Data in this study indicates that these events preceded the discontinuation of breastfeeding. The following figure illustrates the Schema for reastfeeding Definition provided by the Canadian Minister of Health (1997) which was adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)
Schema for reastfeeding Definition
Source: Canadian Minister of Health (1997) adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)
Vietnam and Cambodian Cultures Examined
Several cultures are examined in this study including those of the Vietnamese, Cambodians and those from Laos and it is stated the largest part of these children "are typically breastfed for more than year." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) it is related that imported formula is not affordable or not readily available therefore, breastfeeding is "simply the norm." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) This work relates that when no supplement formula is available that breast milk "is commonly supplemented with prechewed rice paste or rice…… [Read More]
For the newborn, birth weight, gestational age, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores were recorded. Post-discharge phone calls were made on day four and at week six. Each participant was asked if she was still breastfeeding at the time of the phone call. For data analysis, exclusive and partial were combined as "breastfeeding," whereas token and none were combined as "not breastfeeding."
Telephone interviews could be conducted for 182 (73%) participants on day four and 188 (76%) at six weeks. The results showed that LATCH scores were higher among women breastfeeding than those who had weaned. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, a score of 9 or above at 16 to 24 hours was the most discriminate of the 5 time periods examined. In addition, mothers who met this criterion were 1.7 times more likely to be breastfeeding at six weeks than women with lower scores. The authors concluded that the…… [Read More]
Breastfeeding and IQ
Infants who are breastfeed tend to have higher IQ as they mature. This paper examines that phenomenon, which presents a complex set of cause-and-effect questions, including how long infants must be breastfed to receive any benefits associated with nursefeeding, whether there are important intercultural variations among children whose IQs are higher (for example, if there is a greater correlation in societies where most women breastfeed or, alternatively, where few breastfeed) and whether the rise in IQ results from the chemistry of breastmilk, the practice of breastfeeding itself, or from the fact that women who breastfeed are significantly different (on an a priori basis) from those who do not.
For a number of years the scientific and medical communities have argued that breastfeeding provides a substantial benefit to infants, including primarily the fact that it promotes emotionally security and increases a child's overall health by transferring the…… [Read More]
Breastfeeding may therefore gain social acceptance.
Still, despite the overwhelming health benefits for both mothers and babies, scientific debate still exists over the optimal duration for breastfeeding. In developing countries, the issue is perhaps more complex: where breast milk is the best and most consistent form of nutrition available for babies, many women may be tempted to continue breastfeeding for years. However, as children grow they clearly need more nutrients than what can be provided in breast milk alone. Beyond four months of age, experts note that infants require more complex nutrients than breastfeeding delivers (Kramer, 2006). Breastfeeding at least until six months of age is strongly recommended by virtually every public health expert. Beyond that consensus, views differ with some recommending ongoing breastfeeding until early childhood.
Regardless of a mother's preference and circumstances, there is no doubt that breastfed babies thrive nutritionally and that those health benefits extend far…… [Read More]
The literature examination of the study's foundation is thorough and detailed building a step-by-step foundation to the need and purpose of this current study and its importance to society.
The flaws that were evident included the fact that many of the milestones reported were anecdotal by the parents. In addition the parents were not held to a standard of home care and stimulation tactics of the babies so it is possible that many of the higher achieving children were assisted by support by their parents outside of the breastfeeding arena.
The strengths of the study include the fact that it was so comprehensive in nature and that it provided a long-term examination so that the possibility of a coincidental time correlation could be ruled out.
In addition, the study allowed for error as it was a 16-year examination and provided many opportunities over those 16 years for milestones to develop…… [Read More]
These are not necessary costs considering they can be avoided by mothers when they opt to avoid breastfeeding.
Also it might be embarrassing for some mothers who are not used to breastfeeding in public, and at times milk may leak as a reaction instinct immediately the baby starts crying. This is triggered by the natural maternal instincts that a breast feeding mother has. Such occurrences in most cases make the mothers to feel embarrassed, and at some instances they are ridiculed by other people who are less informed about such matters.
The amount of milk that is being sucked by a baby cannot be measured. Unless milk is being pimped into a container then it is measured, it will be next to impossible to figure out the amount of milk your child needs. This might be a problem in case the mother will be away for some time and needs…… [Read More]
Breastfeeding #NAS #Neonates
Opioid use and dependency has become a serious problem in the U.S. esearch has shown that opioid-dependent women run significantly high risks of giving birth to children with NAS. Children with NAS face some serious health complications, and stay in the hospital longer than normal children. Studies have, however, shown that breastfeeding could help minimize the severity of NAS symptoms among neonates. This text reviews an article seeking to demonstrate how breastfeeding does this, and the specific strategies that nurses and clinicians could use to promote breastfeeding among opioid-dependent mothers in their care.
Breastfeeding Promotion for Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
The article is focused on one group of at-risk neonates -- those whose mothers are opioid-dependent. esearch has shown neonates born to opioid-dependent women to run higher risks of developing the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) than those born to non-users. Neonates with NAS display…… [Read More]
Article Review: “This is Why Breastfeeding is So Important”
According to McGrath (2015), breastfeeding offers an important source of protection for infants, including guarding against “asthma, diabetes, obesity, respiratory infections and ear infections” (par. 1). McGrath also explains the scientific rationale behind the benefits of breastfeeding, noting that the colostrum transmitted through the mother’s breastmilk functions as what she calls the infant’s first vaccine. But while her scientific arguments are convincing that breastfeeding is optimal for the health of the child in many, perhaps even most instances, her argument that it is easier for working women, because breastfeed children are less apt to become ill, is not necessarily true for women who find pumping cumbersome and expensive. The article also does not take into consideration the fact that many women do not produce enough milk for their infants.
The article should provide greater assurance for women who are unable to…… [Read More]
Back in the day, when babies were born in homes they were kept close to the mother following the birth. As society evolved and the deliveries started occurring in nursing homes or hospitals, the skin to skin contact (SSC) norm began fading away. Some introduction should be given about what SSC really is. SSC is basically when the naked new born baby is placed on the mother's bare chest subsequent to the birth. (Moore, Anderson, Bergman & Dowswell, 2012) Interventions were done on mammals to reveal how separation of the baby and mother went on to affect the baby.
The idea for the closeness for breast feeding came forward when this pattern was observed in animals. If the mammal delivery and post partum behavior is needed, then it is seen that the interactions of the mother and the pup for instance is mandatory. It is required because that encourages…… [Read More]
In ode to pomote adequate milk poduction, pacifies and supplementay liquids should be avoided fo the fist six months. An ovesupply of milk can make feedings difficult fo the mothe and infant, and this should be emedied pomptly. Offeing only one beast pe feeding and lengthening the feeding time can help, as can educing milk volume befoe feedings by hand expessing. Beast engogement can occu within the fist few days afte bith and must be handled popely to pevent plugged ducts and mastitis (infection). Othe poblems that can occu include a fungal infection (thush), infant efusing to beast feed (nusing stike), and unhealthy infants. Medical help should be sought if these poblems do not esolve quickly.
Some women may feel uncomfotable beastfeeding in public, but govenment and medical oganizations uge women to ovecome this difficulty on behalf of the infant's and mothe's health (Office on Women's Health 2010c). Puchasing loose…… [Read More]
In turn, as noted earlier in this study, this ultimately positively affects society.
Nevertheless, as Thurman and Allen (2008) assert, researchers need to conduct more research regarding IBCLC use in primary care settings, From the study Thurman and Allen (2008) completed, the researcher gained a greater understanding of the help that individuals with IBCLC certification are able to provide for new mothers. One point the researcher noted as particularly pertinent was the fact that the length of time the new mother breastfeeds her baby increases greatly when the family receives the appropriate pre and post natal care. An additional point worth recounting is that although primary care providers may not be as knowledgeable about breastfeeding as the IBCLC professionals, perhaps if primary health care providers utilized IBCLC professionals more, more new mothers would perhaps choose to breastfeed their babies. In turn, perhaps more mothers would realize first hand that breast…… [Read More]
Scientists have not managed to replicate the actual milk that is produced by a mother. A mother's milk has all the vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional elements that a baby's body needs. The formulation of breast milk includes many other elements that are yet to be discovered and this is why it is highly recommended to breastfeed a baby exclusively for six months.
Breastfeeding forms a critical part of the Healthy People objectives. It is for this reason that Healthy People 2020 aims to increase the rates for breastfeeding mothers to 81.9 percent at the time of being discharged from hospital. With an increase in the number of breastfeeding mothers, there would be more than $4 billion saved in health care costs. There would be reduced medical costs that are associated with chronic illnesses in their children. Mothers would also benefit by reducing their risk of developing…… [Read More]
regulations from California and from the federal government as to the rights women have when it comes to breastfeeding in the workplace. The paper contrasts California guidelines with federal guidelines. In fact, once the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as "Obamacare" and the "Affordable Care Act") passed into law on March 23, 2010, it became federal law that employers are required to give mothers with babies (that are less than a year old) a break "each time such employee has need to express the milk" (U.S. Department of Labor). The Affordable Care Act in effect updated the Section 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act).
Health Benefits of Breastfeeding
According to the Surgeon General of the United States, whose confirmation was blocked by the U.S. Senate for nearly a year because the National Rifle Association objected to the nominee's belief that gun violence is a health issue,…… [Read More]
Neonates With Necrotizing Enterocolitis
I would like to write about preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and breastfeeding, whether it is beneficial to the infant to breastfeed. I became interested in the topic after a clinical experience in the NICU. One infant in the NICU was having difficulty keeping formula down. he neonate gastric pH was being monitored for GER. When the NICU nurse also spoke of assessing for signs of necrotizing enterocolitis in the distressed infant, it sparked my interest. I did not know anything about necrotizing enterocolitis. he NICU nurse told me quite a lot about the problem. Indeed, the wealth of information she shared was a bit overwhelming at the time so I decided to look it up after my clinical experience. What I found was sufficiently interesting to cause me to decide that I wanted to write my evidence-based paper on the topic.
Article Summaries…… [Read More]
Other Retailers want to see Starbucks resolve the breastfeeding issue without drastic changes to its corporate policies and procedures. They realize that Starbucks has been chosen to set the precedent for all retailers. If Starbucks loses control of its corporate policies and brand image, they can expect to become the foci of similar protests in the future. State legislators may find themselves under increased pressure as a result of the outcome at Starbucks. Protesters may target legislators under the assumption that some states are lacking sufficient laws regarding breastfeeding. Protesters may be tempted to shift the focus from Starbucks to legislators in order to find another method of advancing their cause. In addition, legislators looking for ways to attract the "soccer mom" demographic may also find this an attractive topic.
The vision articulated by Arthur . Page (Vice President, Public Relations, AT&T, 1927 to 1946) offers a template for the…… [Read More]
The relevance of nutrition throughout infancy and toddlerhood
Nutrition is among the fundamental elements needed for the strong foundation of the body. From maternity as a result of childhood the unborn child is expanding and establishing at a much faster rate than at other time in its life. The correct balance of nutritious intake by the mother is usually be the distinction in birth weight, abnormality, and excessive weight. Inadequate energy, protein, and nutrients throughout this delicate duration can result in enduring deficits in cognition, social, and psychological advancement.
The significance of nutrition in maternity cannot be overemphasized. Appropriate nutrition, from conception with the first year of life, is a crucial element to healthy development and advancement in an infant. Not only the kind of food but its amount should be monitored in this stage. Excellent nutrition keeps maternal energy requirements, offers the underlying layer for the advancement…… [Read More]
Cultural Customs Surrounding Breast Feeding
Breast Feeding along History and Cultures
Breast Feeding is a practice that has existed ever since mankind came into being. It has been practiced for thousands of years and has been considered a sacred bond between the mother and the child by some cultures while others have disregarded the practice largely through societal influences and due to the changing trends whereby they started laying more importance on the new formulas created to feed the newborns. Nevertheless, there are varying trends that are noticeable in different cultures and the practice has evolved through history and has been conveniently retained by many as well.
History of breast feeding:
Throughout the world and from the start of mankind, infant care and breast feeding has had its roots. At some point in time, breast feeding remained as a practice within the poor people who could not afford to provide…… [Read More]
In Favor of Breast Feeding
Breastfeeding has become a political lightening rod, igniting debates across a wide spectrum of social issues. Sadly the critics of mothers' breast feeding their children have forgotten about the most important person involved: the baby. There are a myriad of studies pointing to the many psychological, psychological and mental development benefits of this practice, with several provided below.
First, it is a proven medical fact that the nutrients in mother's milk help to alleviate and naturally immunize a baby from a long list of illnesses. Breast milk is packed with many nutrients that babies need the first six months of life to establish and strengthen their immune systems. This is why the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that mother's breast feed their babies the first six months of life. There is also evidence that break feeding also helps the mother to become more…… [Read More]
Breastfeeding in public
Article of analysis
Why are we still so squeamish about breastfeeding? By Kelly Wallace.
The article above was written by Kelly Wallace who was a CNN correspondent at the time he wrote the article. Being a correspondent of the new network, the writer strived to remain professional throughout the article, giving the two sides to the story through the voices of other opinion holders. The topic under discussion here is the morality of breastfeeding in public and whether the women doing the same are justified or should stop. The author starts with presenting a famous incident of breastfeeding in public by a celebrity that was posted online and went viral, evoking mixed reactions. He also arouses the reader’s attention by mentioning renown cases of businesses that had locked out or stopped women who were breastfeeding in their premises. The writer then goes on to document reactions of…… [Read More]
It has been recognized that breastfeeding constitutes the best source of infant nourishment, functioning as nutrition as well as the "living fluid" imbued with a complex blend of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, unique to the mother and her infant. Baby formula is unable to replicate the above essential substances. As breastfeeding is recognized as the superior mode of feeding infants, it must be protected, promoted and supported even among working mothers, after they return to their jobs. The WHO (World Health Organization) recommendation is that babies ought to be given nothing but breast milk until six months of age, with some amount of breastfeeding to be continued, at least till they reach two years of age (Deirdre Desmond & Sarah Meaney, 2016).
Breastfeeding at the Workplace
Breastfeeding rates in a majority of industrialized nations are generally below the desired levels. For instance, the 2002 U.S. estimate is that roughly seven…… [Read More]
Working Women and Breastfeeding
According to Bouchez (2016), nursing babies once involved hardly any complications. As a majority of mothers were housewives, it wasn't hard to keep up with breastfeeding.
However, the scenario today is quite different and complex. With throngs of females joining the labor force, an increasing number of new moms face breastfeeding-related problems, which they must balance with their career demands. About 70% of moms in the workforce have kids aged below three years. About 33% of this cluster rejoins their jobs as soon as their baby turns three months, while about 66% return to work within half a year of the baby's birth. Clearly, a large employee group's breastfeeding requirements are to be accommodated. A number of females claim rejoining their jobs is the key cause of breastfeeding cessation. The many physical and emotional obstacles they encounter at work are: the absence of a pumping-friendly, private…… [Read More]
Women and Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding can be enhanced and encouraged by the following schemes:
Following the breastfeeding procedures stipulated by hospitals to achieve successful breast feeding
The birth of an infant, often accompanied by joy and a deep sense of filial fulfillment can be the cause of considerable stress for the parents, this is often the case especially with the first child in a family. The hospitalization of the baby is therefore a situation that causes extreme concern for all members of the family. The normal breastfeeding pattern, and also the biological synthesis of breastmilk in the mother's mammary glands can be hampered by stress. Consequently, pediatric nurses are indispensable in these periods of intense stress to provide their support and expertise to the mother. Majority of women look up to medical practitioners for guidance and assistance in choosing their breastfeeding procedures, they also seek to have healthcare professionals influence their…… [Read More]
pregnant women go through stages of what is good to eat and what isn't. It is stated that eating organic food is healthy for the baby's growth, and development. Mothers are said to eat vegetables, fruits, and other foods in order to maintain a healthy diet. esearch has shown that eating organic food is healthy for babies and many claims by marketers suggest that formula for babies is a good approach to healthily feeding them. This paper will show how while some products attempt to "cash in" on the organic food craze by promoting themselves as organic, even though the food itself is not very healthy (such as "organic" sugary cereals), there is still validity to the claim that organic food diets that consist of wholesome, natural foods like vegetables, fruits and nuts are good for expecting mothers. However, the research shows that when it comes to breastfeeding, there is…… [Read More]
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…… [Read More]
NICE Guidelines -- Midwives during postpartum
The ole of Midwife per NICE Guidelines
Pregnancy and childbirth is, in the majority of cases, a normal life event that proceeds to an uncomplicated outcome and can be effectively managed by a skilled midwife attendant. This also extends to assisting new mothers with postpartum care. The midwife is recognized as a responsible and accountable professional who can give the necessary support, care and advice during the postpartum period and provide the necessary care for the infant.
NICE guidelines recommend that new mothers and infants not be separated within the first hour. The midwife should encourage skin-to-skin contact -- before asking about feeding methods. If breastfeeding is the mother's preference, it should be encouraged within the first hour. During the first 24 hours after childbirth, midwives should ensure the woman's well-being and care by documenting blood pressure results and first urine voids within the…… [Read More]
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.
Vitamin D…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]
Breast pumping techniques.
Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.
Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.
Teaching Strategies Used and ationale
The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.
Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…… [Read More]
Stubbornman's abuse of power specifically involves the infant. By refusing Ms Jane to breastfeed her infant, Mr. Stubbornman violated not only the Florida jurisdiction, but also the right of the infant to be nourished when he was in need.
The security guard and the store, however, can justify their position in detaining Ms Jane initially, in order to determine whether there was any case of shoplifting. The defendants should refer to the Florida Statute of 811.022, which provides that "[a] peace officer, or a merchant, or a merchant's employee who has probably cause for believing that goods held for sale by the merchant have been unlawfully taken by a person and that he can recover them by taking the person into custody, may, for the purpose of attempting to effect such recovery, take the person into custody and detain him in a reasonable manner for reasonable length of time" (Jefferson…… [Read More]
The positive relationship between breastfeeding and improved infant health has been reiterated by both the Centers for Disease Control, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization. This has encouraged some hospitals to adopt the 'Baby Friendly USA' designation, which marks them as institutions which emphasize a number of initiatives which encourage breastfeeding for all mothers. As of August, 2011, more than 100 maternity centers in the U.S.A. (out of a total of 3000) have met the qualifications to be declared 'Baby Friendly' (ochman, 2011). Citing the study published in Pediatric, ochman (2011) asserts that this growing trend towards reducing the power of formula manufacturers to influence parental behavior has many positive implications for parents and their new babies. This includes the possibility of lower obesity rates in American children and an improved bond between mother and newborn.
ochman's article illustrates that breastfeeding is more likely to succeed when hospitals actively work…… [Read More]
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]
Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.
CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…… [Read More]
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…… [Read More]
Summary and Conclusion
However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…… [Read More]
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…… [Read More]
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…… [Read More]
Motherhood conjures up images of a plump round female body surrounded by plump round babes playing about at feet while another suckles at breast, much as one sees in Victorian paintings. It is a common belief that bottle-feeding is a modern phenomenon, and although most images of motherhood do depict breastfeeding, it seems even in the Victorian era and earlier, substitutes for nursing babies was not uncommon.
The horn, which was commonly used as a drinking vessel for adults during the Middle Ages, was used to feed infants by tying a soft leather scrap to it to make a teat (History pp). In 17th Century Europe, leather or wood feeding bottles were used, then later pewter bottles and pap boats, most of which were flask shaped with screw on tops to form a hard round nipple (History pp).
Over the next four hundred years, the materials and design…… [Read More]
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…… [Read More]
In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).
This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]
Clicking on the links reveals that some of the topics provide more information and information in different formats than others. For example, the Aging Driver topic lists the following clickable PDF files:
Tips for Safe Driving, How to Help the Older Driver, Getting by Without Driving, Am I a Safe Driver?, and Successful Aging Tips.
Other topics, such as Health Disparities, do not provide information directly but only link the user to external resources and other databases. This might discourage many users, especially those unfamiliar with online research hoping to find printable information with a minimum of further searching online. Meanwhile, another topic, Breastfeeding, does provide easily accessible information that includes illustrative diagrams along with the text-based information, as depicted below.
How should I hold my baby while breastfeeding?
You can hold your baby in a number of ways. Your baby shouldn't have to turn his or her head or…… [Read More]
Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Gender and Sex in Anthropology
A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Defining Sex and Gender
The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…… [Read More]
Cognitive and Psychomotor Disturbance:
This is the other long-term psychological effect of surgery on children particularly those who undergo heart transplant surgical operations. Similar to the post-hospital distress, cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is usually as a result of extra medical treatments and longer stays in hospital. According to research, patients who undergo complex pediatric surgical operations are likely to exhibit signs of cognitive or psychomotor disturbance (Todaro et al., n.d.). The cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is also as a result of the surgical procedures that a child goes through in the inpatient surgical operations.
However, the effect of cognitive and psychomotor disturbances are not limited to patient who undergo inpatient surgical operations since those who undergo day case surgery are also likely to experience these effects. Nonetheless, as compared to the inpatient surgical operations, the likelihood of these effects are less in day case surgical operations. Poor school attendance and…… [Read More]
Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.
Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…… [Read More]
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…… [Read More]
For instance, the presentation includes breastfeeding modeling, written literature, and suggestions about getting involved in support groups, which are actions that support cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals. In order to facilitate the learner's achievement of these goals through the previously listed actions and other instructional programming, the program insures that the patient feel comfortable both physically and emotionally and that her personal and cultural background, including her learning style, are taken into consideration. To further assist the learner in attaining the stated goals, the program is organized in a logical manner that places information and modeling before self-attempts. Additionally, by maintaining a positive attitude about the learner's cultural background, feelings, and learning style, the program increases the chances of success. Finally, the program clearly presents both goals and actions associated with successfully completing the program, and the teacher was able to work with the learner by identifying the learner's emotional…… [Read More]
The child can hold a bottle, and he or she can also pick up soft bits of vegetables and fruits (Satter, 2000). He or she can also eat biscuits or crackers that are specifically designed for children of that age. (Fomon, 2001) There are a lot of foods that a baby should not be eating because it is too easy to choke on them, and an adult should always be present when a very young child is eating, even if that child is doing well with eating on his or her own. Nutritionally, it is also a good idea for an adult to be present (Satter, 2000). It is expected that an infant or toddler will have food preferences, just like an older child or an adult. With this being the case, not eating the right foods can become a problem. (Fomon, 2001) by offering a wide range of choices,…… [Read More]
Vol. 4. 145-56.
In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).
o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).
McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…… [Read More]
The aged can also be accommodated near the bottom of the building, with low-impact aerobics and other targeted activities offered here. The medical and emergency facilities should also be incorporated close to these locations.
Young children, on the other hand, can be accommodated closer to the top floor of the facility, as they should have no difficulty accessing the higher levels of the building. Employees should be trained in providing them with adult supervision while they take part in the activities here. wimming pools of various sizes and depth levels can be included in this location. Daycare facilities can also be located on this floor, or close to it. It is important to include an intercom system from the children's and daycare floors, so that parents can be notified instantly if a child is in need of direct parental intervention. Baby changing rooms, and breastfeeding space can also be provided…… [Read More]
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]
More Care Giving to Babies:
One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).
In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).
Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults
Those boys who co-slept with their…… [Read More]
Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects
Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).
Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…… [Read More]
For women, breastfeeding has the ability to bring back the shame of an attack or an occurrence of unwanted touching (Wood, 2010, pp. e137).
Additionally, the idea of sexual activity, for an individual who has experienced trauma and fear touch, can become an incurable fear should it not be addressed. For an individual who has suffered this type of trauma, an unsolicited touch from another human being as simple as a hand on their shoulder can bring back vivid memories of the trauma as well as the ability to place that individual right back into the emotional state of the trauma (Hatfield, 1994, pp.1). This type of situation is key to understanding personal boundaries despite the need for touch in the realm of humanity.
As seen in viewing the many facets of touch within humanity and the direct link to emotion that touch can provide for individuals, one can…… [Read More]
Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.
The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.
Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).
This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…… [Read More]
Infant Sleep Patterns
People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]
Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal
Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.
The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?
There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]
Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Course Project: Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Child obesity refers to a medical condition that mainly affects teenagers and children. This happens when their bodies store excessive body fat. A child can be classified as obese if his or her weight is above the stipulated average for the age and height bracket. Weight gain occurs when energy in the form of drink and food is more than the energy burnt off (Koplan et al., 2005). Few teenagers and children suffer from obesity because of uncommon genetic diseases. The following study endeavors to identify the existing policies that affect child obesity and explain whether they are adequate or need to be revised based on their limitations and strengths. It also explains the important aspects when addressing the issue of child obesity.
The existing policies include early assessment of risk. This policy is necessary as early obesity…… [Read More]
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…… [Read More]
Energy and Water Needs for Lactating Women
Breastfeeding is one of the most important times in a young child's life. It establishes the immune system and ensures proper nutrition and growth. For this reason, it is also vital for women who lactate to understand their energy and water needs. It may be assumed that these will increase during lactation, since the body is using both energy and water to produce lactation.
Butte, Wong, and Hopkinson use measures of total energy expenditure (TEE), the output of milk energy and the mobilization of energy from tissue stores to determine the needs of women who lactate. To determine this, the researchers included 24 participants who were well-nourished and exclusively breastfeeding at three months after birth. Specific components that were measured included TEE, BM, and physical activity levels. These levels were the same for both lactating and non-lactating women. For the lactating women, the…… [Read More]