Borderline Personality Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Psychology Personality Disorder Borderline Personality

Words: 312 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11696871

The review assesses the book's strong points, and gives good information on personality disorder, but does not point out any weaknesses, which makes it seem a bit biased. In addition, the review does not include the reviewer's qualifications for writing the review, and that would have made the review stronger as well.

It is clear the reviewer understands personality disorder and agrees with the findings of the author of this book. The review is helpful if a student is looking for a definitive text on the issue of personality disorder, but the review does leave out some key points that could have made an even stronger argument for purchasing this book and learning more about personality disorder.


Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the…… [Read More]


Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 5(6), 27.
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Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1198736

The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…… [Read More]


Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.

Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25899608

adults become susceptible to avoidant personality disorder.

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder results in social constraint, feeling of insecurity and susceptibility towards criticism. Even if one want to socialize with others he is most often scared to. Being embarrassed in front of others horrifies individuals suffering from Avoidant Personality Disorders. As a result they usually withdraw themselves from social gatherings to avoid any sort of discomfort. John G. Gunderson in his article Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A etrospective Study outlines the risk factors and primordial exhibition of Avoidant Personality Disorders by investigating present perspective reports of social functioning and antagonistic childhood encountering.

Primitive social operative and pathological childhood experiences were investigated through a childhood experience questionnaire. It was shocking to find out that around 146 adults out of 376 patients suffered from Avoidant Personality Disorder.

Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement…… [Read More]


Gunderson J. Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A Retrospective

Study. 1 Sept. 2003.
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Personality and Personalities Everyone Has a Personality

Words: 1179 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74287462

personality" and personalities. Everyone has a personality, their own unique collection of traits and characteristics. The facets of a person's personality may be partly inherited and partly the result of the person's life experiences. In the personality disorder, the person has inflexible traits and patterns of behavior not typical of most people and that cause the person to function poorly in life. Up to 13% of people may have some kind of personality disorder.

"Odd" Personality Disorders: are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior that can include a high degree of suspiciousness or social withdrawal.

Paranoid personality disorder: is characterized by high levels of distrust regarding other people. Believing that others have it in for them, they avoid close relationships. They find proof that their suspicions are justified in the actions of others, which they perceive as either threatening or putting them down in some way. They are highly critical…… [Read More]

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Histrionic Personality Disorder Hpd Is

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90364721

The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.

As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.

Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.

Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.
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Analyzing the Personality Psychology Phenomenon

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97920269

Personality Psychology

Character: Patrick aterman- 'American Psycho'

A unique concept of personality theories is generated in American Psycho. This character has been cross examined through the principles of psychoanalytic theory. There character exhibits a super ego driven by skewed moral patterns and an id (self-perception) that lets out all the deeply held fantasies of which it has been deprived. The case demonstrates the possibility of the superego and the id coalescing to stir sadistic violence and failure to distinguish between the real and that exists only in perception. This unique predisposition also means that self-actualization is seen to be a possibility for any form of behaviour. Although it is easy to class aterman as an evil person, his needs are met in line with the hierarchy of needs. This happens until his heinous and violent acts emerge a continuation of the skewed ideals shared in a way with his victims.…… [Read More]


Ellis, B. E. (1991). American Psycho (1st ed.). New York: Vintage.

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2009). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon

Pearce, J. (2014, November 30). Patrick Bateman of American Psycho: A sexual profile. Retrieved from Lapsus:

Schaffer, C. (2013). Examining the Personality of Patrick Bateman of. Walden University.
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Personality Type as a Predictor

Words: 3103 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8027733

All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.

In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…… [Read More]


Bowden-Jones, O., Iqbal, M., Tyrer, P., Sieverwright, N., Cooper, S., Judd, a., & Weaver, T.

2004). Prevalence of personality disorder in alcohol and drug services and associated comorbidity. Society for the Study of Addiction. 99: 1106-1314.

Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Heath, a., Kramer, J., & S***t, M. (2000). A latent class analysis of antisocial personality disorder symptom data from a multi-centre family study of alcoholism. Addiction. 95 (4): 553-567.

Craig, R., Verinis, J., & Wexler, S. (1985). Personality Characteristics of Drug Addicts and Alcoholics on the Millon Clinical Multiazial Inventory. Journal of Personality
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Personality Psychology the Narcissim and Borderline Conduct

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28192625

Personality Psychology


Marilyn Wedge. (2015, April 15). Help, Am I a Narcissist? etrieved from Psychologist Today:

Many are unaware that there is a big difference between the names narcissism and ordinary selfishness which have a lot to do with personality disorders. That article talks about how in the American culture today, mental distress is a big deal. The author also add that personality disorders are another issue that people are dealing with today. Each appear to have leaked from the offices of psychiatrists into the general talks. The author made a good point that people usually think of themselves in labels. For example, rather than being sad, a lot of times people are depressed. ather than being orderly, people are just OCD. ather than being energetic and active, even the children of families appear to be ADHD. The author then hits the main topic…… [Read More]


Marilyn Wedge. (2015, April 15). Help, Am I a Narcissist? Retrieved from Psychologist Today:

Zimmer, E. (2009, April 15). Teen Angst Turns Deadly. Retrieved from Psychology Today:
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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]


Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:

Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:
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Biological Humanistic Approaches Personality The Paper Cover

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11424023

biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.

Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:

An overview of the debate

Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Hierarchy of needs.

Coccaro, Emil F. & Larry J. Siever. (2008). The neuropsychopharmacology of personality disorders. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress,

Davidson, Richard. (n.d). Towards a biology of personality and emotion. Annals New York
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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from .
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Hitler's Personality and Rise to Power Adolph

Words: 2883 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4563154

Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power

Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current

File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03


In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 6369 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74077030

Often is forgetful in daily activities

10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions

11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate

14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"

16. Often talks excessively

17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn

19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)

20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home

21. Often loses temper

22. Often argues with adults

23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules

24.…… [Read More]


The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at
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Psychopathy a Concealed Personality Defect

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25529889

The psychopath must be made to realize that his behavior is useless and disadvantageous. And the therapist should find and use a vantage point to encourage socially acceptable behavior in the psychopath. Over and above, the therapist should invest enormous patience, time and money to the whole effort. Thorne believes it will require an investment of $15,000 every year for up to 10 years to obtain satisfactory result. However, no controlled research has been undertaken on this approach. The overall investment is too great for many to embark in (Cleckley). #


Cleckley, H. (1988). The mask of sanity. Georgia C.V. Mosby Company. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from

Clercq, . d. (2007). Childhood antecedents of personality disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry: Medscape. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from

Rutter, M. (2005). What is the meaning and utility of the psychopathy concept. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: Plenum…… [Read More]


Cleckley, H. (1988). The mask of sanity. Georgia C.V. Mosby Company. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from

Clercq, B. d. (2007). Childhood antecedents of personality disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry: Medscape. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from

Rutter, M. (2005). What is the meaning and utility of the psychopathy concept. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on April

22, 2009 from;col1
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Psychopathy in Relation to Potentially

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24802788

Instead, the mock jurors were most likely to sentence dangerous defendants to death, regardless of the PCL- label attached to those defendants. In fact, defendants who were considered a high-risk of future violence but were not psychopaths were most likely to be sentenced to death.

This study was fascinating in many ways. First, like many studies, it suffered from a representation sample problem. The participants were first year psychology students, which means that they may already have been more educated than many jurors, particularly in the issue of psychopathy. However, the researchers address this issue by citing a study that indicates no difference in mock juror and real juror results. The study eliminated the jurors who were morally/ethically opposed to the death penalty, which reflects the reality of jury selection in capital cases. However, they also excluded a student for failing to answer some of the factual questions about the…… [Read More]


Blonigen, D.M., Sullivan, E.A., Hicks, B.M., & Patrick, C.J. (2012, January 23). Facets of psychopathy in relation to potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among female prisoners: the mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026184

Cox, J., DeMatteo, D., Foster, E. (2010). The effect of the Psychopathy Checklist- Revised in capital cases: Mock jurors' responses to the label of psychopahty. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 878-891.
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Bpd Is Related to Secure

Words: 10546 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3194760

Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:

1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;

2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.

3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.

Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]


DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at

Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at 

Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Features and Comparison of Various

Words: 1655 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68980890

e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));

d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).

orks Cited

American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).

Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at

Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at

Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at

From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)

Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).

Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central Website. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at

Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute Web site retrieved November 24, 2003 at 

Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at
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Person in My Life Who

Words: 1870 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99907197

When he was a child he also had to be careful about bathing in special soaps and applying special creams to his skin. I recall there being times when his skin was tremendously dry and it would scale so badly that my brother didn't want to leave the house. My grandmother would apply apple cider vinegar to his skin, as it was believed to be a fungus, and it was thought that the apple cider vinegar would help cure the fungus. She also used to give him large quantities of raw garlic, which was believed to be able to fight mold. Sometimes she'd chop up the garlic into a paste and apply it to his scalp. Eventually, he saw a dermatologist who specialized in the condition who prescribed him a high level of hydrocortisone, a topical steroid that my mother had to apply to my brother's skin twice daily. It…… [Read More]

References (November, 5 2012). Environmental Causes of Depression. Retrieved from 


Kreger, R. (2008). The Essential Family Guide to Borderline Personality Disorder: New Tools. Center City: Hazelden Press.

Kreger, R. (2010, March 25). Three Easy Ways to Differentiate Bipolar and Borderline Disorders. Retrieved from
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Psychology Definitions Psychosis Loss

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85134043

Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.

Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.

Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.

Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.

Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.

Chapter 14

Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]

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Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Dialectical

Words: 2722 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12226336

For them to survive crisis they are equipped with the skills to; self-soothing, thinking of the pros and cons, improving the moment and looking for destructive things to do. They can also exhibit acceptance skills by turning the mind to accept, radical acceptance and willingness vs. willfulness.

Individuals with under this therapy are taught how to regulate their emotions. This is because most of those suffering from this disorder are known to be angry, depressed, intensely frustrated and anxious among other behaviors. The steps taught towards emotional regulation include; identification and labeling of emotions, identification of obstacles to any change of emotion, reducing of vulnerability to having an emotional mind, by having more positive emotional events, giving the patient the ability to control the current emotions and wherever a negative one presents itself he/she can take the opposite action, and lastly, he/she can apply the distress tolerance techniques taught (Heard,…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kenberg, O.F. (2007). Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study. The American Journal of Psychaiatry, 164(6).

Heard, M.A.S.H.L. (2009). Dialectical behaviour therapy: distinctive features: Routledge.

Westen, D. (2000). The efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology. Science and Practice, 7(1), 92-94.

Willem H.J. Martens. (2012). Therapy on the borderline: effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association.
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Case Presentation and Verbatim

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34126104

Susan Marx is a 31-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian woman who has completed 12 years of education. She was referred for complaints of depressed mood for the past month. hen asked why she referred herself she responded, "I am very depressed and cannot motivate myself to do anything." She also reports experiencing feelings of extreme sadness, hopelessness, lack of appetite, difficulty sleeping at night, decreased energy, some suicidal thoughts, and feeling as if everything she does is of no consequence.

Presenting Problem

Marx reported that her depression began following being terminated from her position as a secretary for an attorney. She reported that she had a "romantic" affair with her employer, who decided to end the relationship and then terminated her. Since then she is quite depressed and does not have the energy to clean her apartment which is becoming quite messy. She sits on the couch and watches television all day…… [Read More]

We must also not think of Ms. Marx as simply a victim, but her pathology also is also one of manipulation. Often individuals with personality disorders maintain pathogenic belief systems are complicated and characterized by conflict and are seemingly inconsistent (McWilliams, 1999). In the case of the borderline patient it is often assumed that the core underlying belief system is one of being abandoned or unsupported. While this is often a central core belief of borderline patients, an often overlooked and competing belief is one of manipulation or "I can manipulate people into being there for me." These beliefs of being able to manipulate others are often, like the core fear of abandonment, not explicit beliefs, like " The world is round" but more implicit beliefs that a manifest in intrapersonal behavior. Thus, the borderline patient is often known for their tendency to play people against one another in order to get them to take sides. The motivation for this is always to get someone, usually an easy target, to side with them and buy into their pathology. In Ms. Marx case she appears to try to get men attached to her by using sex and this can be a powerful tool in keeping them close to her. These core conflicting beliefs, that one can manipulate others into siding with them and at the same time believing that others are unconcerned about them, must both be addressed in order for treatment to be successful.

Ms. Marx demonstrates the tendency of many borderline patients to experience a dilemma based on the aforementioned core beliefs, when they get close to a person they will often become very anxious and panic because of fears of control or being engulfed by another; however, when they feel separated from others they experience anxiety and panic because of fears of abandonment. This often leads to a series of brief and intense relationships wherein Ms. Marx does not feel comfortable being close or apart.

Another issue with borderline patients is often with identity integration; borderline patients are
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Girl Interrupted the Author Susanna Kaysen Talks

Words: 767 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89727280

Girl, Interrupted, the author Susanna Kaysen talks about her year and a half in a "mental hospital."; The language is by turns funny, quirky, or brutally strong, but always shows remarkable insight into at least some facets of herself. J

The topic she either dodges or diminishes throughout the book is why she was there. She was a "voluntary admission," although she was obviously under great pressure from both family and the psychiatrist who admitted her. She acknowledges that she made a suicide attempt, although she saved herself by getting herself to a public area where she collapsed.

In the beginning of the book we are told that the psychiatrist seemed to focus on a pimple she had picked at that day. The suggestion at this time is that the psychiatrist wildly over-interpreted this to get to a common symptom of her diagnosis, "borderline personality" -- self-mutilation. Then at the…… [Read More]

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Bdd in Men Various Problems

Words: 2572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64723294


In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.

According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men

American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from;

First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from;

Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
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Kreisman and Straus Explain the

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79304013

63-64) (I hate you, don't leave me review).

The last three chapters deal with treatment and coping skills, which presents an emphasis on communicating with the borderline client. The authors present a system designed to facilitate this and that is called Support Empathy Truth (SET). (p. 101-103). The first stage, Support, is a personal statement of concern about the borderline person. Empathy is an acknowledgment of the person's feelings. Finally, there is Truth, which recognizes the existence of a problem and addresses more practical issues of how to solve it. The SET system is used to defuse unstable situations. From there, the authors provide suggestions about how to cope with certain scenarios and characteristics of the borderline patient (I hate you, don't leave me review).

For many borderline clients bibliotherapy may be a helpful addition to psychotherapy because it would promote active participation in the therapeutic process even when the…… [Read More]

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American Psychiatric Association Released the

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16233276

According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).

The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…… [Read More]


James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.

House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.

Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.

Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
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Crisis Counseling and Therapy the Precipitating Events

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41188397

Crisis Counseling and Therapy

The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…… [Read More]


Bolyn, M. (2011).Activities for teaching coping skills to the youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from 

Salters-Pedneault, K. (2010). Coping Skills for Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from
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Psychology in Management

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13846028

Bipolar Disorder

Case Story Bipolar Disorder

A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah

I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.

Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…… [Read More]


Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.

Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86

Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S
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Diagnosing and Treating Schizophrenia DSM-IV

Words: 851 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46558844

These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)

(b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect different areas from those affected by the antipsychotic drugs. These include Clozapine (Clozaril) -particularly effective in younger people, isperidone (isperdal) and Olanzapine (Zyprexa).

(c). other significant medication-these can also help suppress the symptoms and include Antidepressants, Antianxiety drugs, Lithium (for bipolar disorder) and Antiepileptic drugs.

(d). Electroconvulsive ("Shock") Therapy-where low voltage electric current is induced into the patient to cause seizure. It is of late considered to be safer than drug therapy.

(e). Psychotherapy- this is where the different professionals like the psychologists, some nurses, psychiatrists and social workers work together to study and help treat the patient along side using drugs. It exploits the cognitive behavior of the individual where the normal positive behavior is emphasized. It follows on the…… [Read More]


All Psych, (2004). Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,

Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from

Health Information Publications, (2011). What Is Schizophrenia? Retrieved March 25, 2011 from

Grohol, M., (2006). Schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from
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Mary Ainsworth Had Her Birth

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11868597

In order to quantify the security of a relationship, Ainsworth and her colleagues designed this system of 'Strange situation' for evaluating individual differences in children with particular emphasis on responses to several series of separations and further reunions with their mothers. The formation of this procedure has sparkled with plenty of literature subsequently, analyzing the progress of mother child attachments, the influence of attachments to other caregivers, and the correlates and effects of secure and insecure attachments. It has become recognized as the most widely accepted procedures in the research of child development. (Arcus, Doreen: Ainsworth, Mary (1913- ))

There was no prior knowledge to Ainsworth that an individual could introspectively explain the way one behaved and felt instead of concentrating on the way the external forces mould the behavior. The concept of 'Strange situation' considered family as the secure base from which a developing individual can move out to…… [Read More]


"Ainsworth, Mary Dinsmore Salter (1913-1999)" Retrieved from Accessed 25 October, 2005

Arcus, Doreen. Ainsworth, Mary (1913- )" Retrieved from

Accessed 26 October, 2005

'Biography: Mary D. Salter Ainsworth" Retrieved from
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Tori J Is a 12-Year-Old Girl Who

Words: 3375 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77838926

Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…… [Read More]


AllPsych. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:

AllPsych. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
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Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper

Words: 4338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27733643

Successful Are Clinicians in the Treatment of Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Adult Patients, With DBT Skills Application?

Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated (izvi, 2011 -- ). The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. For instance, data from the National Comorbidity Survey…… [Read More]


Ballenger, J. C. (2000). Anxiety and Depression: Optimizing Treatments. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(3), 71-79.

Campbell, (2000).A framework for development and evaluation of RCTs for complex interventions to improve health, Medical Research Council Health Services and Public Health Research Board

Chapman, A. L. (2006). Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Current Indications and Unique Elements. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 3(9), 62-68.

Farrell, J. M., Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317-328.
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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at 

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University

of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at
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Self-Harm Treatment Self-Harm Classification and

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27672759

' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.

Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bland, Ann R., Georgina Tudor & Deborah McNeil Whitehouse (2007, October). Nursing care of inpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Retrieved from on February 16, 2009;col1

Mangnall, Jacqueline & Eleanor Yurkovich. (2008). A literature review of deliberate self-harm.
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Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]


Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,

D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.

Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
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Self-Injurious Behavior

Words: 5019 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41574937

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.

DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]


Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.

Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.

Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.

Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
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Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper

Words: 2100 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66967919

Successful Are Clinicians in the Treatment of Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Adult Patients, With DBT Skills Application?

Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated (izvi, 2011 -- ). The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. For instance, data from the National Comorbidity Survey…… [Read More]


Ballenger, J. C. (2000). Anxiety and Depression: Optimizing Treatments. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(3), 71-79.

Farrell, J. M., Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317-328.

Garber, J., & Weersing, V. R. (2010). Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Implications for Treatment and Prevention. Clinical Psychology: A Publication of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 17(4), 293-306. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01221.x

Kvarstein, E. H., Pedersen, G., Urnes, O., Hummelen, B., Wilberg, T. and Karterud, S. (2015), Changing from a traditional psychodynamic treatment programme to mentalization-based treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder -- Does it make a difference? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theo, Res, Pra, 88: 71-86. doi: 10.1111/papt.12036
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Biopsychosocial Approach to Treating Self Injurious Child

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19945948


Biopsychosocial Approach to Treating Self-Injurious Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

My initial thoughts/feelings on the topics were: (This section contains your general feelings on the topic and NOT what the readings have informed you.

Initially, I did not have much knowledge about self-injurious behavior (SIB). Though I had from time to time heard about the behavior, it never actually crossed my mind that it is a behavior that could warrant significant medical attention. In my life, I have actually not encountered an individual with the behavior. I have not even heard many people mention or talk about it. I thought that people who would perhaps contemplate harming themselves are suicidal people, substance abusers, or insane people. In fact, I thought the behavior was more relatable with non-human animals as opposed to humans. I did not even think the behavior was evident in children. I also viewed it as some…… [Read More]

References in APA format and submitted on time and followed format: (10 points)

Askew, M., & Byrne, M. (2009). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(3), 115-119.

Jefic, J. (2010). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(2): 51.

Juhnke, G., Granello, P., & Granello, D. (2010). Suicide, self-injury, and violence in the schools: assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Wilkinson, B. (2011). Current trends in remediating adolescent self-injury: an integrative review. The Journal of School Nursing, 27(2), 120-128.
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Dsm Iv and Dsm V Diagnoses for a Character

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80818444

Psychotherapy: The client will benefit from ongoing and in-depth psychoanalysis to attempt to discover some of the root causes of the issues. Because Belfort did not exhibit his behavioral problems prior to working in the Wall Street sector, it is likely that talk therapy will help elucidate some of the core reasons why he changed.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Once talking therapy has clarified some of the core issues Belfort is facing, cognitive-behavioral therapy can help him to identify the irrational, unreasonable, and untenable thought processes and biased beliefs that lead to his dysfunctional behaviors. The goal of the cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention will be behavioral change but also shifts in the ways Belfort views himself, other people, and his values.

Volunteer work and selfless service: Because Belfort has been consumed with an identity linked to money, power, and prestige, it may be helpful for him to shift focus to working with…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Counseling and Research

Words: 3990 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65935118

However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.

Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.

Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis

In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…… [Read More]


Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.

Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.

Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
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Girl Interrupted by Donnie Darko Girl Interrupted

Words: 1221 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57560661

Girl Interrupted by Donnie Darko

Girl interrupted

Girl Interrupted is a movie with the physical location being in a psychiatric facility and the time location dated back to the 1960s. Suzanna, the main character is brought into the facility following spirited efforts by her parents to convince her through a family friend that she needs help to get through her psychiatric problems and that she would be in a better position to receive this help from a psychiatric hospital.

Susanna reports to the hospital and she is seen to be shocked by the new environment with psychiatric patients, she feels out of place. Susanna is scared of Lisa in particular, a sociopath feared by many other patients, however, with time Suzanna gets used to Lisa. There are other significant people to the plot of the movie that Susanna meets at the hospital, Georgina who is portrayed as a pathological liar,…… [Read More]


Mary C.T., (2011). Nursing Diagnoses in Psychiatric Nursing. Retrieved March 4, 2015 from

Medicine Net, (2012). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Retrieved March 4, 2015 from
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Young Man Steven We Analyze

Words: 2015 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64692167

Social modeling has therefore been floated to be a factor in the basic etiology of self cutting and other studies also indicate that many teens engage in the act as a result of their peers being engaged in the same act as outline by Nock and Prinstein (2005).There is therefore a strong warning that group counseling of persons who take part in this act should be avoided as a result of the contagion effect (Walsh, 2006). This in other words cancels the possibility of Steven receiving counseling at the same time for their problems. They can however be exposed to activities such as regulation of their emotions (Lieberman, 2004; oss, et. al., 2009).

Personal thoughts

I do believe that there are various issues that affect the youth of the contemporary society. It is therefore important that the various technological changes as well as social-economic changes have adverse effects in their…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.) Washington DC: Author.

Dulit, R., Fryer, M., Leon, A., Brodsky, B., & Frances, A. (1994) Clinical correlates of self-mutilation in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(9), 1305-1311.

Gardner, A.R., & Gardner, A.J. (1975). Self-mutilation, obsessionality and narcissism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 127-132.

Kaplan, H. And Johnson, R. (1992) Relationships between circumstances surrounding initial illicit drug use and escalation of drug use: moderating effects of gender and early adolescent experiences. In Vulnerability to Drug Abuse (eds M. Glantz and E.W. Pickens) pp 299-358.
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Axes Including the Worth and

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2041404

By rejecting the correspondence theory of truth (namely, as truth corresponding to reality) and postulating instead a relative strata of truth as consisting of a construction of the human mind, the axes are a set of subjective opinions formulated by a socially privileged and credentialed class of individuals who are separate from their prescribed reality (Duffy, et al. (2002). Caplan (2001) (in (Duffy, et al. 2002) provides an instance of social wrongs that can consequent from this with the DSM recommendation for a new category called "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder." Not only is there no hard evidence to support this category, but also the symptom could have been caused by environmental, instead of biological, causes. emove the environmental stressor and no such 'disease' exists. Instead the DSM axes, created by socially privileged individuals, only harm these women and teens and destroy their socioeconomic status still further by labeling them with an…… [Read More]


Cooksey, E. & Brown, P. (1998). Spinning on Its Axes: DSM and the Social Construction of Psychiatric Diagnosis, International Journal of Health Services, 28, 525-554

Duffy. M., et al. (2002). A critical look at the DSM-IV. Journal of Individual Psychology, 58, 363-373.

Gergen, K., Hoffman, L., & Anderson, H. (199) Is Diagnosis a Disaster?: A Constructionist Trialogue Relational Diagnosis, Wiley.

Gillig, S. (1995). Warning: this diagnosis can be hazardous to your health. Counseling Today, 38, 36-37
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Evelyn C Is a 36-Year-Old Homemaker and

Words: 786 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87840329

Evelyn C. is a 36-year-old homemaker and mother of two children from a previous marriage. She has a drinking problem that frequently results in her being inebriated when her children return home from school. Her drinking was initially triggered by arguments with her husband, John. ecently, she failed to pick up her children from school because she was intoxicated, and created a tremendous scene at her children's school when she eventually went to pick them up. She seems unaware of the impact that her behavior has on her children and seems to think that people are responding disproportionately to any inconvenience caused by her drinking.

The DSM-IV-T uses five different levels, or axes, to diagnose patients presenting with signs of mental illness or mental disorder. The five axes are meant to be used together to help paint a broad picture of the patient in order to develop the most comprehensive…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Appendix A: Differential diagnosis of substance-induced disorders (not including dependence and abuse) in DSM-IV-TR (pp.685-

729) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Personality disorders in DSM-IV-TR (pp.685-

729) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
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Silver Linings Playbook

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14863887

The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Bragazzi, N., Pezzoni, F., & Del Puente, G. (2014).Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents.Health Psychology Research, 2(3).

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed: A review. New York: Norton
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Sexually Abused Children Cause for a Problems in Adulthood

Words: 2708 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56302172

Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals that were Sexually-Abused as Children

Introduction to Sexual Abuse in Children

Sexually-abused children commonly develop problems that persist into adulthood. Child sexual abuse has come to be regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The influences of child sexual abuse on interpersonal, social and sexual functioning in adult life has only recently attracted attention. esearch into child sexual abuse was initiated by the self-disclosures of adults who publicly admitted to their abuse as children. These victims, predominantly women, often attributed personal difficulties to their sexual abuse as children.

Early research into the effects of child sexual abuse frequently employed groups of adult psychiatric patients (Jones, 1974), which further reinforced the emergence of an adult-focused psychiatric discourse about child sexual abuse. The manner in which child sexual abuse has been brought to the public's eye and the nature of the advocacy movement…… [Read More]


Arias, I. (2004). The legacy of child maltreatment: long-term health consequences for women. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 13(5), 468-473.

Brodsky, B.S., Oquendo, M., Ellis, S.P., Haas, G.L., Malone, K.M., & Mann, J.J. (2001). The relationship of childhood abuse to impulsivity and suicidal behavior in adults with major depression. Am J. Psychiatry, 158(11), 1871-1877.

Coffey, P., Leitenberg, H., Henning, K., Turner, T., & Bennett, R.T. (1996). The relation between methods of coping during adulthood with a history of childhood sexual abuse and current psychological adjustment. J Consult Clin Psychol, 64(5), 1090-1093.

Cole, P.M., & Putnam, F.W. (1992). Effect of incest on self and social functioning: a developmental psychopathology perspective. J Consult Clin Psychol, 60(2), 174-184.
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Beck and Cognitive Therapy

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48327615

cognitive therapy is a widely accepted, empirically validated treatment for a number of conditions, including most especially depression. The theorist who responsible for developing cognitive therapy is Aaron T. Beck, a nonagenarian who is currently the University of Philadelphia Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and a member of The Institute of Medicine. To date, Dr. Beck has been the recipient of countless awards and honors in recognition of his contributions to the field of psychotherapy and he continues to research and write despite his advanced age. This paper provides a biographical description of Dr. Beck, followed by an analysis of an application of his cognitive therapy to depression. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning Dr. Beck and cognitive therapy are presented in the paper's conclusion.

Aaron T. Beck and Cognitive Therapy


One of the early pioneers of research into psychoanalytic theories of depression is Aaron Temkin…… [Read More]


Beck, J. (2012). Cognitive therapy for a client with depression [streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTHERAPY database.

Beck, A. T. & Freeman, A. (2004). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders (2nd ed). New York: Guilford Press.

Beck biography. (2015). Aaron T. Beck official site. Retrieved from / suicide/beck/biography.html.

Freeman, H. (1999). A century of psychiatry. London: Mosby.
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Childhood Intimacy Problems Serve as

Words: 6896 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66414076

Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:

Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.

Whether the child's experiences success at school

Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)

Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)

Sexual Abuse "Signs"

Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:

1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…… [Read More]


Adams. Noah.

Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.

BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.

Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
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MCMI or Millon How Might

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40396178

The MCMI-III consists of 24 clinical scales and 3 modifier scales. The modifier scales are meant to identify the subject's attempts to hide or exaggerate mental illness, or to either try too hard to mimic or ignore socially desirable responses. The Clinical Personality Patterns scales involve the major DSM personality disorders and the last ten scales reflect Axis I and other severe clinical syndromes. This enables a therapist to immediately identify the most potentially serious aspects of a client's pathology that need to be addressed (Vaknin 2009).

Critics note that the multiaxial model of mental illness is not universally accepted. Furthermore, some of the diagnoses, such as borderline personality disorder, are controversial in the ways that they may be over-diagnosed amongst certain population groups, such as women. However, advocates of the test suggest that it is uniquely well-suited to highlight the interaction between personality and psychopathology in a short period…… [Read More]


Millon MCMI. (2009). Psychcorp. Retrieved November 11, 2009 at

Vaknin, Sam. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). Self-growth.

Retrieved November 11, 2009 at
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Pattern of Heroine Use

Words: 2415 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38208844


Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."

This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)

Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.

Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…… [Read More]


Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.

Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.

Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.

Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
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Coping With Depression Could Be Well a

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18902043

Coping ith Depression

Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.

Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.

Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
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PTSD Study Treatment

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99570478

Dorrepaal, Thomaes, Smit, van Balkom, et al. (2010) address the topic of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) which often occurs following a history of child abuse. Complex PTSD has associated features in addition to the normal symptoms of PTSD that make it much more difficult to treat. As social workers will most likely encounter clients/patients suffering from PTSD symptoms and patients suffering from child abuse this topic is relevant to social work practice.

The researchers are primarily interested in knowing if stabilizing treatment normally used for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders is effective for patients with Complex PTSD, particularly women with PTSD and childhood sexual abuse. The research question is evaluative.

Literature eview

As this study is in the brief communications section does not contain an in depth literature review. The literature review in this study simply describes the features associated with Complex PTSD and presents the questions of…… [Read More]


Dorrepaal, E., Thomaes, K., Smit, J.H., van Balkom, A.J., van Dyck, R., Veltman, D.J., & Draijer, N. (2010). Stabilizing group treatment for complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse based on psycho-education and cognitive behavioral therapy: A pilot study. Child abuse & neglect, 34(4), 284-288.

Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics

(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York:
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Substance Abuse Counseling Theories Substance

Words: 3044 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13009622

It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.

Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.

The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at

Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic? Retrieved September 27, 2009 at
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Psychology Development Early Childhood Medelein N Moody

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43288987

Psychology Development

Early Childhood

Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.

The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.

The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.

The results that were observed showed…… [Read More]

Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46

The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.

The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
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Lamictal The Oral Anticonvulsant and

Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96998953

There are certain interactions that may cause toxicity


The drug may be administered orally without regard to meals.


The seriousness of an overdose of Lamictal depends on the ingested amount. There are however several non-life threatening symptoms of overdosing Lamictal with symptoms raging from ataxia, dizziness, somnolence and headache. However, in certain cases of overdose, the patient would experience renal and liver failure, delirium, rash as well as coma. The lethal dosage is lower for children. All suspected cases of Lamictal overdose should be treated as a medical emergency and the patient should be taken for immediate medical attention.


Lamictal has been very effective in the treatment and management of epilepsy and depression. A review of literature however suggests that it has certain risks in its administration. It is therefore necessary to be careful when taking or prescribing this medication. There are reports that the drug Seroquel…… [Read More]


GlaxoSmithKline (2004). LAMICTAL®(lamotrigine) Tablets 

Goa KL, Ross SR, Chrisp P. Lamotrigine.(1993)A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy. Drugs 1993;46:152-76

Keck, P., and McElroy, S (2003) New Approaches in Managing Bipolar Depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64 (suppl 1).
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Personal Recovery Journey Recovery for

Words: 2346 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47875360

ut getting back to my supporter, because there is no chance that we will ever become close friends (she lives quite a distance from me), I feel I can open up to her and never fear her being critical of me. She recommends that I read the first-person stories from others who are recovering from various emotional and mental health problems. So, I have followed her suggestion.

An article in the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal tells the story of Yin Fan, who fell into a "deep depression" and "did not understand what was happening to me" (Fan, 2007). She eventually found out she had a bipolar condition, but meantime she gave thoughts to suicide. She thought about "…jumping of tall buildings or walking out into the ocean and letting the water carry me away" (Fan, 313). I have not had such thoughts but I do understand how a person suffering such…… [Read More]


Brookes, Nancy, Murata, Lisa, and Tansey, Margaret. 2008. 'Tidal Waves: Implementing a New Model of Mental Health Recovery and Reclamation.' Canadian Nurse. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from

Buckland, Steve. 2005. 'Sharing Responsibility for Recovery: creating and sustaining recovery oriented systems of care for mental health.' Queensland Government / Queensland Health. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from

C Chu 2008. 'My Personal Journey: Schizophrenia.' Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry. Vol.18, 39-40.

Cleary, Anne. 2009. 'The road to recovery.' Mental Health Practice, vol. 12, 28-31.
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Importance of Treatment of Mental Illnesses

Words: 1465 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37845922

Mental Illness

In recent years, mental illnesses have been the focus of considerable attention from medical professionals. These are conditions that can cause disruptions in individual's moods, feelings, thinking, daily functioning, and the ability to relate with other people and things. Mental illness is a condition of the brain which results in different symptoms, as well as affecting the day-to-day life of that person and the people around him or her in different ways. The mental illnesses include borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety to name a few. More than sixty million people in America, i.e. one out of four adults, are going through mental illnesses in a given year. One out of seventeen people experiences disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia while one out of ten million children are going through emotional disorders and mental illnesses. Every person who…… [Read More]


Miles, J., Espiritu, R., Horen, N., Sebian, J., & Waetzig, E. (2007). A public health approach to children's mental health. Georgetown: Center for Child and Human Development.

(n.d.). Models of Human Service Delivery.

NAMI. (2013). Mental Illness: What you need to know. Virginia: National Alliance on Mental Illness.

NIMH. (n.d.). NIMH Plan of Research. Retrieved from
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Discussions and Case Studies

Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25763908

preadolescent child by the name of Janis has been diagnosed as potentially suffering from depression. Her grandmother, her caretaker and guardian, is having to deal with unruly behavior from Janis culminating in a death threat. Because Janis has now displayed a violent behavior (making a death threat), the need for evaluation is urgent. Her alleged depression could turn violent.

The case study mentions she hangs out with a 'rough' crowd. This crowd could peer pressure her into taking drugs and alcohol. Many children have peer pressure and unstable conditions at home, motivate them to begin engaging in substance abuse. This substance abuse could lead to other mental health problems and so forth. Alcohol abuse has the potential to increase aggressive behavior and may enable development of generalized anxiety disorder. Janis' behavior has become more aggressive signaling there could be substance abuse already.

The main questions center on who is Janis…… [Read More]

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Psychology Master's Degree Methodology Degree

Words: 2396 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70293634

The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
necessary interdependency.

sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.

Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.

hase 1:
This first phase…… [Read More]

Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)

Spring 2010:
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
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Vanden Bos Gary R 1996

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82926147

For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions…… [Read More]

Secondly, while VandenBos is dismissive of studies focusing on the effects of specific treatments upon specific types of disorders, the appropriateness of treatment important to consider in light of the fact that many psychological illnesses have a profound biological component and may be less responsive to 'talk' therapy than others mental disorders. Some complaints, such as Borderline Personality Disorder, seem to respond much better to certain types of therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, while they show little response, and may actually be negatively impacted by other types of thereby.

Much of the data cited by VandenBos comes from an earlier era in American culture and understanding of the mind, when psychoanalysis was a popular fad as well as an accepted practice, and antidepressants and other psychological medications were in a rather primitive state. For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.S. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions of efficacy (VandenBos 1996, p.1005).

Frequency of use and the helpfulness of treatment are far from the same thing. VandenBos' cited studies merely confirm the increasing cultural acceptance and interest in psychotherapy from 1957 to 1976. Given the cultural dynamic and history of America in the 1960s and 1970s, these findings are hardly surprising. A naysayer of therapy might say a similar interest and acceptance of astrology may have peaked as well. The broadness with which the term 'therapy' was defined, which included self-help groups as well as members of the clergy in the Consumer Reports survey, also may not indicate a greater acceptance of clinical therapy. And finally, how these forms of therapy were combined or not combined with psychotropic drugs in the context of different types of therapy was not surveyed, given the lack of specificity of individual's complaints and the broadness of therapeutic contexts classified as therapy.
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Strategies to Reduce Psychiatric Readmission

Words: 2763 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41268076

Psychiatric eadmission

Implementation of Strategies to educe Psychiatric eadmission

To this end, it is clear that hospital readmission remains a prevalent phenomenon in adult psychiatric patients, placing a huge morbidity and economic burden on individuals, families, and healthcare organizations (Burton, 2012; Machado et al., 2012). Addressing psychiatric readmission, therefore, is an important priority for healthcare providers. Evidence demonstrates that psychiatric readmission is mainly caused by ineffective transition of care from the inpatient to the outpatient setting (Kalseth et al., 2016). In essence, reducing psychiatric readmission requires effective care transition interventions. The purpose of this EBP project is to reduce readmissions in an adult psychiatric hospital by 10% over a three-month period.

Implementation Model

There are several models that provide guidelines for the implementation of practice change. In this case, however, given the nature of the clinical setting and resource availability, osswurm & Larrabee's (1999) is deemed an appropriate model. The…… [Read More]


Burton, R. (2012). Improving care transitions. Health Policy Brief. Health Affairs.

Chugh, A., Williams, M., Grigsby, J., & Coleman, E. (2009). Better transitions: improving comprehension of discharge instructions. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 25(3), 11-32.

Coleman, E., Roman, S., Hall, K., & Min, S. (2015). Enhancing the care transitions intervention protocol to better address the needs of family caregivers. Journal of Healthcare Quality, 37(1), 2-11.

Eassom, E., Giacco, D., Dirik, A., & Priebe, S. (2014). Implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis: a systematic review of facilitating and hindering factors. BMJ Open, 4, e006108.
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Interpersonal World of the Infant

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58487168

At first, there won't be any mental disorder, just issues with behaviors such as eating and sleeping. Then during the phase of intersubjective relatedness, the focus switches to controlling, sharing, or influencing the subjective experience of self and others. At this stage, if caregivers are not emotionally attuned enough to the infant, problems may arise such as depression. If they are only attuned when the infant behaves a certain way, this may lead the child to start forming a false self in order to please others. There can also be misattunements between caretaker and child, in which one or the other misreads emotional cues and responds inappropriately. And it's very important for a caregiver's attunement to be authentic.

There are also four types of self-experience: social, private, disavowed, and "not me." Disavowed refers to the parts of self the child learns not to share, and the "not me" experience is…… [Read More]


Stern, Daniel. The Interpersonal World of the Infant. Basic Books, 1985.
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Diversity Sometimes the Worst Disabilities Are Those

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15823536


Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…… [Read More]

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Portage Reflective Practice Model Elements the Portage

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25414074

Portage eflective Practice Model Elements

The Portage eflective Practice Model "includes three prerequisites, or key elements. They are: a commitment to develop and maintain trust and security within the group; allocation of time and place for regularly scheduled staff meetings; and support for activities that encourage and teach ways to reflect on the work at all levels of the organization" (Early experiences matter, 2010, Zero to Three). Communication, trust, support and sharing are all essential elements of this reflective practice model. In the context of my own, personal experiences, I have seen that miscommunication between staff members is one of the most difficult barriers to overcome when helping others. Sharing what works and what does not work with clients in a group format is helpful for employees, as well as the population an agency serves. Dealing with challenges as a team is essential. A staff cannot be fully functional if…… [Read More]


Barnett, Jeffrey & Ofer Zur. (2008). Codes of ethics on termination. Zur Institute.

Retrieved December 1, 2010 at 

Davis, Denise. (2010, November). Ethics and psychotherapy termination. 2010 Connecting for Children's Justice Conference. Retrieved December 1, 2010 at,+Davis.pdf

Early experiences matter. (2010). Zero to three. Retrieved December 1, 2010 at
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Real-Life Case Study the Research Informant Selected

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67730139

eal-Life case study

The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while…… [Read More]


Berger, K. (2009). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Psychology Press. (2013). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Retrieved from 

Schmal, C. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity to traumatic and abandonment. Psychiatry Research, 33-42.

Walker, P. (2013). Managing Abandonment Depression in Complex PTSD. Retrieved from
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Self Is Empty Toward a

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87967478

An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…… [Read More]


Cushman, P. (1990). "Why the Self is Empty: Toward a historically Situated Psychology." American Psychologist. Vol. 45 (5), 599-611. doi: 003-066X/90
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Existential Therapists State That All

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143

Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]


Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:

Psychology. University of California, Berkeley. Available November 20, 2010 at
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Compassion Meets the Computer Age

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58648078

At its most extreme, the type of technology that is most distancing is the type of automated voice phone system that is the first point of contact for many patients between themselves and their insurance companies. I have witnessed patients waiting to discover if a procedure is covered, if a doctor is in-network, or an answer as to what laboratory their blood work should be sent. Other technologies, like electronic recordkeeping can be helpful, but can also distance the nurse from the patient if it is used as a substitute for thorough face-to-face interviews. And some technologies can bring nurse and patient closer together, like those that facilitate efficiency or enable the patient to contact a healthcare provider while being cared for at home.

One of the reasons I have chosen a career in nursing is that I do not feel comfortable making a living behind a computer, and not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Simpson, Roy. (2001, January). "Compassion meets the computer age." Nursing Management.
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Girl Interrupted Film Analysis Girl

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33163658

Thus, even Valerie singles out the protagonist as special from her insane peers. Susanna's conflicts are seen as more, rather than less compelling than the other women's struggles because Susanna is 'really' sane, and able to take the advice of good people like Valerie. In contrast, the problems of people such as Daisy, who has a flip hairdo and an enmeshed relationship with her sexually abusive father, are used more as shock value (like Daisy's fondness for chicken) rather than as evidence that the less mentally stable girls are worthy and compelling subjects.

Susanna's worthiness of subjectivity is further underlined by her constantly reiterated desire to writer, and her parent's inability to appreciate her ambitions and creativity. Of course, many young people have artistic aims and defy their parent's expectations that they go to college and fulfill conventional aspirations of success. This does not make them crazy; the film rightly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girl Interrupted." Starring Winona Ryder. 1999.
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Difficulties With Sam a Putative

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13696242

Probably the most useful advice O'Donohue (2011) provides is to accept that Sam was incapable of changing. As I began to realize that Sam was going to be a significant source of stress in my life, his mere presence or sighting would cause my blood pressure to rise. In a way, Sam was controlling how I experienced my time on campus.

If I had learned to accept that Sam was not going to change, or cared little about me and the trouble he was causing, the heated confrontations would have ended because I would have learned to walk away. There were times that I sensed Sam was deliberately baiting me into arguments in order to damage my reputation with my coworkers. In addition, I should have been more forthcoming with my supervisors about my experiences with Sam because my word would have carried some weight. Doing so might have minimized…… [Read More]


O'Donohue, William. (2011). Difficult Personalities: It's Not You -- it's Them [Kindle version]. Lucky Bat Books. Retrieved from
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Case Study of Narcissism

Words: 3487 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66346607

Narcissist Personality Disorder

Examining narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is commonly termed as 'a continuous pattern of magnificence (fantasies and illusions), desire for praises and lacking compassion'. It is notably described by five key elements as mentioned below:

Illusions of self-importance

An obsession with illusions of huge success, fame, love, beauty and wealth

Faith in being unique / special

Desiring constant praise

Having a sense of entitlement

Being manipulative

Lacking compassion

Jealous of others

Increasingly arrogant / ego-maniac / having attitude problem (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).

Features and symptoms of NPD

NPD (Narcissistic Personality Disorder) are typically indicative of susceptible self-esteem where attention seeking and desiring constant praises are a given, whilst having overt and covert illusions of grandeur. There are troubles in having an identity, intimacy, compassion, self-direction and lastly, certain maladaptive characteristics of antagonism (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).…… [Read More]


Holtzman, N., Vazire, S., & Mehl, M. (2010). Sounds like a narcissist: Behavioral manifestations of narcissism in everyday life. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(4), 478-484. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.06.001

Levy, K. (2012).Subtypes, Dimensions, Levels, and Mental States in Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. J. Clin. Psychol., 68(8), 886-897. doi:10.1002/jclp.21893

Links, P.S., & Stockwell, M. (2002).The Role of Couple Therapy in the Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56(4), 522.

Matusiewicz, A., Hopwood, C., Banducci, A., & Lejuez, C. (2010).The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Personality Disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(3), 657-685. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.007
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Psychology - Treatment Approaches Major

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63918182

Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).

Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).

Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…… [Read More]


Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).

Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Shapiro, D. (1999). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.
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Taxi Driver A Case Study Travis Bickle

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31362595

Taxi Driver: A Case Study

Travis Bickle: An Introduction

The facts that are presented to the spectator about Travis Bickle in the most general sense do paint a portrait of a certain level of pathology. Travis Bickle is a decorated Vietnam veteran, and appears to suffer from PTSD. The spectator also quickly learns that Travis does not have many friends: he's socially very isolated and this appears in part to be connected to the fact that he has trouble starting and maintaining friendships.

The spectator learns very quickly that Travis Bickle is given to disturbances in his judgment and perception, as well as in his decision-making process. In fact, the very reason he takes a job driving a taxi, thus bestowing the film with its very title, is because he has trouble sleeping (suffering from insomnia, a common symptom of PTSD). Bickle claims that he got lonely just walking around…… [Read More]


Berry, K., Band, R., & Corcorran, R. (2007). Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Psychology & Psychotherapy:

Theory, Research & Practice.,80(4), 563-576. (2013). Taxi Driver (1976). Retrieved from 

Hurst, R., Nelson-Gray, R., & Mitchell, J. (2007). The relationship of asperger's characteristics and schizotypal personality traits in a non-clinical adult sample. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1711-1720.
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Interdisciplinary Methods

Words: 3167 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7402417

Interdisciplinary Methods

One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…… [Read More]


Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.

Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.

Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.

Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.