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Body language is a core component of communication. The hearing impaired rely almost exclusively on body language for communication, proving the importance of gestures, posture, eye contact, and other factors. In fact, recent research shows that deaf people adept at sign language "are quicker at recognizing and interpreting body language than hearing non-signers," ("Deaf Sign Language Users Pick Up Faster On Body Language," 2012). The implications for this and related research on the importance of body language for human communication are extensive. For example, reading body language is useful in security-related professions such as airport screening ("Deaf Sign Language Users Pick Up Faster On Body Language," 2012). This is because "language can be expressed by the hands and be perceived through the visual system," ("Deaf Sign Language Users Pick Up Faster On Body Language," 2012). Words are not the only ways by which human beings communicate. According to Gallo (2007),…
"Deaf Sign Language Users Pick Up Faster On Body Language," (2012). Science Daily. Jan 12, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120112142243.htm
Gallo, C. (2007). Body language: A key to success in the workplace. Bloomberg Businessweek. Feb 14, 2007. Retrieved online: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/pf_article_102425.html
Reeh, A., Moreno, J., Garcia, M.J., Mota, G.R. & Martinovsky, B. (2009). Body language in intercultural and cross-cultural communication. Proceedings of 16th NIC Conference on Intercultural Communication, Boras, Sweden. Nov. 2009. Retrieved: http://hdl.handle.net/2320/6584
Segal, J., Smith, M. & Jaffe, J. (2011). Nonverbal communication: Improving your nonverbal skills and reading body language. Helpguide. Retrieved online: http://helpguide.org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication.htm
On the same token, during an interview an HR Manager might assess a candidate's body language to determine whether or not they are genuinely interested in a position, whether or not they are comfortable during the interview process and even whether or not they may be lying about their answers. This would require skillful mastering of body language analysis but would prove beneficial in selecting the best candidate for a position.
An employee can either boost his/her career or harm it depending on the type of body language they use. If they send the message verbally that they are interested in what their co-workers or managers have to say, but always listen or speak with crossed arms and a slumped over posture, they may actually be sending the message that they are not interested at all and may be viewed as defensive or un-motivated by co-workers or managers.
Mirroring Behavior and the Importance of Postures and Body Position:
One of the most common and fascinating elements of human body language and nonverbal communication has to do with the phenomenon called mirroring. It is very evident during interactions within groups of people, whether in the corporate work environment or in social groups and families. In general, less dominant group members usually copy parts of the body language chosen by the more dominant person. For example, in a corporate boardroom, the most dominant individual is almost always located in a central position or at the head of a conference table. The leader often looks more relaxed and may clasp his hands behind his head with his elbows out while those in more subservient roles may have their hands clasped politely on the table in front of them. Often, others lean back or take sips from their water glasses only after…
Dutta, M.J. (2007) 'Communicating About Culture and Health: Theorizing Culture-Centered and Cultural Sensitivity Approaches' Communication Theory, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 304-328
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Hogg, M.A., Reid, S.A. (2006) 'Social Identity, Self-Categorization, and the Communication of Group Norms.' Communication Theory, Vol 16, No. 1, pp. 7-30.
Effects of Body Language
Importance of Body language
The Importance of Body Language for Effective Communication
In this paper, we will focus at the importance of body language for the purpose of effective communication. We will discuss many points which will signify the importance of body language for the purpose of more efficient communication but first let's have a look at what it really means.
"It is the form of communication which is classified as non-verbal." (Body language, 2012). It consists of different sorts of gestures, body postures and facial expressions especially eye movements. These signs are being continuously interpreted by the subconscious of the human mind of any receiver. According to many researches, body language represents the majority of our conversation. "It is also a very important tool which can provide hints to the current state of mind or the attitude of any person." (Changing…
Body language. (2012) Retrieved January 7, 2012, from http://www.askwomennet.com/body-language-in-communication.html
Mani, R. (2012). Karmayog. Retrieved January 7, 2012, from http://www.karmayog.org/careercounselling/careercounselling_7066.htm#.Twf9E2-f1Eg
Changing minds. (2012) Retrieved January 7, 2012, from http://changingminds.org/techniques/body/body_language.htm
Communication theory. (2012) Retrieved January 7, 2012, from http://communicationtheory.org/body-language/
Nonverbal signs comprise the bulk of human communication: 93% according to the film Secrets of Body Language. This film shows how nonverbal communication speaks volumes more than words ever can. The way a person walks, shakes hands, uses eyes, or involuntarily twitches all provide valuable context to the verbal content of what someone is saying.
It is impossible to watch Secrets of Body Language and not become concerned about self-presentation. When a person goes for a job interview, for example, it is important to be aware of body language to convey desirable traits like confidence. The interviewer is often looking more for the nonverbal than for the verbal answers to their questions. This film shows how important it is to master both the art of reading, and using body language to communicate better. Each person should understand that the way they carry themselves, walk, and use facial expressions…
While organizational behaviour is a highly important component of human resource management, communication remains the backbone of effective organizational behaviour and human resource management at large. Knowledge management, workforce motivation and the overall implementation of corporate culture is ineffective and an inefficient without effective communication.
In the past, there has been a lot of emphasis has been placed on communication skills and specially communication in a corporate environment. However, the central focal point usually has been on written communication, methods of communication and language of communication. While both verbal and non-verbal communication are equally important and play their role in the integrity of communication system, written communication is less trickier, as techniques pertaining to writing styles, language and grammar can be taught relatively easily (Lee, 2007). A verbal communication is much trickier and it becomes trickiest when the communication is carried out in a face-to-face setting. This is…
Beattie, G. (2003). Visible Thought: The New Psychology of Body Language. London: Routledge. Retrieved January 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107449461
Ellis, D.G. (1999). From Language to Communication (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved January 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27760963
Kikoski, J.F. (1999). Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301. Retrieved January 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001315702
Lee, L. (2007). Fostering Second Language Oral Communication through Constructivist Interaction in Desktop Videoconferencing. Foreign Language Annals, 40(4), 635+. Retrieved January 15, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037637394
I observed a young family at a restaurant: the family consisted of a mother, a father, and three small children, ages 3, 2, and 1 respectively. The family was seated at a booth in a pizza parlor and used a number of different gestures throughout their meal and conversation.
The father used emblems with the children, giving the "thumbs up" sign several times -- so often in fact that it became aggravating to his wife, whose facial expressions signaled that she wanted him to stop making the thumbs up sign. Her agitation was an affect display represented by a frown -- and her frown led to his frown -- and their frowns caused the oldest of the young children to frown and to point his finger in a scolding manner: the child's frown and pointed finger was accompanied by the words, "Stop it now! You two stop!" which…
Ethography of Gay Mating Rituals
I took advantage of a recent weekend trip to New York City to conduct this ethogram. I wished to study behavioral interactions among men who are sexually attracted to other men: for this purpose I had a guide, whom I will call (at his request) by the pseudonym "Sebastian Melmoth," who volunteered to take me to a bar/club where he said that such behavioral interactions would be most easily studied. The bar/club is called "The Cock" -- there is no actual name painted on the front of the establishment, merely a window with a glowing red neon rooster advertising the pun in the name. The outside of the building is drab and industrial-looking. Two very large bouncers guard the metal doors to take a $10 "cover charge" from anyone entering. Once inside, "Sebastian" explained to me the layout. The space is a large open loft-like…
Hitler gestures are emotional and unpredictable, rather than designed to hit home certain intellectual or even rhetorical points.
This excess of emotion found in Hitler's body language, combined with his total conviction in his words that is underlined in his gesture, is the most striking clue of what was to come in Germany. There is no rationality evident even in the physical dramatization of his speech. However, this is not to say that the entire National Socialist legacy is evident in Hitler's body language, because there is also something 'weak' about his lack of commanding stasis. He gyrates in front of the podium, virtually frothing at the mouth. He begs the audience to listen to him as he calls to them, making far-flung gestures, rather than has confidence they will listen to his words on their merit, and his merit as a leader alone.
Amy Cuddy's "Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are" TED talk is fascinating because it is so simple. The speaker begins by showing how body language is widely recognized and proven as being important factors in social situations. We judge people, consciously or not, on their body language. What Cuddy wanted to know is whether our own body language affects the way we think and feel about ourselves, to the point where our body language could eventually determine our behaviors and our outcomes in life.
The researcher performed a study in which she asked participants to adopt either a high power or a low power pose for just two minutes. After the poses, she had the participants choose whether or not to play a gambling game, and then she measured the cortisol and testosterone levels of the participants. Cortisol is a hormone that is linked to stress. High levels of…
Language & Community
How Language Circumscribes the World and Defines Community
The famous philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." Wittgenstein used his language to make this profound statement packed with a depth of meaning. Language, whether it is written language, spoken language, body language or sign language, is a fundamental aspect to the human condition. Language permits us to communicate with others, which is also a vital part of being human. Language also makes possible thought, speech, and writing. Without language, it would be exceedingly difficult for people to have relationships. Language comes in various forms and in huge varieties. Language additionally is a critical and prominent aspect to the definition of a culture. Every culture and subculture has characteristics that distinguish it as such; language is a characteristic at the forefront of defining or circumscribing cultures and communities. This paper…
Bucholtz, M. (1999) "Why be normal?": Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society, 28(2), 203 -- 223.
Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (19992) Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-Based Practice. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 461 -- 490.
Garrod, S., & Doherty, G. (1994) Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions. Cognition, 181 -- 215.
Ochs, E. (1993) Constructing Social Identity: A Language Socialization Perspective. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26(3), 287 -- 306.
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…
Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.
Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.
Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
Language and children with autism:
Sources of cognitive deficits
Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).
The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…
ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html
Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html
Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.
Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
Language and Literacy
Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…
Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.
Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations…
The attendant rules for the words may, or may not be carried to the new language. For example, many French words carry their plurals into English, while some more recent additions adopt English rules for pluralization
So we create new words or meanings as needed, and we drop old ones as they become obsolete or lose their usefulness. Another way language changes is by attitude. Cultural influences make certain words taboo, so we develop euphemisms to replace the taboo word. When the euphemism becomes widely known, we change it. One example in English is the word for toilet: water closet->loo->lavatory->ladies' room-> rest room ad infinitum until finally, we stopped thinking of this particular place as taboo in western society, so now we use many of the previous euphemisms as our personal taste dictates, and most people understand us.
Language is so basically part of our culture that culture is probably…
MacNeil, Robert and McCrum, Robert 1986 "The Story of English" (1986) (mini)
Public Television miniseries. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198245/
See Language in Thought and Action, Dr. S.I. Hayakawa, 1935 for more on this topic.
Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.
Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.
This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.
Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
Rather, language may be more apt to change the way we see the world, rather than vice versa, at least according to Chomsky.
Meaning thus varies and shifts, some would say as the world shifts, others would say as language itself grows and generates new meanings -- while almost all would agree that the drive to communicate and make consistent and coherent meanings endures in all segments of the species. hile a stroke may damage the ability of some human brains to convey language and different people may have different levels of ability in using language effectively, or learning foreign systems of communication, the innate, structured, yet dynamic nature of human language lives on. Language exists on a biological, linguistic, and cultural level, although the degree to which these factors produce and affect language and meaning remains controversial.
Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In…
Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In Cognitive science: The science of intelligent systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.jimdavies.org/summaries/luger1994.html
Sowa, John F. (2005, Nov 27). "Lexicon." Excerpted from the book Knowledge representation. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/lexicon.htm
Szab, Zoltan Gendler. (2004). Noam Chomsky. Dictionary of modern American philosophers.
1860-1960, in Ernest LePore (ed.) Bristol. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.chomsky.info/bios/2004-.htm
Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective
Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality
The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.
Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.
Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public
Gender and politeness
Peer and classroom talk
5. Public and workplace talk…
Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Publishing.
Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.
Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.
Language Is Arbitrary
As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.
It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…
Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.
Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct. New York: HarperCollins.
Language of Ordinary People
The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…
"Hope for the Wrongly Accused." Voices for Freedom. 1-21, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/hope-for-the-wrongly-accused / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
Marin., Lucian E. "Free Women from Domestic Violence." Voices for Freedom. 1-16, 2012. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/free-women-from-domestic-violence / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
"Together We Can Change the World." Voices for Freedom. 12-13, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/toegther-we-can-change-the-world-volunteer / (accessed 7-6, 2012).
Whittier, John Greenleaf. Voices of Freedom. london: BiblioBazaar, 2011.
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…
Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative
Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].
Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].
Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
Body Shop and Marketing:
Since its inception, The Body Shop has continued to grow rapidly to an extent that it currently has more than 2,000 stores in approximately 54 countries. Currently, the company operates or conducts trading in more than 25 different languages and 12 time zones across the globe. The Body Shop is internationally recognized as a firm with a product range of over 1,200 products that include the popular Body Butters, accessories, gifts, fragrances, and magnificent make-up. The company has been able to sustainable business relationships with several communities worldwide through satisfying its demand for accessories, ingredients, and gifts in a fair method. The Body Shop's products manufactured with love for life and the world, individuality, commitment to fair trading, and community spirit. One of the core values of the firm is the belief that business has the ability to make suitable difference to the world necessitating the…
Burlingham, B (n.d.), This Woman Has Changed Business Forever, Inc.com, viewed 14 April
Burns, P (n.d.), Body Shop -- Case Studies in Entrepreneurship, Palgrave Macmillan,
viewed 14 April 2012,
There is a trend among some colleges and universities recently to cut back or eliminate their humanities major and courses, which includes language arts as well as history and philosophy. This has created a controversy over the importance of these areas of learning. It is not that the decision to include language arts in education is new. Appreciation of such learning stems back to the earliest humans. Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture is from 30,0000-25,000 BCE. The woman, who had exaggerated female parts, is believed to be a fertility symbol perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. Many here have heard of or seen the paintings on the caves in France from 15,000 to 13,000 BCE. Early humans struggled to survive against natural forces, animals, and one another. One of the most essential ways of survival was to pass…
Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Reading,
Writing, and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers,
Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom,
Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.
Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.
s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…
As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.
It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.
In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.
Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.
Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…
Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).
In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes
Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.
At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…
Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,
Brown & Company (1993).
Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter
Stage Right. http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm accessed on January 5, 2005.
Apparently this view has much in its favor.
When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).
It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.
Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.
Lewis, H. (2001). Boas, Darwin, Science and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381-406
Whorf, B.L. (1941). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language in Language, culture, and personality, essays in memory of Edward Sapir. (L. Spier, ed.) Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund.
K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.
egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.
It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.
egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…
1. Multi-Channel Marketing. Making Bricks and Clicks Stick (2000). McKinsey Marketing Solutions. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Multichannelmarketing.pdf .
2. Chaffey, D. (2009). Online revenue models and business models. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.davechaffey.com/Internet-Marketing/C2-Internet-micro-environment/Online-revenue-models .
3. Value Proposition (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp .
4. Perner, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. University of Southern California. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/ .
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…
Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.
A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878
Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P
Harrison contends that there is a growing body of data, though as yet inconclusive, with regard to control and repeatability that shows some differences in brain MRI between patients with and without mood disorders. Interestingly the areas of the brain that are shown to be affected in those with mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder are areas of the brain which control language function, not in its source but in its ability to be transmitted by the patient. This could indicate some correlation, in behavioral indices where patients with bipolar disorder report a sense that they cannot think straight or communicate their thoughts effectively. "The neuropathology is postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology and dysfunction of the neural circuits which regulate mood and its associated cognitions, behaviours and somatic symptoms."
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P
Language and Gender
Women's Words elate to Specific Interests
Women Use Adjectives of Approval
Women Use Weak Expletives
The world balks at the idea of gender discrimination, but the fact remains that gender differences are biological and there is no other way to deal with gender issues than to address them openly and seek better understanding.
As far as the linguistic capacity and the nature and cadence of conversations are concerned, women and men have been found to have various differences. Acknowledging these and working with them can allow better communication between the two genders so that the ubiquitous issue of men saying "we can't understand women' and women saying that 'men don't listen' can be alleviated.
esearchers in linguistics and speech patterns have tried to specify particular features that are different in the conversation mannerisms of women and men. Moreover, women talk differently in the company of…
Bailey, L.A., & Timm, L.A. 1976. More on Women's -- and Men's -- Expletives. Anthropological Linguistics, 438-449 .
Boe, S.K. 1987. Language as an Expression of Caring in Women . Anthropological Linguistics, 271-285.
Haas, A. 1979. Male and female spoken language differences: Stereotypes and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 616-626.
Kennedy, L. 2011. IBM Names Virginia Rometty First Female CEO. More Magazine .
Body, Mind, and Soul in the Cancer Ward
Margaret Edson’s Wit dramatizes the death of a literature professor from cancer. The play is designed to show the limits of the intellect to fully understand human tragedy and existence. Although the central protagonist Professor Vivian Bearin was a rigorous academic fluent in the works of John Donne when she was healthy, ultimately the fact her old English professor is able to provide her comfort during her dying moments by reading a children’s book provides her the greatest solace more than her philosophy and more than intellectualism. Bearin embarked upon an academic career because she was primarily interested in the life of the mind, not the body. The central irony of the play is that she is being killed by her own body with ovarian cancer. Ultimately, human beings are unable to escape the body in the form of death. The play…
Chinese as the native language and culture to research. Include such information as the need to communicate, social organisation (tribes, cities, etc.) contacts with other cultures, development of a written language, nonverbal aspects of language (such as inflection and body language), changes over the centuries, etc.
Chinese culture and language
Chinese cultural values play an important role in shaping the community's social norms, with the majority of individuals in China being inclined to take on attitudes that are in accordance with their traditions. Chinese language needs to be understood as being much more than a dialect, as it has a strong socio-cultural effect on its speakers and as it affects individuals in a cognitive-linguistic way. The impact of such ideas on concepts such as people, families, and communities can be observed by addressing the way that they function with the language as a central model facilitating better connections between bodies.…
Gu, S. (2011). "A Cultural History of the Chinese Language." McFarland.
He, A.W. & Xiao, Y.(2008). "Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering Rooted World Citizenry." Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr.
Postiglione, G.A. (1999). "China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development." Psychology Press.
Wang, Y. (2013). "Language, Culture, and Identity Among Minority Students in China: The Case of the Hui." Routledge.
99). Brewster (2000), looking specifically at the question of how threatening language and physical violence are related in intimate relationships. Looking at hundreds of individuals involved in intimate relationships that included verbal threats, some of which went on to include physical violence, she also found that there is a clear cycle of dynamics between the individuals, in which verbal threats generally intermingle with physical violence and in which certain actions such as stalking bridge the difference between threats and action, since stalking can be considered to be an expressive act more like speech (that is, threats) than like physical violence.
Ferstl, inck, & Von Cramon (2005) examined neurolinguistic patterns that show up when threatening language and the accompanying emotions are felt by individuals and found that there are in fact signatures on a neurolinguistic level of assessment of threats. Their fMI analysis on individuals demonstrated that their subjects reacted quite…
Brewster, M.P. Stalking by Former Intimates: Verbal Threats and Other Predictors of Physical Violence. Violence and Victims 15(1): 41-54.
Ferstl, E.C., Rinck, M. & Von Cramon, Y. (2005). Emotional and Temporal Aspects of Situation Model Processing during Text Comprehension: An Event-Related fMRI Study. Journal of Cognitive Science 17(5): 724-739.
Novak, a. & Hubbell, K. (Ed.). (2002). Emergency Care Technician Curriculum. New York: Jones and Bartlett.
Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free
The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…
Talking down to a female coworker is like speaking to a child. The tone of voice and language used is filled with kindness and therefore seems innocent. Yet speaking to a coworker like a child is not an innocent act. The method of communication is degrading and assumes that the female is a less advanced human being, a person that needs to be coddled and cared for like a baby. Because women have been taught to expect and accept such tones of voice in daily communications, they might ignore or be ignorant of sexist language.
Making fun of or criticizing females in positions of power is another way that sexism remains present in professional communications. Females in positions of power are held to a double standard that men are not held to. For example, women in positions of power are expected to be stereotypically feminine while at the same time…
In the Introduction to his book the Silent Language Edward T. Hall notes that "much of our difficulty with people in other countries stems from the fact that so little is known about cross-cultural communication." This central premise is what makes Hall's work endure over time. Although much of the book, including his diction and his examples, are outdated, the Silent Language raises important questions about the nature of human communication. Hall suggests that verbal language is only the tip of the miscommunication iceberg. Sure, hundreds of different tongues cause communication problems, but the real impasse that people reach when trying to foster genuine understanding is in the realm of the unconscious. Specifically, Hall refers to the "cultural unconscious," that which drives and motivates whole groups of people. The silent language of nonverbal communication is not restricted to gestures or body language, either. One of the most poignant…
Minimal language communication between couples
More often than not, we assume that what we are trying to communicate to those close to us is easily comprehended. We believe this because we are familiar with the other person and feel there is a connection that allows us to communicate with minimal language.
In fact according to Psychology Professor Boaz Keyser at the University of Chicago, most believe that communication between people they know well, as opposed to communication with a stranger, is more clearly understood. In a study Keyser co-authored he calls this phenomena "closeness communication bias." (HealthDay 2011)
However a study of 24 married couples indicates that the bias doesn't hold up. An experiment was carried out with couples sitting with their backs to one another and stating phrases which weren't exactly clear. Instead of them comprehending what their spouses were trying to communicate, they often totally missed…
Baugh, Eboni J. And Humphries Deborah (2010) Can we Talk? Improving Couples' Communication, Florida Preparation Series, Department of Family, youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Hamlett Shauntelle, (2010) Spouse Communication Techniques, Livestrong section 1.1
HealthDay News, (2011) Jan 24 Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication
Linguistics 1 / Anthropology 104: Fall 2004
American Sign Language
Learning and using Sign Language will be pretty easy to do because there are so many books and web sites available that teaches it to anyone who wants to learn.
In life, people usually take things for granted like the ability to speak and hear. For the last few weeks I have been hanging out with my friend named XXXX. Until I really got to know her, I know that I sure took the ability to listen for granted. I have always seen myself as a healthy individual and my parents have always been very supportive by telling me that I'm pretty smart. So why wouldn't I take those things for granted? Along comes XXXX who is deaf and needs to communicate with her friends and family by using sign language. As a bird sits in a tree near my…
Rights of Deaf And HOH Under the ADA. Ed. Omar Zak. 12/30/1995. ADA. Retrieved on 22 Oct. 2004, from .
Handspeak. Welcome to the HandSpeak. Retrieved on 22 Oct. 2004, from
Where.com. Ed. American Sign Language. Where.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2004, from
Due to this reality, language is continually developing in two directions, i.e. To convey our ideas very well and maneuver the globe and to better fix the compositions and roles of our different brain areas (Clark 193-194).
Basically, language is a combination of innate abilities. The capability to utilize language is an extremely significant element of human cognition. Actually, a number of people would dispute the fact that it is this ability which differentiates human from other animals. In spite of one's outlook of the ability of animals to make use of language or language symbols, the reality is that human beings have language abilities that are extremely advanced to those of the rest of the animals which cannot be overlooked. In spite of the widespread human linguistic ability, pinning down precisely how language assists human beings and how human beings make use of is not at all a simple…
Chomsky, Noam. Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social
Order. Boston: South End Press, 1996.
Clark, Andy. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge,
Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997.
Language and Culture in Autobiography
Language, Culture and Identity in the writings of Maxine Hong Kingston, Richard Rodriguez and Alfred Kazin: degradation of culture, family and self"
Through the three autobiographical works, "Talk," by Maxine Hong Kingston, "Hunger of Memory," by Richard Rodriguez and "Brownsville School Days," by Alfred Kazin a reader can plainly comprehend the difficulties associated with immigration and language learning and how those difficulties interact with a developing child's mind. Though the cultures and languages of all three of these authors are vastly different and the severity of internal and external reactions they have to the circumstances their emotional and intellectual responses to their challenges are strikingly similar.
The simple voices of these three children of different cultures become complex words and ideas issued forth through the phenomena of growing up as an outsider and immigrant and most importantly a non-native English speaker. In these three works…
GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.
The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…
We always find that personal library embraces its distinct structures as well as meanings, which can be either through mental traces or highlighting the answers and the questions that happens to thread through it. However, the bulk of an individual's reading such as newspaper will never form a personal library not unless an individual posses the foresight and the discipline to copy or clip it. Intellectual life will be more aided by a digital personal library.
Generally personal library will always be made up of documents that have been read by the owner, maybe using annex for the documents that he might wish to read. There could be an amplified intellectual life in case somebody finds it easy to the materials they once read, by use of non-specific sketchy summary of it (in addition to a single striking point of a distorted memory) finds its way back to the mind.…
Aristotle, the Nicomachean Ethics ('Ethics'), Harmondsworth: Penguin (1976). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://infed.org/mobi/aristotle-on-knowledge/
GE.M. Anscombe, "Modern Moral Philosophy" (1958) .Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mleldrid/cmt/mmp.html
Philip E. Agre, Supporting the Intellectual Life of a Democratic Society. (2001). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/pagre/intellectual.html
Tad Beckman, "Aristotle" Harvey Mudd College, (1999). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://www4.hmc.edu:8001/humanities/beckman/philnotes/arist.htm
BABIE AND GILS' BODY IMAGE
Motherese across Cultures
MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES
MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES
Motherese across Cultures
Motherese is the universal, infant-directed speech that seems to come to women on instinct when they have a preverbal baby. Some people discourage speaking in "baby talk," because they think that children can't possibly learn good English if they are not spoken to in good English. However, there is a lot of qualitative and quantitative research to suggest that motherese provides an effective bridge between mother and baby for linguistic transfer (TeechConsult's KIDSpad, 2010). Motherese enhances attention using reduplication, the use of special morphemes and phonological modification, and grammatical simplification, helping babies find boundaries between linguistic units. That, though, is not the most interesting thing about motherese. What are most interesting are the similarities and differences of motherese across cultures and linguistic groups.
Pitch Contour Comparisons between Chinese and American Mothers…
Burnham, D., Kitamura, C., Luksaneeyanwin, S., & Thanavishuth, C. (2001). Universality and specificity in infant-directed speech: pitch modifications as a function of infant age and sex in a tonal and non-tonal language. Infant Behavior and Development, 24(4), 372-392.
McLeod, P.J., Pegg, J.E., & Werker, J.F. (1994). A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(3), 323-333.
Papousek, M., Papousek, H., & Symmes, D. (1991). The meanings of melodies in motherese in tone and stress languages. Infant Behavior and Development, 14(4), 415-440.
Reilly, J.S., & Bellugi, U. (1996). Competition on the face: Affect and language in asl motherese. Journal of Child Language, 23(1), 219-239.
Globalization of eating disorders by Susan Bordo takes us through how the craze of having small bodies as opposed to having big and voluptuous has spread all over the world.it gives us details on how this phenomena has spread in many countries even those whose women t never took interest on having small bodies and their cultures loved women that were big and voluptuous. There are different advertisements with each keen on convincing a particular audience on a certain product the advertiser wants to sell. The first one is a GAP advertisement for selling clothes, the second one for Carlsberg an alcoholic drink, the third one is of MAC products the fifth is on sketchers, the sixth is on body fragrances and the last one is on milk at the same time trying to persuade the audience on the benefits of milk on ones body. The essay and advertisements are…
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Noam Chomsky's Language Criteria - Do Animals Have Language?
Philosophers and scientists have long wondered whether animals were capable of communicating with each other in the form of language. However, research regarding both the cranial and cognitive capacity of higher mammals suggests that these animals are capable of many cerebral functions that used to be the purview of humans.
This paper argues that higher mammals like primates, dolphins and whales are capable of and have evolved a complex language of their own. Towards this, the paper looks at the recent research done regarding the "whistling" and other auditory communication among dolphins. In arguing that this "whistling" constitutes and fulfills the functions of language, the paper uses the framework on the syntactic structures and the various aspects of language. Through an application of Chomsky's criteria, this paper argues that dolphins have evolved a communication system made of whistling sounds that serve…
Chomsky, Noam. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins, and Use. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability." New York Times, September 5, 2000: F2. Proquest Database.
Humes, Edward. "Navy Researchers see Marine Mammals' Potential to Perform Deep-sea Duty." Orange County Register, August 7, 1988: K01. Proquest Database
Suplee, Curt. "Dolphins May Communicate Individually; Exchange of 'Signature' Whistles in the Wild Suggests a Form of Language." The Washington Post, August 25, 2000: A3. Proquest Database.
A woman who asks too many questions may be viewed as incompetent even though her questions are legitimate and she might be doing so simply to make her fellow employee feel better about himself by being able to answer such questions. Once again, Tannen's examples reflected my own personal experience at work. One of my most competent friends is a very nice woman who is always very concerned about doing the right thing. hen she speaks, her voice frequently rises as if she is asking a question even if she is making a statement. henever someone questions her judgment, she always apologizes and no matter how silly the question she always rushes to answer it and make the other person feel better. Because she is so intelligent and sweet she is well-liked yet I know she has never been given a position of leadership in her work. I believe this…
Kingston, Maxine Kong. "Silence."
Klass, Perry. "Learning the Language." Web. 4 May 2014.
Tannen, Deborah. Talking from 9 to 5: Men and Women at Work. William Morrow Paperbacks:
In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production
Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.
( What are semantic memories?)
3. The stages of language production and semantic memory
As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…
Learning and Conditioning. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/11255529/AP-Psychology-Review-Part-3?autodown=pdf
Linguistics. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/3920/?200914>
Semantic Memory. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.enotes.com/gale-psychology-encyclopedia/semantic-memory
What are semantic memories? Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/memory/understand/semantic_memories.shtml
vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
esponse Question: Does vocabulary limit what we can know or limit what we can express?
The sentiment, "the vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know" expresses only a partial truth. The vocabulary we have only shapes what we can express or communicate to others, but real wisdom and discovery, as encountered in various areas of knowledge, can transcend vocabulary. This is most immediate in the area of knowledge encompasses by the arts. Literature, music, art and poetry can often express the inexpressible, aptly conveying it to the spectator and imparting wisdom to that spectator. The spectator may be fully aware of this, and fully cognizant that he has been touched, but unable to express through words just…
Eliot, T. (1971). The Waste Land: A Facsimile and Transcript of the Original Drafts. New York: Harcourt Books.
Levine, L., & Munsch, J. (2010). Child Development: An Active Learning Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.
Pinker, S. (2008, January 13). The Moral Instinct. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/INTRO_TEXT/Chapter%208%20Ethics/Reading-The%20Moral-Instinct.htm
The only part of the human body that can really be said to be devoted to speech in a way totally unique to humans is the brain. There are language centers in the human brain that researchers have yet to find any analogs for in other animals. This supports Noam Chomsky's assertion that language did not simply evolve from animal calls. There are, it is true, all of the biological mechanisms required for speech in many other animals, but language is capable of much more than simply making sounds or even communicating. Language can imagine the future, and express ideas that do not necessarily pertain to the current situation. The difference between the language of humans and the communication abilities of animals, as it is not physically based, must be neurologically based, and research both into human and animal brains and a careful examination of language supports this theory.
Duke University Neurobiology. http://www.duke.edu/~pk10/language/neuro.htm
Grammar Error Correction
Grammar Correction Best Practices
The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…
Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical
Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research
Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.
Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…
Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2
knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.
Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT
Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
Braille, sign language, and pictograms all offer nonverbal means of effectively communicating ideas. Each of these nonverbal communications constitutes a type of language, and each has unique applications. It is important to realize that verbal and written languages are only a few of many different methods of communication. A nurse needs to understand the special functions of braille, sign language, and pictograms and be able to identify the different applications and potential uses of each one.
Developed by Louis Braille in the early nineteenth century, Braille is a textured writing system that allows the visually impaired to write and read texts. As with some written languages like Chinese, Braille symbols comprise both of an alphabet and words. Thus, the letter B. In Braille can also connote the word "but" in certain contexts. Braille can be adapted for any human language and is therefore especially important when dealing with people with…
"Braille," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/braille.htm
Davies, S., O'Brien, S. & Reed, M. (2001). American Sign Language as a Foreign Language. The University of Vermont. Retrieved online: http://www.uvm.edu/~vlrs/doc/sign_language.htm
United States Department of Labor (OSHA, 2013). Hazard communication standard pictogram. Retrieved online: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/HazComm_QuickCard_Pictogram.html
Mind and Body
A review of the required literature, Robert Thurman's "isdom" (Thurman), Karen Armstrong's "Homo Religiousus" (Armstrong), and Oliver Sacks' "The Mind's Eye: hat the Blind See" (Sacks), gives significant insights into how the mind and body must work together to create our lived experience. Though the three authors may initially appear to discuss somewhat different topics, they have vital commonalities. The readings will lead the thoughtful reader to a three-pronged thesis: that mind/body coaction ideally involves knowledge of the genuine "self"; that there is a common experience of "self-delusion"; and that "universality" is of ultimate importance. The "self" is approached uniquely by each author. Thurman's is a Buddhist perspective explores the different concepts of "self" from self-ish to the self-less ideal. hile Thurman does not speak specifically about mind/body interaction, his deference to the power of the mind is clear. Armstrong also speaks of the self's importance, though…
Armstrong, Karen. "Homo Religiousus." Miller, Richard E. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 22-38. Print.
Sacks, Oliver. "The Mind's Eye: What the Blind See." Miller, Richard E. And Kurt Spellmeyer. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 303-317. Print.
Thurman, Robert. "Wisdom." Miller, Richard E. And Kurt Spellmeyer. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 460-473. Print.
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
13166 require that public entities receiving federal funds must have all vital documents available in every language that their clients speak" (Schultz, 2011). Of course, it is worth noting that state laws and federal laws approach the idea of an official language differently. There are state laws that have made English the official language in just over half of the states in the United States. This may be appropriate because states are more likely to have homogenous groups than the nation as a whole. However it is critical to realize that Title VI applies even to those states that have declared English as an official language. In other words, states cannot overrule the federal government's protection for non-English speakers.
If the majority of the United States speaks English, one may wonder why anyone would worry about protecting the right to speak a different language. Having a single language would certainly…
Brunner, B. (2011). Urdu spoken here: the U.S. is more multilingual than you might think.
Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/multilingual1.html
Crawford, J. (1990). Language freedom and restriction: a historical approach to the official language controversy. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Effective Language Education Practices website: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/NALI2.html
English First. (2011). About English first. Retrieved from http://www.englishfirst.org/about
CL's "Hello itches" and the Post-Feminist Representation of the ody
In the music video by CL entitled "Hello itches," CL has managed to escape the constriction of the typical K-pop girl group (sexy, innocent, seductive, chic) by asserting a more aggressive, masculine-mimicking (gagsta-rap-mimicking to be exact), hyper-sexual attitude of domineering vibes; yet, in doing so, she has fallen into another and separate trope -- not the trope of the cute/sexy K-pop artist but rather the trope of the strong, feminist, sexually assertive/aggressive pop artist (a trend represented in various modes by others such as Nicki Minaj, Iggy Azalea, eyonce, Lady Gaga). CL's performance in the video channels the swagger of chauvinistic hip-hop artists, who wave and strut and bounce in front of the camera while surrounded by their posse and/or cadre of scantily clad women. For CL, her posse is the cadre of women -- but here they are donned…
Gill, Rosalind. "Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility," European
Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 10, no. 2 (2007): 147-166.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media, critical edition, edited by W.Terrence.
Gordon. Berkeley, California: Gingko Press, 2013.
Sex, Body, and Identity: How the Language of Metaphor Functions in Various Physically-Challenged Individuals' Expression of Identity and Selfhood
In her memoir aist-High in the orld: A Life Among the Nondisabled [sic], author Nancy Mairs, who writes about how having Multiple Sclerosis (MS) had impacted her self-image, body image, and day to-day life, observes that:
In biblical times, physical and mental disorders were thought to signify possession by demons. . . People who were stooped or blind or subject to seizures were clearly not okay as they were but required fixing
Mairs's detailed, often painfully honest reflections on dealing with (in her case, progressive) physical disabilities, e.g., difficulties with walking, sitting, standing straight; brushing her teeth (capabilities most take for granted) shed light on the myriad physical, psychological, emotional, and other challenges that daily fill the lives of those with physical disabilities. Narratives written by individuals with physical disabilities ranging…
Fries, Kenny. Body Remember: A Memoir. New York: Dutton,1997. Retrieved
July 26, 2005, from: .
Hockenberry, John. Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Retrieved July
26, 2005, from: .