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Borderline Personality Disorder
Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder are afflicted with a continual state of emotional conflict and chaos, often swinging from one extreme of emotion to another. Patients with BPD are traditionally known to exhibit symptoms of depression, anger and anxiety at varying times, and traditionally demonstrate self-injurious behavior. The road to treatment and recovery is often a different one, as traditional psychotherapeutic approaches often fail treating patients with DSM-IV. There is recent evidence that suggests that an integrative approach for treating BPD is best. This type of approach would combine cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacological intervention and traditional psychotherapy techniques to find the best possible outcome for BPD patients.
DSM-IV for Borderline Personality Disorder
The DSM-IV identifies symptom and behavior-based criteria for diagnosing this disorder. The diagnostic criteria for identifying borderline personality disorder according to the DSM-IV include: "a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects…
APA. (1994). "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed."
Washington D.C., American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T. And Freeman, Arthur M. And Associates (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Appelibaum, A.H.; Diamond, D.; Kernberg, O.F.; Koenigsberg, H.W.; Stone, M.H. &
The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that PD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (oucher, 1999, p. 33)
There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(oucher, 1999, p. 33)
Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the DP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. enjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that DP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to…
Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1992). Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1995). Quest For Answers A Primer of Understanding and Treating Severe Personality Disorders. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
Excerpt from Personality Disorder: Borderline. Retrieved November 3, 2005. Web site: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic270.htm
Beck A.T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
People living with mental illness are often marginalized, demeaned, and seen as being outside the normal boundaries of society. For people with BPD, this is doubly painful as it reinforces their sense of worthlessness and victimization, and may even lead to suicide attempts. For those who can recognize they have BPD, yet not know how to deal with it, the social stigma may lead them to attempt to cope with the disorder on their own rather than seek medical treatment. This is a failed situation that has no good outcome (Paris, 2002).
As chronic sufferers of BPD are often victims of abuse themselves, the pain associated with the early trauma may turn into a perpetuating cycle of repeated suffering as they struggle to cope with their disorder. As one doctor notes, there are nine potential symptoms of the disorder, and over 200 potential presentations; the possibility that the disorder may…
American Psychiatric Disorders. (2000). Diagostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition DSM IV-TRI. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.
Avirim, R., Brodsky, B., & Stanley, B. (2006). Borderline Personality Disorder, Stigma, and Treatment Implications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 249-256.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2007). 8-Year Follow-Up of Patients Treated for Borderline Personality Disorder: Mentalization-based treatment vs. Treatment as usual. American Journal of Psychiatry, http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/appi.ajp.2007.07040636v1 .
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2008). Comorbid antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders: Mentalization-based treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 181-194.
Within ten years, many of these approaches will become closer and closer to reality.
Currently, research into the biological basis of BPD is in its infancy. A great deal of concerted research is necessary to ascertain the specific impairment in the regulation of neural paths that modulate impulsivity, mood instability, aggression, anger, and negative emotions seen in the BPD patient. These are complex pathways, and it will require a significant amount of research to determine the precise changes that occur in BPD.
One of the more interesting and promising areas for research will be in the area of brain imaging. ecent research in this area shows that the ability to suppress negative emotions can be correlated with individual differences in the ability to activate areas of the prefrontal cortex involved in inhibition. Clearly, more research in this area will likely help to broaden our understanding of the impulsivity in BPD.…
Corelli, Richard J. Borderline Personality Disorder. 04 November 2004. http://www.stanford.edu/~corelli/borderline.html
National Institute of Mental Health. Borderline Personality Disorder: Raising Questions, Finding Answers. 04 November 2004. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bpd.cfm
Shapiro, E.R. (1978). The psychodynamics and developmental psychology of the borderline patient: a review of the literature. Am J. Psychiatry. 1978 Nov;135(11):1305-15.
According to Philip W. Long, M.D., "During brief reactive psychoses, low doses of antipsychotic drugs may be useful, but they are usually not essential adjuncts to the treatment regimen, since such episodes are most often self-limiting and of short duration. It is, however, clear that low doses of high potency neuroleptics may be helpful for disorganized thinking and some psychotic symptoms. Depression in some cases is amenable to neuroleptics. Neuroleptics are particularly recommended for the psychotic symptoms mentioned above, and for patients who show anger which must be controlled. Dosages should generally be low and the medication should never be given without adequate psychosocial intervention." (Grohol, 2007).
Other psychological treatments which have been used to treat this disorder include those which focus on social learning theory and conflict resolution. Typically these types of solution-focused therapies neglect the core problem of people who suffer from this disorder, difficulty in expressing appropriate…
Grohol, J.M. (2007). Borderline personality disorder treatment. Psych central. Retrieved August 17, 2010 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/borderline-personality-disorder-treatment/
Koekkoek, B., van der Snoek, R., Oosterwijk, K., & van Meijel, B. (2010, April). Preventive psychiatric admission for patients with borderline personality disorder: A pilot study. Perspectives in psychiatric care, Vol. 42, No. 2, Retrieved August 17, 2010 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=107&sid=9353f3dc-4155-4b1d-a2c8-f9f2ff18f4dc%40sessionmgr111
McGirr, A., Paris, J., Lesage, A., & Renaud, J. (2009, February). An examination of DSM-IV borderline personality symptoms and risk of death by suicide: A psychological autopsy study. Canadian journal of psychiatry, Vol. 54, Issue 2, 87-92. Retrieved August 17, 2010 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=12&sid=3911a1c4-6311-46a9-98ba-fbfc56580db0%40sessionmgr12&bddata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=36850660#db=aph&AN=36850660
NAI. (2010). What are the symptoms of borderline personality disorder? Facing the facts: When a loved one has borderline personality. Retrieved August 17, 2010, from BPDFamily.com: http://www.bpdfamily.com/bpdresources/nk_a102.htm
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), as is the case with several psychiatric disorders, is viewed widely as a consequence of the complex interaction of many factors such as psychological, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and genetic factors.
a) Genetic factors: There is growing evidence that BPD is genetic and can run in some families. A study of people with BPD has shown that the prevalence of BPD among the relatives of people suffering from the condition can be up to 20 times higher than the prevalence among people who don’t have a blood relative suffering from the condition. In Monozygotic twins, the concordance rate was 35% relative to a rate of 7% in dizygotic twins. This research was done by Torgersen and colleagues. This high concordance rate is linked to the role played by genetics in BPD etiology.
b) Neurochemical factors: Serotonin has been linked to impulsivity and aggression. If there is a…
Schizophrenia, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder
Investigate 3 Illnesses
Schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder are mental disorders usually diagnosed within patients that have problems with group dynamics. For the most part, all three disorders seem to indicate rather similar treatments, though there are, of course, specific medical treatments for the more extreme cases of each respective disorder. Yet when it all comes down to it, the three differ through a number of symptoms, causes, and severity.
Schizophrenia is a problem within the individual, one who mostly exhibits "unusual behaviors" (Bengston, 2001) that may disrupt the day-to-day activities of said individual or those around the individual's environment. Along with hallucinations and delusions, a person with schizophrenia could exhibit other symptoms, such as: disorganized speech, extreme negativity, and disorganized and catatonic behavior (Bengston, 2001). esearch has indicated at as much as 30% of those with schizophrenia cases attempt…
Abdel-Baki, A., Lesage, A., Nicole, L., Cossette, M., Salvat, E., & Lalonde, P. (2011). Schizophrenia, An Illness With Bad Outcome: Myth or Reality?. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(2), 92-101. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bengston, Michael, M.D. (2001). "Schizophrenia and Psychosis: Schizophrenia Information and Treatment Introduction." Psych Central. Web. 28 April 2011.
Bowins, B. (2010). Personality Disorders: A Dimensional Defense Mechanism Approach. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 64(2), 153-169. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a condition wherein the patient suffers from a difficulty in regulating his or her emotions (NAMI, 2018). Individuals suffering from BPD can lack impulse control, have a poor self-image, and experience severe emotional responses when stressed. The inability to regulate the emotions can lead the individual to lash out at the self and engage in self-harm in some cases (NAMI, 2018). Though three-quarters of individuals diagnosed with BPD are women, some research indicates that an equal number of men may also suffer from the disorder and simply not be diagnosed.
Symptoms of BPD include: strong sense of abandonment by friends or family, real or imagined; very unstable relationships with others, consisting of wild swings between intense love and intense hate; distortion of a sense of one’s self that leads to depression or delusions of grandeur; poor impulse control; self-harm or…
The review assesses the book's strong points, and gives good information on personality disorder, but does not point out any weaknesses, which makes it seem a bit biased. In addition, the review does not include the reviewer's qualifications for writing the review, and that would have made the review stronger as well.
It is clear the reviewer understands personality disorder and agrees with the findings of the author of this book. The review is helpful if a student is looking for a definitive text on the issue of personality disorder, but the review does leave out some key points that could have made an even stronger argument for purchasing this book and learning more about personality disorder.
Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the…
Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 5(6), 27.
adults become susceptible to avoidant personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder results in social constraint, feeling of insecurity and susceptibility towards criticism. Even if one want to socialize with others he is most often scared to. Being embarrassed in front of others horrifies individuals suffering from Avoidant Personality Disorders. As a result they usually withdraw themselves from social gatherings to avoid any sort of discomfort. John G. Gunderson in his article Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A etrospective Study outlines the risk factors and primordial exhibition of Avoidant Personality Disorders by investigating present perspective reports of social functioning and antagonistic childhood encountering.
Primitive social operative and pathological childhood experiences were investigated through a childhood experience questionnaire. It was shocking to find out that around 146 adults out of 376 patients suffered from Avoidant Personality Disorder.
Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement…
Gunderson J. Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A Retrospective
Study. 1 Sept. 2003.
personality" and personalities. Everyone has a personality, their own unique collection of traits and characteristics. The facets of a person's personality may be partly inherited and partly the result of the person's life experiences. In the personality disorder, the person has inflexible traits and patterns of behavior not typical of most people and that cause the person to function poorly in life. Up to 13% of people may have some kind of personality disorder.
"Odd" Personality Disorders: are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior that can include a high degree of suspiciousness or social withdrawal.
Paranoid personality disorder: is characterized by high levels of distrust regarding other people. Believing that others have it in for them, they avoid close relationships. They find proof that their suspicions are justified in the actions of others, which they perceive as either threatening or putting them down in some way. They are highly critical…
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…
American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.
Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.
Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…
Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:
Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:
Bipolar and Personality Disorder
Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder are also found to suffer from borderline personality disorder (Zimmerman & Morgan, 2013). While some of the symptoms and characteristics of both disorders are similar, it is important, as Zimmerman and Morgan (2013) point out, to distinguish between the two, as each requires its own form of treatment in order to allow the patient to overcome the issues associated with each. This paper will discuss the treatment considerations for a person presenting with both bipolar disorder and personality disorder.
DSM-5 (2013) states that the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are: “For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes” (p. 123). Mania is described as a…
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
Instead, the mock jurors were most likely to sentence dangerous defendants to death, regardless of the PCL- label attached to those defendants. In fact, defendants who were considered a high-risk of future violence but were not psychopaths were most likely to be sentenced to death.
This study was fascinating in many ways. First, like many studies, it suffered from a representation sample problem. The participants were first year psychology students, which means that they may already have been more educated than many jurors, particularly in the issue of psychopathy. However, the researchers address this issue by citing a study that indicates no difference in mock juror and real juror results. The study eliminated the jurors who were morally/ethically opposed to the death penalty, which reflects the reality of jury selection in capital cases. However, they also excluded a student for failing to answer some of the factual questions about the…
Blonigen, D.M., Sullivan, E.A., Hicks, B.M., & Patrick, C.J. (2012, January 23). Facets of psychopathy in relation to potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among female prisoners: the mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026184
Cox, J., DeMatteo, D., Foster, E. (2010). The effect of the Psychopathy Checklist- Revised in capital cases: Mock jurors' responses to the label of psychopahty. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 878-891.
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…
DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491 .
Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at http://www.fcnetwork.org/4thnorth/moral.html
Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));
d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)
Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central Website. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute Web site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
When he was a child he also had to be careful about bathing in special soaps and applying special creams to his skin. I recall there being times when his skin was tremendously dry and it would scale so badly that my brother didn't want to leave the house. My grandmother would apply apple cider vinegar to his skin, as it was believed to be a fungus, and it was thought that the apple cider vinegar would help cure the fungus. She also used to give him large quantities of raw garlic, which was believed to be able to fight mold. Sometimes she'd chop up the garlic into a paste and apply it to his scalp. Eventually, he saw a dermatologist who specialized in the condition who prescribed him a high level of hydrocortisone, a topical steroid that my mother had to apply to my brother's skin twice daily. It…
Allaboutdepression.com. (November, 5 2012). Environmental Causes of Depression. Retrieved from Allaboutdepression.com: http://www.allaboutdepression.com/cau_04.html
Hasler, G. (2010, October). PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of DEPRESSION: DO WE HAVE ANY SOLID EVIDENCE of INTEREST to CLINICIANS? Retrieved from Nlm.nih.gov: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950973/
Kreger, R. (2008). The Essential Family Guide to Borderline Personality Disorder: New Tools. Center City: Hazelden Press.
Kreger, R. (2010, March 25). Three Easy Ways to Differentiate Bipolar and Borderline Disorders. Retrieved from Psychologytoday.com: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/stop-walking-eggshells/201003/three-easy-ways-differentiate-bipolar-and-borderline-disorders
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
Susan Marx is a 31-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian woman who has completed 12 years of education. She was referred for complaints of depressed mood for the past month. hen asked why she referred herself she responded, "I am very depressed and cannot motivate myself to do anything." She also reports experiencing feelings of extreme sadness, hopelessness, lack of appetite, difficulty sleeping at night, decreased energy, some suicidal thoughts, and feeling as if everything she does is of no consequence.
Marx reported that her depression began following being terminated from her position as a secretary for an attorney. She reported that she had a "romantic" affair with her employer, who decided to end the relationship and then terminated her. Since then she is quite depressed and does not have the energy to clean her apartment which is becoming quite messy. She sits on the couch and watches television all day…
We must also not think of Ms. Marx as simply a victim, but her pathology also is also one of manipulation. Often individuals with personality disorders maintain pathogenic belief systems are complicated and characterized by conflict and are seemingly inconsistent (McWilliams, 1999). In the case of the borderline patient it is often assumed that the core underlying belief system is one of being abandoned or unsupported. While this is often a central core belief of borderline patients, an often overlooked and competing belief is one of manipulation or "I can manipulate people into being there for me." These beliefs of being able to manipulate others are often, like the core fear of abandonment, not explicit beliefs, like " The world is round" but more implicit beliefs that a manifest in intrapersonal behavior. Thus, the borderline patient is often known for their tendency to play people against one another in order to get them to take sides. The motivation for this is always to get someone, usually an easy target, to side with them and buy into their pathology. In Ms. Marx case she appears to try to get men attached to her by using sex and this can be a powerful tool in keeping them close to her. These core conflicting beliefs, that one can manipulate others into siding with them and at the same time believing that others are unconcerned about them, must both be addressed in order for treatment to be successful.
Ms. Marx demonstrates the tendency of many borderline patients to experience a dilemma based on the aforementioned core beliefs, when they get close to a person they will often become very anxious and panic because of fears of control or being engulfed by another; however, when they feel separated from others they experience anxiety and panic because of fears of abandonment. This often leads to a series of brief and intense relationships wherein Ms. Marx does not feel comfortable being close or apart.
Another issue with borderline patients is often with identity integration; borderline patients are
Girl, Interrupted, the author Susanna Kaysen talks about her year and a half in a "mental hospital."; The language is by turns funny, quirky, or brutally strong, but always shows remarkable insight into at least some facets of herself. J
The topic she either dodges or diminishes throughout the book is why she was there. She was a "voluntary admission," although she was obviously under great pressure from both family and the psychiatrist who admitted her. She acknowledges that she made a suicide attempt, although she saved herself by getting herself to a public area where she collapsed.
In the beginning of the book we are told that the psychiatrist seemed to focus on a pimple she had picked at that day. The suggestion at this time is that the psychiatrist wildly over-interpreted this to get to a common symptom of her diagnosis, "borderline personality" -- self-mutilation. Then at the…
Borderline personality disorder feels like one of those disorders that almost everyone has to some degree; that is probably why people who have it—i.e., who are diagnosed with it—are so interesting: people can relate to them. Other extreme examples of this disorder could include Holden Caulfield from Catcher in the Rye and Marla from Fight Club. I think we all probably even have friends or family members who would fit this diagnosis. Why is it so common? While psychotherapy would be a helpful treatment approach, I myself would be more inclined to cognitive behavioral therapy. One of the things I think people who are bipolar probably resent is being probed by a psychiatrist. They know how they are and they are not interested in exploring the reasons with a stranger. Maybe some are, but I think the character in the film you are talking about would…
Carlson, E. N., Vazire, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2011). You probably think this paper\\\\'s about you: narcissists\\\\' perceptions of their personality and reputation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 101(1), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023781
Lecci, L. B. (2015). Personality. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
File, A. A., Hurley, R. A. & Taber, K. H. (2017). Borderline personality disorder: Neurobiological contributions to remission and recovery. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 29(3), A6-194. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17050097
Lecci, L. B. (2015). Personality. Retrieved from
In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.
According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…
Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men
American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755
First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm
Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
63-64) (I hate you, don't leave me review).
The last three chapters deal with treatment and coping skills, which presents an emphasis on communicating with the borderline client. The authors present a system designed to facilitate this and that is called Support Empathy Truth (SET). (p. 101-103). The first stage, Support, is a personal statement of concern about the borderline person. Empathy is an acknowledgment of the person's feelings. Finally, there is Truth, which recognizes the existence of a problem and addresses more practical issues of how to solve it. The SET system is used to defuse unstable situations. From there, the authors provide suggestions about how to cope with certain scenarios and characteristics of the borderline patient (I hate you, don't leave me review).
For many borderline clients bibliotherapy may be a helpful addition to psychotherapy because it would promote active participation in the therapeutic process even when the…
According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).
The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…
James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.
House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.
Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.
Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…
Bolyn, M. (2011).Activities for teaching coping skills to the youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/129996-activities-teaching-coping-skills-youth/
Salters-Pedneault, K. (2010). Coping Skills for Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://bpd.about.com/od/livingwithbpd/a/Coping.htm
These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
(b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect different areas from those affected by the antipsychotic drugs. These include Clozapine (Clozaril) -particularly effective in younger people, isperidone (isperdal) and Olanzapine (Zyprexa).
(c). other significant medication-these can also help suppress the symptoms and include Antidepressants, Antianxiety drugs, Lithium (for bipolar disorder) and Antiepileptic drugs.
(d). Electroconvulsive ("Shock") Therapy-where low voltage electric current is induced into the patient to cause seizure. It is of late considered to be safer than drug therapy.
(e). Psychotherapy- this is where the different professionals like the psychologists, some nurses, psychiatrists and social workers work together to study and help treat the patient along side using drugs. It exploits the cognitive behavior of the individual where the normal positive behavior is emphasized. It follows on the…
All Psych, (2004). Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/dsm.html
Health Information Publications, (2011). What Is Schizophrenia? Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://ehealthmd.com/library/schizophrenia/sch_whatis.html
Grohol, M., (2006). Schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm
Case Story Bipolar Disorder
A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah
I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.
Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…
Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.
Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86
Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S
In order to quantify the security of a relationship, Ainsworth and her colleagues designed this system of 'Strange situation' for evaluating individual differences in children with particular emphasis on responses to several series of separations and further reunions with their mothers. The formation of this procedure has sparkled with plenty of literature subsequently, analyzing the progress of mother child attachments, the influence of attachments to other caregivers, and the correlates and effects of secure and insecure attachments. It has become recognized as the most widely accepted procedures in the research of child development. (Arcus, Doreen: Ainsworth, Mary (1913- ))
There was no prior knowledge to Ainsworth that an individual could introspectively explain the way one behaved and felt instead of concentrating on the way the external forces mould the behavior. The concept of 'Strange situation' considered family as the secure base from which a developing individual can move out to…
"Ainsworth, Mary Dinsmore Salter (1913-1999)" Retrieved from http://encyclopedias.families.com/ainsworth-mary-dinsmore-salter-1913-1999-21-23-chdv Accessed 25 October, 2005
Arcus, Doreen. Ainsworth, Mary (1913- )" Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000364
Accessed 26 October, 2005
'Biography: Mary D. Salter Ainsworth" Retrieved from http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch03/ainsworth.mhtml
Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…
AllPsych. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
AllPsych. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
Jen is a 19-year-old female of mixed ethnic background. When asked what her therapeutic goals are, Jen states that she wants to "get over" the physical abuse she was subjected to her from her mother's ex-husband (her stepfather). In the third therapy session with Jen, she abruptly claims that she may not be continuing with therapy because she is just "therapist shopping."
Also in this session, Jen mentioned for the first time that she works as an exotic dancer. She asks with a belligerent tone, "You don't have a problem with that, do you?" Even though there was no response, Jen quickly defends herself, saying, "I love my work. I make so much money. There is nothing else I can do to make this much money. All my friends work harder than I do but they make less than me! I mean, I not only pull in what I make…
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…
Bland, Ann R., Georgina Tudor & Deborah McNeil Whitehouse (2007, October). Nursing care of inpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder.
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.
Retrieved from FindArticles.com on February 16, 2009 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3804/is_200710/ai_n21099913?tag=content;col1
Mangnall, Jacqueline & Eleanor Yurkovich. (2008). A literature review of deliberate self-harm.
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…
Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.
Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,
D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.
Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
Biopsychosocial Approach to Treating Self-Injurious Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
My initial thoughts/feelings on the topics were: (This section contains your general feelings on the topic and NOT what the readings have informed you.
Initially, I did not have much knowledge about self-injurious behavior (SIB). Though I had from time to time heard about the behavior, it never actually crossed my mind that it is a behavior that could warrant significant medical attention. In my life, I have actually not encountered an individual with the behavior. I have not even heard many people mention or talk about it. I thought that people who would perhaps contemplate harming themselves are suicidal people, substance abusers, or insane people. In fact, I thought the behavior was more relatable with non-human animals as opposed to humans. I did not even think the behavior was evident in children. I also viewed it as some…
References in APA format and submitted on time and followed format: (10 points)
Askew, M., & Byrne, M. (2009). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(3), 115-119.
Jefic, J. (2010). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(2): 51.
Juhnke, G., Granello, P., & Granello, D. (2010). Suicide, self-injury, and violence in the schools: assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Wilkinson, B. (2011). Current trends in remediating adolescent self-injury: an integrative review. The Journal of School Nursing, 27(2), 120-128.
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Girl Interrupted by Donnie Darko
Girl Interrupted is a movie with the physical location being in a psychiatric facility and the time location dated back to the 1960s. Suzanna, the main character is brought into the facility following spirited efforts by her parents to convince her through a family friend that she needs help to get through her psychiatric problems and that she would be in a better position to receive this help from a psychiatric hospital.
Susanna reports to the hospital and she is seen to be shocked by the new environment with psychiatric patients, she feels out of place. Susanna is scared of Lisa in particular, a sociopath feared by many other patients, however, with time Suzanna gets used to Lisa. There are other significant people to the plot of the movie that Susanna meets at the hospital, Georgina who is portrayed as a pathological liar,…
Mary C.T., (2011). Nursing Diagnoses in Psychiatric Nursing. Retrieved March 4, 2015 from https://ryanzer.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/nursing-diagnoses-in-psyciatric.pdf
Medicine Net, (2012). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Retrieved March 4, 2015 from http://www.medicinenet.com/borderline_personality_disorder/article.htm
1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?
One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).
Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to…
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.
Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.
Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.
Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.
Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf
Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.
American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender
Social modeling has therefore been floated to be a factor in the basic etiology of self cutting and other studies also indicate that many teens engage in the act as a result of their peers being engaged in the same act as outline by Nock and Prinstein (2005).There is therefore a strong warning that group counseling of persons who take part in this act should be avoided as a result of the contagion effect (Walsh, 2006). This in other words cancels the possibility of Steven receiving counseling at the same time for their problems. They can however be exposed to activities such as regulation of their emotions (Lieberman, 2004; oss, et. al., 2009).
I do believe that there are various issues that affect the youth of the contemporary society. It is therefore important that the various technological changes as well as social-economic changes have adverse effects in their…
American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.) Washington DC: Author.
Dulit, R., Fryer, M., Leon, A., Brodsky, B., & Frances, A. (1994) Clinical correlates of self-mutilation in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(9), 1305-1311.
Gardner, A.R., & Gardner, A.J. (1975). Self-mutilation, obsessionality and narcissism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 127-132.
Kaplan, H. And Johnson, R. (1992) Relationships between circumstances surrounding initial illicit drug use and escalation of drug use: moderating effects of gender and early adolescent experiences. In Vulnerability to Drug Abuse (eds M. Glantz and E.W. Pickens) pp 299-358.
By rejecting the correspondence theory of truth (namely, as truth corresponding to reality) and postulating instead a relative strata of truth as consisting of a construction of the human mind, the axes are a set of subjective opinions formulated by a socially privileged and credentialed class of individuals who are separate from their prescribed reality (Duffy, et al. (2002). Caplan (2001) (in (Duffy, et al. 2002) provides an instance of social wrongs that can consequent from this with the DSM recommendation for a new category called "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder." Not only is there no hard evidence to support this category, but also the symptom could have been caused by environmental, instead of biological, causes. emove the environmental stressor and no such 'disease' exists. Instead the DSM axes, created by socially privileged individuals, only harm these women and teens and destroy their socioeconomic status still further by labeling them with an…
Cooksey, E. & Brown, P. (1998). Spinning on Its Axes: DSM and the Social Construction of Psychiatric Diagnosis, International Journal of Health Services, 28, 525-554
Duffy. M., et al. (2002). A critical look at the DSM-IV. Journal of Individual Psychology, 58, 363-373.
Gergen, K., Hoffman, L., & Anderson, H. (199) Is Diagnosis a Disaster?: A Constructionist Trialogue Relational Diagnosis, Wiley.
Gillig, S. (1995). Warning: this diagnosis can be hazardous to your health. Counseling Today, 38, 36-37
Evelyn C. is a 36-year-old homemaker and mother of two children from a previous marriage. She has a drinking problem that frequently results in her being inebriated when her children return home from school. Her drinking was initially triggered by arguments with her husband, John. ecently, she failed to pick up her children from school because she was intoxicated, and created a tremendous scene at her children's school when she eventually went to pick them up. She seems unaware of the impact that her behavior has on her children and seems to think that people are responding disproportionately to any inconvenience caused by her drinking.
The DSM-IV-T uses five different levels, or axes, to diagnose patients presenting with signs of mental illness or mental disorder. The five axes are meant to be used together to help paint a broad picture of the patient in order to develop the most comprehensive…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Appendix A: Differential diagnosis of substance-induced disorders (not including dependence and abuse) in DSM-IV-TR (pp.685-
729) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Personality disorders in DSM-IV-TR (pp.685-
729) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Criminal Law and Psychopathy
Various studies have in the past indicated that there is a high correlation between violence/criminal behavior and psychopathy. This would largely be expected given that psychological studies into the character and disposition of psychopaths has demonstrated that the need for control (or power) as well as egocentrism, which also happen to be the dominant character traits of psychopaths, are predictors for deviant or antisocial behavior. The debate on whether or not psychopaths should be held criminally responsible for their acts, and thus be subjected to criminal punishment, has been raging for a long time. On one side of the debate are legal scholars, lawmakers, and judges who are of the opinion that psychopaths have an existing predisposition to commit crimes as a result of their lack of concern or compassion of any kind for those they hurt. Psychopathy is on this front regarded as…
The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.
Bragazzi, N., Pezzoni, F., & Del Puente, G. (2014).Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents.Health Psychology Research, 2(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/hpr.2014.1546
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed: A review. New York: Norton
Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals that were Sexually-Abused as Children
Introduction to Sexual Abuse in Children
Sexually-abused children commonly develop problems that persist into adulthood. Child sexual abuse has come to be regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The influences of child sexual abuse on interpersonal, social and sexual functioning in adult life has only recently attracted attention. esearch into child sexual abuse was initiated by the self-disclosures of adults who publicly admitted to their abuse as children. These victims, predominantly women, often attributed personal difficulties to their sexual abuse as children.
Early research into the effects of child sexual abuse frequently employed groups of adult psychiatric patients (Jones, 1974), which further reinforced the emergence of an adult-focused psychiatric discourse about child sexual abuse. The manner in which child sexual abuse has been brought to the public's eye and the nature of the advocacy movement…
Arias, I. (2004). The legacy of child maltreatment: long-term health consequences for women. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 13(5), 468-473.
Brodsky, B.S., Oquendo, M., Ellis, S.P., Haas, G.L., Malone, K.M., & Mann, J.J. (2001). The relationship of childhood abuse to impulsivity and suicidal behavior in adults with major depression. Am J. Psychiatry, 158(11), 1871-1877.
Coffey, P., Leitenberg, H., Henning, K., Turner, T., & Bennett, R.T. (1996). The relation between methods of coping during adulthood with a history of childhood sexual abuse and current psychological adjustment. J Consult Clin Psychol, 64(5), 1090-1093.
Cole, P.M., & Putnam, F.W. (1992). Effect of incest on self and social functioning: a developmental psychopathology perspective. J Consult Clin Psychol, 60(2), 174-184.
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
The MCMI-III consists of 24 clinical scales and 3 modifier scales. The modifier scales are meant to identify the subject's attempts to hide or exaggerate mental illness, or to either try too hard to mimic or ignore socially desirable responses. The Clinical Personality Patterns scales involve the major DSM personality disorders and the last ten scales reflect Axis I and other severe clinical syndromes. This enables a therapist to immediately identify the most potentially serious aspects of a client's pathology that need to be addressed (Vaknin 2009).
Critics note that the multiaxial model of mental illness is not universally accepted. Furthermore, some of the diagnoses, such as borderline personality disorder, are controversial in the ways that they may be over-diagnosed amongst certain population groups, such as women. However, advocates of the test suggest that it is uniquely well-suited to highlight the interaction between personality and psychopathology in a short period…
Millon MCMI. (2009). Psychcorp. Retrieved November 11, 2009 at http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/haiweb/cultures/en-us/productdetail.htm?pid=PAg505&Community=CA_Psych_AI_Behavior
Vaknin, Sam. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). Self-growth.
Retrieved November 11, 2009 at http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Millon_Clinical_Multiaxial_Inventory_MCMI-III.html
Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."
This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)
Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.
Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…
Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.
Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.
Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.
Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
Coping ith Depression
Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.
Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…
Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.
Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
Effects of child abuse in adulthood
Child neglect and abuse are usually a result of the interactions of several environmental, societal, family and individual factors. Child neglect and abuse are not unavoidable- steady, safe, and nurturing environments and relationships are crucial for prevention. Prevention of child neglect and abuse could also prevent other kinds of violence, given that certain kinds of violence are interconnected and have common protective and risk factors, repercussions, as well as tactic of prevention (CDC, 2019). Child neglect and abuse together with other negative childhood encounters could also have significant influence on an individual’s lifetime health and wider wellbeing if left unattended to. For instance, being exposed to violence in early childhood raises the risks of future perpetration and victimization of violence, injury, delayed development of the brain, sexually transmitted diseases, taking part in sex trafficking, reproductive health issues, restricted employment opportunities, lower academic success,…
Dorrepaal, Thomaes, Smit, van Balkom, et al. (2010) address the topic of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) which often occurs following a history of child abuse. Complex PTSD has associated features in addition to the normal symptoms of PTSD that make it much more difficult to treat. As social workers will most likely encounter clients/patients suffering from PTSD symptoms and patients suffering from child abuse this topic is relevant to social work practice.
The researchers are primarily interested in knowing if stabilizing treatment normally used for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders is effective for patients with Complex PTSD, particularly women with PTSD and childhood sexual abuse. The research question is evaluative.
As this study is in the brief communications section does not contain an in depth literature review. The literature review in this study simply describes the features associated with Complex PTSD and presents the questions of…
Dorrepaal, E., Thomaes, K., Smit, J.H., van Balkom, A.J., van Dyck, R., Veltman, D.J., & Draijer, N. (2010). Stabilizing group treatment for complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse based on psycho-education and cognitive behavioral therapy: A pilot study. Child abuse & neglect, 34(4), 284-288.
Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics
(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York:
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
There are certain interactions that may cause toxicity
The drug may be administered orally without regard to meals.
The seriousness of an overdose of Lamictal depends on the ingested amount. There are however several non-life threatening symptoms of overdosing Lamictal with symptoms raging from ataxia, dizziness, somnolence and headache. However, in certain cases of overdose, the patient would experience renal and liver failure, delirium, rash as well as coma. The lethal dosage is lower for children. All suspected cases of Lamictal overdose should be treated as a medical emergency and the patient should be taken for immediate medical attention.
Lamictal has been very effective in the treatment and management of epilepsy and depression. A review of literature however suggests that it has certain risks in its administration. It is therefore necessary to be careful when taking or prescribing this medication. There are reports that the drug Seroquel…
GlaxoSmithKline (2004). LAMICTAL®(lamotrigine) Tablets
Goa KL, Ross SR, Chrisp P. Lamotrigine.(1993)A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy. Drugs 1993;46:152-76
Keck, P., and McElroy, S (2003) New Approaches in Managing Bipolar Depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64 (suppl 1).