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Bond Pricing the Most Fundamental
Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 82343339
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For example, if the Fed sees inflation as a risk going forward, the market will place a weighting on that statement, allocating some form of increased interest rate to the future cash flows.

At the time of course, the exact implications of the Fed's comments are unknown. They imply that rates may move in one direction or another, but they are not an actual movement and the Fed reserves the right to change its mind before it meets again. The bond market is thus working with imperfect information. This can lead to general price movements but of unknown quantity. Over time, a reasonable correlation can be established, such as the elasticity of bond prices in relation to, for example, strong warnings from the Fed about inflation. Such a correlation can be drawn with a large enough sample size that it can be used in bond prices.

Overall, though, the exercise…

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Advanced Bond Concepts: Bond Pricing. Investopedia. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from /university/advancedbond/advancedbond2.asp

No author. (2009). The Grand Illusion. The Economist. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from 

Heakal, Reem. (2009). Forces Behind Interest Rates. Investopedia. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from

Bond Issuance Before Bond Issuance
Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58831478
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Bond-buyers are also traditionally older and might have been more leery about investing in a new technology such as the Internet during the 1990s.

The choice of these companies to pay a higher rate of return to compensate for the greater risk would have defeated the purpose of the corporation issuing bonds in the first place, as what makes the issuing of bonds so attractive is that the interest rates on bonds that corporations must pay investors are traditionally lower than rates for most other types of borrowing ("How Corporations Raise Capital," U.S. Department of State, 2007). For young, untried companies like the Internet companies of the 1990s this would not necessarily be the case, thus it made more sense to generate revenue through issuing common stock, as if the company faltered for a time, this would not have to be repaid, and buyers of stock were the right, less-risk…

Works Cited

Comparing Stocks, Bonds, and Cash Equivalents." American Funds. 6 Jul 2007. 

How Corporations Raise Capital." U.S. Department of State." Jul 6, 2007.

Bond Review Compare and Summarize a Separate
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10771342
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ond Review

Compare and summarize a separate article on why companies or individuals invest in bonds.

There are a variety of reasons as to why a corporation or an individual will purchase bonds. Some of the most notable that were previously discussed include: safety, steady returns and they are providing diversification to the portfolio. To determine the accuracy of these findings we will compare these ideas with those from a piece literature that will be examined. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the overall advantages that bonds are offering to: corporations and individuals.

The article that we will be examining is titled the Tax Advantages of Pension Fund Investments in onds. This was selected, because it can provide specific insights about why this particular asset class has become so popular. At the same time, it will offer historical insights about the advantages that bonds have over…


Black, Fisher. "The Tax Advantages of Pension Fund Investments in Bonds." NBER Working Paper, 1980. Web. 15 May 2011.

Bond From a View to
Words: 1455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97153437
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For Your Eyes Only

"Bond had time for these reflections because M. seemed to be having difficulty in coming to the point. Bond had been asked if he had anything on at the moment, and he had replied happily that he hadn't and had waited for Pandora's box to be opened for him. He was mildly intrigued because M. had addressed him as James and not by his number -- 007. This was unusual during duty hours. It sounded as if there might be some personal angle to this assignment -- as if it might be put to him more as a request than as an order. And it seemed to Bond that there was an extra small cleft of worry between the frosty, damnably clear, grey eyes. And three minutes was certainly too long to spend getting a pipe going."

This passes introduces Bond to the reader in the…

Bond Risk
Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36178557
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The formula for valuing a bond is:

P0="t"1nIi (1+i) t+PVn (1+i) n=Presentvalueofcouponpayments+Presentvalueofbond'sparvalue

In the scenario given, n=10 in order to get a value of $1,277.98. This price is at a premium, meaning above the par value. Bonds are price above par value when the interest rate on the bond is higher than the interest rate in the market. When the rate in the market is higher than the coupon rate on the bond, the bond will have a price below par value. So in this case, with the price of the bond being $1,277.98, that assumes that for the next ten years, this bond is going to pay a rate higher than what the market rate is at present. Because the bond holder is receiving a premium, the bondholder must pay for that premium. This can present a problem for the bond holder, in that they will receive back…


Curtis, G. (2014). Six biggest bond risks. Investopedia. Retrieved May 8, 2014 from  

Bond in General the Price I Would
Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1095220
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In general, the price I would pay for this bond will depend on the risk that the company has. My personal risk preference is that I am risk averse. I expect inflation to continue to be very low over the next year, but increasing slightly from current levels. The prevailing interest rates are low, which means I would expect the corporate bond rates to also be quite low. The company I have selected is Johnson & Johnson, and I do not believe that there is any default risk with this company. They are a large, stable company with a large cash position and stable earnings. They have a wide range of products, meaning they are well-diversified. In addition, that company has increased its earnings steadily over the past several years. They compete in a number of different industries as well. Thus, there is little risk that Johnson & Johnson…

Bond Duration
Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5605634
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The WSJ Treasury rate table is as follows. Note that WSJ doesn' t list the 15 and 20-year Treasury rates on its table; Yahoo was used for those instead.


This gives the following yield curve:

This is a normal yield curve. The yield curve reflects the expectations of future interest rates. At present, the yield curve shows low interest rates in the short-term, then an acceleration of rates in the longer term indicating that these rates are expected to rise slightly in the next few years, before the curve starts to flatten out at its tail. This illustrates the normal relationship that the longer the term is the higher the rate will be.

The portfolio is as follows:




Current Yield













Freddie Mac





Federal Farm Credit






Investopedia. (2014). Advanced bond concepts: Duration. Investopedia. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from  

Bond Between Pet and Owner
Words: 499 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43652379
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Pet Experience

Pet owners often describe the connection between themselves and their animals as something similar to the bond between a parent and their child, and while this can be seen as an exaggeration, for anybody who has loved and lost a pet the comparison is appropriate. During my first year of college I experienced the loss of a longtime pet, as my 14-year-old cat Jameson succumbed to old age after a long life. Not being there when he passed away was a bit painful, because Jameson was "my" cat in a sense, with my older siblings each having their own from a litter of kittens my parents came across one day way back when. Knowing that he exceeded the expected lifespan for a housecat was a point of comfort, but the loss hurt nonetheless, because I have a feeling Jameson was likely looking around the house for me during…

Finance Question 1 A Bond Ratings Encompass a
Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87720726
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Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss severity, "financial strength" and "transition risk" (Cantor & Fons, 1999). The authors note that within the same sector, bonds of the same rating tend to be comparable both with respect to overall credit quality and specific credit quality characteristics. Over different segments of the bond market, this is not necessarily the case. Bond ratings tend to take in factors like the balance sheet strength of the firm, as well as the expected loss in the event of a default. Thus, the type of assets that the firm holds is an important characteristic. The transition risk reflects the likelihood that the firm will experience outright default without transitioning down through the different risk categories. Firms that are almost assuredly going to…

Works Cited:

Cantor, R. & Fons, J. (1999). Rating methodology: The evolving meaning of Moody's bond ratings. Moody's. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from

Investopedia. (2012). Net present value. Investopedia. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from  

James Bond One of the
Words: 1622 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10937497
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Bond no longer needs to rely on the past glories of the British empire to justify his disregard for local sovereignty and governance, because the omnipresent threat of terrorism serves as justification enough. Highlighting this point is the fact that the man Bond kills at the embassy is a freelance bomb-maker, the kind of ideology-free terrorist par excellence, at least when it comes to villains one can kill without many ethical qualms. Put simply, the all-encompassing need to defeat terrorism, as advanced by the United States and adopted by its allies (including Great Britain), serves to justify any act, whether one is talking about the kidnapping and torture of detainees in real life or the extraterritorial murder of someone in a foreign embassy in Casino Royale.

Charting the use of extraterritoriality in James Bond stories, across media platforms and through time, demonstrates how the character functions as a kind of…

Works Cited

Campbell, Martin, dir. Casino Royale. 2006. Film.

EA Redwood Shores. James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing. Electronic Arts, 2003. Xbox,

Playstation 2, Gamecube.

Fleming, Ian. Diamonds Are Forever. New York: Random House, 2012.

International Mexico Local Currency Bond
Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86883650
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Nevertheless, the heavy reliance on such debt led in some cases to severe difficulties, as illustrated by the Mexican tequila crisis of late 1994 and the Brazilian crisis of 2001. In Mexico the problem happened when investors became increasingly reluctant to roll over their short-term peso-denominated cetes and instead shifted their funds to short-term dollar-indexed tesobonos. This shift to dollar-indexed liabilities supplied a temporary respite for the government but the short-term nature of outstanding securities also meant that the transformation in the structure of debt towards tesobonos was extremely quick. The rapid withdrawal of foreign investment from the domestic market at the end of 1994 and the resulting sharp drop in the Mexican peso resulted in an explosive growth in the peso value of dollar-indexed government liabilities, thereby adding a fiscal dimension to the external crisis (Jeanneau and Tovar, n.d.).

The local government bond market has expanded rapidly in Mexico…


Dalla, Ismail and Hesse, Heiko. (2009). Rapidly growing local-currency bond markets offer a viable alternative funding source for emerging-market issuers. Retrieved April 9, 2010,

from Vox Web site: 

Jeanneau, Serge and Tovar, Camilo E. (n.d.). Financial stability implications of local currency bond markets: an overview of the risks. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Web site:

U S Bond Market I Agree With Standard
Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2718106
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U.S. Bond Market

I agree with Standard & Poor's (S&P) downgrade of the U.S.'s credit rating. It was motivated by the fact that Congress and the Obama Administration had been unable to come up with a budget or fiscal plan that would stabilize the nation's medium-term debt dynamics. Furthermore, they cited serious problems with U.S. monetary and fiscal policy, which they felt left the United States very vulnerable in a time of high-volatility in the global financial markets (Paletta & Phillips, 2011). In other words, S&P was looking at the federal government's failure to come together and address the serious financial problems facing the nation and anticipating that this failure would lead to some type of gridlock. In hindsight, the nation has experienced exactly that type of predicted financial gridlock. The country is in significant debt and one party is opposed to raising taxes on those who can most afford…


Dorning, M., Detrixhe, J., & Katz, I. (2012, July 16). Downgrade anniversary shows investors gained buying U.S. Retrieved September 20, 2013 from Bloomberg website: 

Paletta, D. & Phillips, M. (2011, August 6). S&P strips U.S. Of top credit rating. Retrieved September 20, 2013 from The Wall Street Journal website:

Indian Stock and Bond Markets Do You
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87852972
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Indian Stock and Bond Markets

Do you think an investment in the Indian stock market is a good long-term investment?

The Indian stock market has experienced a number of fluctuations over the past 20 years or so that would suggest that investors might want to adopt a "wait-and-see" approach before making the plunge into these financial waters. For example, Schmidt and Hersh emphasize that, "The history of the operation of the Indian stock market has been dotted with brokers often unable to meet their commitments, allegations and proved instances of insider trading, and deliberate manipulation of stock prices by bears and bulls" (2000, p. 131). The prices for stocks listed on the Indian stock have experienced a number of highs and lows, with the most significant boom taking place during the period 1993 to 1995; however, although there have been some spikes, there has been a downward trend experienced since…


Kumar, R. (2007). Economic growth and volatility in Indian stock market: a critical analysis.

South Asian Journal of Management, 14(2), 47-48.

Schmidt, J.D. & Hersh, J. (2000). Globalization and social change. London: Routledge.

Sen, P., Bahel, N. & Ranjan, S. (2003, July). Developing the Indian debt capital markets:

Finance - Bond Pricing
Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 18103952
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Finance Discussion

The market for bonds is not always liquid, but the same bond should buy/sell at the same price, if at the same time. If not, this will create an arbitrage opportunity and that arbitrage will align the prices on the different markets where the bond was priced differently. However, at different times, the price can change, based on the underlying factors that affect bond prices (Feldhutter, 2012). One such factor is time. Each bond has a time value, which represents the present value of the future cash flows, and the risk that interest rates will change in that time. Thus, the same bond will see its price change, the closer it gets to maturity, even when the only thing that has changed is the time.

Other changes will also affect bond prices. A change in interest rates will affect the opportunity cost of owning a given bond, leading…


Diffen (2015). Stocks vs. bonds. Retrieved April 11, 2015 from 

Feldhutter, P. (2012). The same bond at different prices: identifying search frictions and selling pressures.

Investopedia (2015). Why do interest rates tend to have an inverse relationship with bond prices? Investopedia. Retrieved April 11, 2015 from /ask/answers/04/031904.asp

Morrison, R. (2012). Preferred shares an alternative to bonds, stocks. Financial Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015 from

Botswana Bond Market the Development
Words: 3039 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85313680
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Domestic debt is also needed for monetary policy purposes including for sterilizing inflows of foreign exchange." (Kahn, 2005) In addition bond markets assist in the provision of interest rates across the maturity spectrum and more efficient pricing of risk. y providing an alternative source of financing they reduce concentration of intermediation in banks. ecause lending can be hedged in the bond market, banks have the ability to lend longer." (Kahn, 2005) Kahn notes that PECC (2004) states general requirements for bond market development which include: (1) the simultaneous development of market width, market depth and market infrastructure; (2) effective coordination among government agencies; (3) close public-private sector partnership; and (4) regulation focusing on maintaining and enhancing transparency and the treatment of taxation. (Kahn, 2005) Kahn concludes by stating that if bond markets are to be development in SSA or in other emerging markets, the role of the state becomes critical,…


Adelegan, O. Janet and Radzewicz-Bak, Bozena (2009) What Determines Bond Market Development in sub-Saharan Africa? International Monetary Fund. IMF Working Paper. Sept 2009. Online available at: 

Armstrong's Guide to Investing and Doing Business in Botswana (2008) Online available at:

Developing Government Bond Markets (2001) International Monetary Fund -- A Handbook. 2001 July. Washington, D.C.

Zero Coupon Bond Is One
Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 73583171
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3. hen the expected rate of inflation changes, the expectations for future interest rates also change. An increase in inflation will bring an increase in interest rates, all things being equal. In such a situation, bond prices will go down. If the expected rate of inflation drops, bond prices will increase in anticipation of a potential interest rate cut. The intensity of the price change will depend on the maturity of the bond. Part of the bond's price is determined by its time value, which is the risk of an adverse change in interest rates. Longer bonds have greater interest rate risk, therefore they are subject to more intense changes as a result of changes in the expected inflation rate.

One outcome of this is a change in the yield curve. If inflation is expected to drop, bond prices will increase. This will reduce the yields. Because the long end…

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Current yield. Investopedia. Retrieved December 12, 2009 from  

Hirschis Social Bond Theory and Its Impact on the Juvenile Justice System
Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58417535
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Hirschi's Social Bond Theory

Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…


"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from 

Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from

Walt Disney Co bond issue
Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87618431
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Walt Disney Prospectus

#1 Disney offered a five-year bond at 4.5% for sale. These are classed as Global Notes and they were available in denominations of $2,000 minimum and $1,000 after the first $2,000. The notes cannot be redeemed prior to maturity, but the company can redeem at any time at fair value. These are fixed rate notes at 4.5% and they will be paid out semi-annually. The global notes means that they are cleared both in the United States and in Luxembourg, allowing the company to tap the European financial markets. One of the main underwriters, Deutsche Bank, is partly responsible for the European part of the issue. The debt is, however, wholly denominated in US dollars.

There are several steps that Disney undertook in order to enhance the marketability of the debt securities. First, the price and conditions of the issue need to be favorable for the market…


Disney Form 10-K for 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2017 from 

Ingram, M. (2015) Six years later, Disney's acquisition of Marvel looks smarter than ever. Fortune. Retrieved May 15, 2017 from 

Walt Disney Company prospectus: Global notes 4.5% due 2013. In possession of the author

Joint Venture of Plywood Oceanics and Bond & Bond Case Study
Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 25655978
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Technical Systems

Persistent Technicals Inc. (PTI) established in 1985, is a fast-growing dominant leader in system automation that specializes in the BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) methodology suited primarily for the municipal industry. With over 7,000 jobs, in its almost three decades of operations and experience, PTI commands a domineering presence in the industry it operates. Its business acumen, technological expertise, range of sactivity and financials are much better than most of the other companies that compete in the industry.

Engineering services provided by PTI include process information management, distributed control systems (DCS), programmable logic controllers and SCADA, project management, along with human machine interface (HMI), power monitoring,, the design and programming of remote telemetry, instrumentation, variable speed drives, motor and motion control, temperature control, and. It also provides for installation, commissioning and training, Custom panel fabrication, and technical on-site services.

The company has good insight of smaller third-party collaborations whose help is…


Technical Systems, Inc. (n.d). Retrieved from: / technical%20systems%20job%20cost%20and%20service%20management%20software%20case% 20study_20100224012352.pdf

Watching a James Bond Film One Often
Words: 2112 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23692701
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watching a James ond film, one often wonders. If the ond character were real, would he be able to experience a traumatizing situation -- killing a villain or escaping with his life -- and then straightening the lapels of his dinner jacket proceed to seduce a beautiful woman? While ond's celluloid heroics transport us as long as the movie lasts, we know that it is unrealistic, and comes from the imagination of Ian Fleming, who like most authors and novelists, probably sat at his desk tapping away at his Remington, letting his mind do the wandering or the conjuring, as was necessary for the plot.

Ernest Hemingway, we know, has lived his novels. He was larger than life, and he lived larger than life E.L. Doctorow, in a tribute to Hemingway, describes a day in Florida when Hemingway persevered after hooking a huge marlin to snag and capture it. ut…


Baker, C. (1963). "Ernest Hemingway: The Writer As Artist." Princeton: Princeton

University Press. p. 127.

Contemporary Literary Criticism (2000). "Ernest (Miller) Hemingway: A brief review of the author's life, works and critical reception." Contemporary Literary Criticism

Gale Literary Database. Retrieved on 6 April 2000 at

Transmedia Characters
Words: 2027 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97770693
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James Bond: A transmedia character

"This was going to be bad news, dirty news, and he didn't want to hear it from one of the Section officers, or even from the Chief of Staff. This was to be murder. All right. Let M. bloody well say so."

For viewers accustomed to the James Bond of cinema, reading The Living Daylights by Ian Fleming may come as something of a surprise. In contrast to the flashy, urbane, womanizing Bond of film, Fleming's secret agent seems much more subdued. Bond is first shown at a firing range -- although Bond is a crack shot, his prowess with a pistol seems very tame compared with the fantastic gadgets he has been saddled with in various films. When he meets with M, there is no flirtatious banter with Miss Moneypenny. It is clear that this Bond is a Cold War spy, with a serious…

Visual Communications the Character of
Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44268803
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James ond is presently one of the principal sexual concepts that the film puts across. Daniel Craig's ond is no longer seen as a very effective killing tool, as it shown as an object of admiration.

Craig's physical appearance is no longer a crime deterrent, as it is actually used with the purpose of impressing viewers. This ond is no longer yelling, as he speaks in a gentle voice and some might even be inclined to consider that he has become more sensitive. When considering ond's overall development, it appears that society is becoming more and more obsessed with the masculine body image and less preoccupied with manliness as an intellectual concept.

The masses in the 60s saw masculinity as an idea that needed to be exploited and largely believed that men had to be particularly aggressive in order to truly be appreciated by individuals around them. However, trends changed…


Caunce, Stephen, "Relocating Britishness," (Manchester University Press, 2004).

Lehman, Peter, "Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture," (Routledge, 2001)

Pang, Laikwan and Wong, Day, "Masculinities and Hong Kong Cinema," (Kent State University Press, 2005)

Value of Money My SLP Company Is
Words: 705 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 16990228
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Value of Money

My SLP company is Wal-Mart. For me I would pay less than $100,000 for this bond, because I know that the $100,000 face value of the bond is not going to have the same purchasing power in a year as it does today. The value of the bond will therefore be less than $100,000, based on the prevailing interest rate. Wal-Mart is a company with a high amount of cash flow that is quite reliable. Thus it is not expected that Wal-Mart would pay much in the way of interest, maybe 2% per year. This implies the value of the bond would be around $98,000.

The discount rate for this bond, based on a $98,000 price, would be 2.04%, as calculated by ($100,000 -- 98,000) / 98000. This reflects the return that the bond offers to the investor.

Target is a company in the same industry as…

Return on Financial Assets
Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66943507
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Return on Financial Assets

There are a number of factors that affect bond pricing. The basic bond pricing formula is as follows:


In this formula, the coupon payments, number of payments, interest rate and value at maturity are taken into consideration. The question at hand pertains to bonds that are the same in all characteristics except time to maturity and risk level. The risk of the bond will be reflected in the interest rate and the time to maturity will be reflected in the number of payments remaining on the bond. Initially, it is easy to make a couple of basic assessments. The corporate bond with AAA will be rated more highly than one with BBB. This places BBB (X bond) last. ith a lower time to maturity than bond , the third bond (Y) will have a lower yield to maturity, because the shorter time to maturity will…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2011). Advanced bond concepts: bond pricing. Investopedia. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from  

Rating Agencies in the International
Words: 2017 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69625111
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However, the coverage of credit ratings in Europe is being considered to a certain extent to be under developed in comparison to that of the United States as a result of the greater enhanced dependence upon bank intermediation. The rating penetration was even found to be quite different even within the quarters of the European Union as a result of the increased prevalence of the different types of financial structures with more or less financial disintermediation. The continuing internationalization / Europeanization of the level of fixed income portfolios however, are being expected to remain as a strong element of demand for the purpose of ratings in the European bond market. Besides, the ratings are also being required by the different regulators in the various areas. Presently, however, the new market-based methods for the purpose of evaluating credit risks have been derived from that of the equity prices, subordinated bond prices…


Bohn, John. A. How International Ratings Strengthen Financial Markets. Economic Reform

Today: Banking and Financial Reform. No: 1, 1995. Retrieved at . Accessed 14 October, 2005

International Credit Rating Agencies. Retrieved at . Accessed 14 October, 2005

Jorion, Philipe; Liu, Zhu; Shi, Charles. Informational Effects of Regulation FD: Evidence from Rating Agencies. March, 2004. Retrieved at'effects%20of%20credit%20rating%20agencies'Accessed 15 October, 2005

Functions of Financial Markets and Discusses Why
Words: 3238 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7792090
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functions of financial markets and discusses why a dollar tomorrow cannot be worth less than a dollar the day after tomorrow. Furthermore, the paper explains the cash flows associated with a bond to the investor. And discusses the term "price-earnings (P/E) ratio." In addition, the paper discusses the certainty equivalent approach to estimating the NPA of A project and discusses the problems associated with capital investment process. Lastly, the paper contrasts and compares capital budgeting and strategic planning assesses the agency problems associated with capital budgeting.

Explain the functions of financial markets

The existence of the financial market is just to help and maintain the relations between the users of the capital and the providers of the capital. They also provide an opportunity for both the parties to do transactions with mutual benefits. It is there so that the investor and the investment can do the business smoothly and at…


Bernardo, A., H. Cai, and J. Luo, (2002). Capital Budgeting and Compensation with Asymmetric Information and Moral Hazard. Journal of Financial Economics, 61, 311 -- 344.

Dessein, W., (2002). Authority and Communication in Organizations. Review of Economic Studies, 69, 811 -- 838.

Graham, J., and C. Harvey, (2001). The Theory and Practice of Corporate Finance: Evidence from the Field. Journal of Financial Economics, 60, 187 -- 243.

Harris, M., and A. Raviv, (2002). Allocation of Decision-Making Authority. working paper, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.

Transmedia Characters
Words: 789 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88795355
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James Bond's penis" author Toby Miller writes that after the 1960s: "masculinity is no longer the exclusive prominence of men, either as spectators, consumers or agents of power. And Bond was an unlikely harbinger of this trend" (Miller 233). Bond, rather than being a 'sexist dinosaur' and relic of the Cold War era (as he was once called by Judi Dench's M) actually an innovator in terms of the way he legitimized male sexuality on film. Miller sees Bond as questioning the male-centered gaze of desire presumed by the camera. It is Bond who leaves his women in a state of desire, never fully fulfilling their fantasies, even though he was viewed as exemplifying 'imperial decline' in the way he ruthlessly purses his self-interest in an amoral fashion as an agent in Her Majesty's Secret Service.

In the books, Bond is often shown burning with desire and having to put…

Anxieties of White Mississippians Concerning the Institution of Slavery
Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95207939
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Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery

In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.

Antebellum Slavery

The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…

Works Cited

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.

Horses: Bonding and Barrel Racing

Horses have always inhabited a fond role within the minds of humans. They are graceful, yet very strong creatures, which are capable of great feats. Their sheer speed and agility is astounding, as seen in the case of barrel racing. In fact, barrel racing is actually a quite located sport, requiring an extreme trusting relationship between the rider and the horse. It is crucial to help establish a bond early on, to ensure that the horse is more trustful of the rider's guidance. In this regard, it is more beneficial to raise a barrel horse, or purchase the paint in a recently purchased barrel horses everyday lives. It is crucial to be present in the trusting partner within the relationship between rider and horse in order to gain the type of trust needed to pull off the complicated maneuvers and extreme speed needed to be…

Works Cited

Gerlach, Jeremy T. "Barrel Racer's Special Bond with Horse is Taking them Far." MySA Web. 

Patterson, Rachel. "Raising vs. Buying a Barrel Horse." Barrel Horse News. 2013. Web. 

Vilhauer, Dave. "3 Barrels, 2 Hearts, 1 Goal." American News, 2013. Web.

Votruba, Cindy. "Bonded by Barrel Racing." Marshall Independent. 2010. Web.

Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services
Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 80753384
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Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…


Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available:  / archive/2013/0.

Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related

Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.

Advice Soa Financial Planning Purpose of This
Words: 3385 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31204884
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Advice (SOA): Financial Planning

Purpose of this document is to prepare a statement of advice (SOA) on the financial planning for David Smith and Brenda Smith to achieve their financial goals. The advice is to communicate important information to clients in order to make informed decision about their financial portfolios. This document is a Statement of Advice or 'SOA' used to explain my advice, and highlights the important points. Please, be sure to read all sections of the SOA.

Summary of my Advice

I recommend that you sell your shares and reinvest the funds in the managed funds, which will assist you to get a return between $17,000 and $29,000 a year. Moreover, I recommend that you invest 60% of your superannuation in the managed funds. I carefully choose the categories of the managed funds that you could invest your money. Based on my recommendation, you are likely to get…


Australia Government (2010).Investment Management Industry in Australia. Australian Trade Commission.

Garrett, S.(2008). The Benefits of Mutual Fund Investment in an Uncertain Economy. (Second Edition). Wiley Publication.

InvestSmart.(2013).Top performing Managed Funds. InvestSMART Financial Services Pty Ltd.

Investing (2013).Australia - Government Bonds. Fusion Media Ltd.

Pay Back Period Is the Length of
Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90396093
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pay back period" is the length of time that is required to cover the cost of an investment. I would use this in order to make a good financial decision.

The calculation that I would do is as follows:

"" d?

For instance, if a project costs $100,000 and is expected to return $20,000 annually, the payback period will be $100,000 / $20,000, or, in other words, $20 per 5 years.

The better investment is the one that has the shorter pay back period.(Investopeida)

Another tool that I would use to measure the time value of money to assess long-term projects is Net present value (NPV). Businesses use it to measure the value of a time series of cash flows both incoming and outgoing. For instance, when all types of cash flows are incoming (such as bonds or coupons), and the only cash outflow is the purchase price, the NPV…

Sources Debt and Equity Financing 

Benzinga. Com Understanding Stocks: The Concept of Beta Systematic risks and unsystematic risks.

Business Financing and the Capital Structure
Words: 1191 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97306476
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Business Financing and the Capital Structure

Generally, businesses need to make several financial decisions that have significant direct effects on their operations and success in the increasingly competitive marketplace. However, there are numerous varying options that are available to businesses regardless of the types and sizes. The concept of business financing has emerged as an important aspect in the modern business environment because of the various financial decisions to be made by different firms. The main aim of this concept is to generate enough capital for the business to meet its existing needs in order to promote the growth of the business. In addition to generating capital for the growth of the business, business financing helps firms to meet the recurring financial obligations.

Use of Financial Planning in Estimating a Corporation's Asset Investment equirements:

Financial planning can be considered as a process that is used to approximate the financial requirements…


Coplan, J.H. (2009, December 4). Raising Capital: Equity vs. Debt. Bloomberg Businessweek

Magazine. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from 

Melicher, R.W. & Norton, E.A. (2011). Introduction to finance: markets, investments, and financial management (14th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sharp, R. & Hua, W. (2004, January 4). International Investing: The Risks and Rewards.

Individual Financial Contingency Planning
Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7279253
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Individual Financial Contingency Planning

Temporary Assistance is the temporary help for the needy women, men, and children. If one is cannot find a job or the job is not providing enough, and unable to work, temporary assistance ill help in paying the expenses. There are two types of Temporary Assistance programs: Family Assistance (FA) and Safety Net Assistance (SNA). Family Assistance is the provision of cash assistance to the needy families, which include minor children living with their parents or caretaker relatives. According to Family Assistance, qualified adults are limited to receive the assistance for a period of sixty months in their lifetime (Gitman & Joehnk, 2007, p. 21). Once this time has expired, not all the family members are legible to receive family assistance and other benefits. Parents and other adults who have been receiving Family Assistance must comply with the requirements of the fed in order to receive…


Arvai, Z. & Driessen, K. (2009). Regional Financial Interlinkages and Financial Contagion within Europe. International Monetary Fund.

Cumming, D. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurial Finance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gitman, L. & Joehnk, M. (2007). Personal Financial Planning. New York: Cengage Learning.

Jackson, P. (2006). Nonprofit Risk Management & Contingency Planning: Done in a Day Strategies. Washington: John Wiley & Sons

Finance Problem Sets
Words: 418 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34702829
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bond pays you $1,000 at the end of this year (Year 1) and $1,500 at the end of Year 2. The current one-year spot rate is 4% and the current two-year spot rate is 4.5%. Calculate the duration of this bond.

Use DURATION function on Excel ?

Using the partial durations calculated in #4a, how much would the bond's price change if the one-year spot rate decreased by 100 basis points and the two-year spot rate dropped 50 basis points?

Percentage price change = - Duration x Yield change x 100

-2.6 * -0.01 * 100 = 2.6% increase for r1 =3%,

-0.005 * 100 = 1.3% increase for r2 = 4%

The one-year spot rate (r1) is 6%, and the forward rate for a one-year loan maturing in year 2 ( f2) is 6.4%. Similarly, f3= 7.1%, f4 = 7.3%, f5 = 8.2%. What are the spot rates r2,…