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Among the strengths of this strategic plan are its ability to collect data in a broad manner of ways, from interviewing individuals, using biometrics such as fingerprints and iris scans, and using various electronic means. By combining these different techniques and by having such a broad purview, the agency is capable of being able to have the necessarily broad view of the ways in which people and goods enter and leave the country.
Among its key faults is that it has consistently targeted individuals who are guilty of nothing at all, perhaps sharing the same name of someone who is wanted, or merely being Muslim or Arabic. This latter problem can deprive individuals of the civil rights that any individual who is in the United States (whether or not that individual is a citizen of the U.S.) is guaranteed.
Linked to this is the fact that people who are arrested…
Secure Borders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Fiscal Year 2009 -- 2014 Strategic Plan. http://www.cbp.gov/linkhandler/cgov/about/mission/strategic_plan_09_14.ctt/strategic_plan_09_14.pdf, 2008.
Secretary Napolitano Updates Congress on Border Security. Retrieved from http://www.c-span.org/Events/Secretary-Napolitano-Updates-Congress-on-Border-Security/10737424871/ . 2011.
Border Patrol protects the United States from potential terrorist activities, smuggling, trafficking, and illegal migration along the border. The operations and resource built base that has been conducted over the last twenty years has enabled U.S. Border Patrol to focus on the development and implementation of various Strategic Plans based on identifying high risk areas as well as targeted responses to meet such threats. This proposal is meant to serve as a means of examining Border Patrol policy, past implementation, and ways to develop better practices, better outcomes through identifying what has worked in the past and what is needed in the present.
Border Patrol is an intelligence-driven, risk-based, law enforcement organization and is part of a much bigger change within the United State Government's approach to homeland and border security. After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, such a tragedy has spurred a fundamental rethinking concerning cross-border movements,…
Amuedo-Dorantes, C., & Pozo, S. (2014). On the Intended and Unintended Consequences of Enhanced U.S. Border and Interior Immigration Enforcement: Evidence From Mexican Deportees.Demography, 51(6), 2255-2279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-014-0340-7
Bohn, S., & Pugatch, T. (2015). U.S. Border Enforcement and Mexican Immigrant Location Choice.Demography, 52(5), 1543-1570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-015-0416-z
Greenberg, M. (2014). American volunteer police. CRC Press.
Haddal, C. (2011). Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Diane Publishing.
He didn't have to say it but political posturing and the power of special interest lobbying will not stop anytime soon. Nor will the illegal immigrants who want a better life in the U.S. stop trying to come across into the U.S. And while all that goes on, the Border Patrol agents are out there on the front lines, doing their best to protect the border and risking life and limb in doing so. The families of Michael V. Gallagher (died Sept. 2, 2010) and Mark F. Van Doren (died May 23, 2010) can tell you how dangerous it is on the border with Mexico -- they both agents were killed in the line of duty this year (http://www.cbp.gov).
Kyl, Jon. (2010). Border Security. U.S. Senate. Retrieved Dec. 11, 2010, from http://kyl.senate.gov/print_page.cfm?file=legis_center/border.cfm.
Marek, Angie C. Border Battles. U.S. News & orld Report. 142.23. (2007): 46-50.
Obama, Barack. (2010).…
Kyl, Jon. (2010). Border Security. U.S. Senate. Retrieved Dec. 11, 2010, from http://kyl.senate.gov/print_page.cfm?file=legis_center/border.cfm.
Marek, Angie C. Border Battles. U.S. News & World Report. 142.23. (2007): 46-50.
Obama, Barack. (2010). Speech to the American University School of International Service.
July 1, 2010. Retrieved Dec. 12, 2010, from http://www.whitehouse.gov .
Border agents will be allowed to make arrests on city streets, by Gregory Alan Gross, San Diego Union Tribune, August 16, 2003.
An order that angered many San Diego-Based Border Patrol agents and caused a firestorm of public outcry from conservatives, anti-immigration activists, and "law-and-order" advocates, has been rescinded by higher-ups in Washington, D.C. It is now legal again for the 1,600 Border Patrol agents who work for the San Diego office to stop and question suspected illegal immigrants on city streets - in San Diego and in outlying suburban neighborhoods. On August 8, San Diego Border Patrol Sector Chief William T. Veal issued a memo which ordered the agents to cease their policy of stopping suspected illegal immigrants on the streets. The order stated that agents were barred from "any interior enforcement or city patrol operations in or near residential areas or places of employment." Why?
On August 2,…
Gross, Gregory Alan. "Border Agents will be Allowed to make Arrests on City
Streets." www.SignonSandiego.com:The San Diego Union-Tribune (2003).
Lipsky, Michael. Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public
Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,1980.
In this sense, White has underlined the fact that "the Social Security Administration remains solvent in large part due to deductions taken from the paychecks of illegal immigrant workers, yet Social Security will never pay benefits to those workers. The workers pay in, but they never receive back" (White, 2010). Therefore it can be said that the illegal immigration has a win-win situation.
Overall it can be concluded that the present administration is clearly focused on a hard core policy planning which incurs extremely high expenses. However, the Mexican legal migration system also takes into account the benefits of Mexican immigration. Thus, as stated above, they represent a source for income, for cheap labor, and the availability of Mexicans to come tot he U.S.. Finally in analyzing the matter, it is clear that their eventual contribution reaches levels of social accounts and state accounts. Overall, the migration of Mexicans is…
Barack Obama.com. Organizing for America: comprehensive immigration reform. 2010. Available at http://www.barackobama.com/issues/immigrationreform/index.php
Global Security.org. "U.S.-Mexico Border Fence / Great Wall of Mexico
Secure Fence." Homeland security. 2010. Available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/mexico-wall.htm
Migration information center. The U.S.-Mexico border. MPI Staff. 2006. Available athttp://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=407
Improving the United States Custom and Border Protection Agency
Alden, E. W. (2012). Immigration and Border Control. Cato Journal, 32(1), 37-46
Like Polner, in Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice, the author of this particular article identifies the need to ensure that border security benefits the economy of the country. In so doing, he seeks ways of making "border security compatible with a sensible immigration system that strengthens the U.S. economy rather than weakens it." Unlike the other authors listed in tis text, Winter also gives a brief history of U.S. border patrol. This article will come in handy as I seek to highlight the consequences of the border security enforcement approaches in place currently. The article also outlines the various strategies that could be utilized in seeking to further enhance the flexibility as well as effectiveness of border security in the future. Its relevance cannot, therefore, be overstated.…
Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border
Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border
The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…
Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.
BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm
Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
Combating Criminal Narcotics Activity Along Southern order
The initiatives the 2009 Recovery Act funds must accomplish program-specific goals, and must be developed for furthering at least one of its general purposes, which are creation and preservation of jobs, promotion of economic recovery; assisting individuals most adversely affected by recession; providing investments required for increasing economic efficiency, through spurring technological advancements in health and science; investing in environmental protection, transportation, and other infrastructure which will offer economic gains in the long-term and stabilization of local and federal government budgets, for minimizing and preventing increases in counter-productive local and State tax, and reductions in vital services (FDA, n.d.).
Identify two or three goals of your program
Goal #1: Recovery Act: Job Preservation
A significant decline has been seen in manpower at the Drug Enforcement ureau in the last eight months, with a loss of four squads. These posts were transferred, because of…
FDA. (n.d.). Recovery Act - State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Program. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. Retrieved from: https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=core&id=62fe817b03c850cffccc8a74d8bb2665
NSBCS. (2013). NATIONAL SOUTH WEST BORDER COUNTER NARCOTICS STRATEGY. Office of National Drug Control Policy.
Wals, J. (2012). Project Eagle Eye. U.S. Department of Justice .
Allowing more legal migrants from Mexico will not only save lives, it will decrease the terrible practice of smuggling, and it will free up the Border Patrol to concentrate on more important issues, such as drug smuggling and national security. Legal migration is an important issue that needs to be addressed by Congress, so that more people can enjoy the freedom and prosperity of living in America - legally and without fear of reprisal or deportation.
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human ights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican elations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April…
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human Rights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican Relations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April 2002. 24 Nov. 2004. http://www.aila.org/contentViewer.aspx?bc=9,576,2199,579
S. - Canadian border. And what makes it all even worse is that even U.S. Border Patrol Agents need to sleep every once in a while so less than a third of the 1,000 are on duty at any one moment. The real number is secret but a safe guess could be that fewer than 250 agents are on-duty defending us from the dozens of known terrorist cells operating in Canada. Of the 22 U.S. Border Patrol Sectors, there are only seven are considered absolutely critical to a secure America (Northern Border, n.d.).
The Detroit Sector for instance is one of these. It is accountable for 804 miles of total wilderness between Michigan and Canada. The Detroit area is home not just to wilderness but to the city of Detroit which has the largest Muslim populace anywhere outside of the Middle East. With a Muslim population exceeding 150,000, Detroit is…
Ackleson, Jason. (2009). From "Thin" to "Thick" (and Back Again?): The Politics and Policies
of the Contemporary U.S. -- Canada Border. Review of Canadian Studies. 39(4), p. 336-
Harwood, Matthew. (2009). DHS to Deploy More Cameras at Northern Border. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Security Management Web site:
The population concerns, and the amount of finance drained towards the social welfare of the immigrants pose threat to the U.S. economy. It is therefore important for the government to focus more towards the employment of the local population, and the immigration to the applicants should be granted on the basis of available job opportunities. The government has so far failed to deliver the economic grievances of the local population, therefore the amount sanctioned for the social welfare of the immigrants can be diverted towards the well-being of the local population the allocation of the funds towards security along the borders is justified because in many of the cases the immigrants have been associated with practices that are responsible for unethical and terrorist activities.
Gordon Howard Hanson. Why Does Immigration Divide America? Public Finance and Political Opposition to Open Borders Peterson Institute. 2005. pp. 51
Gary Scott Smith.…
Gordon Howard Hanson. Why Does Immigration Divide America? Public Finance and Political Opposition to Open Borders Peterson Institute. 2005. pp. 51
Gary Scott Smith. Faith and the Presidency: From George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford University Press U.S.. 2006. pp. 425
Reed Ueda. A Companion to American Immigration. Blackwell Publishing. 2005. pp. 142
U.S Department of Homeland Security. Office of Management and Budget. 2006
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…
6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.
Last accessed March 2010: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/
Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.
Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.
Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."
Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.
Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.
Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html >.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
September 11th shocked and enraged many people, in the United States and around the world. With that shock came a cry for change, a tightening of the open and free society in which we live. September 11th was an unprecedented occurrence, leaving many people personally affected and still others traumatized by the severity of the events and the seemingly senseless act against civilians. "What happened on September 11 is unparalleled by anything we have ever known. The attacks killed more than 5,000 people, injured tens of thousands more, and caused economic hardship and grief to hundreds of thousands more. From the New York attacks alone, more than 10,000 people lost a parent." (O'Brien, 2001, pg. 425)
This research work will attempt to analyze the real circumstances of change in the border between the U.S. And Canada since September 11th. It will answer several questions associated with the potential or real…
Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. 61-87.
Cornelius, W.A. (2001). Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended consequences of U.S. Immigration Control Policy. Population and Development Review, 27(4), 661-680.
Dozier, D. (1998). Employee communications at Kerr-McGee in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. Public Relations Quarterly, 43(2), 13-17.
Dunn, T.J. (2001). Border militarization via drug and immigration enforcement: Human rights implications. Social Justice, 28(2), 7-18.
As far back as the 1930s, the Texas angers became involved in the African-American struggle for full citizenship and civil rights. The angers were summoned to protect two Black men who had been called for jury duty. (Klarman, 2004, p. 154) Unfortunately, the same fabled angers operated on the other side of the fence when it came to their interactions with Mexican-Americans. According to Joan Moore in a 1970s work, "For decades the Texas angers terrorized the Mexican-Americans of the io Grande Valley, and even today, although they are reduced in numbers, los rinches are still used to 'handle' Mexicans." (Feagin, 2001, p. 218) the angers were also commonly used as a kind of border patrol. Though Mexicans and Mexican-Americans often suffered at their hands, the Texas angers came to be idolized by the State's White Population:
The Texas anger had acquired a strong and positive standing in myth, "eulogized,…
Bechtel, H.K. (1995). State Police in the United States: A Socio-Historical Analysis. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Campbell, R. (2003). Gone to Texas: A History of the Lone Star State. New York: Oxford University Press.
GEOPOLITICS OF ILLEGAL MIGATION IN THE U.S.
Slowing or stopping the flow of immigrants across the U.S. Mexico border has remained a hot political issue for several decades. The events of 9/11 only added fuel to the fire and politicians have repeatedly promised to plug the leaky border. Although the budget and manpower of the Border Patrol has been tripled since 9/11, leaders in congress felt more needed to be done. In 2006 the Secure Fence Act was passed into law, which authorized funding to build 700 miles of fencing along the most troublesome stretches of the Mexico/U.S. border (Ellis, 2011). By the end of 2008 only 120 miles had been completed. In 2006 the Secure Border Initiative awarded a billion dollar contract to Boeing to build a virtual fence along the border and by the end of last year only 53 miles had been completed. The past…
Coleman, Matthew. (2008). Between public policy and foreign policy: U.S. immigration law reform and the undocumented migrant. Urban Geography, 29, 4-28.
Ellis, Ashton. (2011, Jan. 21). Border fence update: Governing elites use promises to ease resistance for illegal immigrants' amnesty. Texas Insider. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://www.texasinsider.org/?p=41295
Jackson, Melinda S. (2011). Priming the sleeping giant: The dynamics of Latino political identity and vote choice. Political Psychology, 32, 691-716.
PEW Hispanic Center. (2011). The Mexican-American Boom: Births overtake immigration. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/144.pdf
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.
The existing framework for law enforcement and…
Boehm, E. (2013, August 20). New audit finds IRS can't keep track of its own software Watchdog.org. Watchdog.org - The Government Watchdog. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://watchdog.org/101977/new-audit-finds-irs-cant-keep-track-of-its-own-software/
Cillizza, C. (2013, May 21). Everything you need to know about the IRS scandal. The Washington Post: National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines - The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.washingtonpost.com /blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/05/21/what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-about-the-irs-scandal/
DOJ. (2004, November 1). Special Report: A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Prior to the September 11 Attacks. Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/0506/chapter2.htm
Poulson, K. (2013, August 29). New Snowden Leak Reports 'Groundbreaking' NSA Crypto-Cracking | Threat Level | Wired.com. wired.com . Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/08/black-budget/
In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…
Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28
August, 2005. Retrieved From
Accessed 31 August, 2005
United States, the scope of responsibilities of a sheriff varies across states and counties. The sheriff is most frequently a chosen/elected county official, serving as the arm of the parish court or county. However, some cities, a good example being the Commonwealth of Virginia, have a sheriff's office with dual purpose as the arm of the city jail and court. The sheriff can also perform court duties. These may encompass such functions as managing the city or county jail, providing courtroom security as well as prisoner transportation, assisting in serving warrants including serving process. Within urban areas, the sheriff may be constrained to those duties. Numerous other sheriffs as well as their deputies may serve an area as the main police force. In addition to also having jurisdiction over the whole county even in what some may consider more urban areas (Sullivan, osen, Schulz & Haberfeld, 2005, p. 123).
Sullivan, L., Rosen, M., Schulz, D., & Haberfeld, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Weir, W. (2011). Border patrol. New York: Chelsea House.
controversy is of Zylon® in body armor
The story of the controversy surrounding the use of Zylon® in body armor seems to be a rather predictable tale of the obfuscations of business and government concerning public health and safety, with the expected casualties and penalizing of its whistle-blowers. One of the differences and the many others that have emerged concerning product safety in this post-atomic age is that in this case it has only taken a single death for the biggest name in business to immediately recant and actively pursue some kind of resolution, even if it might not be what its customers would find perfectly ideal.
Zylon® is a fiber filament manufactured by Toyobo, a Japanese firm. It is used in the majority of the most popular bulletproof body armor types, and also in other commercial projects, including flame resistant clothing and equipment. Among the companies using Zylon® is…
Armor Holdings Products Division: "Letter to Customers." Accessed Feb 1, 2003 at http://www.napo.org/legislative-update/Zylon/LettertoCustomers.pdf
Bellis, Mary. "The History of Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek." Accessed Feb 1, 2003 at: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blkevlar.htm
Exeter news letter. "NH Cops Told Vests Not Bulletproof " Police One. Accessed Feb 1, 2003 at:... http://www.policeone.com/policeone/frontend/parser.cfm?object=PC&tmpl=custom&search=DTYGR-TACTC-BDARM&operation=full_article&id=71248
Honeywell Spectra. 'Technical Bulletin: Interpreting Accelerated Aging Test Results" Accessed Feb 1, 2003 at http://www.napo.org/legislative-update/Zylon/acceleratedaging.pdf
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
eforming any major national policy such as the immigration policy can be tedious at best. The current policy may not be perfect, but it is certainly working in any number of areas, as many studies indicate. These writers note, "We must recognize that in a multicultural, multiethnic, multi-perspective American society, the immigration debate must not be submerged in a unicultural, labor-economic perspective only, it must be examined multidimensionally" (Asumah and Bradley). Thus, reform may not be the answer. Instead, creating a new entity to deal totally with illegal immigration may be the best way to deal with the problems it entails. Immigration has always been the backbone of our country, and it must remain in place. Controlling illegal immigration, in all areas, is a better solution to the immigration policy dilemma, but it will not be easy.
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25.2 (2001): 82+.
Briggs, Vernon M. "Immigration Policy and the U.S. Economy: An Institutional Perspective." Journal of Economic Issues 30.2 (1996): 371+.
Delaet, Debra L.U.S. Immigration Policy in an Age of Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
Editors. "Immigration Impact - Texas." Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2002. 15 Nov. 2004. http://www.fairus.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=1511&c=9
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
growth of organized crime is best understood when situated within a broader societal context. Illustrate why this is so, giving specific examples from the lectures / required readings. Why is this understanding important for controlling organized crime?
It is prudent to consider organized crime within the broader societal context because research evidence and criminology theory has shown that such crime does not occur in isolation; rather, it is driven by a set of societal factors ranging from cultural values to corruption, political failures, and economic issues. Society, therefore, does have a hand in the emergence and continued development of organized crime; as a matter of fact, organized crime is integrated into society, and unless we can effectively conceptualize and understand society's role in fueling the same, we may not be able to devise a sustainable solution to the issue of organized crime.
Criminology theory and models give credence to the…
Beare, M. (2002). Organized Corporate Criminality -- Tobacco Smuggling between Canada and the U.S. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(3), 225-243.
Finckenauer, J.O. (2005). Problems of Definition: What is Organized Crime? Trends in Organized Crime, 8(3), 63-83.
Finckenauer, J.O. & Voronin, Y.A. (2001). The Threat of Russian Organized Crime: Issues in International Crime. The U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/187085.pdf
Galeotti, M. (2008). Criminal Histories: An Introduction. Global Crime, 9(1), 1-7.
Over the course of about a year, it appears that "in total, some 1,725 weapons appear to have been involved," with weapons subsequently showing up in both the United States and Mexico (Cochran 2011).
Operation Fast and Furious first raised the interest and ire of the public in June 2010, when a document showed that the ATF had lets at least 309 guns walk before subsequently losing track of them (Cochran 2011). The practice of allowing straw purchasers to complete their purchase in order to track the gun had been done before, but the lack of oversight and communication seen in Operation Fast and Furious meant that the process of tracking these weapons suffered a fatal breakdown, so that they were ultimately lost until they showed up again at the scenes of crimes. It was this scenario that ultimately ignited the firestorm of controversy now surrounding the program, because in…
Chu, Vivian, and William Krouse. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border. Washington DC:
Congressional Research Service, 2009.
Cochran, Sylvia. "Timeline of Ill-Fated Gun Smuggling 'Operation Fast and Furious'." Yahoo
News. Yahoo, 27 Oct 2011. Web. 22 Nov 2011. .
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement
Police methods have changed dramatically around the world in recent years due to the advent of geo-positioning and improved computer-aided mapping techniques. As has happened throughout the history of policing, law enforcement officials have always tried to use new scientific research to their benefit. Since the object is the safety and comfort of local citizens, a major aspect of the mission for police departments is to always use the most up-to-date methods for the detection and apprehension of criminals. With the advent of computer-aided geographic information systems (GIS), police now have the ability to approach crime in an entirely new way.
According to ich and Shively (2004) "geographical profiling was "born" in 1980 when a UK police investigator analyzed the locations of crime scenes of the Yorkshire ipper and computed the "center of gravity" of the crime scenes…." This beginning…
Alexander, M., Groff, E., & Hibdon, L. (1997). An Automated System for the Identification and Prioritization of Rape Suspects Proceedings of the Environmental Systems Research Institute International User Conference. Retrieved from http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap333/p333.htm
Canter, P. (1990). Using a Geographic Information System for Tactical Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.uml.edu/apattavina/44.594/Tactical%20Crime%20Analysis.pdf
Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Wiles, P. (2000). A comparative evaluation of approaches to urban crime pattern analysis. Urban Studies, 37(4), 711-729.
ESRI. (2008). GIS Solutions for Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/crime-analysis.pdf
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…
Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.
Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm
Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…
The White House. National Security Strategy. (2010, May). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Retrieved National_Security_Strategy.pdf
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Secure Boarders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection Fiscal Year 2009-2014 Strategic Plan. Retrieved CBP_Strategic_Plan.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan. Fiscal Years 2012 -- 2016. (2012, February). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved DHS_Strategic_Plan-2012-2016.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. DHS Risk Lexicon. Risk Steering Committee. (2010, September). Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
hen found, these labs must be dismantled by people wearing hazardous material suits." (Halperin 2006-page 1)
ith the huge budget allocated to Homeland Security, many of the tech-savvy drug producers and dealers can be tracked and busted with the same type of weaponry they use to create the drug product in the first place. Homeland Security's budget allows for the purchase and training for officials. This training allows them the capabilities to combat the ever increasing sophistry of the drug dealers.
That a high percentage of the crystal meth drug dealers also consume their product is another potentially dangerous situation. The drug itself can lead to paranoia and psychological problems and if the drug dealer is ingesting the drug the result is that many times the environment in which the drug is being produced is one of great volatility, both due to the nature of the chemicals themselves as well…
Booth, Stephanie, (2006) the Faces of Meth, Teen People, Vol. 9 Issue
Constantine, Thomas a. (2000) Victims: The Forgotten Ingredient, Albany Law Review, Vol. 63, Issue 3, pp 687
Crystal Meth (2006) Times Educational Supplement, Issue 4674, pp 11-14
Gaining Against Crystal (2005) Advocate, Issue 953, pg 24
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
Conflict and disagreement can provide the ground work for higher performance in organizations if Human esources professionals can funnel and transmute that energy into a positive force for growth and sustained development. Conflict is seen at a levels of human interaction, and all stem from the same principles of achieving or maintaining a certain power source or maintaining independence from an another powerful influential force.
The purpose of this essay is to examine conflict at the national level and determine some of the qualities and signs of conflict that can be used for developmental purposes. This essay will simply focus on the sources of conflict, as this procedure is very useful for human resources professionals to determine in order to fix them and correct the situation.
This essay will examined the sources of conflict for the national issues that deals with immigration. This current hot topic in the news is…
Shachar, M. (2011) Conflict Resolution Management (CRM). Text Book. Chapter 2.
A Power Point Presentation - Foundations of Conflict Resolution: Module 2
Guttman, H.M. (2009). Conflict Management as a Core Competency for HR Professionals. People and Strategy. New York: 2009. Vol. 32, Iss. 1; p. 32
easonable Suspicion and 4th Amendment Law in U.S. v. Arvizu, 534 U.S. 266 (2001)
Title and Citation: U.S. v. Arvizu, 534 U.S. 266 (2001)
Type of Action: eview by the U.S. Supreme Court of a ruling made by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which held that evidence should be suppressed as a result of a violation of the Fourth Amendment right to privacy and protection from unwarranted and unreasonable search and seizure. The federal government sought to overturn the motion to suppress that was upheld by the Ninth Circuit.
Facts of the Case: On a January afternoon in 1998 Border Patrol agent Clinton Stoddard was manning a checkpoint on U.S. Highway 191, located north of Douglas, Arizona. At approximately 2:15 P.M. A motion sensor was tripped and Stoddard was notified that a vehicle was traversing an infrequently travelled road -- evidence used by Border Patrol agents…
U.S. v. Arvizu, 534 U.S. 266 (2001)
U.S. Const. amend. IV
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).
Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…
"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.
24 Oct 2010. .
"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,
20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
Some of the myths surrounding immigration are based on misinformation, others on simple ignorance, still others on incorrect interpretations from the media. Based on the text and popular sources, it seems that there are four major myths -- despite the fact that the United States is, in fact, a nation of immigrants:
Immigrants steal jobs from American citizens -- Immigrants count for 12% of the population, but 15% of the workforce; a result of the aging American population. What people really mean is that illegal immigrants are stealing American jobs. This is not true, since immigrants tend to be concentrated in low-skilled or agricultural jobs that most Americans do not want.
Immigration is mostly illegal and at an all-time high -- The high-point of American immigration came in the late 19th century. In the 21st century, about 2/3 of all immigrants are here legally as naturalized citizens or…
e can see that minority status has far less to do with population size, and instead seems very much to be inclined by race, ethnicity and political power instead. This label of minority status is in many ways used as a tag by which certain groups are detained from political unity or effectiveness.
To a large degree, this is a condition which relates to the nature of the Hispanic demographic, which in spite of its cultural diversity, is typically perceived by the larger American public as a single unified entity. This is both untrue and reflects the ethnocentric qualities of the white American political body that have tended to relegate the Hispanic population to representation that is not proportional to its true presence here. Indeed, "although Mexican-Americans continue to be the largest group within the Latino population, increasing immigration from other Latin American means they are perhaps the most culturally…
Agencia EFE. (2009). Hispanics ask Obama for More Key Government Posts. Hispanic Business. Ret. Feb. 13, 2010 at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/politics/2009/4/30/hispanics_ask_obama_for_more_key.htm
Auerbach, a.J. & Oreopoulos, P. (1999). Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration. The American Economic Review, 89(2).
Bernstein, R. (2008). U.S. Hispanic population surpasses 45 million now 15% of total. U.S. Census Bureau News.
Borjas, G. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2).
There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.
Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…
Calavita, Kitty. Immigration, law and marginalization in a global economy: Notes from Spain. Law and Society Review (1998).
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Immigration Act of 1907. http://www.multied.com/documents/immigrationact.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Levinson, Peter. The facade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications. http://www.rightsworkinggroup.org/files/peter_article.pdf.(26 Apr. 2005).
Race, Class, and the Immigrant Experience
Jose Angel N.’s “Illegal: Reflections of an Undocumented Immigrant” is a tale of an undocumented migrant whose circumstances typify the influence of the migration policy issue in shaping illegal migrants’ lives. Though the author earns upward economic and social mobility by doggedly pursuing education, his life is characterized by a shaky personal and legal limbo which serves to eclipse his occupational and academic successes. This stance definitely doesn’t convince all audiences of the need for a more empathetic immigration policy. In the end, the book might best function as a fine accompaniment to other undocumented migrant-related researches and literature for scholarly audiences (Emily 470). American migrant experiences are closely associated with individual migrants’ nationalities, socioeconomic standing and race. The writer bravely tackles a few stereotypes specific to Mexican migrants, in a candid and personal manner. Migrant stereotypes have remained a grave issue, whether…
Scores of illegal Latin Americans work in the hospitality industry, construction, meatpacking, agriculture, and landscaping sectors. In fact, in some of the states it is said that almost half of the construction workers are from Latin America. There are arguments that if all these illegal immigrants were removed these jobs would improve the unemployment situation for the American citizens. It is also generally argued that the pay scale for low skilled jobs would also increase. Also, most of the illegal aliens utilize healthcare, education and other services without paying taxes causing significant drain for the government.
The above points are clearly valid but there are both positive and negative effects of illegal immigration. Economists feel that totally eliminating illegal workers would only marginally improve the pay scale for high school dropouts and would not have any significant impact for workers with higher qualifications. Furthermore, illegal immigration contributes positively as Americans…
1) Michael Barone, 'Living with Illegals', U.S. News and World Report, April 3rd 2006.
S.-Mexico boarder. Not only this, but the strengthening of the drug trade, as well as the potential for human trafficking and the smuggling of terrorists poses a potential catastrophe for the United States. While the U.S.-Mexico boarder has always been an area of contention among policy makers, the MS-13 gang makes the argument less about social policy and the future of immigration, but about criminal activity and the safety of citizens. If the gang is able to successfully organize, a network of criminals stretching between some of the world's most dangerous regions and the United States will have been established, allowing for the potential crumbling of the United States from within. At this point, the criminals would not even need to cross the boarder to communicate, as they could engage in communication through electronic means or word-of-mouth without even risking an attempt to cross the boarder. A second terrorist attack…
Department of Justice. (2009, April 22). MS-13 Leader Found Guilty of 2007 Murder in Springfield. [Press Release]. Virginia: United States Attorney's Office.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2009, May 1). A Courageous Victim Taking a Stand
Against MS-13. Retrieved May 22, 2009, from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web Site: http://www.fbi.gov/page2/may09/ms13_050109.html
Federal Bureau of Investigation: Baltimore (2009, May 11). MS-13 Member Sentenced to
The United States of America has long grappled with the problem of drugs and has form time to time initiated measures to combat the usage and trafficking of drugs. It is common knowledge that the various wars that have been part of the combat program of several administrations have failed miserably despite the availability of a great deal of resources, added to the colossal funding process. This is in addition to the numerous governmental agencies that operate to curb the drug trade and trafficking. Though the threat of drug usage and illegal trade is looming large, the danger is not always as proportionate as it is painted.
A certain amount of exaggeration that goes along factual details so as to create a sense of grave emergency that would work out to political benefits. ut it cannot also be regarded that the threat of drugs and their usage is…
DEA Resources for law enforcement agencies, Intelligence Reports' Retrieved at http://www.dea.gov/pubs/intel/02046/02046.html . Accessed on March 25, 2004
Drug Control Budget: U.S. 1981-2000' Retrieved at http://www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/law12.htm . Accessed on March 25, 2004
National Drug Control Strategy - 2001 - ONDCP' Retrieved at http://www.ncjrs.org/ondcppubs/publications/policy/ndcs01/chap4.html . Accessed on March 25, 2004
US RI: Edu Column: What are we fighting for?' Retrieved at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v03/n1535/a06.html?116Accessed on March 26, 2004
S. citizens. Presently around 11 million exicans live here -- 11% of exico's population. In 2007, these indinviduals sent home $23 billion, the country's second-largest source of foreign revenue after oil exports.
Castaneda notes that American support or lack thereof regarding exican migration appears to be based on during the economy. exican migrants may offer crucial reduced labor costs, but sentiment against migration and employment reduction back. "In this long historical process lies the reason why exicans in general see migration in a different light from Americans," writes Castaneda, "even well meaning ones, when the latter underline the imperative need for everybody to 'play by the rules.'" (2000, p. 37). Exactly what are those rules? Also, how can these rules keep on changing based on American needs, not exican? How can anyone respect the law, when they have been "American fiction'? Instead of this wishy washy policy, there needs to…
Mexico has to get into this game, as well, in developing a framework of an overall agreement that consists of legalization, expanded provisional labor programs, and border security and border development on both sides. Otherwise, it could be politically indefensible in Mexico. Whereas Mexico's nationalist leadership argues that the Mexican constitution does not allow a limit on freedom of movement, Castaneda replies that Mexico's Federal Population Law necessitates that people leave the country with correct papers from both Mexico and the country to which they are going, and through designated points of entrance/egress.
The belief that this pattern that has become integrated into the history of the two countries can be ended over night is impractical. When the U.S. once again needs the Mexicans either for labor or for support of a political or international cause, the whole process will expand once again. Unfortunately, it is the people who care about their children's well-being are the ones who suffer the most. As Castaneda says, "There is no such thing as a perfect immigration reform" (2008, p.193), but anything is better than status quo.
Castaneda, Jorge, G. Ex-Mex: From Migrants to Immigrants. New York: New Press, 2008.
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
At the same time, officials report an uptick in corruption-related investigations. Since October 2004, 136 Customs and Border Protection employees have been indicted on or convicted of corruption-related charges." (Becker, p. 1)
And on a broader institutional level, there is significant evidence that DHS, constructed to respond to threats of terrorism, has been used to justify the use of military and federal resources for preventing immigration along our shared border with Mexico. According to Sols (2010), "Through Sept. 7 this fiscal year, 176,736 criminal immigrants have been removed from the U.S. By Immigration and Customs Enforcement. That surpasses the total for all of last year, when 136,343 were removed." (Sols, p. 1) These figures suggest that Homeland Security's focus is highly susceptible to the political pressures of the time as opposed to the prevention of potentially catastrophic terrorist attacks.
Beyond this, because DHS is so generally unaccountable, it possesses an…
Becker, a. (2012). Homeland Security Office Accused of Faking Reports on Internal Investigations. Huffington Post.
Cordes, J.J.; Yezer, a.; Young, G.; Foreman, M.C. & Kirschner, C. (2006). Estimating Economic Impacts of Homeland Security Measures. George Washington Institute of Public Policy.
Martinez, C. (2008). Homeland Security's new border-crossing rules prompt concern over economic impact. The Monitor.
Sols, D. (2010). Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano: Focus is on criminal immigrants. Dallas News.
In the most extensive study till date including nearly 3,000 people, Prof Vega has revealed that acculturation to U.S. customs has a damaging impact in the U.S. He found double the rate of mental disturbance in U.S. compared to the latest happenings of immigration or Mexicans who stayed in their country. Prof Vega along with his team of associates found that U.S. born Mexican-American, the lifetime threat of being detected with any mental disorder was analogous to that for non-Hispanic whites which is 48.1% that roughly one in two people. However, in case of new immigrants and Mexican citizen, the rate dropped down to 24.9%. Besides, they found out that the rate of psychological effect went up progressively after immigration in such a measure that Mexicans who had stayed in the country for more than 13 years had roughly identical rate as who were born in U.S. (as Mexican Immigrants…
Causes and Consequences of California's Latin American Origin Immigration" Retrieved at http://clnet.ucla.edu/challenge/ccorigin.htm. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Chac n, Oscar; Rodr'guez, Aide; Shannon, Amy. (June, 2004) "Latino Immigrant Leaders Push for Immigration Reform: Background on Immigrant-Led, Community-Based Organization." Citizen Action in the Americas, No. 10; Americas Program, Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC) Retrieved at http://www.americaspolicy.org/citizen-action/series/10enlaces_body.html
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Special Case of Mexican Immigration" the America Enterprise online. Retrieved at http://www.taemag.com/issues/articleid.12114/article_detail.asp. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Marti, Dinerstein. (September, 2004) "Social Security 'Totalization' - Examining a Lopsided Agreement with Mexico" Retrieved at http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/back904.html . Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Immigration has become a very polarizing and contentious issues within the Untied States. The primary catalyst for such visceral responses on both sides of the argument often related to illegal immigration. President Donald Trump also caused social unrest due to his racist and often divisive characterizations of immigrants. His overwhelmingly negative stance, which was heavily echoed by his supporters caused widespread disagreement on how to handle illegal immigration. Trumps rally cry, and what was a heavily influence to his successful election was to build a wall on the Mexican/US border. The opposition vehemently believed that a wall was very anti-American and an inefficient use of tax payer funds. In addition to disagreement regarding the border, disagreements also arose on how to properly deter illegal immigration in the first place. Disagreements ranged from the manner in which to detain illegal immigrants, how to identify family members, how to properly repatriate immigrants…
References 1. Ronald Bayor, ed., The Oxford Handbook of American Immigration and Ethnicity (Oxford University Press, 2016)2. Roger Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American life (Harper Perennial, 2002)
The Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's Immigration Policy
Few issues currently featured in American public debate are clouded by as much emotional bias, invective and distortion as that of immigration reform. Particularly as this concerns America's shared border with Mexico, immigration is a discussion which carries significant political ramification, clear racial overtones and distinctions in ideology where American openness is concerned. As a result, many political figures have been moved to comment or drive policy on the issue-based less on the support of fact than on the employment of inflammatory rhetoric. And quite frequently, this rhetoric is presented with little concern for the logical fallacies which may underlie is basic formative claims. Rarely has this been evidenced with more vitriol or determination than in the state of Arizona over the last several years. In the context of our discussion, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer is particularly noted for her steady…
Biggers, J. (2011). How Arizona wrote the GOP's immigration platform. Salon.com.
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…
Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.
"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
Women and children are facing abuse all over the world, astonishingly, in countries where rights against abuse are more pronounced than in any other country. We are going to take the case of the abuse of immigrant women and children, mainly those who struggle to get into the United States of America through the Mexican border.
It's only in the 21st century that we have to come to notice the rapid increase of women and children immigrants moving out for job opportunities.
Men, usually get work as laborers in industries of some kind while the women or children have to do odd and low jobs just to make ends meet and earn enough money to send or take back to their family. They usually find work as hired help in places like Grande valley, El Paso, San Diego, and everly Hills. (Jane Juffer, 1988)
Furthermore, women face daily harassments by…
AP Worldstream. Female illegal immigrants reporting sexual assaults, abuse. TUCSON, Arizona; 2004
Jane Juffer. Abuse at the border: Women face a Perilous crossing. The progressive; 1988.
Tony Kennedy. Help for abused immigrants; The federal money will help women who are victims of domestic and sexual abuse. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN); 2003.
Jane Juffer. Indentured Servitude. The Progressive; 1988.
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework
Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.
Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…
Coker, M. (2012, March 6). U.S., Yemen Restart Training. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204276304577265321207513952.html
Homeland security. (2012, February 3). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240598490142.shtm
Intelligence.gov. (2012). Seventeen Agencies and Organizations United Under One Goal. Retrieved from website: http://www.intelligence.gov/about-the-intelligence-community/
Lee Myers, S. (2012, March 22). www.nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/world/us-intelligence-report-warns-of-global-water-tensions.html
A Talk with Thomas Jefferson: Understanding and Explaining the U.S. Government from a Centuries-Old Perspective
TJ: Did it work? Am I here? Did I make it as far as I intended? I told Sally to turn the crank as fast as she could, but I'm not sure my temporal advancement device is functioning properly and that Hemmings girl has a mind of her own, sometimes.
ME: Umm if you mean you built a time machine to take you to the twenty-first century, then yeah, it worked. It's 2012, to be exact. And you are…..
TJ: Thomas Jefferson, Agrarian Democrat, at your service. As you are at my service. And as we are both at service to society at large, and as society at large is at service to use, all equal in our powers, positions, rights, and responsibilities. Just how a democracy is supposed to work.
ME: Technically the…
limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States' president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken…
Department of Homeland Security (2002). The Department of Homeland Security as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Kate Martin. (2004). Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties. SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 8.
Logan, K. (2010). Homeland Security and Intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International.
National Security Strategy (2010). National Security Strategy as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
In this Immigration essay, we will offer some sample titles, topics, an outline, and structure that you can use to improve your writing. The start of any good essay is an interesting topic statement followed by a succinct and descriptive thesis statement. The Thesis statement acts as the direction from which a reader takes when examining the body and conclusion. Body paragraphs should include a background on the topic and sub topics addressing each part of the thesis statement. The conclusion is a brief recap of what was covered.
Immigration in the United States
Past and Present Immigration Patterns in the United States
Lost and Found: Immigration in the United States
Selected Title: The Birth of a Nation: Immigration
History of Immigration
Immigration Patterns in the United States
Effects of Immigration
The Congressional report card for 2007 goes on to say that an important part of leading an organization is to "provide clear statements of principles, priorities, and vision." But that said, it is unfortunate, according to the report card, that "...in spite of its mandate in the Homeland Security Act, neither the national policy nor the strategic plan...has been produced." During the fiscal year 2005 independent financial auditors reported that there were serious financial reporting difficulties for S&T that included "serious difficulties maintaining accurate financial records"; and moreover, the GAO has identified the same kinds of problems in 2007. So given that series of flaws, and the overall shaky management structure of DHS and S&T within the DHS, one can only conclude that the citizens of the U.S. should not feel safe, because they probably are not being protected as well as they could be.
Government Accountability Office.…
Government Accountability Office. "Department of Homeland Security: Science and Technology Directorate's Expenditure Plan." June 22, 2007. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2007, at http://www.gao.gov/news.items/do7868.pdf .
House Committee on Government Reform - Minority Staff Special Investigations Division.
The Growth of Political Appointees in the Bush Administration." May 2006. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2007 at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060503.pdf .
House Committee on Homeland Security. "The State of Homeland Security 2007: An Annual