Breastfeeding Essays (Examples)

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Community Midwife Situation This Is a Personal

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56976520

Community Midwife Situation

This is a personal account based on my experience during a postnatal visit to a home where a new mother had given birth, in the town where I live. My own visit was because I was accompanying a midwife and observing the steps that the midwife takes. But while I was in the house I witnessed a situation with a young mother and a midwife that caused me considerable concern. This is a reflective account of that situation, and what should have been done, what could have been done, what are the correct steps a midwife should take to care for a primagravidae mother who is having problems getting her newborn girl to breastfeed -- all of those issues will be discussed and critiqued in this paper.

Home Births, Breastfeeding, Paperwork, and Priorities

Home Births: It is not a unique idea to give birth at home. I…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacDorman, M.F., Matthews, T.J., and Declercq, E. (2012). Home Births in the United States,

1990 -- 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Munroe, S. (2011). Midwife Duties & Responsibilities. The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 3, 2013, from  http://work.chron.com/midwife-duties-responsibilities-21928.html .
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The Cognitive Effect of Breast Milk

Words: 1584 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14632167

pregnant women go through stages of what is good to eat and what isn't. It is stated that eating organic food is healthy for the baby's growth, and development. Mothers are said to eat vegetables, fruits, and other foods in order to maintain a healthy diet. esearch has shown that eating organic food is healthy for babies and many claims by marketers suggest that formula for babies is a good approach to healthily feeding them. This paper will show how while some products attempt to "cash in" on the organic food craze by promoting themselves as organic, even though the food itself is not very healthy (such as "organic" sugary cereals), there is still validity to the claim that organic food diets that consist of wholesome, natural foods like vegetables, fruits and nuts are good for expecting mothers. However, the research shows that when it comes to breastfeeding, there is…… [Read More]

References

APA Code of Ethics. (2002). APA. Retrieved from https://memforms.apa.org/apa/cli/interest/ethics1.cfm#8_06

Bernard, J. et al. (2013). Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of age in the EDEN mother -- child cohort. Journal of Pediatrics, 163(1): 36-42.

Brandt, M. (2012). Study finds little cognitive benefit from soy supplements. Stanford Medicine. Retrieved from  https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2012/06/study-finds-little-cognitive-benefit-from-soy-supplements-for-older-women.html 

Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's Dietitian,
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Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20586324

Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).

Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…… [Read More]

References

Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The

Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.

Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,

Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
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Nice Guidelines -- Midwives During Postpartum the

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93309177

NICE Guidelines -- Midwives during postpartum

The ole of Midwife per NICE Guidelines

Pregnancy and childbirth is, in the majority of cases, a normal life event that proceeds to an uncomplicated outcome and can be effectively managed by a skilled midwife attendant. This also extends to assisting new mothers with postpartum care. The midwife is recognized as a responsible and accountable professional who can give the necessary support, care and advice during the postpartum period and provide the necessary care for the infant.

NICE guidelines recommend that new mothers and infants not be separated within the first hour. The midwife should encourage skin-to-skin contact -- before asking about feeding methods. If breastfeeding is the mother's preference, it should be encouraged within the first hour. During the first 24 hours after childbirth, midwives should ensure the woman's well-being and care by documenting blood pressure results and first urine voids within the…… [Read More]

Reference

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2012) Postnatal Care Pathway [Online]. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10988/30144/30144.pdf. [Accessed: 19 September 2012].
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Vitamin D Is a Group of Fat-Soluble

Words: 1823 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39271463

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.

Vitamin D…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.

Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from: http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/5881.aspx

Feldman, D., et.al. (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
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Drug Monograph for Serious Infections

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46553583

Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).

Contraindications

Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).

Drug-Drug Interactions

The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]

Reference: PDR Network LLC.

Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
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Achieving Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation Baby-Friendly

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26970491

496).

Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]

Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.

Barriers to Change

Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.

Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.

Role of Nurse Executive
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Systematic Review of Effectiveness of Group-Based Antenatal Education Programs

Words: 18363 Length: 67 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73902472

Antenatal Education Systematic Review

Antenatal education pogamms

In pegnant women, how does goup antenatal education compae to no antenatal education o individual antenatal education fo impoving outcomes of childbith and paenting?

In pegnant women, how does goup antenatal education compae to no antenatal education o individual antenatal education fo impoving outcomes of childbith and paenting?

Antenatal education pogams ae key in impoving matenal health all ove the wold. They have been widely embaced in most developed counties whee antenatal education pogams ae outinely povided as pat of antenatal cae. They ae associated with benefit such as inceased knowledge of labo and childbith, paent-child attachment, educed anxiety and depession, and inceased knowledge of paenthood. They often involve seveal scheduled sessions with a facilitato o cae povide (often a tained patient educato, midwife, o geneal pactitione) that last about 1 -- 2 hous and focus on diffeent aspects of labo, childbith, and…… [Read More]

references in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Women's Health Care, 2.

PERROW, F. 2004. Investing in teenage parents: what maternity services can do. RCM Midwives, 7, 250-1.

PUP PROGRAM. 2014. Parents Under Pressure Program [Online]. Available: http://www.pupprogram.net.au / [Accessed Aug 1st 2014].

REDMAN, S., OAK, S., BOOTH, P., JENSEN, J. & SAXTON, A. 1991. Evaluation of an antenatal education programme: characteristics of attenders, changes in knowledge and satisfaction of participants. Aust NZJ Obstet Gynaecol, 31, 310-6.

RENKERT, S. & NUTBEAM, D. 2001. Opportunities to improve maternal health literacy through antenatal education: an exploratory study. Health Promot Int, 16, 381-8.
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Birth Places a Tremendous Emotional

Words: 3259 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9234396



Breast pumping techniques.

Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.

Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.

Teaching Strategies Used and ationale

The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.

Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html

American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm

Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc

Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
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Ms Jane v Mr Stubbornman

Words: 1971 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3646815

Stubbornman's abuse of power specifically involves the infant. By refusing Ms Jane to breastfeed her infant, Mr. Stubbornman violated not only the Florida jurisdiction, but also the right of the infant to be nourished when he was in need.

The security guard and the store, however, can justify their position in detaining Ms Jane initially, in order to determine whether there was any case of shoplifting. The defendants should refer to the Florida Statute of 811.022, which provides that "[a] peace officer, or a merchant, or a merchant's employee who has probably cause for believing that goods held for sale by the merchant have been unlawfully taken by a person and that he can recover them by taking the person into custody, may, for the purpose of attempting to effect such recovery, take the person into custody and detain him in a reasonable manner for reasonable length of time" (Jefferson…… [Read More]

References

Bryant v. Kansas City Rus. Co. 286 Mo. 342, 228 S.W. 472. Mo. 1921. February 19, 1921. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.

Hughes v. McDonald. 133 Cal.App.2d 74, 283 P.2d 360 Cal.App. 1 Dist. 1955. May 18, 1955. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.

Jefferson Stores, Inc. v. Caudell. 228 So.2d 99. Fla.App. 1969. November 18, 1969. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.

Oosterhoudt v. Montgomery Ward & Co., Inc. 316 So.2d 582. Fla.App. 1975. July 1975. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.
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Hospitals Hand Out Free Formula

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30867422

The positive relationship between breastfeeding and improved infant health has been reiterated by both the Centers for Disease Control, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization. This has encouraged some hospitals to adopt the 'Baby Friendly USA' designation, which marks them as institutions which emphasize a number of initiatives which encourage breastfeeding for all mothers. As of August, 2011, more than 100 maternity centers in the U.S.A. (out of a total of 3000) have met the qualifications to be declared 'Baby Friendly' (ochman, 2011). Citing the study published in Pediatric, ochman (2011) asserts that this growing trend towards reducing the power of formula manufacturers to influence parental behavior has many positive implications for parents and their new babies. This includes the possibility of lower obesity rates in American children and an improved bond between mother and newborn.

ochman's article illustrates that breastfeeding is more likely to succeed when hospitals actively work…… [Read More]

References

Rochman, B. (2011, Sept. 26). Fewer hospitals hand out free formula to new moms. Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2011/09/26/are-mothers-being-manipulated-fewer-hospitals-hand-out-formula-freebies-to-new-moms/
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Prevention of Childhood Obesity in

Words: 3571 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75541450

(Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx

Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24

National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx

Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
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Discrimination Against Women in California

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10108592

Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.

CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org.

Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at http://www.californiaprogressreport.com.(2008).

Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org.(2005).

California Now. "Women's Health Care: Struggles & Strange Bedfellows." Retrieved 9 December 2008, at http://www.canow.org.(2008).
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Flanders-Stepans M Wilhelm S L & Dolence K

Words: 2214 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2803940

Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.

Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…… [Read More]

references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.

Reference

Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.
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Rickets Is a Nutritionally Related

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93813101

(Kirchner, 2000)

Summary and Conclusion

However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.

orks Cited

American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm

Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000344.htm

Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_2_61/ai_59486900

Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_67/ai_102822610
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Business Ethics Export Capital for

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9217075



However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson

Wadsworth
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Prison Nurseries There Are Few Assets as

Words: 2731 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73021498

Prison Nurseries

There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little…… [Read More]

References

Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from:  http://benevolentnet.blogspot.com/2013/07/prison-babies.html 

Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from:  http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/krienert/readings/Carlson_2009.pdf 

Ford, A. (2012). Bonding Behind Bars: Do Prison Nurseries Help or Hinder Parenting? Meredith Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.divinecaroline.com/life-etc./culture-causes/bonding-behind-bars-do-prison-nurseries-help-or-hinder-parenting

Lee, O. (2012, May 29). What Happens to Babies Born in Jail? Takepart. Retrieved from:  http://www.takepart.com/article/2012/05/28/what-happens-babies-born-jail
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Neonatal Intensive Care Units Phenomenon of Interest

Words: 1048 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20783238

Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Phenomenon of Interest

The phenomenon of interest involved in the study relates around current and past healthcare environments, specifically within the neonatal care unit. It is a field that is very specific, but also very vulnerable to being negatively affected by any issues or snags within the delivery of neonatal care to infants and new mothers. Given the sensitivity of the field, this particular article aims to help increase the strength of healthcare strategies involved in caring for new babies. Benoit and Semenic (2014) are very clear in identifying their phenomenon of interest. Essentially, they explain that there are certain factors that influence success of neonatal care strategies in both positive and negative ways. Healthcare professionals often spread their biases regarding infants and breast feeding practices, which then influence the breastfeeding behaviors of the mother. This is especially true for cases seen in intensive care. The…… [Read More]

References

Benoit, Britney & Semenic, Sonia. (2014). Barriers and facilitators to implementing the baby-friendly hospital initiative in neonatal intensive care units. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Science, 0(2014), 1-11.

LoBiondo-Wood, Geri & Haber, Judith. (2009). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisals and Utilizations. Mosby.
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Obesity in Bellingham WA a

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38967722

The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.

Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from  http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html

-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from  
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Feeding Baby Motherhood Conjures Up Images of

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71593401

Feeding Baby

Motherhood conjures up images of a plump round female body surrounded by plump round babes playing about at feet while another suckles at breast, much as one sees in Victorian paintings. It is a common belief that bottle-feeding is a modern phenomenon, and although most images of motherhood do depict breastfeeding, it seems even in the Victorian era and earlier, substitutes for nursing babies was not uncommon.

The horn, which was commonly used as a drinking vessel for adults during the Middle Ages, was used to feed infants by tying a soft leather scrap to it to make a teat (History pp). In 17th Century Europe, leather or wood feeding bottles were used, then later pewter bottles and pap boats, most of which were flask shaped with screw on tops to form a hard round nipple (History pp).

Over the next four hundred years, the materials and design…… [Read More]

Work Cited

The History of Baby Feeding

http://www.babybottle-museum.co.uk/main%20intro.html

Breast Feeding

http://www.babymd.net/breastfeeding.html
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Analyzing the Pro Veganism

Words: 5038 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91243962

Pro Veganism

A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).

For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…… [Read More]

References

Primary Sources

Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/3817096/beyond-factory-farming-report.pdf

Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.

Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016.  http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c03/E6-54-03-06.pdf
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 3373 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58176948

In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).

This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Definition of HHS. (2008). Medicine Net. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10710

DeNoon, Daniel. (2008). Controversy over new 'conscience' rule. Medicine Net.

Retrieved January 2, 2009 at  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95180 

Dowshen, Steven. (2008, August). CDC: Measles outbreaks may be tied to parents' choice not to vaccinate. The Children's Hospital. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.thechildrenshospital.org/wellness/info/news/62622.aspx
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Online Healthcare and Nursing Courses

Words: 839 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75739940



Clicking on the links reveals that some of the topics provide more information and information in different formats than others. For example, the Aging Driver topic lists the following clickable PDF files:

Tips for Safe Driving, How to Help the Older Driver, Getting by Without Driving, Am I a Safe Driver?, and Successful Aging Tips.

Other topics, such as Health Disparities, do not provide information directly but only link the user to external resources and other databases. This might discourage many users, especially those unfamiliar with online research hoping to find printable information with a minimum of further searching online. Meanwhile, another topic, Breastfeeding, does provide easily accessible information that includes illustrative diagrams along with the text-based information, as depicted below.

How should I hold my baby while breastfeeding?

You can hold your baby in a number of ways. Your baby shouldn't have to turn his or her head or…… [Read More]

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Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2216076

Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Anthropology 203

A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Defining Sex and Gender

The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.

Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
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Pediatric Surgery Is Usually Performed

Words: 1687 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24203031



Cognitive and Psychomotor Disturbance:

This is the other long-term psychological effect of surgery on children particularly those who undergo heart transplant surgical operations. Similar to the post-hospital distress, cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is usually as a result of extra medical treatments and longer stays in hospital. According to research, patients who undergo complex pediatric surgical operations are likely to exhibit signs of cognitive or psychomotor disturbance (Todaro et al., n.d.). The cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is also as a result of the surgical procedures that a child goes through in the inpatient surgical operations.

However, the effect of cognitive and psychomotor disturbances are not limited to patient who undergo inpatient surgical operations since those who undergo day case surgery are also likely to experience these effects. Nonetheless, as compared to the inpatient surgical operations, the likelihood of these effects are less in day case surgical operations. Poor school attendance and…… [Read More]

References:

Cadena, C. (2007, May 11). The Psychological Impact of Organ Transplants in Children.

Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/238567/the_psychological_impact_of_organ_transplants.html?cat=25

Campbell, I.R, Scaife, J.M & Johnstone, J.M. (n.d.). Psychological Effects of Day Case Surgery

Compared with Inpatient Surgery. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information -- U.S. National Library of Medicine website:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1778819/pdf/archdisch00687-0077.pdf
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Rural Obesity The Missouri Example

Words: 3204 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79504761

Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.

Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boehmer, T., Lovegreen, S., Haire-Joshu, D., & Brownson, R. (2006). What Constitutes an Obesogenic Environment in Rural Communities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 411-421.

Casey, a., Elliott, M., Glanz, K., Haire-Joshu, D., Lovegreen, S., Saelens, B., et al. (2008). Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Preventive Medicine, 600-604.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:  http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ 

Centers for Disease Control. (2010). U.S. Obesity Trends. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control:
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Trimester of Pregnancy When Life

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14282047

Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).

Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements

According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry

News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1

Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1

Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
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Postpartum Nursing Teaching Project Evaluation

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91717254

For instance, the presentation includes breastfeeding modeling, written literature, and suggestions about getting involved in support groups, which are actions that support cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals. In order to facilitate the learner's achievement of these goals through the previously listed actions and other instructional programming, the program insures that the patient feel comfortable both physically and emotionally and that her personal and cultural background, including her learning style, are taken into consideration. To further assist the learner in attaining the stated goals, the program is organized in a logical manner that places information and modeling before self-attempts. Additionally, by maintaining a positive attitude about the learner's cultural background, feelings, and learning style, the program increases the chances of success. Finally, the program clearly presents both goals and actions associated with successfully completing the program, and the teacher was able to work with the learner by identifying the learner's emotional…… [Read More]

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Nutrition During the Infancy and

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18218204

The child can hold a bottle, and he or she can also pick up soft bits of vegetables and fruits (Satter, 2000). He or she can also eat biscuits or crackers that are specifically designed for children of that age. (Fomon, 2001) There are a lot of foods that a baby should not be eating because it is too easy to choke on them, and an adult should always be present when a very young child is eating, even if that child is doing well with eating on his or her own. Nutritionally, it is also a good idea for an adult to be present (Satter, 2000). It is expected that an infant or toddler will have food preferences, just like an older child or an adult. With this being the case, not eating the right foods can become a problem. (Fomon, 2001) by offering a wide range of choices,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fomon, Samuel J. (2001). Feeding Normal Infants: Rationale for Recommendations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101:1002-1005.

Satter, Ellyn (2000). Child of Mine: Feeding with Love and Good Sense. Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing.
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Vitamin D Deficiency Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1652 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44446402

Vol. 4. 145-56.

In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).

o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).

McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…… [Read More]

Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.

His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).

Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
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Ergonomics in UK Leisure Centres

Words: 3356 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41260152

Employees should be trained in providing them with adult supervision while they take part in the activities here. wimming pools of various sizes and depth levels can be included in this location. Daycare facilities can also be located on this floor, or close to it. It is important to include an intercom system from the children's and daycare floors, so that parents can be notified instantly if a child is in need of direct parental intervention. Baby changing rooms, and breastfeeding space can also be provided on these floors. Children's restrooms should be provided on a smaller size scale than adult facilities.

Young adults and adults can be accommodated near the middle of the building, with their various activities and needs catered for on these floors. Normal-sized indoor swimming can also be arranged here.

Basically, no less than three floors should be used to integrate the various needs of the…… [Read More]

Sources

Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council. (2005-2007). "Crystal Leisure Centre - Facilities for the Disabled." http://www.dudley.gov.uk/leisure-and-culture/sports-clubs-and-centres/dudleys-leisure-centres/crystal-leisure-centre/facilities-for-the-disabled

North Ayrshire Leisure (2006-2007). "Magnum Leisure Centre. http://www.naleisure.co.uk/default.aspx?pageID=48

Public Employment Office (1999, May) "Workplace Adjustments for People with a Disability." Fair Ways Newsletter, Iss 1320-5471. http://www.eeo.nsw.gov.au/disabil/adjust.htm

Report of the Head of Property Services (2004, March 2). "North Lincolnshire Council; Leader of the Council; Disabled Access." h ttp:/ / www.northlincs.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1F293BD4-2CA0-4354-9D9A-F3B89AA2E6B4/4409/DisabledAccess.pdf.
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Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and

Words: 1880 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57684873

The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]

References

Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.

Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.

Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.

Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
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Parenting Co-Sleeping Has More Advantage

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52363471



More Care Giving to Babies:

One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).

In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).

Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults

Higher self-esteem:

Those boys who co-slept with their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

La Leche League International, Inc. (1997). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. (6th rev. ed.)

Schaumberg, IL: Author

Davies, L. (1995). Babies Co-sleeping with Parents. Midwives: Official Journal of the Royal

Heinig, M.J. (2000). Bed sharing and infant mortality: Guilt by association? Journal of Human
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Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 475283

Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects

Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).

Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…… [Read More]

References:

"Hormones of the Reproductive System of Females." Available:

 http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/S/SexHormones.html 

Kimbrell, E.A. & McDonnell, D.P. (2003). "Function and mode of action of nuclear receptors: Estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D" Pure Appl Chem, 75(11-12): 1671. Available:  http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/pdf/7511x1671.pdf 

Merck & Co., Inc. (2005). Reproductive Endocrinology. The Merck Manual, Sec. 18, Ch.
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Touching Social Philosophy the Social

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79132543

For women, breastfeeding has the ability to bring back the shame of an attack or an occurrence of unwanted touching (Wood, 2010, pp. e137).

Additionally, the idea of sexual activity, for an individual who has experienced trauma and fear touch, can become an incurable fear should it not be addressed. For an individual who has suffered this type of trauma, an unsolicited touch from another human being as simple as a hand on their shoulder can bring back vivid memories of the trauma as well as the ability to place that individual right back into the emotional state of the trauma (Hatfield, 1994, pp.1). This type of situation is key to understanding personal boundaries despite the need for touch in the realm of humanity.

Conclusion

As seen in viewing the many facets of touch within humanity and the direct link to emotion that touch can provide for individuals, one can…… [Read More]

References

Adenauer, H., Elbert, T., Engler, H., Gola, H., Kolassa, S., Schauer, M. (2011). "Victims

of rape show increased responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war and torture related PTSD." Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(2): pp. 213-220.

Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 17 July 2012].

Carey, B. (2010 February 23). "Evidence that little touches do mean so much." Missouri
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Lives of Female Saints in

Words: 1365 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65780268



Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.

The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.

Annotated Bibliography

Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).

This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…… [Read More]

Counihan Carole, M. "The Anthropology of Food and Body: Gender, Meaning and Power," Routledge, (1999), p.98.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Maryann Ainsworth A., & Keith, Christiansen. "From Van Eyck to Bruegel," (1998), p.127.

Counihan Carole, M. "The Anthropology of Food," Routledge, (1999), p.98.
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Safe Sleep and Sleep Patterns for Children Under 18 Months

Words: 2311 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79125388

Infant Sleep Patterns

People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,

Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?

An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299

Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
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Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54633210

Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal

Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.

The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?

Research Proposal

Introduction

There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from:  http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v29/n10/full/0803055a.html 

Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from:  http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivespring08/gearhart.pdf 

Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: http://paa2013.princeton.edu/papers/130233

Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htm
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Humanities Ancient Culture

Words: 2115 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58705771

Ancient Egyptian Gynecology

In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.

Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.

The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.

Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.

Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html

Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm

Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
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Understanding the Role of Women in Medieval Europe

Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91141818

omen's Domesticity In Medieval Europe During The Late Middle Ages

Role of omen as Mothers/ives

During the pre-industrial period in Europe, European housewifery included not only the housework chores, but also medical services, distillation, water purification, brewing, veterinary services and producing simple goods (all 19). During the time, although some of the European women contributed to the economic well-being of the society, they were not at anytime identified through their occupational designations. Therefore, although some of the women were working, the society throughout identified them through their marital status (McKeon 177). Nonetheless, all the early women in Europe undertook domestic chores. Although there were two types of women, those from high ranks, and those of lower ranks, both attended to domestic chores, which made them equal.

The ranks were achieved owing to the type of work, or it was dependent on the husband's profession. For the low ranked wives or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gilchrist, Roberta. Medieval Life: Archaeology and the Life Course. Rochester: Boydell Press,

2013. Print

Howell, Martha. Women, Production, and Patriarchy in Late Medieval Cities. Chicago: The

University of Chicago Press, 1986. Print
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Strategies for Tackling Childhood Teenage Obesity

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86899398

Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies

Course Project: Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies

Child obesity refers to a medical condition that mainly affects teenagers and children. This happens when their bodies store excessive body fat. A child can be classified as obese if his or her weight is above the stipulated average for the age and height bracket. Weight gain occurs when energy in the form of drink and food is more than the energy burnt off (Koplan et al., 2005). Few teenagers and children suffer from obesity because of uncommon genetic diseases. The following study endeavors to identify the existing policies that affect child obesity and explain whether they are adequate or need to be revised based on their limitations and strengths. It also explains the important aspects when addressing the issue of child obesity.

Current policies

The existing policies include early assessment of risk. This policy is necessary as early obesity…… [Read More]

References

Koplan, J., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity health in the balance. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Langwith, J. (2013). Childhood obesity. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
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Teenagers and the Obesity Crisis

Words: 2935 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26877458

Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens

Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.

Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.

Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.

Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.

Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
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Lactating Women's Water and Energy Needs

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48028533

Energy and Water Needs for Lactating Women

Breastfeeding is one of the most important times in a young child's life. It establishes the immune system and ensures proper nutrition and growth. For this reason, it is also vital for women who lactate to understand their energy and water needs. It may be assumed that these will increase during lactation, since the body is using both energy and water to produce lactation.

Butte, Wong, and Hopkinson use measures of total energy expenditure (TEE), the output of milk energy and the mobilization of energy from tissue stores to determine the needs of women who lactate. To determine this, the researchers included 24 participants who were well-nourished and exclusively breastfeeding at three months after birth. Specific components that were measured included TEE, BM, and physical activity levels. These levels were the same for both lactating and non-lactating women. For the lactating women, the…… [Read More]

References

Butte, N.F., Wong, W.W., and Hopkinson, J.M. (2001, Jan 1). Eenergy Requirements of Lactating Women Derived from doubly Labeled Water and Milk Energy Output. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1. Retrieved from:  http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/1/53.full 

Martinez, H. (2014). Fluid Consumption by Mexican Women during Pregnancy and First Semester of Lactation. BioMed Research International. Retrieved from:  http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/603282/