air power of its own, bringing the Royal Air Force in to intercept the Luftwaffe and bomb concentrated German ground troops (Axelrod 304).
In this dogfight, the Allied forces were helped by a number of fortunate developments. The Luftwaffe had advanced too rapidly for their supply bases to catch up and their supplies were limited throughout the battle (Axelrod 305). Also, inclement weather throughout the battle reduced visibility for aircraft, providing Allied forces with periodic reprieves from Luftwaffe harassment (Axelrod 305). The Luftwaffe's bombs themselves, through the smoke they created upon exploding, further reduced visibility and helped screen the evacuation process (Axelrod 305). That…
Axelrod, Alan. Encyclopedia of World War II. New York: Facts on File, 2007. P.303
Gardner, W.J.R., ed. The Evacuation from Dunkirk: 'Operation Dynamo' 26 May -- 4 June 1940. London: Frank Cass, 2000. P. 22
Liddell Hart, B.H. History of the Second World War. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. p. 78
Lord, Walter. The Miracle of Dunkirk. London: Allen Lane, 1983. 43
A few moments after relaying this message, the Germans opened fire and for the next two weeks, the attle of the ulge raged on and when it was finally over, 100,000 German soldiers had been killed, wounded or captured; 81,000 Americans and 1,400 ritish troops had also been killed, wounded or captured; a total of 800 tanks had been lost on both sides; a 1,000 German aircraft had also been destroyed. Thus, the attle of the ulge "was the worst battle, in terms of loss, to the American forces during World War II. 10
On December 19, 1944, General Eisenhower and his top field commanders met at Verdun in order to come up with a plan to stop the German advancement. At this time, the American and Allied forces were experiencing massive attacks -- panzers were streaming across the Allied lines and numerous German legions were marching through a gap…
Davis, Franklin M. Breakthrough: The Epic Story of the Battle of the Bulge. Derby, CT: Monarch Books, 1961.
Dupuy, Trevor N. Hitler's Last Gamble: The Battle of the Bulge, December 1944 to January 1945. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
Kline, John. "Battle Experience and Related Facts: Battle of the Bulge, December 16, 1944 to January 25, 1945." Available at http://www.mm.com/user/jpk/battle.htm. Internet. Accessed 16 October, 2005.
Merriam, Robert E. The Battle of the Bulge. New York: Ballantine Books, 1978.
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
But this does not mean it is fair to ignore how many fragile emerging economies, such as Iceland, Ireland, and Greece, have been suffering far worse turmoil than either the U.S. Or Canada today. Regarding the worries about the 'jobless recovery,' Watson believes decreases in employment do not always presage more serious recessions later on.
There are profound differences between today and the 1930s. The difference seem to lie in the political climate: there was widespread support for Franklin Delano Roosevelt's instituting of government programs to help the unemployed and dispossessed. Today, an intransigent Republican minority faction in Congress is stymieing such efforts. Watson's sunny forecast does not provide any advice about how to prevent a similar crisis in the future, he simply advises the reader to watch and wait unemployment figures creep up: "IPA forecast sees the national unemployment rate rising to an average of 8.1% in 2009 --…
Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…
D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.
Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.
Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.
oncomitantly with the invasion of Poland and with the Allies declaring war on Germany, Hitler had raised his awareness relating to how his expansion had been pressured by the Allies. The military power owned by the Nazis proved its strength as the German troops had rendered the Maginot Line (then believed to be the strongest fortification in the world) ineffective, as the flanking technique that they employed had made the French defense appear to be extremely vulnerable. The military owned by the Allies had been no match for Hitler's military technology and the strategies that he used in 1940.
It would appear that Hitler decision to attack the countries in the west had not been purely strategic, nor had it solely had military purposes. Part of his decision had been strongly influenced by the fact that Germany had been virtually humiliated by several western powers consequent to the end of…
Concomitantly with the invasion of Poland and with the Allies declaring war on Germany, Hitler had raised his awareness relating to how his expansion had been pressured by the Allies. The military power owned by the Nazis proved its strength as the German troops had rendered the Maginot Line (then believed to be the strongest fortification in the world) ineffective, as the flanking technique that they employed had made the French defense appear to be extremely vulnerable. The military owned by the Allies had been no match for Hitler's military technology and the strategies that he used in 1940.
It would appear that Hitler decision to attack the countries in the west had not been purely strategic, nor had it solely had military purposes. Part of his decision had been strongly influenced by the fact that Germany had been virtually humiliated by several western powers consequent to the end of the First World War. Even though it had been clear that the armed forces possessed by French would have no chance of stopping the Germans, Hitler knew that the conquering of France would have a strong impact on Germany, and, on the whole world. While the Nazis did not necessarily express their desire to go to war against Britain, it had been obvious that the overall plans that Hitler had could not function without this occurrence.
One can consider that the mystery of Hitler wanting to attack western countries (even though he did not initially believe that such an act would be profitable) is similar to the mystery related to him wanting to attack the Soviet Union, in spite of the fact that he had previously signed a non-aggression act with the country. In both cases, he knew that he and his country would have little chances of accomplishing their goals as long as they had been put at risk by other world powers.
Their joy persisted for over a decade, but in 1958 de Gaulle again managed to climb to the top of the French government through his involvement in the Algerian Crisis (Spartacus Education). De Gaulle managed to negotiate an unpopular but necessary piece by granting freedom to all thirteen African colonies still under French possession, though the war in Algiers itself did not end until 1962 (Notable Biographies). His prominence during the height and resolution of the crisis allowed him to be propelled to the new office of the Presidency, and in fact de Gaulle was instrumental in drafting a new French constitution and establishing the Fifth French Republic (de Gaulle & Macridis; Crawley). During his time in the presidency, de gaulle was fairly successful in what has come to be seen as his main objective, namely to navigate French foreign policy freely and to establish a Europe that was not…
Crawely, Aidan. De Gaulle: A Biography. London: Collins, 1969.
De Gaulle, Charles and Roy Macridis. De Gaulle: Implacable Ally. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Ledwidge, Bernard. De Gaulle. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.
Mahoney, Daniel. De Gaulle: Statesmanship, Grandeur, and Modern Democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2000.
The final line depicts the persistent contrast between the monk's inner and outer lives. Externally, he is -- or believes he is -- piety itself. His inner world however seethes with a bitterness that is utterly unchristian. In this, Browning depicts him as the worst of religious hypocrites: he believes he is righteous, and remains completely unaware of his own shortcomings, while condemning others for their significantly smaller sins.
The same unawareness is manifest in the female speaker depicted by Betjeman's poem.
Her external and internal worlds also contrast, but much less clearly than that of Browning's monk. From the beginning, it is clear that she highly values status and leadership. For her, Westminster Abbey is significant not only for its purpose as a place of worship, but also for its use as a final resting place for "England's statesmen." The importance of this idea is indicated both by its…
Browning, Robert. "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister."
Betjeman, John. "In Westminster Abbey."
The South Vietnamese authorities had been fighting the Vietcong communist guerilla forces from the North which were later replaced by the more powerful North Vietnam army. The U.S. had entered the war with the intention of stopping the North Vietnamese communist regime from overtaking South Vietnam. During the 1959-1975 period millions of Vietnamese and tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers had been killed as a result of the war.
The Vietnam War is one of the most debated topics when concerning the U.S. military involvement abroad. There are Americans that condemn the U.S. decision to conduct warfare in Vietnam due to the fact that they consider the war as having been pointless.
Another debated intervention of the U.S. government abroad had been the Yugoslavian war, in which the NATO forces have bombed several areas of the country. The U.S. had allegedly bombed the country with the motive of annihilating all…
Learn About the Vietnam War. (2008, accessed 4 December 2008); available from digitalhistory. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/vietnam/index.cfm
Woodrow Wilson. (From (Nobel Lectures, Peace 1901-1925, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Noblprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1919/wilson-bio.html
Yugoslavia: The American Way of War. (Revolution, 25 April, 1999, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Revolution. http://revcom.us/a/v20/1000-1009/1003/kosovo.htm
He explained that it was not popularity and looking good to others that should constitute success. It was what one struggled over and kept him thinking all night. He specifically spoke about President Truman's difficult decision to use nuclear weapons and his own military decision to risk lives (Roberts). According to him, the first rule about leadership is to take charge when in command (Saint 2001). The second rule is to always do what is right. He said that the challenge of leadership is to inspire others or followers to perform what they normally would not do. He described great leaders are "ordinary people in extraordinary times." According to him, great leaders are in history books because they responded adequately to the demand of extra ordinary times. He also said that leaders must take the time to train future leaders coming up through the ranks (Saint).
Schwarzkopf's adept leadership in…
Blumenson, M. (2004). Patton legend. 6 pages. Army: Association of the United States Army
Campbell, a (2007). Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr. 5 pages. Cape May County Herald. Retrieved on May 26, 2008 at http://www.generalpatton.com/biography.htm;
Carter, J.C. And Finer, M.S. (2004). A survey of leadership. 8 pages. Infantry Magazine: U.S. Army Infantry School
Fisher, K. And M. (2000). H. Normal Schwarzkopf. 4 pages. CarpeNoctem. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 at http://www.carpenoctem.tv.military/schwarzhopf.htm
The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 is perhaps one of the most crucial turning points of World War II, as hubris of Adolf Hitler and the German high command was rewarded with an unexpected defeat. Code-named Operation Barbarossa, after a medieval German ruler, the German invasion was doomed from the start, based as it was upon a number of assumptions regarding the Soviet ability to repel an attack and the estimated length of the operation. By examining the immediate context of Barbarossa as well as the planning and outcome of the operation, one is able to see how the catastrophic German defeat in the Soviet Union set the stage for the Nazi's eventual downfall.
The plans for Operation Barbarossa were first drawn up in February of 1941, but Hitler's desire to invade ussia had been made clear years before, such that one may view Barbarossa…
Dziewanowski, M.K. (1994). Polish intelligence during world war II: The case of barbarossa.
East European Quarterly, 28(3), 381-381.
Hooker, R.D., J. (1999). "The world will hold its breath": Reinterpreting operation barbarossa.
Parameters, 29(1), 150-150-164.
UXB2B: Chinese Taipei
The case of UXB2B speaks of a rather new technological procedure and application to resolve e-commerce issues related to internet security and e-finance logistics for trading partners in the supply chain industry. However, I digress. UXB2B is an e-commerce company that specializes in the development of e-business applications designed to enable supply chain integration through a streamlined and secure software link. Leadership Information: The CEO of the company has a research background in national defense and an educational background in computer and information science
The software, UXB2B had e-everything as its selling point. For example the software enabled eSales, eProcurement, and eFinance; collectively called "SaaS (Software as a Service)"
SaaS met the requirement that UXB2B sought to bring to the market place. The software enabled e-communication amongst all stakeholders to exchange information to open and close transactions via an interconnected system. t first glance, success in the…
Additionally, a SWOT Analysis or a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats analysis can reveal critical information necessary to identify an appropriate company to assist in the development of a new model for implementation in the new market. The critical nature of identifying the proper market and company to develop the platform for implementation is primary in the research stage prior to selecting the new company. The company selected will admire to know why their business was selected and what the potential market is for this technology.
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. UXB2B Chinese Taipei The Financial Service Platform. Copyright 2010 APEC Secretariat
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. UXB2B Chinese Taipei The Financial Service Platform. Copyright 2010 APEC Secretariat
The latter was skeptical, referring to the device as "a pretty mechanical toy" (Harris 31) but everybody else was favorably impressed and the ar Office continued enthusiastically to support tank development. "Mother" became the basis for the Mark I tank, the first mass-produced tracked armored fighting vehicle in history. The Mark I, powered by two diesel engines, was built in two versions, "male" which mounted four machine guns and two 6-pounder naval guns in protruding barbettes, and "female" which carried machine guns only. The male version was intended as an assault weapon; the female tanks were designed to protect their male counterparts and each other by using machine guns to mow down attacking infantry who might otherwise swamp and overcome the tanks (Harris 31-2). This huge, heavy, lozenge-shaped monster became the pattern for the classic First orld ar tank, through to the Mark VIII of 1918.
The tanks were ready…
Bourne, J.M. Britain and the Great War 1914-1918. London: Edward Arnold, 1989.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War - Tanks." First World War.com: A Multimedia History of World War One. 2002. 20 Nov. 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/tanks.htm .
Harris, J.P. Men, Ideas and Tanks. British Military Thought and Armoured Forces, 1903-1939. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Reid, Brian Holden. "The Tank: Visions of Future War." History Today Dec. 1987: 36-41.
Otto Von Bismarck achieve the unification of Germany?
Del Delosandro T. Dugeon
Western Civilization II History 1102
It is proven by many centuries of international relations' history that some strong country appeared every century and was able to change the traditional system of international relations according to own values in this sphere. For example XVII century can be characterized as a period of French influence when French monarchs considered the main priorities of their foreign policy to be fighting for national interests of their mono-national country. XVIII century is famous for British equilibrium conception which meant that no European country should be stronger that any other state, particularly Britain. And the same occurred in 19th century when Germany led by Bismarck created new order in Europe, which meant that the major factor of international relations was military and economical strength. So, French theory of "raigon d'etat" (which meant using any…
1. Zieger, Michael The Iron Chancellor J& QPublishers 1979.
2. Geiss, Imanuel Bridgham, Fred The Question of German Unification: 1806-1996 University of California Press 1999
3. Schneider, Bruno German Empire Pacific Press 2000
4. Eyck, Erich Bismarck and the German Empire W.W. Norton & Company 1964
arsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19-May 16, 1943) by a handful of Jews against the Nazis, although a futile effort against overwhelming odds that was brutally snuffed out by the SS in less than a month, was the largest Jewish uprising in German-Occupied Europe and was symbolically significant. In fact, the story of arsaw ghetto uprising is a microcosm of the Holocaust: reflecting Nazism's vicious anti-Semitism, the brutality of a totalitarian ideology, the plight of a relentlessly prosecuted people, and individual heroism as well as extreme selfishness in the midst of a life and death situation. This paper about the arsaw Ghetto uprising, traces the background of the incident, discusses why it happened, who were the people involved in the revolt, and what was the outcome and aftermath of the struggle.
arsaw at the Start of orld ar II:
Before the start of the Second orld ar in 1939, the…
Bell, J. Bowyer. Besieged: Seven Cities. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1966
Edelman, Marek. "The Ghetto Fights." Literature of the Holocaust. N.d. June 25, 2005.
Krakowski, Shmuel. War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984
"Warsaw." Holocaust Encyclopedia: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.d. June 25, 2005.
According to these authors, "The use of interactive media also draws attention to the theoretical differences between traditional conceptualizations on advertising and its applications to today's marketplace. Traditional approaches to advertising practice and research have implicitly assumed that advertising is something the marketer does to the consumer" (p. 369). By sharp contrast, interactive advertising makes it clear that what advertising does to the consumer is only one limited dimension of advertising, highlighting the need to understand what consumers do to advertising and how interactive media affect this two-way interaction (Bryant & Zillman, 2002).
While every situation is unique, there are some important commonalities that exist among potential consumers that should be taken into account. For example, the reasons any potential customers seek, self-select, process, use, and respond to information that are part of the decision-making process for a purchase involve an fundamental understanding of how interactive marketing communication takes place.…
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (2002). Media effects: Advances in theory and research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Davis, J., Peltier, J.W., Schibrowsky, J.A., & Schultz, D.E. (2002). Interactive psychographics: Cross-selling in the banking industry. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(2), 7-9.
Hwang, J.S., Lee, G., & Mcmillan, S.J. (2003). Effects of structural and perceptual factors on attitudes toward the Website. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(4), 400.
Online shopping 'still second best.' (2005, April 19). Evening Gazette (London), 14.
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
Night Mr. Tom
"illiam is changed by Mr. Tom, but Mr. Tom is also changed by illiam"
~ Good Night Mr. Tom
Author Michelle Magorian's 1981 novel Good Night Mr. Tom tells the story of young illiam Beech. illiam is evacuated from London during the Blitzkrieg of orld ar II and sent to live with an elderly man in the country town of Little ierwold. His name is Tom Oakley. Mr. Oakley is something of a recluse, unused to children and unused to company except for his dog Sammy. He opens his home to young illie and the two of them grow thanks to one another's influence. The novel teaches the reader an important lesson, that everyone is capable of change, no matter their background or age.
hen illie first arrives at Little ierwold, he has already had a harrowing existence in his short life. His overly religious mother has…
Magorian, Michelle. Good Night Mr. Tom. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
General George Smith Patton and His Contribution in World War II
General George Smith Patton (1885 -- 1945)
George S. Patton, an American general in World War II, was born in California in 1885. He was graduated in 1909, from American Military Academy, and was recognized for his contradictory characteristics. He was well-known as a polo player, horseman, a poet and also a competent sailor. In addition, he was an introvert and famous for his unpredictable actions.
He participated in the U.S. 1912 Olympic pentathlon team and created the U.S. Cavalry's last combat sever in 1913 due to which it was named as "Patton Saber." He was also the first one to do the U.S. motorized vehicle attack at the Mexican order. He was also given the responsibility of doing action with the new United States Tank Corps in World War I[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Wilson, Dale. The American Expeditionary Forces Tank…
Blumenson Martin. "General George Smith Patton," The Patton papers 1940 -- 1945, Da Capo Press.
Pipkin Bernad, Trent D, Hazlett Richard and Bierman Paul . "Geology and the Environment"(5th ed.).
Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Brooks. (2008). p. 172 -- 173.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
succeeding presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt seem to be categorically and diametrically antithetical from every conceivable angle. Entering the office in 1929, Herbert Hoover's administration marked the end of America's most prosperous period to date. Within nine months of his assumption of office, the country began its tumble into the Great Depression. Clearly, the nation was paying for the good times of the Roaring Twenties. Roosevelt, however, took on the unenviable responsibilities of the president in 1933, and with them, he received a nation ravaged by unemployment, homelessness and starvation. During the worst economic times in recorded American history, he would become the warm, fatherly figure ordained to comfort the citizens. Where Hoover was reserved and conservative, Roosevelt was engaging and progressive. Hoover's reaction to the initial blow of the Depression was one of patience and calculated inaction. He was confident that the problem would right itself.…
Tank arfare in orld ar II
Tank warfare was a catalyst for success starting in orld ar II. The war catapulted the importance of the tank and its abilities. orld ar II saw tanks as the primary means for overtaking enemy forces (Piekalkiewicz). They were essential in fending off invaders, maintaining strongholds, and even going on the offensive (Piekalkiewics). Tanks were somewhat of a new dimension, but they quickly perpetuated to become probably the most important dimension in the European theatre.
orld ar I saw the first major tank warfare take place. orld ar I was based on the assumption that victory was achieved through tank warfare. Soldiers would entrench themselves, and periodically charge all at once in an effort to invade the opposing trench. Once that trench was invaded, another one would be targeted. It was an everlasting cycle that led to millions of deaths and very little advance…
Wright, Patrick. Tank: Progress of the War Machine. London: Faber. 2001
Vannoy, Allyn. Against the Panzers. Jefferson: McFarland. 1996.
Senger, Elterlin. German Tanks of WWII. New York. Galahad. 1969.
Dinardo, R.L. Germany's Panzer Arm. Westport: Greenwood. 1999.
Evolution and Development of Combat Air Support
The Origins of Military Aviation:
World War I introduced the horrors of mechanized warfare with its unprecedented potential for human destruction. Four years of war decimated the populations of the European powers, accounting for as many as 10 million combatant deaths and about an equal number of civilian casualties. England and Germany both lost at least sixteen percent of their adult male populations to the war effort and left such a devastating emotional effect on those who survived the war that historians have often referred to them as "the lost generation (1).
Aviation was only eleven years old when war broke out in 1914, but the obvious military potential of aircraft inspired a tremendous acceleration in aviation technology during the next four years. Initially, the only practical use for the flimsy, underpowered balsa wood and fabric biplanes was aerial reconnaissance, which had previously…
Ambrose, Steven. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won
New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
Commager, Henry, S. The Pocket History of the Second World War. New York: Pocket Books, 1945.
Jackson, Robert. Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2003.
Law Enforcement -- Computer Security
Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the Secret Service. Computer crime (also known as cyber crime) is a growing and dangerous menace, not just to the government -- and to all 50 state governments -- but to corporate networks, private computers and educational institution computer networks as well.
hat challenges face the three departments mentioned above based on the independent nature of these agencies, and can they cooperate to provide steadfast collaboration against terrorists and other hackers who seek to steal important information and interrupt normal business cycles?
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a massive, multi-agency department with many responsibilities, and cybersecurity is just one of its duties. It is also responsible for border security, customs (including enforcing immigration laws) and emergency management (FEMA) (www.dhs.gov).…
Harlow, R. (2011). Two Missions, One Secret Service: The Value of the Investigative Mission.
Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.hsdl.org .
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Our Mission. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov.
Krieger, M. (2013). How the FBI Wants to Penalize Internet Companies for Providing "Too
The initial conflict at Lakeside was due to the high suspension rate, and after six years in the principal's chair, Mr. Downey apparently was not competent to rectify the situation. Downey had been in the district 40 years and that is too long for an administrator to be up-to-date with schools, kids, and social dynamics that surround public schools. Hence, one could pin blame on the district for not replacing Mr. Downey earlier with a younger, more energetic, more contemporarily adroit individual. Bottom line: the district was responsible for the conflict.
"Deprivation" is, according to Merriam-Webster, the "state of being deprived," and a "removal from an office, dignity, or benefice." In the case of the existing faculty at Lakeside Elementary, they were certainly deprived of their dignity when Principal Early marched in with high-heeled shoes and began to criticize them. This was an outrageous violation of decorum and…
This modeled on the precedent here for healthy charitable contribution to active-living initiatives. Accordingly, from its $82 million raised in philanthropic funds, "$6.7 million or 18% was directed to innovative physical activity and nutrition education programs, ranging from the restoration of walking trails and biking paths through the National Park Foundation to support for the Great Fun2Run Program, a curriculum-based program in England that guides teachers, students and their families on the benefits of healthier active lifestyles." (CCC, 1) This constitutes a significant counterpoint to the way it is seen today, largely as a major contributor to this crisis.
According to the 2009 published outline of its intended role as a more ethically oriented corporate entity, Coca-Cola reports that "we aspire to help people around the world lead active healthy lives through the variety and availability of the beverages we produce; our assortment of package sizes; the ingredient, nutrition and…
Coca-Cola Company (CCC). (2009). The Coca-Cola Foundation Seeks Bids for Summer Youth Activity and Nutrition Education Programs in the State of Alabama. Corporate Social Responsibility Wire. Online at http://www.csrwire.com/press/press_release/22457-the-Coca-Cola-Foundation-Seeks-Bids-for-Summer-Youth-Activity-and-Nutrition-Education-Programs-in-the-State-of-Alabama
Coca-Cola Company (CCC1). (2009). Live Positively: Our commitment to making a positive difference in the world. Corporate Social Responsibility Wire. Online at http://www.csrwire.com/reports/report/1145-Live-Positively-Our-commitment-to-making-a-positive-difference-in-the-world -
CSRWire. (2010). CSR Profile of Coca-Cola Company. Corporate Social Responsibility Wire. Online at http://www.csrwire.com/members/profile/12216-Coca-Cola-Company-the
America's Participation in the World War II
The role of identifying areas that narrate home front stories is challenging. Many factories, research laboratories, government office buildings, housing projects, United Service Organization canteens, military bases, schools, and day care centers were expanded or built during the Second World War. Theaters in many of communities in the nation had a role in the sponsorship of the War through driving and showing terrifying newsreels as well as uplifting entertaining movies. Bus and railroad stations in small towns and major cities could not contain the millions of people passing through to new defense jobs or military service. The alternative places represented negative wartime stories with segregated military bases and housing, war relocation environments for individuals with Japanese descent, prisons, and conscientious objectors were observed. Most of the sites were engaged in racial conflict and labor confrontation in Pearl Harbor.
All American society segments were…
One of the most powerful songs produced by Rage Against the Machine is "Know Your Enemy." The enemy is within, is the message of the song. The enemy is sometimes the United States itself: as in the case with the Rodney King beatings. Police brutality had been an ongoing political issue long before Rodney King's story made the mainstream media. Moreover police brutality disproportionately impacted persons who were politically disenfranchised. The African-American community mistrusted the police because the police represented an illegitimate authority. Rather than invest money to repair impoverished African-American communities, the American government invested money into a militant police force that would oppress, subjugate, and humiliate its own citizens.
The American Dream never existed; it was all a lie. This was especially true for the African-American community. The vocals of "Know Your Enemy" are sung rap-style as if a tribute to the black community in America. Furthermore, the…