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otox ® - What is it used for?
otox ® - Can anything bad happen?
otox ® - Looking toward the future.
otox ® - What is it?
otox, which is the trade name for botulinum toxin, is produced by a bacterium that has been identified for hundreds of years. Professor Emile Pierre van Ermengem, from elguim, first identified the bacterium ascillus botulinus in 1895 (DasGupta). From there, it was later renamed Clostridium botulinum, and is now known as botulinum type A, or otox. C. botulinum
efore it's positive medical benefits were discovered, C. botulinum was (and still is) "the most poisonous biological substance known" (Munchau 161). Even in extremely small amounts, botulinum toxin can lead to what is called botulism - a condition that eventually paralyses the body systems, including the autonomic nervous system. otulism can only occur two ways - either by being infected with spores that can…
Allergan, Inc. Botox® Website. "Botox: FAQ." http://www.botox.com/index.jsp?hp&faqAccessed 11/03/02
Brin ME. "Botulinum toxin: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and immunology. Muscle Nerve 1997; 20 (suppl 6): S. 146-168.
Coffield JA, Considine RV, Simpson LL. The site and mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin. In: Jankovic J, Hallet M, eds. Therapy with Botulinum Toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1991:41.
DasGupta Br. Structures of botulinum neurotoxin, its functional domains, and perspective on the crystalline type A toxin. In: Jankovic J, Hallet M, eds. Therapy with Botulinum Toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1991:41.
organism produces botulinum toxin? Briefly describe this organism. Where did the name of the organism come from? Is the organism aerobic or anaerobic?
Botulinum toxin is produced by the anaerobic, rod-shaped Clostridium botulinum which is gram positive. The name was taken from the Latin word for "sausage" (i.e., "sausage poisoning") in the early 19th century.
How likely is it for a person to take dangerous/harmful levels of Botox? The author states that Botox has "an LD50 of 3,000U." Find out what this means and translate the phrase into common language. There are minimal chances of humans taking dangerous/harmful levels of Botox because of its large margin of safety as reflected by the LD50 of 3,000U rating.
How does the botulinum toxin affect the neurons in the body? Explain in detail what the toxin does and why it would cause muscle paralysis. You may need to look at your neuromuscular…
In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.
hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?
hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…
Aldis, W., Braden, C.R., Chunsuttiwat, S., Olsen, S.J., Ueno, K., and Ungchusak, K. (2007).
The need for global planned mobilization of essential medicine: lessons from a massive Thai botulism outbreak. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(3), 238-241.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). There are three main kinds of botulism.
Retrieved July 4, 2012, from http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/botulism/factsheet.asp .
Abductor pasmodic Dysphonia (ABD)
Abductor spasmodic dysphonia is a disorder that effects thousands of people throughout the world. The disorder causes difficulty in speech and people who suffer with the disorder often have difficulty in social situations. The purpose of this discussion is to review the literature related to the treatment of abductor spasmodic dysphonia, specifically in the past 5-10 years.
Abductor spasmodic dysphonia
According to the National Institutes of Health Abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABD)is a type of voice disorder caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx or voice box. Individuals who have spasmodic dysphonia may have occasional difficulty saying a word or two or they may experience sufficient difficulty to interfere with communication. pasmodic dysphonia causes the voice to break or to have a tight, strained or strangled quality (pasmodic Dysphonia)."
The National Institutes of health also reports that the disorder is believed to…
Sulica, Lucian. (December 2004) Contemporary management of spasmodic dysphonia.
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 12(6), pp 543- 548
Woodson, Gayle, Hochstetler, H., and Murry, T. (2006) Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia. Journal of Voice, 20 (1)
The last part of Le Brun's advice regarding the supervisor problem is also sound. Complaining about the offender to his boss behind his back without having concrete proof of the offense makes the complainer no better than the person he is complaining about. Steve will gain much more respect if he does as Le Brun says and tackles the problem by directly speaking to the person he believes has wronged him.
3. Botox Treatments
While I would not quite use the same wording as Le Brun, I would give Steve more or less the same advice she did. Botox treatments would place the focus on the wrong issue: image rather than the quality of leadership. It is an unfortunate fact of our society that we tend to focus a large amount of attention on what a person looks like. At the same time, there is a stigma attached to obvious…
No one specific type of shoe was 'pushed' with a marketing campaign.
Pull marketing is often used in products that tap into a certain 'lifestyle' component, such as fashion, beauty, and makeup. Customers purchase an image as well as the item itself. Even Whole Foods, the organic supermarket, uses pull-based strategies. Consumers are less drawn to the (expensive) food store for specific deals or even specific items. ather, they come seeking a certain moral 'ethos' in terms of the way the company markets its product. Push-based products, such as investment services or hospitals, base their appeal upon trust, rather than a demonstrable, tangible item or short-term savings 'payoff.'
Describe the transition from push to pull: Process and an example of a successful transition
Almost all companies begin as 'push' companies. However, they may find that a more pull-based strategy is fruitful, once they have built some rudimentary brand awareness. A…
Push or pull? (2010). Tutor2U. Retrieved May 25, 2010 at http://tutor2u.net/business/marketing/promotion_pushpull.asp
Maki. (2010). Push marketing vs. pull marketing. Doshdosh. Retrieved May 25, 2010 at http://www.doshdosh.com/push-marketing-vs.-pull-marketing/
Te need for so many new workers will tend to elp women enter fields were tey ave been istorically under-represented since tere is suc a need for so many new workers.
Wile tis synergy of so many different factors is useful for workers at all stages of teir careers, it may be tat it is especially elpful to new graduates. Higly skilled and qualified senior workers are likely to ave more opportunities open to tem tan are younger workers and so are likely to suffer less during economic downturns. Younger workers, especially tose just finising teir undergraduate work, will fare better in an environment tat as a range of opportunities and an overall good business climate. In fact, tis may be te only kind of business environment in wic new graduates will reliably be able to find jobs tat matc teir training and ambitions. Tis may be especially true for…
http://www.extremetag.com / http://www.mimotec.ch/Francais/Produits/produits.html
In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.
The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.
The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…
Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.
Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.
Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .
Duenwald, Mary. "How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants." New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one.
Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what many people might view as 'elderly." It is perhaps because it afflicts people at earlier ages that Alzheimers is one of the physical problems associated with aging that receives a lot of attention, and, therefore, more funding than some others areas of health problems associated with aging. Alzheimers is often diagnosed as dementia, an irreversible or reversible condition depending on the specific cause. It is, however, difficult to diagnose and treat because it has numerous potential causes, all of which…
Aging Gracefully: Lifespan vs. Healthspan. (2006, February). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 134, 1+. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015929981 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804428
Ebersole, P., & Hess, P. (1998). Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804433 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587
Mezey, M., Fulmer, T., & Abraham, I. (Eds.). (2006). Geriatric Nursing: Protocols for Best Practice. New York: Springer. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236
Nussbaum, J.F. & Coupland, J. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of Communication and Aging Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104631054
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.
Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.
The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…
Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.
Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .
Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.
Doris Hexsel "
The inconclusive evidence shows the difficulty of regulating issues of science rather than policy, and given that it is not certain that these substances are dangerous in the amounts in cosmetics, the warning labels seem unlikely to influence consumer behavior.
I ask the question: does more information promote better behavior? The answer is: not always. Millions of people eat artificial sweeteners, drink alcohol, and smoke cigarettes, despite warning labels on these products. Also, people use cosmetics tested on animals -- and even inject Botox, a paralyzing chemical in their foreheads, in the name of beauty. Additional warning labels will do little to change consumer behavior, especially when it comes to style, unless there is more research that proves that these chemicals pose a health risk.
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as teens assembled their own 'mixes' rather than sought to embrace the output of an individual artist. It was said that the era of the great soloist and the great musical concept album was dead. ith her first album The Fame in 2008, Lady Gaga changed all of that and silenced the industry's critics. Yes, she is frequently outrageous and provokes controversy for her attire as well as her voice. But underneath all of the glam and glitter, Lady Gaga has proved that she a unique mix of vocal talent, showmanship, and social activism. She has also generated a huge following on Facebook and Twitter. Lady Gaga's fans do not simply download "Poker Face," "Telephone" and "Born this ay" online. They love…
"Lady Gaga tells all." Rolling Stone. June 21, 2010. [November 11, 2011].
"Poker Face." Lyrics. [November 11, 2011].
Taking the place of the clever but melancholy Dr. Frankenstein, would be an illustrious and famed plastic surgeon named Mars von Meinstein. With a billion-dollar practice located on the most expensive piece of real estate in Beverly Hills, Meinstein grows tired of over-charging spoiled wealthy women for tummy tucks, lip and face injections and liposuction. He becomes tired of improving the appearance of human life. Rather, he longs to create human life.
Meinstein becomes obsessed with the idea of creating the perfect woman. With a Masters degree in computer science and engineering as well, Meinstein becomes convinced he can fashion a computerized brain that can act as a cockpit for the rest of the body, adjusting the physical appearance of this human body to reflect the changing values of beauty which change with the times. For example, if bony, flat-chested figures become the hippest thing in beauty and fashion,…
Business Environment of Fragrance Industry
Fragrance industry is suffering from the ruinous competition of foreign rivals who apparently are flooding the domestic market at an incredibly low price. The French industry, which once was considered at the pinnacle of the fragrance market, is loosing market from Asian competitors. Moreover, there has been a slow growth in revenue of large fragrance companies due to the mass marketing of fragrance sales from small competitors. The sluggish growth rates in the home fragrance market are due to a combination of factors. First, the fragrance industry is facing several major industry shifts that are causing changes on the bottom line. Faced with the challenges of low revenue and intense competition, innovative companies are looking to enterprise sourcing to both speed up time-to-market on new products and drive down ongoing supply costs (Chemical and engineering news, 2003).
Consumers today are making value-based decisions…
1. Flavor And Fragrance Industry Faces Wide-Ranging Challenges. Chemical and engineering news, 2003 vol: 81 iss: 28-page: 56
2. Guner, Osman F.. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, History and Evolution of the Pharmacophore Concept in Computer-Aided Drug Design, Dec2002, Vol. 2 Issue 12, p1321-1333.
3. Baron, Robert A. A whiff of realit. Environment & Behavior, Nov 1994, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p766-775.
It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…
Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.
Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.
Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.
David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.
Torticollis is a condition which can be either temporary and of a minor inconvenience or it can be chronic and physically debilitating. The implications of the condition can run the gamut of severity and susceptibility to treatment. Torticollis, or a twisting of the neck, can be extremely common but its causes and impact exist across a wide range of variations. The discussion here will offer a concise overview of the condition with consideration of its various suspected causes, its most salient symptoms, strategies for its treatment and existing technologies or adaptive strategies aimed at helping individuals live with the condition.
Torticollis is not an altogether uncommon presence at the time of birth. hen the condition is present at the time of birth, it is referred to as congenital or inherited torticollis. According to the research provided by the Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BMAB) (2012) "about…
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (BCMAB). (2012). Torticollis. Babycenter.com.
Cunha, J.P. (2009). Torticollis Overview. EMedicine Health.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008). Cervical Dystonia. Mayo Clinic.com.
Medline Plus. (2011). Torticollis. NLM.NIH.gov.
aging gracefully. There are eight references used for this paper.
Introduction number of people are obsessed with fighting the affects of aging on the skin and finding ways to age gracefully. It is important to look at methods such as antioxidants, wrinkle fighters and nutritional supplements, as well as aging and tissue/muscle loss and interventions for slowing the aging process in order to gain a better understanding of treatments available.
Free radicals are "highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in normal and pathological processes, and are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals)."
One of the main defenses against free radicals is the proper use of antioxidants.
Researchers theorize that an "increase in some antioxidants - especially those applied to the skin - helps protect…
Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/004012.htm ).
Facenda, Vanessa L. Mass merchants face up to higher end skincare: improved formulations and higher quality products are attracting consumers to mass and drug for facial care needs. Retail Merchandiser. (2004): 01 January.
Free Radicals. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals).
Hilton, Lisette. Intrinsic-extrinsic aging link: antioxidants applied to skin could prevent cell damage. Dermatology Times. (2002): 01 November.
Cindy Sherman: Empathetic Artist
Should Cindy Sherman be viewed an artist poking fun at society and the disenfranchised people or as a photographer encouraging society to re-examine its obsession with youth and status?
Cindy Sherman has been described as one of the most celebrated artists of our time. Sherman in many respects has mastered the art of reinvention: she has proven herself adept at constantly turning herself into something else and consistently mastering the art of transformation. As one journalist has summarized, "Over the course of her remarkable 35-year career she has transformed herself into hundreds of different personas: the movie star, the valley girl, the angry housewife, the frustrated socialite, the enaissance courtesan, the menacing clown, even the oman god Bacchus. Some are closely cropped images; in others she is set against a backdrop that, as Ms. Sherman describes it, 'are clues that tell a story'" (Vogel, 2012). Given…
Bittencourt, E. (2012, June 7). Cindy Sherman and Her Many Guises @ MoMA. Retrieved from Slantmagazine.com: http://www.slantmagazine.com/house/2012/07/cindy-sherman-and-her-many-guises-moma
Sischy, I. (2012, March). The Artist's Studio: Cindy Sherman. Retrieved from Vanityfair.com: http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2012/03/cindy-sherman-moma-201203
Vogel, C. (2012, February 16). Cindy Sherman Unmasked. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/arts/design/moma-to-showcase-cindy-shermans-new-and-old-characters.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case: Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case Assignment -- Comcast
Comcast's Current Strategy
Current Event Blog
Discussion Question: Strategy Planning and Formulation
Strategy Implementation & Evaluation
Current Event Blog 4 -- Strategy Implementation & Evaluation
Discussion Question: Strategy Implementation and Evaluation
Case: Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case Assignment -- Comcast
Comcast's Current Strategy
Comcast has developed a current business strategy that is completely focused on the customer. The company has positioned itself at the "intersection of media and technology" (Corporate.comcast.com, 2016). The company seems to be doing well and in 2015 the company had raised their dividend by 10%, for the eighth consecutive year.
The present strategy of the company is to focus on innovation and enhancing of customer experience and being innovative at the same time. The company claims that this strategy has paid off well for them. In fact,…
Business success: Strategic unit comprehensive computer-based Expert support system. (1991). Long-Range Planning, 24(3), 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301 (91)90212-7
Carter, T. (2016). Comcast rolls out strategy for new emphasis on customer care. Mississippi Business Journal, p. 1. Retrieved from http://msbusiness.com/2015/05/comcast-rolls-out-strategy-for-new-emphasis-on-customer-care/
Collins, M., & Winrow, B. (2010). Porter's generic strategies as applied toward e -- etailers post -- e Leegin. Journal Of Product & Brand Management, 19(4), 306-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421011059621
Cooper, C., & Finkelstein, S. (2009). Advances in mergers and acquisitions. Bingley: Emerald Group Pub.
headaches and its management?
There are several different types of headaches that affect people every day. Five have been shown to affect people the most and have their own list of symptoms, causes, and treatment. The first is tension headaches. They are the most common type. People feel pain from tension headaches at the back of the neck and head and especially at the temples. They do not interfere with daily activities and do not typically cause vomiting or nausea. People can manage tension headaches with OTC drugs like ibuprofen, Tylenol, or aspirin. They may be caused by stress, and/or potential fluctuations in brain chemicals.
Cluster headaches are more common for men versus women. They are recurring and occur in cycles or groups. They have sudden onset and are followed by debilitating, severe pain. People affected by cluster headaches tend to have nasal congestion/runny nose and a watery eye. When…
Bernstein, C. & McArdle, E. (2008). The migraine brain. New York: Free Press.
Cohan, W. (2013). Headaches. New York, N.Y.: Demos Health.
ace and Gender
Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace
ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.
USA constitutes people from various…
Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html
Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about
Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton: https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm
Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
Overview of a Pathogen: Clostridium botulinum
According to The Bad Bug Book of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the common bacterium Clostridium botulinum is an “anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin (108). Most individuals are probably best familiar with the spore as botulism. Botulism is a foodborne illness that has grown mercifully less common with the rise of canning and appropriate food sanitization measures, although it is still present in many countries and it still claims lives. The Bad Bug Book states that botulism’s early symptoms vary, depending on the particular case, but usually manifests within 18-36 hours (The Bad Bug Book, 108). Seven types of adult botulism are recognized; another form of botulism, known as infant botulism, is the result of colonization of the infant’s intestinal tract after ingestion (The Bad Bug Book, 108).
Symptoms can develop as early as 4 hours after consuming…