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Data in this study indicates that these events preceded the discontinuation of breastfeeding. The following figure illustrates the Schema for reastfeeding Definition provided by the Canadian Minister of Health (1997) which was adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)
Schema for reastfeeding Definition
Source: Canadian Minister of Health (1997) adopted from the work of Labbok and Krasovec (1990)
Vietnam and Cambodian Cultures Examined
Several cultures are examined in this study including those of the Vietnamese, Cambodians and those from Laos and it is stated the largest part of these children "are typically breastfed for more than year." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) it is related that imported formula is not affordable or not readily available therefore, breastfeeding is "simply the norm." (Canadian Minister of Health, 1997) This work relates that when no supplement formula is available that breast milk "is commonly supplemented with prechewed rice paste or rice…
Immigration and Health (2005) Health Canada Science and Research. 9 Aug 2005. Online available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/sr-sr/pubs/hpr-rpms/wp-dt/2001-0105-immigration/method_e.html
Sheehan, Debbie; Watt, Susan; Krueger, Paul; and Sword, Wendy (2006) the Impact of New Universal Postpartum Program on Breastfeeding Outcomes. International Lactation Consultant Association. Online available at http://jhl.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/22/4/398.pdf
The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. Breastfeeding Statement of the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada; 2002.
The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. The Baby-Friendly initiative in community health services: A Canadian implementation guide. Toronto, on: The Breastfeeding Committee for Canada; 2002..
For the newborn, birth weight, gestational age, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores were recorded. Post-discharge phone calls were made on day four and at week six. Each participant was asked if she was still breastfeeding at the time of the phone call. For data analysis, exclusive and partial were combined as "breastfeeding," whereas token and none were combined as "not breastfeeding."
Telephone interviews could be conducted for 182 (73%) participants on day four and 188 (76%) at six weeks. The results showed that LATCH scores were higher among women breastfeeding than those who had weaned. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, a score of 9 or above at 16 to 24 hours was the most discriminate of the 5 time periods examined. In addition, mothers who met this criterion were 1.7 times more likely to be breastfeeding at six weeks than women with lower scores. The authors concluded that the…
Breastfeeding and IQ
Infants who are breastfeed tend to have higher IQ as they mature. This paper examines that phenomenon, which presents a complex set of cause-and-effect questions, including how long infants must be breastfed to receive any benefits associated with nursefeeding, whether there are important intercultural variations among children whose IQs are higher (for example, if there is a greater correlation in societies where most women breastfeed or, alternatively, where few breastfeed) and whether the rise in IQ results from the chemistry of breastmilk, the practice of breastfeeding itself, or from the fact that women who breastfeed are significantly different (on an a priori basis) from those who do not.
For a number of years the scientific and medical communities have argued that breastfeeding provides a substantial benefit to infants, including primarily the fact that it promotes emotionally security and increases a child's overall health by transferring the…
Bauer G, et al. (1991). "Breastfeeding and cognitive development of three-year-old children." Psychological Reports 68:1218. http://www.breastfeeding.com/all_about/all_about_iq.html#FIRST
Breastfeeding may therefore gain social acceptance.
Still, despite the overwhelming health benefits for both mothers and babies, scientific debate still exists over the optimal duration for breastfeeding. In developing countries, the issue is perhaps more complex: where breast milk is the best and most consistent form of nutrition available for babies, many women may be tempted to continue breastfeeding for years. However, as children grow they clearly need more nutrients than what can be provided in breast milk alone. Beyond four months of age, experts note that infants require more complex nutrients than breastfeeding delivers (Kramer, 2006). Breastfeeding at least until six months of age is strongly recommended by virtually every public health expert. Beyond that consensus, views differ with some recommending ongoing breastfeeding until early childhood.
Regardless of a mother's preference and circumstances, there is no doubt that breastfed babies thrive nutritionally and that those health benefits extend far…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding. Available at:
Kramer, Michael S. And Ritsuko Kakuma. 2006. Optimal Duration of Exclusive
Breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: 1
The literature examination of the study's foundation is thorough and detailed building a step-by-step foundation to the need and purpose of this current study and its importance to society.
The flaws that were evident included the fact that many of the milestones reported were anecdotal by the parents. In addition the parents were not held to a standard of home care and stimulation tactics of the babies so it is possible that many of the higher achieving children were assisted by support by their parents outside of the breastfeeding arena.
The strengths of the study include the fact that it was so comprehensive in nature and that it provided a long-term examination so that the possibility of a coincidental time correlation could be ruled out.
In addition, the study allowed for error as it was a 16-year examination and provided many opportunities over those 16 years for milestones to develop…
These are not necessary costs considering they can be avoided by mothers when they opt to avoid breastfeeding.
Also it might be embarrassing for some mothers who are not used to breastfeeding in public, and at times milk may leak as a reaction instinct immediately the baby starts crying. This is triggered by the natural maternal instincts that a breast feeding mother has. Such occurrences in most cases make the mothers to feel embarrassed, and at some instances they are ridiculed by other people who are less informed about such matters.
The amount of milk that is being sucked by a baby cannot be measured. Unless milk is being pimped into a container then it is measured, it will be next to impossible to figure out the amount of milk your child needs. This might be a problem in case the mother will be away for some time and needs…
Rauch, Daniel. Breastfeeding: Information, Symptoms, Treatments and Resources. 23 Oct. 2007.
15 Oct. 2010.
Women's health.gov. Breastfeeding. 1 Aug. 2010. 15 Oct. 2010.
Breastfeeding #NAS #Neonates
Opioid use and dependency has become a serious problem in the U.S. esearch has shown that opioid-dependent women run significantly high risks of giving birth to children with NAS. Children with NAS face some serious health complications, and stay in the hospital longer than normal children. Studies have, however, shown that breastfeeding could help minimize the severity of NAS symptoms among neonates. This text reviews an article seeking to demonstrate how breastfeeding does this, and the specific strategies that nurses and clinicians could use to promote breastfeeding among opioid-dependent mothers in their care.
Breastfeeding Promotion for Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
The article is focused on one group of at-risk neonates -- those whose mothers are opioid-dependent. esearch has shown neonates born to opioid-dependent women to run higher risks of developing the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) than those born to non-users. Neonates with NAS display…
Pritham, U. A. (2013). Breastfeeding Promotion for Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 42(5), 517-526.
Article Review: “This is Why Breastfeeding is So Important”
According to McGrath (2015), breastfeeding offers an important source of protection for infants, including guarding against “asthma, diabetes, obesity, respiratory infections and ear infections” (par. 1). McGrath also explains the scientific rationale behind the benefits of breastfeeding, noting that the colostrum transmitted through the mother’s breastmilk functions as what she calls the infant’s first vaccine. But while her scientific arguments are convincing that breastfeeding is optimal for the health of the child in many, perhaps even most instances, her argument that it is easier for working women, because breastfeed children are less apt to become ill, is not necessarily true for women who find pumping cumbersome and expensive. The article also does not take into consideration the fact that many women do not produce enough milk for their infants.
The article should provide greater assurance for women who are unable to…
McGrath, L. (2015). This is why breastfeeding is so important. Healthy Woman. Retrieved from:https://www.healthywomen.org/content/blog-entry/why-breastfeeding-so- important
Back in the day, when babies were born in homes they were kept close to the mother following the birth. As society evolved and the deliveries started occurring in nursing homes or hospitals, the skin to skin contact (SSC) norm began fading away. Some introduction should be given about what SSC really is. SSC is basically when the naked new born baby is placed on the mother's bare chest subsequent to the birth. (Moore, Anderson, Bergman & Dowswell, 2012) Interventions were done on mammals to reveal how separation of the baby and mother went on to affect the baby.
The idea for the closeness for breast feeding came forward when this pattern was observed in animals. If the mammal delivery and post partum behavior is needed, then it is seen that the interactions of the mother and the pup for instance is mandatory. It is required because that encourages…
Canahuati, J. And De Suarez, M. (2001). Supporting Breastfeeding: Current Status and Future Challenges. Child Welfare, 80 (5).
Flacking, R. et al. (2011). Positive Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Long-Term Breastfeeding in Very Preterm Infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 40 (2), pp.190-197.
Moore, E. And Anderson, G. (2007). Randomized Controlled Trial of Very Early Mother-Infant Skin-to-Skin Contact and Breastfeeding Status. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, (52), pp.116-125.
Moore, E. et al. (2012). Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. . Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5).
In ode to pomote adequate milk poduction, pacifies and supplementay liquids should be avoided fo the fist six months. An ovesupply of milk can make feedings difficult fo the mothe and infant, and this should be emedied pomptly. Offeing only one beast pe feeding and lengthening the feeding time can help, as can educing milk volume befoe feedings by hand expessing. Beast engogement can occu within the fist few days afte bith and must be handled popely to pevent plugged ducts and mastitis (infection). Othe poblems that can occu include a fungal infection (thush), infant efusing to beast feed (nusing stike), and unhealthy infants. Medical help should be sought if these poblems do not esolve quickly.
Some women may feel uncomfotable beastfeeding in public, but govenment and medical oganizations uge women to ovecome this difficulty on behalf of the infant's and mothe's health (Office on Women's Health 2010c). Puchasing loose…
references before listing them.
Abbreviations make it easier for readers to locate the citations. This is a common technique.
This reference not included in the text citation
It is in the section on breastfeeding in public
In turn, as noted earlier in this study, this ultimately positively affects society.
Nevertheless, as Thurman and Allen (2008) assert, researchers need to conduct more research regarding IBCLC use in primary care settings, From the study Thurman and Allen (2008) completed, the researcher gained a greater understanding of the help that individuals with IBCLC certification are able to provide for new mothers. One point the researcher noted as particularly pertinent was the fact that the length of time the new mother breastfeeds her baby increases greatly when the family receives the appropriate pre and post natal care. An additional point worth recounting is that although primary care providers may not be as knowledgeable about breastfeeding as the IBCLC professionals, perhaps if primary health care providers utilized IBCLC professionals more, more new mothers would perhaps choose to breastfeed their babies. In turn, perhaps more mothers would realize first hand that breast…
Mothers One Year Postpartum 25
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) Healthy People 2010 initiative has set a goal of having 75% of mothers initiate breastfeeding immediately postpartum, 50% continuing breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum, and 25% breastfeeding at one year.
Scientists have not managed to replicate the actual milk that is produced by a mother. A mother's milk has all the vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional elements that a baby's body needs. The formulation of breast milk includes many other elements that are yet to be discovered and this is why it is highly recommended to breastfeed a baby exclusively for six months.
Breastfeeding forms a critical part of the Healthy People objectives. It is for this reason that Healthy People 2020 aims to increase the rates for breastfeeding mothers to 81.9 percent at the time of being discharged from hospital. With an increase in the number of breastfeeding mothers, there would be more than $4 billion saved in health care costs. There would be reduced medical costs that are associated with chronic illnesses in their children. Mothers would also benefit by reducing their risk of developing…
Bar, S., Milanaik, R., & Adesman, A. (2016). Long-term neurodevelopmental benefits of breastfeeding. Current opinion in pediatrics, 28(4), 559-566.
Binns, C., Lee, M., & Low, W. Y. (2016). The long-term public health benefits of breastfeeding. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 28(1), 7-14.
regulations from California and from the federal government as to the rights women have when it comes to breastfeeding in the workplace. The paper contrasts California guidelines with federal guidelines. In fact, once the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as "Obamacare" and the "Affordable Care Act") passed into law on March 23, 2010, it became federal law that employers are required to give mothers with babies (that are less than a year old) a break "each time such employee has need to express the milk" (U.S. Department of Labor). The Affordable Care Act in effect updated the Section 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act).
Health Benefits of Breastfeeding
According to the Surgeon General of the United States, whose confirmation was blocked by the U.S. Senate for nearly a year because the National Rifle Association objected to the nominee's belief that gun violence is a health issue,…
Breastfeed LA (2015). Worksite lactation Accommodation: California vs. Federal Lactation
Law. Retrieved May 8, 2015, from http://www.breastfeedla.org .
California Department of Industrial Relations. (2011). Rest Periods / Lactation
Accommodation. Retrieved May 8, 2015, from http://www.dir.ca.gov .
Neonates With Necrotizing Enterocolitis
I would like to write about preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and breastfeeding, whether it is beneficial to the infant to breastfeed. I became interested in the topic after a clinical experience in the NICU. One infant in the NICU was having difficulty keeping formula down. he neonate gastric pH was being monitored for GER. When the NICU nurse also spoke of assessing for signs of necrotizing enterocolitis in the distressed infant, it sparked my interest. I did not know anything about necrotizing enterocolitis. he NICU nurse told me quite a lot about the problem. Indeed, the wealth of information she shared was a bit overwhelming at the time so I decided to look it up after my clinical experience. What I found was sufficiently interesting to cause me to decide that I wanted to write my evidence-based paper on the topic.
The authors explore the impact of human milk (HM) on the frequency of incidence of necrotizing entercolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The mothers of VLBW infants often experience insufficient breast milk production to sustain their infants, which results in mixed formula and HM feedings. Additionally, medical complications frequently limit the volume of formula that can be given to infants with NEC. The research hypothesis was that high proportions (50% or greater) of HM enteral feeding within the first 14 days of life are protective against NEC. The research method was a prospective cohort study of VLBW infants who were grouped by the HM proportion of enteral feeding in the first 14 days. Of the 202 infants studied, two groups were established: 50% (high human milk, HHM, n=156). The outcome measure was the development of NEC (as indicated by Bell stage 2 or 3). Logistical regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), potential confounding due to perinatal risk factors, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). NEC was confirmed in 5 out of 46 (or 10.6%) of the LHM group, compared to 5 out of 156 (3.2%) of the HHM group. The only perinatal factor associated with the risk of NEC was gestational age. After adjusting for gestational age, HHM was associated with a lower risk of NEC as follows: Odds ratios (OR) = 0.17 at 95% confidence intervals of 0.04 to 0.68, P =0.01. The authors concluded that enteral feeding that contained at least 50% HM in the first 14 days of life was associated with a sixfold decrease in the odds of VLBW infants acquiring NEC.
Sullivan, S., Schanler, R.J., Kim, J.H., Patel, J.H., Tawoger, R., Kiechi-Kohlendorfer, U., Chan, G.M., Blanco, C.L., Abrams, S., Cotton, C.M., Laroia, N., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Dudell, G., Cristofalo, E.A., Meier, P., Lee, M.L., Rechtman, D.J., and Lucas, A. (2010, April). An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated wih a lower rate of necrotizing entercolitis than a diet of human milk and bovien milk-based products. The Journal of Pediatrics, 156(4), 562-567e1. Retrieved http://www.sciencedirect.com / science/article/pii/S0022347609010853
The authors evaluated the health benefits to extremely premature infants when given exclusively human milk-based diet compared to a mixed diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. Infants who were exclusively fed breast milk by their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HM 100, HM 40, and BOV. The infants in the HM 100 group and the HM 40 group were given pasteurized donor human milk-based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d and 40 mL/kg/d respectively. Both groups received pasteurized donor milk if no mother's milk was available. The BOV group received bovine milk-based human milk fortifier when enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d and preterm formula if no mother's milk was available. The research outcomes were duration of paternal nutrition, growth, and morbidity. A total of 207 infants were included in the research, all of whom had similar baseline demographic variables, durations of parental nutrition, growth, and rates of late-onset sepsis. The infants in the groups who received a diet that consisted exclusively of human milk had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) significant at P = .02, and NEC that required surgical intervention, significant at P = .007. The authors concluded that extremely premature infants would benefit from an exclusively human milk-based diet, benefits that were specifically manifested by significantly lower rates of NEC and surgical NEC when compared to the infants who received a diet of mother's milk and bovine milk-based products.
Other Retailers want to see Starbucks resolve the breastfeeding issue without drastic changes to its corporate policies and procedures. They realize that Starbucks has been chosen to set the precedent for all retailers. If Starbucks loses control of its corporate policies and brand image, they can expect to become the foci of similar protests in the future. State legislators may find themselves under increased pressure as a result of the outcome at Starbucks. Protesters may target legislators under the assumption that some states are lacking sufficient laws regarding breastfeeding. Protesters may be tempted to shift the focus from Starbucks to legislators in order to find another method of advancing their cause. In addition, legislators looking for ways to attract the "soccer mom" demographic may also find this an attractive topic.
The vision articulated by Arthur . Page (Vice President, Public Relations, AT&T, 1927 to 1946) offers a template for the…
Arak, Joel. (2003, November 22). Burger king: breast-feeding fine. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/11/22/national/main585110.shtml
Breast-feeding moms! discrimination at starbucks. (2005, August 8). Retrieved from http://www.starbucksunion.org/node/332
The page principles. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.awpagesociety.com/site/about/page_principles/
Moms nurse their babies at starbucks to protest incident. (2004, August 9). Retrieved from http://starbucksgossip.typepad.com/_/2004/08/moms_nurse_thei.html
The relevance of nutrition throughout infancy and toddlerhood
Nutrition is among the fundamental elements needed for the strong foundation of the body. From maternity as a result of childhood the unborn child is expanding and establishing at a much faster rate than at other time in its life. The correct balance of nutritious intake by the mother is usually be the distinction in birth weight, abnormality, and excessive weight. Inadequate energy, protein, and nutrients throughout this delicate duration can result in enduring deficits in cognition, social, and psychological advancement.
The significance of nutrition in maternity cannot be overemphasized. Appropriate nutrition, from conception with the first year of life, is a crucial element to healthy development and advancement in an infant. Not only the kind of food but its amount should be monitored in this stage. Excellent nutrition keeps maternal energy requirements, offers the underlying layer for the advancement…
Hedley, A.A., Ogden, C.L. And Johnson, C.L. (2004) Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2000. JAMA, 291:2847-2850
Ireland, J. (2011). "Will My Breasts Be Ruined After Breastfeeding?" LiveStrong.com. Retrieved 27 Jan 2013.
Klienman, K.P., Rich-Edwards, J.W. And Gillman, M.W., (2005). Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and child adiposity at age 3 years. Journal of Pediatric Research, 58:1127.
Koplan, J., Liverman, C., Kraak, V.. (2005). Consensus Report: Preventing Childhood Obesity, Health in balance. Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/reports/2004/preventing-childhood-obesity-health-in-the-balance.aspx
Cultural Customs Surrounding Breast Feeding
Breast Feeding along History and Cultures
Breast Feeding is a practice that has existed ever since mankind came into being. It has been practiced for thousands of years and has been considered a sacred bond between the mother and the child by some cultures while others have disregarded the practice largely through societal influences and due to the changing trends whereby they started laying more importance on the new formulas created to feed the newborns. Nevertheless, there are varying trends that are noticeable in different cultures and the practice has evolved through history and has been conveniently retained by many as well.
History of breast feeding:
Throughout the world and from the start of mankind, infant care and breast feeding has had its roots. At some point in time, breast feeding remained as a practice within the poor people who could not afford to provide…
Beske E.J., (1982). Important factors in breast feeding success. American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing.
Greiner T, (1998). History of Breast Feeding. Nursing mother's newsletter
Harrison GG, (1993). Breast feeding and weaning in a poor urban neighborhood: Cairo, Egypt.
The maternal beliefs and perceptions in Social Sciences and Medicine.
In Favor of Breast Feeding
Breastfeeding has become a political lightening rod, igniting debates across a wide spectrum of social issues. Sadly the critics of mothers' breast feeding their children have forgotten about the most important person involved: the baby. There are a myriad of studies pointing to the many psychological, psychological and mental development benefits of this practice, with several provided below.
First, it is a proven medical fact that the nutrients in mother's milk help to alleviate and naturally immunize a baby from a long list of illnesses. Breast milk is packed with many nutrients that babies need the first six months of life to establish and strengthen their immune systems. This is why the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that mother's breast feed their babies the first six months of life. There is also evidence that break feeding also helps the mother to become more…
Breastfeeding in public
Article of analysis
Why are we still so squeamish about breastfeeding? By Kelly Wallace.
The article above was written by Kelly Wallace who was a CNN correspondent at the time he wrote the article. Being a correspondent of the new network, the writer strived to remain professional throughout the article, giving the two sides to the story through the voices of other opinion holders. The topic under discussion here is the morality of breastfeeding in public and whether the women doing the same are justified or should stop. The author starts with presenting a famous incident of breastfeeding in public by a celebrity that was posted online and went viral, evoking mixed reactions. He also arouses the reader’s attention by mentioning renown cases of businesses that had locked out or stopped women who were breastfeeding in their premises. The writer then goes on to document reactions of…
It has been recognized that breastfeeding constitutes the best source of infant nourishment, functioning as nutrition as well as the "living fluid" imbued with a complex blend of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, unique to the mother and her infant. Baby formula is unable to replicate the above essential substances. As breastfeeding is recognized as the superior mode of feeding infants, it must be protected, promoted and supported even among working mothers, after they return to their jobs. The WHO (World Health Organization) recommendation is that babies ought to be given nothing but breast milk until six months of age, with some amount of breastfeeding to be continued, at least till they reach two years of age (Deirdre Desmond & Sarah Meaney, 2016).
Breastfeeding at the Workplace
Breastfeeding rates in a majority of industrialized nations are generally below the desired levels. For instance, the 2002 U.S. estimate is that roughly seven…
Working Women and Breastfeeding
According to Bouchez (2016), nursing babies once involved hardly any complications. As a majority of mothers were housewives, it wasn't hard to keep up with breastfeeding.
However, the scenario today is quite different and complex. With throngs of females joining the labor force, an increasing number of new moms face breastfeeding-related problems, which they must balance with their career demands. About 70% of moms in the workforce have kids aged below three years. About 33% of this cluster rejoins their jobs as soon as their baby turns three months, while about 66% return to work within half a year of the baby's birth. Clearly, a large employee group's breastfeeding requirements are to be accommodated. A number of females claim rejoining their jobs is the key cause of breastfeeding cessation. The many physical and emotional obstacles they encounter at work are: the absence of a pumping-friendly, private…
Women and Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding can be enhanced and encouraged by the following schemes:
Following the breastfeeding procedures stipulated by hospitals to achieve successful breast feeding
The birth of an infant, often accompanied by joy and a deep sense of filial fulfillment can be the cause of considerable stress for the parents, this is often the case especially with the first child in a family. The hospitalization of the baby is therefore a situation that causes extreme concern for all members of the family. The normal breastfeeding pattern, and also the biological synthesis of breastmilk in the mother's mammary glands can be hampered by stress. Consequently, pediatric nurses are indispensable in these periods of intense stress to provide their support and expertise to the mother. Majority of women look up to medical practitioners for guidance and assistance in choosing their breastfeeding procedures, they also seek to have healthcare professionals influence their…
Benaroch R., 2015. Breastfeeding Overview. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/nursing-basics#1 [Accessed 9 May 2017]
McLaughlin, M.A., 2010. Knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses related to breastfeeding (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Texas Ten Step Star Achiever, n.d. Show mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation, even if they should be separated from their infants. Available at: http://texastenstep.org/starachiever-texastenstep/Star_Achiever_Ten_Step_Modules/resources-and-tools/docs/Texas%20Ten%20step%20star%20Achiever%20Training%20Toolkit_Step%205.pdf [Accessed 9 May 2017]
Vermont Department of Health, n.d. 10 Steps to Empower Mothers & Nurture Babies. Available at: http://han.vermont.gov/wic/food-feeding/breastfeeding/10steps/documents/10steps_vchip_summary.pdf [Accessed 9 May 2017]
pregnant women go through stages of what is good to eat and what isn't. It is stated that eating organic food is healthy for the baby's growth, and development. Mothers are said to eat vegetables, fruits, and other foods in order to maintain a healthy diet. esearch has shown that eating organic food is healthy for babies and many claims by marketers suggest that formula for babies is a good approach to healthily feeding them. This paper will show how while some products attempt to "cash in" on the organic food craze by promoting themselves as organic, even though the food itself is not very healthy (such as "organic" sugary cereals), there is still validity to the claim that organic food diets that consist of wholesome, natural foods like vegetables, fruits and nuts are good for expecting mothers. However, the research shows that when it comes to breastfeeding, there is…
APA Code of Ethics. (2002). APA. Retrieved from https://memforms.apa.org/apa/cli/interest/ethics1.cfm#8_06
Bernard, J. et al. (2013). Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of age in the EDEN mother -- child cohort. Journal of Pediatrics, 163(1): 36-42.
Brandt, M. (2012). Study finds little cognitive benefit from soy supplements. Stanford Medicine. Retrieved from https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2012/06/study-finds-little-cognitive-benefit-from-soy-supplements-for-older-women.html
Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's Dietitian,
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…
Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The
Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.
Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,
Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
NICE Guidelines -- Midwives during postpartum
The ole of Midwife per NICE Guidelines
Pregnancy and childbirth is, in the majority of cases, a normal life event that proceeds to an uncomplicated outcome and can be effectively managed by a skilled midwife attendant. This also extends to assisting new mothers with postpartum care. The midwife is recognized as a responsible and accountable professional who can give the necessary support, care and advice during the postpartum period and provide the necessary care for the infant.
NICE guidelines recommend that new mothers and infants not be separated within the first hour. The midwife should encourage skin-to-skin contact -- before asking about feeding methods. If breastfeeding is the mother's preference, it should be encouraged within the first hour. During the first 24 hours after childbirth, midwives should ensure the woman's well-being and care by documenting blood pressure results and first urine voids within the…
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2012) Postnatal Care Pathway [Online]. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10988/30144/30144.pdf . [Accessed: 19 September 2012].
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.
Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/
Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.
Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from: http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/5881.aspx
Feldman, D., et.al. (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…
Reference: PDR Network LLC.
Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…
Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.
Barriers to Change
Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.
Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.
Role of Nurse Executive
Breast pumping techniques.
Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.
Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.
Teaching Strategies Used and ationale
The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.
Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html
American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc
Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
Stubbornman's abuse of power specifically involves the infant. By refusing Ms Jane to breastfeed her infant, Mr. Stubbornman violated not only the Florida jurisdiction, but also the right of the infant to be nourished when he was in need.
The security guard and the store, however, can justify their position in detaining Ms Jane initially, in order to determine whether there was any case of shoplifting. The defendants should refer to the Florida Statute of 811.022, which provides that "[a] peace officer, or a merchant, or a merchant's employee who has probably cause for believing that goods held for sale by the merchant have been unlawfully taken by a person and that he can recover them by taking the person into custody, may, for the purpose of attempting to effect such recovery, take the person into custody and detain him in a reasonable manner for reasonable length of time" (Jefferson…
Bryant v. Kansas City Rus. Co. 286 Mo. 342, 228 S.W. 472. Mo. 1921. February 19, 1921. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.
Hughes v. McDonald. 133 Cal.App.2d 74, 283 P.2d 360 Cal.App. 1 Dist. 1955. May 18, 1955. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.
Jefferson Stores, Inc. v. Caudell. 228 So.2d 99. Fla.App. 1969. November 18, 1969. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.
Oosterhoudt v. Montgomery Ward & Co., Inc. 316 So.2d 582. Fla.App. 1975. July 1975. Retrieved on February 27, 2011, from WestLaw.
The positive relationship between breastfeeding and improved infant health has been reiterated by both the Centers for Disease Control, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization. This has encouraged some hospitals to adopt the 'Baby Friendly USA' designation, which marks them as institutions which emphasize a number of initiatives which encourage breastfeeding for all mothers. As of August, 2011, more than 100 maternity centers in the U.S.A. (out of a total of 3000) have met the qualifications to be declared 'Baby Friendly' (ochman, 2011). Citing the study published in Pediatric, ochman (2011) asserts that this growing trend towards reducing the power of formula manufacturers to influence parental behavior has many positive implications for parents and their new babies. This includes the possibility of lower obesity rates in American children and an improved bond between mother and newborn.
ochman's article illustrates that breastfeeding is more likely to succeed when hospitals actively work…
Rochman, B. (2011, Sept. 26). Fewer hospitals hand out free formula to new moms. Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2011/09/26/are-mothers-being-manipulated-fewer-hospitals-hand-out-formula-freebies-to-new-moms/
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.
CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…
Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org .
Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at http://www.californiaprogressreport.com.(2008).
Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…
references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.
Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.
Summary and Conclusion
However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm
Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000344.htm
Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_2_61/ai_59486900
Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_67/ai_102822610
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…
CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.
Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html
-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…
Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/3817096/beyond-factory-farming-report.pdf
Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.
Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c03/E6-54-03-06.pdf
Clicking on the links reveals that some of the topics provide more information and information in different formats than others. For example, the Aging Driver topic lists the following clickable PDF files:
Tips for Safe Driving, How to Help the Older Driver, Getting by Without Driving, Am I a Safe Driver?, and Successful Aging Tips.
Other topics, such as Health Disparities, do not provide information directly but only link the user to external resources and other databases. This might discourage many users, especially those unfamiliar with online research hoping to find printable information with a minimum of further searching online. Meanwhile, another topic, Breastfeeding, does provide easily accessible information that includes illustrative diagrams along with the text-based information, as depicted below.
How should I hold my baby while breastfeeding?
You can hold your baby in a number of ways. Your baby shouldn't have to turn his or her head or…
Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Gender and Sex in Anthropology
A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu
Defining Sex and Gender
The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…
Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.
Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
Cognitive and Psychomotor Disturbance:
This is the other long-term psychological effect of surgery on children particularly those who undergo heart transplant surgical operations. Similar to the post-hospital distress, cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is usually as a result of extra medical treatments and longer stays in hospital. According to research, patients who undergo complex pediatric surgical operations are likely to exhibit signs of cognitive or psychomotor disturbance (Todaro et al., n.d.). The cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is also as a result of the surgical procedures that a child goes through in the inpatient surgical operations.
However, the effect of cognitive and psychomotor disturbances are not limited to patient who undergo inpatient surgical operations since those who undergo day case surgery are also likely to experience these effects. Nonetheless, as compared to the inpatient surgical operations, the likelihood of these effects are less in day case surgical operations. Poor school attendance and…
Cadena, C. (2007, May 11). The Psychological Impact of Organ Transplants in Children.
Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/238567/the_psychological_impact_of_organ_transplants.html?cat=25
Campbell, I.R, Scaife, J.M & Johnstone, J.M. (n.d.). Psychological Effects of Day Case Surgery
Compared with Inpatient Surgery. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information -- U.S. National Library of Medicine website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1778819/pdf/archdisch00687-0077.pdf
Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.
Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…
Boehmer, T., Lovegreen, S., Haire-Joshu, D., & Brownson, R. (2006). What Constitutes an Obesogenic Environment in Rural Communities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 411-421.
Casey, a., Elliott, M., Glanz, K., Haire-Joshu, D., Lovegreen, S., Saelens, B., et al. (2008). Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Preventive Medicine, 600-604.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/
Centers for Disease Control. (2010). U.S. Obesity Trends. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control:
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…
Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry
News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1
Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1
Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
For instance, the presentation includes breastfeeding modeling, written literature, and suggestions about getting involved in support groups, which are actions that support cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals. In order to facilitate the learner's achievement of these goals through the previously listed actions and other instructional programming, the program insures that the patient feel comfortable both physically and emotionally and that her personal and cultural background, including her learning style, are taken into consideration. To further assist the learner in attaining the stated goals, the program is organized in a logical manner that places information and modeling before self-attempts. Additionally, by maintaining a positive attitude about the learner's cultural background, feelings, and learning style, the program increases the chances of success. Finally, the program clearly presents both goals and actions associated with successfully completing the program, and the teacher was able to work with the learner by identifying the learner's emotional…
The child can hold a bottle, and he or she can also pick up soft bits of vegetables and fruits (Satter, 2000). He or she can also eat biscuits or crackers that are specifically designed for children of that age. (Fomon, 2001) There are a lot of foods that a baby should not be eating because it is too easy to choke on them, and an adult should always be present when a very young child is eating, even if that child is doing well with eating on his or her own. Nutritionally, it is also a good idea for an adult to be present (Satter, 2000). It is expected that an infant or toddler will have food preferences, just like an older child or an adult. With this being the case, not eating the right foods can become a problem. (Fomon, 2001) by offering a wide range of choices,…
Fomon, Samuel J. (2001). Feeding Normal Infants: Rationale for Recommendations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101:1002-1005.
Satter, Ellyn (2000). Child of Mine: Feeding with Love and Good Sense. Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing.
Vol. 4. 145-56.
In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).
o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).
McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…
Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.
His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).
Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
The aged can also be accommodated near the bottom of the building, with low-impact aerobics and other targeted activities offered here. The medical and emergency facilities should also be incorporated close to these locations.
Young children, on the other hand, can be accommodated closer to the top floor of the facility, as they should have no difficulty accessing the higher levels of the building. Employees should be trained in providing them with adult supervision while they take part in the activities here. wimming pools of various sizes and depth levels can be included in this location. Daycare facilities can also be located on this floor, or close to it. It is important to include an intercom system from the children's and daycare floors, so that parents can be notified instantly if a child is in need of direct parental intervention. Baby changing rooms, and breastfeeding space can also be provided…
Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council. (2005-2007). "Crystal Leisure Centre - Facilities for the Disabled." http://www.dudley.gov.uk/leisure-and-culture/sports-clubs-and-centres/dudleys-leisure-centres/crystal-leisure-centre/facilities-for-the-disabled
North Ayrshire Leisure (2006-2007). "Magnum Leisure Centre. http://www.naleisure.co.uk/default.aspx?pageID=48
Public Employment Office (1999, May) "Workplace Adjustments for People with a Disability." Fair Ways Newsletter, Iss 1320-5471. http://www.eeo.nsw.gov.au/disabil/adjust.htm
Report of the Head of Property Services (2004, March 2). "North Lincolnshire Council; Leader of the Council; Disabled Access." h ttp:/ / www.northlincs.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1F293BD4-2CA0-4354-9D9A-F3B89AA2E6B4/4409/DisabledAccess.pdf.
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
More Care Giving to Babies:
One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).
In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).
Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults
Those boys who co-slept with their…
La Leche League International, Inc. (1997). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. (6th rev. ed.)
Schaumberg, IL: Author
Davies, L. (1995). Babies Co-sleeping with Parents. Midwives: Official Journal of the Royal
Heinig, M.J. (2000). Bed sharing and infant mortality: Guilt by association? Journal of Human
Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects
Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).
Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…
"Hormones of the Reproductive System of Females." Available:
Kimbrell, E.A. & McDonnell, D.P. (2003). "Function and mode of action of nuclear receptors: Estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D" Pure Appl Chem, 75(11-12): 1671. Available: http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/pdf/7511x1671.pdf
Merck & Co., Inc. (2005). Reproductive Endocrinology. The Merck Manual, Sec. 18, Ch.
For women, breastfeeding has the ability to bring back the shame of an attack or an occurrence of unwanted touching (Wood, 2010, pp. e137).
Additionally, the idea of sexual activity, for an individual who has experienced trauma and fear touch, can become an incurable fear should it not be addressed. For an individual who has suffered this type of trauma, an unsolicited touch from another human being as simple as a hand on their shoulder can bring back vivid memories of the trauma as well as the ability to place that individual right back into the emotional state of the trauma (Hatfield, 1994, pp.1). This type of situation is key to understanding personal boundaries despite the need for touch in the realm of humanity.
As seen in viewing the many facets of touch within humanity and the direct link to emotion that touch can provide for individuals, one can…
Adenauer, H., Elbert, T., Engler, H., Gola, H., Kolassa, S., Schauer, M. (2011). "Victims
of rape show increased responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war and torture related PTSD." Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(2): pp. 213-220.
Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 17 July 2012].
Carey, B. (2010 February 23). "Evidence that little touches do mean so much." Missouri
Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.
The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.
Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).
This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…
Counihan Carole, M. "The Anthropology of Food and Body: Gender, Meaning and Power," Routledge, (1999), p.98.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Maryann Ainsworth A., & Keith, Christiansen. "From Van Eyck to Bruegel," (1998), p.127.
Counihan Carole, M. "The Anthropology of Food," Routledge, (1999), p.98.
Infant Sleep Patterns
People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…
Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,
Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?
An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299
Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal
Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.
The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?
There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…
Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v29/n10/full/0803055a.html
Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivespring08/gearhart.pdf
Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: http://paa2013.princeton.edu/papers/130233
Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htm
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Course Project: Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Child obesity refers to a medical condition that mainly affects teenagers and children. This happens when their bodies store excessive body fat. A child can be classified as obese if his or her weight is above the stipulated average for the age and height bracket. Weight gain occurs when energy in the form of drink and food is more than the energy burnt off (Koplan et al., 2005). Few teenagers and children suffer from obesity because of uncommon genetic diseases. The following study endeavors to identify the existing policies that affect child obesity and explain whether they are adequate or need to be revised based on their limitations and strengths. It also explains the important aspects when addressing the issue of child obesity.
The existing policies include early assessment of risk. This policy is necessary as early obesity…
Koplan, J., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity health in the balance. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Langwith, J. (2013). Childhood obesity. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…
Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.
Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.
Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
Energy and Water Needs for Lactating Women
Breastfeeding is one of the most important times in a young child's life. It establishes the immune system and ensures proper nutrition and growth. For this reason, it is also vital for women who lactate to understand their energy and water needs. It may be assumed that these will increase during lactation, since the body is using both energy and water to produce lactation.
Butte, Wong, and Hopkinson use measures of total energy expenditure (TEE), the output of milk energy and the mobilization of energy from tissue stores to determine the needs of women who lactate. To determine this, the researchers included 24 participants who were well-nourished and exclusively breastfeeding at three months after birth. Specific components that were measured included TEE, BM, and physical activity levels. These levels were the same for both lactating and non-lactating women. For the lactating women, the…
Butte, N.F., Wong, W.W., and Hopkinson, J.M. (2001, Jan 1). Eenergy Requirements of Lactating Women Derived from doubly Labeled Water and Milk Energy Output. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1. Retrieved from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/1/53.full
Martinez, H. (2014). Fluid Consumption by Mexican Women during Pregnancy and First Semester of Lactation. BioMed Research International. Retrieved from: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/603282/
Community Contributes to Your Identified Problem and Resolving the Issue
Childhood obesity is a common problem. It has a relationship with short and long-term adverse outcomes. It affects ethnic/racial minority and children who are deprived economically and disproportionately. There is no doubt that it is a great threat to public health. Multi-sector and multilevel prevention and management strategies are the best touted for resolving the problem (Taveras, et al., 2015).
Obesity and overweight rates among black and Latino girls in high school and women in Boston are alarmingly high. Black men have been reported to indicate the highest rates of obesity. Although there is no data on the number of children affected in Boston, the national statistics show that Latino and black children show significantly high rates at a relatively early age. It is expected that the trend is the same in Boston city. The populations highlighted not only demonstrate…