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What is the difference between lobbying and bribery?
The major difference between lobbying and bribery is that the latter is considered a criminal activity which can lead to massive fines or even jail time depending on the nature and degree of the offense. Lobbying on the other hand is considered legal. Interest groups wish to gain the attention and support of politicians or influential groups, such as the International Olympics Committee or IOC. There is supposed to be a legally determined limit as to the number and value of the contributions that are made by the interest group to those making decisions. Also, any and all contributions must be recorded and reviewed to make sure they are done legitimately. Bribery has none of these sanctions and thus ensures that the person with the deepest pockets is the one who is heard by politicians.
What argument could the SLOC members…
According to Goodman (2001) American companies recognize that a serious dilemma exist. On the one hand, the laws that govern international business for American companies have declared it illegal to provide bribes and kickbacks. Not only are the companies breaking the law but they are using deceitful tactics to break the law so that they will not get caught. On the other hand, "They are answerable to shareholders on all Street and home offices that demand a piece of an increasingly lucrative Chinese market (Goodman 2001) ." The author explains that in many cases shareholders have expectation that are not realistic. These expectations exist because of the size of the Chinese market and the rate of economic growth that has occurred in the country over the last decade.
This dilemma has proved to be a difficult one for multinational corporations. In the case of China, many have decided that the…
Bartz, D. (2009) Former Home Depot worker gets jail for kickbacks. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSN1151101120090611
"bribe." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online. 16 June 2009 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bribe
Deontology or Teleology: Ethics Based on Duty or on Consequences. http://www.uiowa.edu/~c019168/168s6online3.html
Goodman, P.S. Common in China, Kickbacks Create Trouble for U.S. Companies at Home. Washington Post Foreign Service Monday, August 22, 2005; Page A01
Business Ethics Megacomp
Ethics are play a major role in how an organization carries out its duties and responsibilities. Ethical behavior is a leader driven quality that resonates throughout the company files. By default, the leader of an organization sets the ethical and moral tone of the organization, and will reflect the inner most qualities of the leader.
Ms. Werner, as the CEO of Megacomp, needs to be aware of her role as a leader and that what she says and does will most likely be repeated in other business scenarios. The importance of Ms. Werner's decision regarding what she must tell her division managers regarding the business practices of the Chinese cannot be understated. The important issue dealing with this case is not necessary ethics but more of a practical or moral situation.
Megacomp was created and grew successful under a certain ethical approach. That approach needs to be…
A lack of cultural competence can explain the moral binaries that surround American allegations of bribery in cases like that of Ericsson. Bribery is a common and entrenched way of doing business in Asia and Africa: the continents on which the alleged briberies occurred (Turula 1). Bribery is not a black versus white ethical issue, which is why Carroll and Schultz describe it as a “subject of continuing debate, more than any other form of corruption (319). As Carroll and Schultz point out, “some countries of the world continue to assert that [bribes] are culturally obligatory or defensible,” with some businesspeople arguing they are “necessary,” (319). In the Ericsson suit, none of the people suspected of bribery are making any such claims because they are being investigated by the American Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), neither of which take kindly to bribery regardless of…
If an employee invokes the www.reference.comGarrity v. New Jersey, 385 U.S. (1967) the rule is most commonly applied to public employees such as police officers.
If a police officer is suspected of taking bribes and is investigated by internal affairs (IA), and he is given a "Garrity" warning by the IA investigator, then admits that he has taken bribes and resigns, he cannot be prosecuted in criminal court on the bribery allegation. The Garrity rule allows the officer to admit wrong-doing to an internal investigative officer utilizing the Garrity rule to obtain information, without being prosecuted for that wrong-doing. Even though the officer may be asked to resign his or her commission or be dismissed, any statements made after invoking Garrity, may only be used for department investigation purposes and not for criminal prosecution purposes. (Hall p. 145)
Constitution of the United Statse of America. etrieved January 20, 2007…
Constitution of the United Statse of America. Retrieved January 20, 2007 at http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Fifth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution .
Garrity Warning. New Jersey Law Enforcement. NJLawman. Retrieved January 30, 2007 at http://www.njlawman.com/Garrity.htm.
Hall, Daniel. Administrative Law: Bureaucracy in a Democracy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2006.
Cultural Ethical Variances
The author of this report has been asked to complete a short essay about the differing ethical dimensions that are present in different situations. One can compare and contrast among many different group types and locations. Indeed, the ethics of doing business and giving gifts can vary greatly from country to country, from region to region, from state to state, from city to city or even from business to business in the same general vicinity. The reasons for these variances typically vary based on things like religion, ethnicity, race, age and family status. This report shall explore the differences that exist all within the United States because even the differences in a single country can vary quite a bit. While there are some standards and practices in business that are pretty consistent, not everyone is singing from the same proverbial hymnal when it comes to what is…
Gilman, S.C. (2005). Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons.
Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/mena/governance/35521418.pdf
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2013). Ethics: Legislator gift restrictions overview. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-gift-laws.aspx
Siemens AG Scandal
Siemens AG had over one hundred fifty years of experience making business deals internationally by the time it became embroiled in several bribery scandals in 2006. Beginning in the mid-1800s, the company set up products such as telegraph networks and maintenance and initiated business practices such as fixed-hour workdays and employee career training that helped it get ahead. ith a long and solid history as a leading company in Germany and internationally, the accusations against it might seem surprising, but investigators turned up plenty of evidence that Siemens AG had made frequent bribes of foreign officials and businessmen in order to turn business its way. It was also accused of embezzlement and tax evasion. The resulting scandal, which involved authorities in Germany, Switzerland, Greece, the U.S., and other countries, cost Siemens billions of dollars, landed some managers in legal trouble, and harmed Siemens AG's reputation. The Siemens…
Agence France-Presse. (July 30, 2008). Siemens Posts Strong Results. Retrieved from the IndustryWeek.com website: http://www.industryweek.com/articles/siemens_posts_strong_results_16938.aspx
Deresky, Helen. (2010). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, 7th edition. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
Kaylan, Merlik. (March 24, 2009). Fork Over That Bonus Money. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/23/aig-taxpayers-outrage-opinions-columnists-bonus-payments.html
Vanhonacker, Wilfried R. (2004). Guanxi Networks in China. The China Business Review, May-June, 2004, 48-53. Retrieved from: http://www.lombardglobal.com/attachments/Guanxi_Networks_in_China.pdf
bribing" unethical and illegal or just a cost of doing business?
Bribery is unethical and illegal in some societies and a regular part of business in others. Whether or not an activity is unethical is largely dependent on the culture, customs, norms, values, and laws of the country where the activity takes place. It's a matter of perspective. When you consider that the act of bribery is intended to supplement the income of underpaid officials or increase the power of a nation's governments, the outcome of the bribe is a negative one. Most economists and ethicists agree that bribery's effects are largely detrimental (Weber and Getz, 2004). If the effect of the act is detrimental, then it can be argued that it is unethical to engage in bribery even if it is only a cost of doing business.
There are different types of corruption: bureaucratic corruption where officials take bribes;…
ABC News Productions (2002, November 20). Inside the Kingdom: Saudia Arabia. [Television broadcast]. New York: Nightline.
Gerasimova Ksenia. (2008). Can corruption and economic crime be controlled in developing countries and if so, is it cost-effective? Journal of Financial Crime, 15(2), 223-233. Retrieved January 13, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1472787421).
Daniels, John, Radebaugh, Lee, Sulliven, Daniel (2010) International Business: Environments and Operations (13th Edition). Place of Publication needs to be inserted here: Prentice Hall.
Weber, J., & Getz, K. (2004). BUY BRIBES OR BYE-BYE BRIBES: THE FUTURE STATUS OF BRIBERY IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(4), 695-711. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Other measures can include sanctions against foreign companies that are engaged in bribery. This many motivate the governments of those countries to take stronger measures towards eliminating bribery.
3) There are a couple of reasons I think Starbucks has been so concerned about its corporate social responsibility. One is that it helps cultivate a positive image of the company, which can help to both attract and retain customers. Another reason is that the company comes from a culture in the Pacific Northwest where philanthropy and social responsibility is more accepted in business. This cultural difference may have impacted the overall philosophy of Starbucks with regards to this issue. Also, Starbucks is a high-profile company. They open themselves up to significant negative publicity if they engage in social irresponsible acts. Maintaining a high level of corporate social responsibility is therefore a defense against potentially damaging criticism.
Starbucks' various relationships are generally…
In a democratic system, whose underlying foundation is a philosophy of independence and equal representation, giving somebody the power to buy political power or interest is unethical. For this reason, must governing boards have codes of ethics that specifically prohibit bribery.
The mayor's proposed plan to lure tourism to igtown is akin to the illegal bribery committed by the SLOC. In other words, what the mayor proposes is to give convention planners government contracts for coming to igtown, which is essentially giving the planners political power not available to the city's citizens. According to the governing rules, this form of political bribery is illegal. If the mayor does go through with this plan, he could be punished with such actions as fines or an impeachment from his position.
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt…
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt Lake City as Olympic Scandal Details Grow." New York Times.
Transaction Under Each of the Five Ethical Theories
Juanita's behavior is clearly in contravention of a normative code of ethics since each of the world's religions proscribe bribery. The Bible, for instance, as does the Koran goes on in depth about the severity of perverting justice and bring officials or any one involved in the jurisprudence sector.
Utilitarianism is somewhat stickier in application. If Juanita's behavior provides the greatest amount of people in her environment with pleasure, she can, consequently, proceed. Utilitarianism is, however, not so clear in this situation for how do you define and set the limits to providing happiness t o the greatest amount of people. Who are the majority in this case? Are they the employees in Giantcorp and the bribed official (as well as recipients who profit from the bribe)? Are they competitors to the company? Are they the specific country? Or…
EHow.com How to start a construction LLC
Employment Law Guide. Safety and Health Standards: Occupational Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor. http://www.dol.gov/elaws/elg/osha.htm
Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html
BRIBERY AS AN ETHICAL ISSUE
Bribery is fundamentally unethical because it is inherently unfair. Regardless of the situation, bribery means that someone is transferring some form of compensation that is not permitted and that necessarily undermines the fair efforts of competitors or the purpose of rules and regulation. Where bribery occurs in connection with gaining an unfair advantage over others (such as bribing a college professor for a good grade), the ethical violation is a function of the fundamental right of others competing for the same goal to achieve it through only legitimate means. The student who bribes a college professor and receives a grade for it harms the other students by lowering the grading curve for everybody. In the long run, many instances of bribery of this kind would also diminish the value of the educational degree from an institution whose reputation as lowered by unqualified graduates who perform…
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
campaign financing in the election of judges and cites numerous studies which illustrate correlation between campaign donations and favorable court rulings. The point of the article is to highlight a possibly damaging policy that could be creating a perverse criminal justice system. Skaggs offers a number of solutions to the issue, each of which could conceivably address the problem. The best solution is to make elections dependent upon public financing, which would eliminate Big Money from the process; or it should be necessary for judges to show who has contributed to their election so that bias could be determined by litigants before a case goes to trial. This would ensure that the criminal justice system is kept honorably above board and it would also promote a more Christian sense of propriety on the judiciary's part, as the idea of judges being "bribed" by campaign donors would become obsolete along with…
Confessore, N., Thee-Brenan, M. (2015). Poll shows Americans favor an overhaul of campaign financing. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/03/us/politics/poll-shows-americans-favor-overhaul-of-campaign-financing.html?_r=0
Friedman, B., Lithwick, D. (2009). Speeding Locomotive: Did the Roberts Court misjudge the public mood on campaign finance reform? Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2010/01/speeding_locomotive.html
Skaggs, A. (2010). Symposium: Judicial Selection: Part I: Reform: Are campaign contributions compromising the independent judiciary? The Advocate, 40: 1-4.
Tufte, E. (2006). The cognitive style of powerpoint: pitching out corrupts within. CT:
On the other hand, as I have mentioned in the previous paragraphs, bribery is one of the many compromises you are faced with in life. As in other cases, one can refuse to comprise and remain an ethical person, but with the risk of facing other losses. eing able to compromise, in any aspect, will help you to solve some problems easier, but you will probably remain ethically troubled. As an evaluation, small compromises should be acceptable and, in my opinion, bribery is a comparatively small compromise that one agrees to make.
According to one of the many definitions, intellectual property is "any intangible asset that consists of human knowledge and ideas" or "any product of the human intellect that is unique, novel, and unobvious (and has some value in the marketplace)." This generally refers to anything our mind creates that is unique, ranging from inventions to ideas, from perfumes…
2. New Strategies for Property Rights: Gray Markets and the Net. On the Internet at http://www.bubblegeneration.com/?a=a&resource=proprights1
3. Investorwords. On the Internet at http://www.investorwords.com/2526/intellectual_property.html
4. Intellectual Properties. On the Internet at http://www.uta.edu/tto/ip-defs.htm
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…
Clean Air Act Summary. (2013). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act
Environmental Protections Rules and Regulations. (2012). Federal Register, 77 (32), 9304 -- 9513.
EPA To Set Modest Pace. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6424ac1caa800aab85257359003f5337/d2f038e9daed78de8525780200568bec!OpenDocument
New Source Litigation. (2013). Southern Company. Retrieved from: http://www.southerncompany.com/about-us/suppliers/fuel-services/environmental.cshtml
It is as such necessary to assess it in light of the negative consequences it might generate, the resources available to the company so that it reduces the threat of the problem and finally, the criteria which need to be satisfied in order to state that the problem has been resolved (Principia Cybernetica Web).
a) Problem components: different views manifested primarily in cultural barriers (such as language barriers); lack of experience in the field of delivery services; the role of women in the workplace is still decreased and it has only improved recently as a result of the epidemics and the necessity for more labor force; gender discrimination could raise problems and it must be limited, if not at all eliminated. Bribery is also a growing problem in the region and the efforts of the delivery subsidiary could be easily compromised -- these problem components also represent the reasons as…
Canwell, D., 1998, Marketing Campaigns, Cengage Learning EMEA
Wherther, W.B., Chandler, D., 2005, Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Stakeholders in a Global Environment, SAGE
2009, Our Company -- Mission, Strategy, Values, FedEx Website, http://about.FedEx.designcdt.com/our_company/company_information/mission_statement last accessed on August 10, 2009
2009, Our Customers, FedEx Multimedia Center, http://mediacenter.FedEx.designcdt.com/video/our_customers last accessed on August 10, 2009
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…
Tomohito Shinoda. Koizumi Diplomacy: Japan's Kantei Approach to Foreign and Defense Affairs University of Washington Press (April 15, 2007)
Chalmers A. Johnson. Japan: Who Governs?: The Rise of the Developmental State W.W. Norton & Company (March 1995)
Old and New Leadership Styles
Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…
Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.
DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.
Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
Glaxo Case Study
Conclusions and Lessons Learned
The world's fourth-largest pharmaceutical company measured by sales (after Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi) is GSk and is a British multinational pharmaceutical company that deals in biologics, vaccines, and consumer healthcare. The company operates internationally and has a very large product mix. The Chinese market is one of the focus areas for the company in terms of investments. After police accused it of funnelling up to 3 billion yuan (approx. £323 million) to travel agencies to facilitate bribes to doctors to boost the sale of its medicines in July 2013, the fact that some of its senior Chinese executives appeared to have broken the law was confirmed by GSK ("GSK Under Fire Again For Alleged Corruption in China -- Business -- tutor2u," 2013). More than £13bn has been fined on pharma companies by U.S. authorities in the last three years alone. The focus has…
ANTI-BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION FRAMEWORK THIRD PARTY PROCEDURES AND GUIDANCE. (2016). www.gsk.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016, from http://www.gsk.com/media/280708/anti-bribery-corruption-third-party.pdf
Beijing, H. (2014). GlaxoSmithKline Found Guilty of Bribery in China. WSJ. Retrieved 22 July 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/glaxosmithkline-found-guilty-of-bribery-in-china-1411114817
Business Ethics & CSR - GSK Promises to be Good -- Business -- tutor2u. (2014). Tutor2u.net. Retrieved 23 July 2016, from http://www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/business-studies/comments/business-ethics-csr-gsk-promises-to-be-good
GlaxoSmithKline fined $490m by China for bribery - BBC News. (2014). BBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-29274822
The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.
Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…
Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf
Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/
International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html
KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
From an egalitarian perspective, which holds that all stakeholders are given roughly equal treatment (Arneson, 2002) bribery is wrong, on two levels. The first is that it creates an unequal playing field within the oil industry between firms that adhere to the law and firms that do not. The second is that it favors some foreign employees for unlawful financial gain while others do not receive the same treatment.
The liner situation is egalitarian in that all customers are being put at risk equally. The family situation has some egalitarian issues, since the location has been framed by the couple as a choice between mutually exclusive options.
The three perspectives all point to Jacob leaving Richardson. The company's lack of ethics has corrupted Jacob already, but he can set the situation right by moving onwards. If Jacob feels that he has an implicit contract with his wife not to leave…
Bailes, R. (2006). Facilitation payments: Culturally acceptable or unacceptably corrupt? Business Ethics: A European Review. Vol. 15, 3, 293-298.
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Arneson, R. (2002). Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
Illicit finance has come to be a significant issue not only locally, but also internationally. There are numerous delineations of illicit finance, but fundamentally it comes about from the practices, approaches and crimes targeting to transfer financial capital within and out of a nation in violation of national and global laws. Across the world, government administrations are working in tandem and joining forces to combat different illicit financial flows, which include tax evasion, global bribery and money laundering (OECD, 2014). Despite the fact that the precise scale of the problem is unidentified, illicit finance has had shattering and disparaging effects on developing nations. In the recent number of years, nations have executed and put into practice standards and abided by most recommendations provided (OECD, 2014). The fight against illicit finance is largely dependent on the quality of state regulations and whether they abide by the set global best practices. This…
Gossel, S. (2016). Africa Needs New Ways to Stem Illicit Financial Flows. Eyewitness News. Retrieved from: http://ewn.co.za/2016/05/10/OPINION-Africa-needs-to-develop-new-ways-to-stem-illicit-financial-flows
Herkenrath, M. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview. International Development Policy.
OECD. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: Measuring OECD Responses. Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/corruption/Illicit_Financial_Flows_from_Developing_Countries.pdf
The World Bank. (2016). Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs). Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/financialmarketintegrity/brief/illicit-financial-flows-iffs
She has two strong motivating reasons to not report the bribery. She could lose her work status in the United States and she would jeopardize her ability to receive her education. She owes herself and her partner a duty of care as well, to place value on her education and her ability to live in Chicago and therefore maintain the relationship. For Valerie, these considerations are powerful, since Waters' actions do not have the same strong impact on her life as reporting him could.
Valerie must determine which duties are most important -- to herself, to her partner, to the company and to her teammates. The teammates would appear to be the least relevant, the company the most relevant. Valerie is acting as in this capacity as a representative of Wisson and should conduct herself on the basis of that position. She is acting in the best interests of the…
business scandals in the early 2000s brought the issue of business ethics to the fore -- Enron, WorldCom and Tyco. The three share some similarities but they are different in other ways. Enron was simply a case of criminal activity. The company's management did not publish financial statements and when they did the statements completely misrepresented the company's financial position. This occurred on the direction of the senior management team, with the complicity of the auditor, Arthur Andersen. These managers were heavily invested in Enron and therefore had a strong personal interest in creating phony financial statements in order to pump up the company's stock price. The corruption at Enron ran deep within the company, such that the scandal all but wiped the company out.
The situation at WorldCom was that CEO Bernie Ebbers was a heavy owner of the company's shares. As such, he benefitted from implementing an aggressive…
PBS. (2013). Accounting fraud is business as usual at the Pentagon. PBS News Hour. Retrieved December 4, 2013 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2013/11/accounting-fraud-is-business-as-usual-at-the-pentagon.html
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
On one hand, public corruption is a case generally handled by both national authorities and international organizations and institutions, having been prioritized as a necessity that needs the full attention of society. Private corruption is less in the public's eye and generally left to be handled by each organization in part.
The different approach to bribery may be caused, as the writer tacitly acknowledges, by the fact that there is a wrong impression that private bribery has a limited effect on society itself. However, this is not the case. The article points out to an example of private corruption from one of the most reputable companies in Germany, Siemens AG, whose management used bribery in order to secure important orders from their customers. One can obviously not judge something like this as having a limited impact, because such types of private bribery and corruption can be essential in creating disequilibrium…
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: What it Is and What it Does
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 as amended was passed in response to the discovery of numerous corporate misdeeds, including accounting irregularities, by Northrop, Lockheed, Gulf Oil by the Watergate special prosecutor and a subsequent investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission that found these practices were prevalent in American business, including nearly a quarter of the Fortune 500 companies. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine the rationale in support of the passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and what it prohibits. An analysis concerning the impact that the Act has had on American business at the national and international level is followed by a discussion concerning penalties for violations of the Act. An assessment of the impact on U.S. commerce is followed by a discussion concerning enforcement responsibility for the Act…
Boedecker, K.A. (2011, July 1). Rising risks and uncertainties for U.S. firms' gifts, travel and entertainment expenses for marketing in foreign countries: The implications of increased
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory
Issues, 14(2), 73-77.
Culp, C.L. & Niskanen, W.A. (2003). Corporate aftershock: The public policy lessons from the collapse of Enron and other major corporations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
There is also the threat that given the significant inefficiencies in Compass Group that the risks of currency fluctuations could become very significant over time, especially as the dollar loses value and yet suppliers and logistics networks must be paid in this currency. Simply put, the price of food and the costs of running a global supply chain in perishable goods is exorbitant when currency fluctuations are also taken into account (Buzalka 2005, 46,48). To date there does not appear to be any benchmarking of sourcing, procurement, labor or inventory carrying and obsolescence costs, all factors that are major threat to Compass Group operating throughout North America and in the UK. All of these risks are in addition to the acute financial condition the company finds itself in during this period, with Net Current Assets as a Percentage of Total Assets (Table 1) negative throughout the five-year periods. This is…
Amanda Afiya 2005. Time for Compass to confront its demons. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, November 24, 5. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed July 21, 2008).
Tom Bill 2005. Compass in UN probe over £35m contract. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, October 20, 14.
PERSPECTIVE FROM AN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS Business
GOOGLE IN CHINA
In the early 21st century, a highly successful corporation called Google, Inc. decided to expand its business into China. The company first tried to circumvent China's heavy censorship, laws and regulations but China's ability to control the internet flow into and out of China all but defeated Google's attempts. After being thwarted by China, Google adjusted, began to comply with China and is now a successful business in China. However, Google's success in China may have cost the company its claim to the motto "Don't be evil."
Google was founded in 1998 by two Stanford University students. Larry Page and Sergey Brin met the University in 1995, built a search engine by 1996 that discerned the importance of different webpages and incorporated in 1998 as Google, Inc. with the mantra of "Don't be evil" (Google, Inc.). Though…
Boatright, John R. Ethics and the Conduct of Business, 7th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2012.
Chandler, Clay. Inside the great firewall of China. 20 February 2006. Web. 8 May 2016.
Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Letter from the founders: "An Owner's Manual" for Google's Shareholders. 29 April 2004. Web. 8 May 2016.
Google, Inc. Company overview. 2016. Web. 8 May 2016.
By boosting the benefits part of the value equation to match the increase in the price part of the value equation, KFC can been able to thrive in Malaysia, but with a very different value equation from what it offers to American consumers.
For global marketers, it is therefore important to remember that the value equation not only remains important as the product or brand is taken around the world, but that the value equation changes in each country around the world. Another example is Starbucks, which succeeds in Japan's congested cities not because the Japanese like its coffee (they are tea drinkers) but because Japanese city dwellers have tiny apartments unfit for socializing, so they enjoy the comfort of a Starbucks as a place to meet people. The value equation of Starbucks is very different to Japanese than it is to Americans and the company has succeeded by marketing…
Pitman, G. & Sanford, J. (2006). The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act revisited: Attempting to regulate "ethical bribes" in global business. Journal of Supply Chain Management. Vol. 30 (3) 14-20.
Neal, W. & Bathe, S. (1996). Using the value equation to evaluate campaign effectiveness. ARF Advertising Tracking and Campaign Effectiveness Workshop. Retrieved June 16, 2010 from http://www.sdrnet.com/article6.html
QuickMBA.com (2007). Marketing research. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 16, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/research/
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: How this affects U.S. business interests overseas
Simply because United States corporations do business in nations with different ethical standards does not mean that U.S. companies get a free legal 'pass' regarding how they comport themselves abroad. "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, 15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1, et seq. ('FCPA'), was enacted for the purpose of making it unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business" (FCPA, 2012, DOJ). Even if bribery is an accepted aspect of doing business in the developing world, a U.S. business will still run afoul of the FCPA if it complies with this type of 'cultural tradition.' The "payment of money or anything of value to any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or…
Adkins, Robb & Segal, Dina. (2012). Is FCPA Enforcement in Russia the Next China? Law.com.
Barstow, David. (2012). Vast Mexico bribery case hushed up by Wal-Mart after top-level struggle. The New York Times. Retrieved:
The Bureau of Land Management/Department of the Interior videos illustrate a wide variety of issues related to ethics in administrative civil service positions. All of the ethical dilemmas and issues addressed are outlined and codified in publications and handbooks. However, no booklet can cover the nuances and extent of all ethical situations and especially the trickiest conundrums. As the video points out, there is no substitute for actual advice from a skilled professional in the field of ethics counseling. This is why departments like the BLM or the Fish and Wildlife Service have on staff ethics counselors. Ethics counselors are on call to answer questions and solve dilemmas when they arise, thus preventing problems that can lead to severe penalties ranging from fines to probation and/or prison. All employees are responsible for their own ethical conduct, which is why it is not possible to plead ignorance in cases like…
Government of Canada (2015). Panel on research ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/chapter7-chapitre7/
MLB National Training Center. (2009, September 22). Retrieved from http://www.ntc.blm.gov/krc/uploads/411/EthicsSep2209.html
United States Department of Justice (2015). Do it right. Retrieved online: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/do-it-right
healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. hether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. hile most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 11 U.S. Code Section 507 - Priorities. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/11/507
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 18 U.S. Code Section 152 - Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/152
lawschoolcasebriefs.net. (2002). Access Now, Inc. v. Southwest Airlines Co. Retrieved from www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net: http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/12/access-now-inc-v-southwest-airlines-co.html
State of California. (n.d.). California Corporations Code. Retrieved from www.leginfo.ca.gov: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.html/corp_table_of_contents.html
Overall the automobile industry must make a more concerted effort o behave in ways that are consistent with accepted business ethics. From a utilitarian standpoint the automakers must begins to consider the consequences of their actions in the decision making process. At the current time Toyota is fighting to rebuild its brand image because the company6 did not thoroughly take into consideration the consequences of their actions. From a deontological standpoint the automobile companies have failed to act in ways that are just as it relates to the bailout and the recall of defective vehicles by Toyota. Going forward the companies that make up the industry must learn from the issues they have been confronted with in recent years. It is only through such a process that the entire industry will reflect a more ethical business model. An increase in ethical responsibility will likely prove effective attracting customers back…
Brady F.N., Dunn C. P 1995. Business Meta-Ethics: An Analysis of Two Theories. Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 5 (3) pp. 385-398
Finch, J. 2010. Toyota Sudden Acceleration: A Case Study of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.luc.edu/law/activities/publications/clr_vol22_issue4/pdfs/finch_toyota.pdf
Fuhrmans, V., Catan, T. (2010) Daimler to Settle With U.S. On Bribes. Wall Street Journal. 255 (68), pB1-B2
Newman, a. Auto Bailout: Lemon or Lemonade. New American 25 (1), p21-24
There are circumstances as Crane a. And Matten D. (2004)
discussed showing that the compromise on standards is likely to occur owing to the idea of gifts.
Contrary to this notion, in china gifts are not given to influence one decisions but as a norm of appreciating. While no specific standard to the gift is required, the gift works only to share one appreciation of the business undertaken. Looking at the situation at Almond and it potential business relations there is a specific value assigned to the gift expected. This clearly comes out as a measure to influence potential business relation an aspect that Singh J. et al. (2005)
describe as bribery. Singh J. et al. (2005)
argue that, assigning of value to a gift demonstrates bribery that is against international business code. The case for Almond having to give a specified volume of commission is indication of bribery.
Crane a., & Matten D. (2004). Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Singh J., Carasco E., Svensson G., Wood G., & M., C. (2005). A Comparative Study of the Contents of Corporate Codes of Ethics in Australia, Canada and Sweden. Journal of World Business, 40, 91-109.
al-Mart's Domestic and Global Marketing Challenges
al-Mart is at once one of the most visible retail firms in the world and one of the most consistently criticized. Due to its poor record on labor rights, its deleterious impact on local communities and businesses, and its various ethical sacrifices in the name of everyday low prices, al-Mart's marketing challenges generally center on these shortcomings in its domestic and global reputation. A consideration of the environmental circumstances impacting al-Mart's marketing conditions reveals a company a number of vulnerabilities to public impression but also with great opportunities to make improvements in this area.
One area in which balance is needed is that of global trade. In this context, al-Mart has established a level of global interdependence that demands relatively unregulated production in developing world contexts. It is this interdependence -- whereby its low everyday prices rely on the undercutting of labor and…
Humes, E. (2011). Wal-Mart's Green Hat. Los Angeles Times.
Savage, C. (2012). With Wal-Mart Claims, Greater Attention On a Law. The New York Times.
Virginian-Pilot. (2012). The Discounting of Integrity. PilotOnline.com.
Ethics and Social Responsibility
Companies, like people, are bound by ethical requirements -- a responsibility to consumers and customers. Companies are expected to do follow up on the promises of their advertisers. All companies make ethical declarations as part of their vision and operational philosophy, but quite a few to do little to live up these declarations. Recently, Enron's bankruptcy has brought to light some actions that appear to be at least unethical, if not actually illegal. The effect of the Enron fallout has affected not only the employees of Enron but also the shareholders and many of its offshore plants around the world (India).
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977. An investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the mid-1970's showed that over 400 U.S. companies admitted to making questionable or illegal payments in excess of $300 million to foreign government officials, politicians, and…
1. "Understanding and Complying With The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act"
1999.) Extracted from Website: http://www.coudert.com/practice/fcpa2.htm
2. "The Yakuza influence on Lockheed Martin" (2001). Extracted from Website: http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters3/yakuza/3.htm
3. Booth, M. (2000). "The Dragon Syndicates: History of the Chinese Triads," Carol & Graff Publishers, New York.
Social and Ethical Issues
Consulting for a Tobacco Company
It would be difficult for me to consult for a tobacco company. I would have to seriously weigh the pros and cons of the assignment. One positive aspect is that it is only a short-term assignment. Thus if I did accept the assignment, it would only be for a short duration with a defined end point. Another advantage is that I would have some control over the decisions that the company made and I could recommend that ethics be applied in each situation. Although the sale of tobacco products is harmful to health in general, there are situations in which it can be relatively less harmful than it would otherwise be.
For example, there can be decisions made to use additives that are safer than others. There are also decisions to be made about marketing and distribution that could…
political scenario illustrated that governments all over the globe are making their immigration rules more stringent because of the rise in terrorism; the implication of this phenomenon is a decrease in international traveling, which endangers continuance of a number of airlines, including Nigeria's Arik Air (Eze, 2010). Hofstede's power distance dimension denotes the degree to which unequal distribution of power is anticipated and accepted by the lower ranking members (in terms of authority), of organizations and institutions in the nation under consideration. UA's score on this dimension is relatively low (40). Power distance deals with members of a society not being on an equal footing with one another; the dimension conveys a particular culture's outlook towards power imbalances among countries, as well. Furthermore, the inequality that prevails in a given society is equally approved of by its leaders and followers. Nigeria demonstrates a high power distance score (80), signifying its…
Shih, S. C. (2010). Network Process Model for Group Choice of a Multinational Enterprises' Entry Mode. Contemporary Management Research, 6(3).
Stewart, M. R., & Maughn, R. D. (2011). International joint ventures, a practical approach. Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, Available at http://www. dwt. com/files/Publication/Article_Stewart.pdf
Venkateswaran, N. (2012). Chapter 8. Country evaluation and selection. International Business Management. New Age International. Daryaganj, IND. [Ebrary]
Oreto, 37 F.3d 739 (1st Cir. 1994). The 2st Circuit rejected the defendant's claim that requiring two predicate acts for conviction under one theory of liability but only one act for conviction under "loan sharking," violated equal protection.
Due Process. The forfeiture provisions of RICO have been criticized for violating the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Numerous cases have rejected this criticism including U.S. v. Nichols, (10th Cir. 1994).
Tenth Amendment. Arguments that RICO unconstitutionally intrudes upon state sovereignty in violation of this Amendment have all been summarily rejected. U.S. v. Thompson, 685 F.2d 993-1001 (6th Cir. 1982).
Most experts agree that RICO has been abused since its first effective use against the Mafia in the 1980s. For certain, it has virtually destroyed the Mafia -- lakey's intended goal and its only intended purpose at the time. However, even prior to the first Mafia convictions under its statutes,…
AJFL. (2004). Divorce law determines how much property forfeited under RICO. American Journal of Family Law (AJFL), 175(3). Gordon, M. (2002). Ideas shoot bullets: How the RICO Act became a potent weapon in the war against organized crime. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from Villanova.edu: http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2003/Gordon%20Formatted%20Paper.htm
Harvard Law Review Assoc. . (2008). Ninth circuit holds that RICO enterprise need not have any particular organizational structure. Harvard Law Review, 1652(8).
Holt, M., & Davis, K. (Spring 2009). Racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations. (Twenty-fourth annual survey of white collar crime). American Criminal Law Review, 975+.
Jacobs, J., & Peters, E. (2003). Labor racketeering: The Mafia and the unions. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 229-282.
There is no discussion of physical property rights in the annual report, and no insight is provided into physical property rights in a search of online resources either.
Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts
KBR generally has a poor CSR record. In recent years, the company has become embroiled in a number of scandals relating to its operations in the Middle East in particular. In addition to accusations of shoddy workmanship causing deaths, rape and subsequent cover-up, and human trafficking, the company has also committed environmental violations regarding so-called "burn pits" that contained a number of toxic chemicals to which American soldiers were exposed (ise & Olsen, 2010), has come under fire for essentially embezzling $12 billion (Newton-Small, 2007), and has been charged under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act for bribery in Nigeria (CNN, 2009). Over the past ten years, therefore, there is a profound pattern of lacking any semblance of corporate…
AFP. (2008). Nepalese man sues KBR on human trafficking charges. AFP. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jmOzaTXaMkCsqiqqmIK6gc_rpg1g
Clanton, B. (2009). KBR profit jumps 40% on acquisition, government contracts. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/business/energy/6554652.html
CNN. (2009). KBR charged with bribing Nigerian officials for contracts. CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/U.S./02/06/KBR.bribery/index.html
Cooper, L. (2008). KBR completes $550m acquisition of BE&K. Birmingham Business Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.bizjournals.com/birmingham/stories/2008/06/30/daily11.html
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…
Bratsis, Peter. The Construction of Corruption, or Rules of Separation and Illusions of Purity in Bourgeois Societies. Social Texts, 21(4), 9-33.
Burke, Ronald J. & Cooper, Cary L. Research Companion to Corruption in Organizations
(New Horizons in Management). Edward Elgar Publishers, 2009.
Fleming, Peter. & Zyglodopoulos, Stelios C. Charting Corporate Corruption: Agency,
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
Since ICO focuses on a pattern of behavior instead of just on the criminal acts that are involved prosecutors find it relatively easy to prove these cases. If an organization is convicted of committing two of the specified crimes within a ten-year period then they can be convicted of racketeering.
Legitimate business owners deserve to have protection from groups that wish to pursue illegal activity. The ICO Act was put into place in order to afford these legitimate businesses this protection. Since the interpretation of the ICO Act has been expanded we have also seen protections from mail fraud and wire tapping to be included in the protections that are guaranteed to the people. The ICO Act is always going to be subject to interpretation, but the protections that if gives business owners will always be seen as good.
Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of ico? Or…
Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of Rico? Or Only The Beginning: The Ongoing Debate
Over the Expanded Use of Criminal and Civil Rico. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from Web
Chapter 96 -- Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. (2000). Retrieved April 20, 2009,
PENALTIES - CIVIL & CIMINAL
There are statutes that impose penalties both civil and criminal for government contractors who commit fraud, waste or abuse. Some of those statutes are as follows:
False Claims Act;
False Statements Act;
Bribery and Gratuities statutes;
Mail and Wire Fraud statutes; and the Public Integrity Act and recent legislative initiatives to strengthen criminal penalties for violations of conflict of interest laws. (Peckar & Abramson, 2007)
The government has the right to audit the records of the contractor for up to three years following a contract for the government being completed. Companies with contracts exceeding $5 million are required to: (1) post a fraud hotline poster; (2) establish a written code of ethics; (3) establish an employee ethics and compliance training program; and (4) establish an internal control system. (New ule for Government Contractors, nd)
SUMMAY & CONCLUSION
The Corporate Compliance Plan…
strong sense of external community correlate with exceptional company performance?
Large multinationals are well-known for their involvement in supporting the community they work in and also for their support for sports, humanitarian and social causes. The profitability and high visibility of these companies in external community activities certainly makes one believe that external community involvement and exceptional company performance go hand in hand.
A closer analysis of the community relation exercise shows that in many cases such involvement is an extension of business activities. The multi-billion dollar profits, of course give the exceptional performers the ability to buy the goodwill of political parties, news media, and the community in general to look after their present and future interests.
Whatever the motives, external community involvement shows that the company is performing well and has greater ambitions. External community involvement is also a result of increased social awareness and there are cases…
1. 'Corruption and Bribery', a Business for Social Responsibility Report, retrieved from Internet on 26 May 2005, http://www.bsr.org/CSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=49621
2. CEO Forum, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.ceoforum.com.au/CEO Dialogue.htm
3. China: The Ancient Road to Communism, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/prcancient.htm
4. Donnelly, S., Gamble, A., Jackson, G., Parkinson, J. (2000). The public interest and the company in Britain and Germany. London, England: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Retrieved September 17, 2005, http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+Community+Interest+Company& ; ie=UTF-8& oe
Separation of Powers:
The United States Constitution protects the right to impeach public officials and provides the procedures and grounds for such measures. According to this constitution, civil servants in America shall be impeached for conviction of bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors, and treason. President Adam Johnson is one of the U.S. presidents who have been impeached while President ichard Nixon resigned before impeachment. President Bill Clinton faced impeachment during his tenure, which contributed to concerns that such an action could contribute to weakened presidency. The impeachment trials of these three presidents present some ethical dilemmas that were evident in the Senate's trial proceedings and political aspects. Moreover, these impeachment trials have certain similarities and differences that were fueled by the actions of the presidents in question.
Impeachment Trial of the Three Presidents:
President Adam Johnson was removed from office in May 1868 when the Senate voted unanimously to remove…
Brunner, B. (2007). A Short History of Impeachment. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/impeach.html
Linder, D.O. (n.d.). The Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson. Retrieved from University of Missouri-Kansas City -- UMKC School of Law website: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/imp_account2.html
"The Clinton Impeachment." (n.d.). Bill of Rights Institute. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/presidents/clinton-impeachment/
Whittington, K.E. (2000, March). Bill Clinton was No Andrew Johnson: Comparing Two
Global Marketing Strategies and Management Techniques of Apple Inc.
The central objective of this report is to perform an environmental analysis of a country in which our selected company shall aim to establish a market for its products and services. The company chosen for the purposes of this report is Apple Inc. The country selected for the analysis is The People's Republic of China. The aim of this report is to assist the management of Apple Inc. In assessing whether the country presents a viable business opportunity or not. The product chosen for this purpose is the Apple iPhone 4S.
The Apple iPhone 4S is said to be the best technology that the company has come up with in the iPhone product line. With the dual-core A-5 chip, 8 megapixel iSight camera, io5 and iCloud functions coupled with a speech recognition personal assistant dubbed Siri, it is one the most…
Altucher, J., 2010. There's no stopping China, s.l.: New York Post.
Anon., 2010. Apple Form 10-K, s.l.: Apple Inc.
Anon., 2011. [Online]
Available at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2011/china?page=22&country=8016&year=2011
Grand corruption is a serious issue throughout the world which has led to the development of many different laws. The United Nations defines grand corruption as "corruption that pervades the highest levels of a national Government, leading to a broad erosion of confidence in good governance, the rule of law and economic stability ("United Nations Convention against Corruption")." Grand corruption is such a concerning issue because of the costs associated with this deceptive activity. Eliminating grand corruption has become a major quest of NGOs such as the UN. According to an article entitled "The Global Programme against Corruption" published by the UN, efforts to raise awareness about corruption have been made since 1994. The report explains that corruption has an insidious nature and can have devastating impacts on entire countries and their citizens. The report asserts that "Corruption not only distorts economic decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and,…
"African Charter on Human and People's Rights." http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/charter_en.html
Argandona A., (2007) The United Nations Convention Against Corruption and its Impact on International Companies . Journal of Business Ethics 74:481 -- 496
Baker, Raymond. 2005. Capitalism's Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market
System. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Corporate fraud as a dishonest activity for organizations that is considered as white collar crime has serious legal implications. Though it can be difficult to detect and catch, it is important to prevent it by creating effective and efficient policies for the organizations that ensure an efficient system of checks and balances exists in the organization for its physical and fiscal security. Whenever fraud happens in a company or organization, it often takes the form of hiding sources of revenue, overstating expenses or growth, or disguising payments made to individuals in the company. Often, fraudulent activities within the organization are complex in nature and have a gross impact on the financial nature of the organization. It is usually perpetrated by the company management and other employees are often unaware of these fraudulent activities (Mele, 2005).
Corporate fraud, as difficult as it is to prevent, often has a ripple effect whereby…
Bertrand, V. (2009). Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption: An Empirical Research in Russia. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 59-76.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2014). Rooting out health care fraud is central to the well-being of both our citizens and the overall economy. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar/health-care-fraud
Mele, D. (2005). Ethical Education in Accounting: Integrating Rules, Values and Virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(1), 97-109.
Panda, J.K. (2006). Accounting & Finance For Management. New Delhi: Sarup Book Publishers Pvt. Limited.
International medical Laboratories, acronymed as IML, is one of the largest manufacturers of biomedical equipments. The unique selling point of IML is completing heart surgeries using high class equipments. John Cannon is the man behind the structure of the German section of the company (Morris, 1997). John now aims to increase his market reach by approaching surgeons based in Germany. He targets all the clinics and hospitals of this area. John is also the marketing manager of this line of product so it is his responsibility to increase yhe company's reach in international lands. As John plans to expand the company's reach, he will need to address issues of quality, reliability and economic nationalism (Morris, 1997).
In order to establish the credibility of IML, John sets up a meeting with the known cardiovascular surgeon of the region, Dr. Hans ombach. John is sure that if Mr. ombach agrees to go…
1) Morris, T. (1997). The Prominent Dr. Rombach. Case Research Journal, 117-121. (Case Study File Provided By Customer)
2) Dyck, B., & Neubert, M. (2008). Management: Current Practices and New Directions. Cengage Learning.
3) Writer Thoughts
4) Williams, J. (n.d.). Business Ethics Policies & Procedures. Retrieved February 18, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/business-ethics-policies-procedures-2728.html
ethical obligations -- as discussed, for example, in Chapter 16 of the Northouse text -- allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office. (These obligations will not "fit" perfectly, as the real world does not always match the academic world precisely. Contemplate and give the best answer.) In each case, describe the ethically-proper course of action that was not taken by the relevant actors. Does New York -- like Chicago, Illinois, which was called the most corrupt city in the United States (Cody, 2012) -- have a special culture where corruption is accepted or even expected? Be sure to contrast the differences between leadership and power. Also discuss whether Smith and Halloran's behavior would have been unethical in the private sector.
New York State Sen. Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were arrested by federal authorities in an alleged plot to rig the New York…
Associated Press. (2013, April 2). Politico. Retrieved from N.Y. state sen. arrested in alleged mayor race plot: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Greenleafe Center. (2011). What is Servant Leadership? Retrieved from Greanleafe Center for Servant Leadership: http://www.greenleaf.org/whatissl/
Margolin, J. (2013, April 2). State Sen. Malcolm Smith, city Councilman Halloran arrested in 'bribery plot' to rig mayor race. Retrieved from New York Post: http://nypost.com/2013/04/02/state-sen-malcolm-smith-city-councilman-halloran-arrested-in-bribery-plot-to-rig-mayor-race/
In many powerful nations with whom U.S. corporations would like to do business (such as Mexico, India, and China) the price of bribery is factored into the everyday costs of doing business. There are profound cultural differences regarding perceptions of the ethics of bribery and in some government officials' views, receiving a bribe is an expected part of their informal salary. However, legally, the hands of U.S. companies are tied, no matter how widely embraced bribery may be abroad. "The United States' 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits payments made to foreign government officials with the aim of gaining or maintaining business" although gifts "to officers working for foreign corporations are legal" which allows some organizations to disregard the spirit of the law; regardless, to do so is unwise and illegal (Allen 2000).
Topic 1: Ethics culture
Q1.How would you describe the ethics culture of the organization?
The author of this report has been asked to answer four major questions when it comes to business, leadership and the skill sets required to excel in both. The first question will center on the role of Chief Executive Office. The role itself will be defined. There will also be a listing of the comptentcies and skills that a typical or desirable CEO should demonstrate and have. The second question will center on what the effective communication skills are. Indeed, it will be defined what skills will be mastered and displayed if a business and its leadership wishes to engage its employees and excel in business overall. Third, there will be an identification and definition of three different leadership styles and how each of those styles is best applied based on the circumstances and what is needed at the time. Finally, there will be a discussion of the role…
Baumgartner, J. (2016). The Innovation Process. Creativejeffrey.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.creativejeffrey.com/creative/innovationprocess.php?topic=creative
Beck, R. (2012). Building a Talent Machine. Gallup.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.gallup.com/businessjournal/153683/building-talent-machine.aspx
Belbin. (2016). Belbin Team Roles -- Belbin. Belbin.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.belbin.com/about/belbin-team-roles/
Chartered Accountants. (2016). Why business ethics matter...to your bottom line. Chartered Accountants. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.charteredaccountants.com.au%2F~%2Fmedia%2FFiles%2FIndustry%2520topics%2FBusiness%2520management%2FWorking%2520in%2520Business%2F041320%2520CC%2520Ethics%2520Paper_WEB_FAi.ashx&usg=AFQjCNF71q2uc43ie5ypm-RQ2Z_1LC4EhQ&sig2=FIHE2XzKKOhZIkW15N-uPg
isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil
A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.
Establish the isk Context
Identifying the Context for isk Assessment
eviewing current organizational processes
Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…
Bastian, B.L. & Tucci, C. (2010). An empirical investigation on the effects of political risk on technology strategies of firms, presented at Summer Conference 2010, London, 2010. London: Imperial College London Business School. Retrieved from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501908&cf=43
Exxon Mobil. (n.d.). About us: How we operate. Retrieved from http://lubes.ExxonMobil.com/Lubes/about_how.aspx
Green Peace. (2011). Risks and potential impacts of oil exploration in the Arctic. Retrieved from http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/climate/2011 / FinalArcticBriefing2011.pdf
Hirsch, A. (2011, June 17). Exxon Mobil accused of 'fraud' in Jacksonville gas spill trail. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore - county/bs-md-co-exxon-trial-closing-20110617-story.html
History Of Organized Crime
More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…
Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.
Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.
Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.
Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
India is a parliamentary republic, the largest democracy in the world with over a billion people and counting.
Head of State
The head of state is a ceremonial position occupied by the President. The current President is Ram Nath Kovind, and vice president is M. Venkaiah Naidu, positions held since July-August of 2017 (CIA World Factbook, 2018). The president is elected by an electoral college, which is comprised of appointed members of both houses of parliament as well as members of state legislatures (CIA World Factbook, 2018).The President serves for a five year term, and there are no term limits on the position.
Far more important a role than president is held by the head of government, the Prime Minister. Members of parliament of the majority party elect the Prime Minister. The current Prime Minister of India is Narendra Modi, who was elected in 2014. Modi is leader…
aters appears to have fairly limited ethics. His moral imperative appears to be guided by whatever will benefit him the most personally. Under his watch, the organization has become less effective and has seen its size reduced by 60%. aters does not feel the need to work hard, so he provides a poor example for his team as well. He is an ineffective leader, and is not respected by his charges. Beyond that, he is failing in his responsibility to the shareholders. As a manager, he has a duty to act as an agent of the shareholders (Donaldson & Davis, 1991). This means that he should be pursuing tactics that will earn the company the most profit. aters instead is pursuing self-interest to the detriment of earning the most profit.
The corporate culture appears to be contributing to the dilemma. Nobody in senior management appears to be especially concerned with…
Donaldson, L., Davis, J. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management. Vol. 16 (1).
Vitell, S., Davis, D. (1990). The relationship between ethics and job satisfaction: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 9 (6) 489-494.