Broken Windows Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Broken Window Policy

Words: 2447 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6024760

Broken Window Theory

The "broken windows" theory of crime prevention and control is perhaps one of the most widely discussed and least understood law enforcement paradigms, due to the relative simplicity of the theory and the ostensibly dramatic reductions in crime offered by the first studies of cities in which a "broken windows" policy was implemented. The policy was first proposed in the early 1980s, but it was not until the 1990s, when New York adopted a broken windows policy and saw a drop in crime rates, that the theory became widely popularized. However, subsequent analysis of these drops in crime as well as other detrimental effects of a broken windows policy helps to reveal that the gains initially promised by the results in New York and other cities is not indicative of a broken windows policy in general, and in fact, many of these reductions in crime may be…… [Read More]

References

Distler, M. (2011). Less debate, more analysis: a meta analysis of literature on broken windows policing. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

EDITORIAL: 'broken windows' and crime (2007). . United States, Washington: McClatchy

Tribune Information Services.

Edwards, S. (2009, May 20). Violent crime on rise in manhattan; fewer tickets issued. National Post, pp. A.24.
View Full Essay

Windows -- Bernice Morgan One Would Think

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5964850

Windows -- Bernice Morgan

One would think that waiting for death in the bitter cold of late winter is about as grim as a life can be. But when you are depressed and dirt poor, living in a ramshackle old house that leaks cold air, with a daughter-in-law in the house that you dislike intensely -- and who wants you out of the house whenever possible -- things are seriously awful. For Leah, who has vivid memories of how life used to be in Estonia, her misery is compounded by her confused mind. Author Morgan does a splendid job of portraying Leah's misery -- and the reality of Leah's life beyond Leah's twisted approach to what life she has left -- through three main themes and symbols: colors, sounds, and death. Also incorporated into the short story is Leah's total lack of motivation, her cynical view of the people around…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Public Order Maintanence Policing Theory of Broken

Words: 442 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90415618

Public Order Maintanence Policing

Theory Of Broken Windows

The "Broken Window" theory has enthused police departments in the United States while extending community policing, since its conception in 1982 by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neglecting smaller issues would attract bigger issues. The proponents of the theory consider that "at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence" and that "one unrepaired broken window is a signal that no one cares and so breaking more windows costs nothing" [Wilson, Kelling, 1982]

However, 'Broken Window' is "only a theory." [Miller, 2001] Controlling crime in a society cannot be as simple as fixing broken windows. The reason for crime in a society is not just about the way the community is maintained; it is a very complex issue with many dimensions. In fact, a criminal mind…… [Read More]

References

Miller D.W. "Poking Holes in the Theory of 'Broken Windows." 2001, Available at http://www.umsl.edu/~nestor/The%20Chronicle%20February%209,%202001%20Poking%20Holes%20in%20the%20Theory%20of%20.htm. Accessed on 8.10.2003

Vigil, James Diego. A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, University of Texas Press, United States, 2002

Wilson, James. Q. and. Kelling George. L. "Broken Windows The police and neighborhood safety," March 1982 Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/crime/windows.htm. Accessed 8.10.2003
View Full Essay

Broke My Father's Heart and

Words: 1753 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49104580

Rather, the reader is only exposed to the short, choppy explanations of a first person narrator. Very little explanation is given as to why the events are happening or who the characters really are underneath their outward expressions and appearances. This tends to add to the general confusion the narrator feels during the intensely scary situation. One moment the narrator was thinking about tailgating with friends, and the next he is on the floor after being hit by a bus. The level of description coincides with the overall tone of confusion. The events following the initial accident also tend to carry this sense of confusion, but the atmosphere is much faster paced. The hospital and the ensuing trouble the narrator faces is in a much more rapid and hectic atmosphere than the dull and dreary atmosphere seen in Butler's work.

Overall, it is clear that the two works may share…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Butler, Katy. "What Broke My Father's Heart." New York Times. 2010. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/magazine/20pacemaker-t.html?pagewanted=all

Riederer, Rachel. "Patient." The Missouri Review, 33(1), 2010. Pp 152-166.
View Full Essay

Night the Crystals Broke Write Where You

Words: 3364 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66231725

Night the Crystals Broke

Write where you got inspiration from?

The inspiration from this poem comes from my grandmother and her family, who lived through the pogroms and just before the Nazis took over Hungary. The title refers to the Kristallnacht, the event in which the Nazis burned synagogues and their religious items, and broke the windows. They also broke the windows of the local businesses. This poem also refers to the journey that was scary and arduous, over the Atlantic in the ship to Ellis Island. The statue at the end of the poem is the Statue of Liberty, which welcomed the "poor" and "hungry" masses, like my grandmother's people.

(2) Which author and poem did you refer to when writing this poem?

There is no one author or poem I referred to here. This is a completely original work. However, it is written in the form of a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Movies Rear Window Stewart v

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24978484

Even if it successfully brings back to life a story forgotten by the public and distinguishes itself from today's typical films, Disturbia is no match for Rear indow.

It is not certain if Disturbia is homage or a remake to Rear indow, since the two movies are not exactly the same, but they are not very different either. hile some might consider Disturbia to be a rip-off to Rear indow (ilonsky 66), it is not the case here, since copying an idea as long as one does not copy its expression is not illegal. The reaction of the masses to Disturbia regarding the plagiarism involved in it is most probably owed to the film's success, since it is very probable for this condition to have been inexistent if the film were to make little to no money.

Caruso was right in bringing back the story present in Rear indow, considering…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Fawell, John Hitchcock's Rear Window: The Well-Made Film (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001).

2. Verevis, Constantine Film Remakes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006).

3. Wilonsky, Robert "Peeping Bomb," The Village Voice 11 Apr. 2007: 66.

4. Disturbia. Dir D.J. Caruso. With Shia Leboeuf and David Morse. DreamWorks, 2007.
View Full Essay

Rear Window Creating Suspense in

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21495182

Jeff becomes an investigator with his camera. He is the one in the shadows at first, not the murderer. The murderer is exposed, out in the open. However, the plot evolves in such a way that Jeff becomes from the follower, the one being followed. He becomes the one exposed, as he is the one trapped in his apartment, the murderer passes now into shadow.

We hold our breath in expectation as Franz Waxman's score contributes to the tension sustaining the action and pin pointing to the most intense moments. The introspective, almost intimate, image of the film, the darkness of the movie theatre and the expressive score appeal to our senses and to our curious nature. It is not fear that the viewer feels, it is something more, like anxiousness, which is played upon so well by Hitchcock that you end up feeling disappointed together with the main characters…… [Read More]

References

Rear Window, Approaches to Film, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://course1.winona.edu/pjohnson/h140/rear.htm

Rear Window, IMDB, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047396/ 

Dirks, Tim, Rear Window, Top 100 Greatest Films, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at  http://www.filmsite.org/rear.html 

Rear Window, Approaches to Film, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://course1.winona.edu/pjohnson/h140/rear.htm
View Full Essay

Deployment and Administration Windows Server 2012

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44281663

Deployment and Administration - Windows Server 2012

Deployment and Server Additions

The number of servers required the roles to be combined.

Server equirements:

Careful evaluation of present and projected activity considerations helps decide the server configuration. The number of servers required will correspond directly to the amount of functional data handling for the next three to five years. If a growth of 33% is projected, then it would be prudent to use a AM of 16 GB in the physical server. Generally, it is good enough practice to start with a 12 GB AM in a virtual operation computer, and monitor for the need to upgrade as the project and operations expand (Serhad MAKBULOGLU, 2012).

Component

Estimate Memory (example)

Base Operating System ecommended AM (Windows Server 2008)

2 GB

LSASS internal tasks

Monitoring Agent

Antivirus

Database (Global Catalog)

GB

Cushion for backup to run, administrators to log on without impact…… [Read More]

References

Davide Costantini. (2015, Septemeber 9). How to configure a Distributed File System (DFS) Namespace. Retrieved from The Solving:  http://thesolving.com/storage/how-to-configure-distributed-file-system-dfs-namespace/ 

Adam Brown. (2013, April 15). Active Directory Domain Naming in the Modern Age. Retrieved from AC Brown's IT World:  https://acbrownit.com/2013/04/15/active-directory-domain-naming-in-the-modern-age/ 

Best Practice Active Directory Design for Managing Windows Networks. (n.d.). Retrieved from Microsoft Developer Network: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727085.aspx

Dishan Francis. (2015, March 3). Step-by-Step: Setting Up Active Directory Sites, Subnets & Site-Links. Retrieved from Microsoft Technet Blogs:  https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/canitpro/2015/03/03/step-by-step-setting-up-active-directory-sites-subnets-site-links/
View Full Essay

Stickball A Window Into America's

Words: 3880 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24043015

The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/

Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at  http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html 

Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/

Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at  http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
View Full Essay

Effect of Community Policing on Crime

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71762637

Broken Windows" discussed the causes of fear and crime among urban neighborhoods. Beginning with a case of police walking the beat in crime-ridden neighborhoods, the authors evolved their article to an understanding of how the presence of a patrolman on the street can make residents feel safer. By studying the effect of patrolmen, the authors began to understand the cause of crime and the effect it can have on neighborhood residents. The authors asserted that crime, and more importantly the community's perception of it, began with general disorder and evolved eventually into complete fear of the neighborhood.

While studying crime and disorder, researchers have made an interesting discovery, the "Broken Window" effect. As the authors described "if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired, all the rest of the windows will soon be broken." (Kelling, 1982) When applied to crime and disorder this theory states that…… [Read More]

References

Kelling, George, and James Wilson. (1982). "Broken Windows." The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/
View Full Essay

Discretion in Law Enforcement

Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28021378

ole of Discretion in Law Enforcement

Human civilization has always been defined by the establishment of ethical codes, laws which individuals must obey for the greater good of society, and for every rule that mankind has devised there have been those willing to transgress. Criminal misconduct has remained a pervasive and prevalent issue across all cultures and historical eras, spanning the spectrum of age, gender and socioeconomic status, and the invariable commission of illicit acts demonstrates one of humanity's most enduring social dilemmas. Public officials, police forces and private citizens alike have routinely attempted to mitigate the consequences of crime through preventative measures, by anticipating offenses before they occur and incarcerating those who are most prone to engage in criminal activity. While the predictive power of personality profiles and prior behaviors is well documented, other attributes like religious affiliation, ethnic identification and racial background are increasingly being used to extrapolate…… [Read More]

References

Wilson, J.Q. & Kelling, G.L. (1982, March 12). Broken windows. The Atlantic, Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken- windows/304465/?single_page=true

Zimbardo, P.G. (1969). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order vs. deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, (17), 237-307.
View Full Essay

Community Oriented Policing

Words: 6694 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38020628

Community Oriented Policing

new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:

For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…… [Read More]

References

Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.

O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.

Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.

MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
View Full Essay

Police Force You Are Memo The Need

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79832299

Police Force

You are

Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force

ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.

Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at…… [Read More]

References

Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved:

 http://sociologyindex.com/broken_window_theory.htm
View Full Essay

Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31546876

As abortion became more available, "the decline in the birth of unwanted, often poor and fatherless children in the '70s led to a decline in the number of juvenile delinquents in the '80s and hardened criminals in the '90s' (Brooks 2006).

The logic behind broken windows theory is thus: "fighting the seemingly minor indicators of neighborhood decay and disorder-broken windows, graffiti, even litter-helps prevent major crimes" (Brooks 2006). Broken windows theory suggests that visual 'clues' that the neighborhood is 'bad' results in criminals perpetrating actual crimes, and then more serious crimes. "Kelling and ilson conjured a vision of untended neighborhoods quickly reduced to crime-infested wastelands. First local boys rob a passed-out drunk on a lark; then muggers start robbing anyone who looks like he might have a few big bills in his wallet. Residents begin to view their neighborhood as unsafe, and retreat into their homes-or to the suburbs-abandoning the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brook, Daniel. "The cracks in broken windows theory." The Boston Globe. February 19, 2006.

[September 14, 2011] http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2006/02/19/the_cracks_in_broken_windows/

Hunter, Andrea. "Marijuana a 'gateway drug?'" CBS News. September 2, 2011.

[September 14, 2011] http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-20015429-10391704.html
View Full Essay

Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Is There

Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97455983

Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings

Is there a relationship between crime rates and abandoned buildings?

Theoretical background

A vast portion of research on crime and its relation with location is centered at either validating or refuting 'broken window theory'. The theory states that disorders such as graffiti, litter, and broken windows may encourage or cause increase in other disorders and petty crime. The theory by virtue of its title, research objectives, and conclusions does not merit our research question regarding relationship of abandoned building and crime rate. Most policing and preventive efforts for curtailing crime in the U.S. And elsewhere have also been based on broken window theory. Disorder does not imply that any serious crime will take place at a place and serious crimes are neither taking place at littered or disordered places. Policing activities are focused on securing the abandoned buildings and how far is that helped by…… [Read More]

References

Braga, A.A., & Bond, B.J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.

Harcourt, B.E., & Ludwig, J. (2006). Broken windows: New evidence from New York City and a five-city social experiment. The University of Chicago Law Review, 271-320.

Immergluck, D., & Smith, G. (2006). The impact of single-family mortgage foreclosures on neighborhood crime. Housing Studies, 21(6), 851-866.
View Full Essay

Criminology One of the Most

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84688714

In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.

Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.

In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according…… [Read More]

References

Leone, M. (2004, Jun. 4). Martha Stewart Arrested. Retrieved from: http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3009528

Moore, M.T. And Reberioux, a. (2010). Corporate Power in the Public Eye: Reassessing the Implications of Berle's Public Consensus Theory. Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. Retrieved from:  http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu 

PBS NewsHour. (2004, Jul 16). Martha Stewart Sentenced. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/stewart_7-16.html
View Full Essay

Kansas City Preventive Patrol Study 2 Define

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11047748

Kansas City Preventive patrol study? 2) Define "evidence-based policing" 3) Describe relationship broken window theory criminality community oriented policing? 4) Saturation patrol displaces crimes.

The Kansas experiment in policing revealed that, despite different levels of routine preventive patrol, crime committing remained constant. This is to say that, in areas where police officers merely responded to calls, the level of crimes did not increase. Neither did it decrease in areas where police patrols were either doubled or tripled. Moreover, the study registered that, where police visibility was maintained at its usual level, there were also no differences in crime committing. The experiment revealed similar results in regards to civilians' feelings of public safety. The study was sought to indicate that officers' work time can be exploited in various other relevant directions, since not having them on patrol missions did not enhance crime action.

Because research alone has, for a long time…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Crime Reduction the Decline of

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97546784

The broken windows concept likely did contribute to crime reduction in New York City; the fact that a specific focus on "quality-of-life" and nuisance crimes roughly coincided with the introduction of Compstat makes it even harder to credit each with its specific effects, much less exclusively.

3. The Ethics of Civilian Field Research in Policing:

In principle, there is nothing unethical about observing public servant at work with their knowledge. However, numerous ethical issues can and do arise, including multiple elements of confidentiality, safety, and several different aspects of fairness to officers, members of the public, and arrestees. Most of those ethical issues are directly and effectively addressable through specific guidelines and protocols. Therefore, civilian research observation of police officers in the field can be conducted ethically to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Duty of Any State to Provide Its

Words: 1569 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37039355

duty of any state to provide its citizens security and without doubt the police are the face of this security. Time and again efforts have been made to find ways to fulfill this obligation, community policing being one such step. Community policing, often known as 'foot patrol', has become a dominant process and adheres to the idea of collaboration between the police and the community to identify and solve problems. This concept involves the community to ally the police in its efforts to ensure safety in any particular neighborhood. This concept focuses on creating a partnership and a foundation of trust which enables the community to voice their concerns, give their valuable suggestions and assist the police to address the problems. The output in any case is one; to enhance the quality of life for the community.

Community policing should not be regarded as a substitute for all other needed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ferreira, R. Bertus. (n.d). The use and effectiveness of community policing in a democracy. Retrieved (August 28, 2012). Website:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/use139.htm .

Wilson, J. Q, and Kelling, G. (1982, March). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Retrieved (August 28, 2012). The Atlantic. Website: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/
View Full Essay

Jon Benet Ramsey Case Study

Words: 9718 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992552

Witnesses reported the noticeable odor of decay was present and dried mucous on one of her nostrils. The child was dressed in a light colored long-sleeved turtleneck and light-colored pants (similar to pajama bottoms). Her distraught father placed her on the floor by the front door. A white cord was tightly embedded around her neck similar to the string around her wrist. On her neck at the base of her throat was a red circular mark about the size of a quarter (World Law Direct Forums web site).

Based on her own experience Det. Arndt believed the child was dead and that she had been dead for some time. John amsey told Det. Arndt that he had found JonBenet in the wine cellar under a white blanket, that her wrists were tied above her head, and that a piece of duct tape was over her mouth. He pulled the tape…… [Read More]

References

Autopsy photos, Crime Shots True Crime Community web site: http://crimeshots.com

Autopsy report JonBenet Ramsey documents web site. http://www.crimemagazine.com/jonbenetdocs.htm.

Bane, V. (1998). Never ending story. People Weekly, 50 (22) 126-132.

Bardsley, M. (2006). JonBenet Ramsey murder case: An investigative analysis.
View Full Essay

Left Right Realism the Terms Left

Words: 3311 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27019477

471). Fagan and Davies suggest that in the case of the NYPD, the department first erred when "Broken Windows theory [was] recast from physical to social disorder," even as neither the original theory nor Fagan and Davies are able to provide a sufficient explanation and justification for the concept of "physical disorder" (471).

Specifically, what counts as physical disorder in Broken Windows theory, including broken windows, graffiti, and other low-level signs of "disorder" are in fact socially, politically, and economically determined themselves, and thus must be sufficiently examined and explained if they are to serve as the basis of a theory. This essay is a prime example of how ight ealism manages to maintain the appearance of critical rigor and high standards of empirical evidence even as it relies on unsupported assumptions and the denial of further intelligibility. Fagan and Davies are able to convincingly use quantitative data to demonstrate…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F. et al. (1997) Crime and the Bell Curve: Lessons from Intelligent Criminology. Crime & Delinquency, vol. 43 p.387-411.

Fagan, J. And Davies, G. (2001) Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race, and Disorder in New York City. Fordham University Law Journal, vol. 28 p.457-504.

Gibbs, J.C. 2010, Looking at terrorism through left realist lenses, Crime, Law and Social

Change, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 171-185.
View Full Essay

Analyzing Theories of Crimnal Justice

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79294381

Criminal Justice System; Theorist Perspective

Analysis of the Broken Window Theory

The broken window model is a brainchild of Wilson Kelling as he described it in his article way back in 1982. The article capitalizes on supposed essence of disorder such as a broken window in encouraging serious crime. Although there is no direct correlation between disorder and serious crime, it leads to a heightened level of fear that inspires one to withdraw from society. Consequently, the scenario leads to crime because informal social control is then reduced.

The police can intervene in such a scenario effectively. They can focus on less serious crime and disorder in communities that are not known for serious crime and effectively quash incidences of withdrawal and fear by residents. Encouraging informal social control among these communities can enhance the responsibilities of such communities in taking control of events in their neighborhood and forestalling crime.…… [Read More]

References

CEBCP. (2013). Broken Windows Policing. Retrieved from Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy: http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research-evidence-review/broken-windows-policing/

Foster, D. (2015, August 15). 'Guaranteed Conflict Theory' As An Explanation For Why The Police Keep Killing Black People. Retrieved from Politicus USA: http://www.politicususa.com/2014/08/15/guaranteed-conflict-theory-explanation-police-killing-black-people.htmlx

Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1998). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities . Free Press.

Kelling, G. L., & Wilson, J. Q. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.
View Full Essay

Preventing Crime Through Pro Social Behavior

Words: 1343 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79637450

educing Crime Through Crime Prevention

Crime prevention can be an effective way to reducing crime (Tiley, 2014). Increasing prison sentences, on the other hand, can be a costly means of keep criminals off the streets. Indeed, the most recent study by VEA -- Institute of Justice (2012) found that "the full price of prisons to taxpayers -- including costs that fell outside the corrections budgets -- was $39 billion, $5.4 billion more than the states' aggregate corrections department spending, which totaled $33.5 billion" (p. 6). In other words, incarceration is expensive and a drain on taxpayer funds -- funds that do not even cover the expense. Increasing incarceration times would only burden taxpayers more and add to the debt that already exists. For that reason, crime prevention should be the focus when it comes to reducing crime in the nation.

There are many ways in which crime prevention can be…… [Read More]

References

Tiley, N. (2014). Crime Prevention. NY: Routledge.

VERA -- Institute of Justice. (2012). The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs

Taxpayers. Center on Sentencing and Corrections. Retrieved from http://www.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/price-of-prisons-updated-version-021914.pdf

Wilson, J., Kelling, G. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety.
View Full Essay

Models of Policing

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87753029

Order maintenance policing (OMP), community-oriented policing (COP) and reactive policing are three different models of policing that are used within law enforcement agencies in the U.S. This paper will compare these three models of policing. It will also discuss which models would benefit the most from effective crime analysis.

OMP is a model of policing that stems from the theory of “broken windows” defined by Wilson and Kelling (1982). The broken windows theory states that if a community allows itself to be physically neglected, it will attract crime. Graffiti, litter, abandoned buildings and broken windows are all signs that a community is negligent and therefore will not put forward much effort to oppose a criminal element in its midst. First, the crime will be small—acts of vandalism and theft; then it will escalate to drug dealing and violence. In order to prevent communities from falling to this type of environment,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Kitchen Stairs Final Ext Victorian

Words: 4730 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85092753

dining room. day.

MOTHER, ALICIA, and BOBBY are seated around the table. ALICIA and BOBBY are eating hungrily; MOTHER is staring at the wall vacantly.

ALICIA

What's wrong, Mom?

MOTHER

(distracted)

Hmm?

ALICIA

I asked you what's wrong. You've been taring at the wall for the past five minutes.

MOTHER

It's nothing, honey.

BOBBY

It's the kitchen.

MOTHER looks sharply at BOBBY.

MOTHER

What?

BOBBY

The kitchen. it's weird in there. I don;t really like it. It feels...funny. Like someone is after you.

ALICIA

(in a spooky voice)

And if you aren't a good little boy, the spirit of the kitchen will put you in the oven and make you into Thanksgiving dinner!

ALICIA cackles wickedly. FATHER enters, dressed for work and carrying a briefcase. He kisses MOTHEr on the top of the head.

FATHER

Isn't it a little early for evil laughter? What's going on?

ALICIA

I'm just telling…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Neighborhood Crime Looking at a

Words: 1791 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25732146

Free Press, 1998.

Lab, Steven P. Crime Prevention, Seventh Edition: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations.

Anderson; 7th Edition. 2010. Print.

Snell, Clete. Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Fear of Crime: Testing Bursik and Grasmick's

Neighborhood Control Theory. LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2001. Print.

University of Richmond. Thriving Neighborhoods. Solutions for America. 2003. eb. Accessed

on January 10, 2011: http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/crime-prevention.html

OUTLINE

Thesis: The "broken windows" theory is the best way to explain neighborhood crime, as it relates to social disorder and a lack of control in the neighborhood; when social disorder arises as a lack of connection between individuals and their neighborhood, crime always follows.

I. Crime isn't associated with individuals, but rather with neighborhoods

A.

Systematic theory of neighborhood control

B.

differences in neighborhood crime, victimization, and fear of crime can best be explained by variations in the abilities of neighborhoods to regulate and control the behavior of their residents

Victimization and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elliott, Delbert S., Menard, Scott., Rankin, Bruce., Elliott, Amanda., Wilson, William Julius & Huizinga, David. Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social

Context. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. 2006. Print.

J-Rank.org. "Causes of Crime -- Social and Economic Factors." 2011. Web. Accessed on January

10, 2011:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/11999/Causes-Crime-Social-economic-factors.html
View Full Essay

Public Policy Analysis There Is a Sense

Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93362737

Public Policy Analysis

There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]

References

Dye, T.R. (2012). Understanding public policy. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Retrieved from  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/ratchoc.html 

Kelling, G.L. & Bratton, W.J. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders' views if the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(4), 1217-1229.

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from  http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf
View Full Essay

Policing - Implementing Changes the

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16762141

Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).

In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam

Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).

Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
View Full Essay

Crime Data Comparison

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59425987

crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.

The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…… [Read More]

References

(2014). Atlanta Criminal Law Attorney - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Conviction of a Georgia Burglary Carries Severe Penalties - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://atlantacrimelawyer.com/conviction-georgia-burglary-carries-severe-penalties/

Diggs. (n.d.). EHow - How to - Discover the expert in you! - eHow. Factors Influencing the Crime Rate - eHow. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5969328_factors-influencing-crime-rate.html

(n.d.). FBI -- Uniform Crime Reporting. FBI -- Burglary. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012/property-crime/burglary

Miller. (2016). KTXS Homepage - KTXS. Abilene crime stats for 2014: Drastic increases in serious crimes - KTXS. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.ktxs.com/news/abilene/abilene-crime-stats-for-2014-drastic-increases-in-serious-crimes/12504383
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice - Policing Styles

Words: 1951 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69042586



The most common modern incarnation of this style has evolved into "community policing" including the establishment of specific units within police agency dedicated to public contact and community relations. Typical examples of the community relations element of service style approaches include making officers available to grade school presentations and the establishment of child safety seat checking facilities, inviting citizens to have their child safety seats inspected by officers to ensure correct use and optimal occupant protection.

According to many crime theorists (Ellison 2006), service style and community-oriented policing styles are not appropriate to all communities. In particular, high-crime communities are better served by more proactive, legalistic styles.

Surprisingly, while middle class communities provide the optimal environment for implementation of service style policing and community. On the other hand, more affluent communities manifested a definite preference for a more watchman-like policing style, preferring little or no direct involvement with police functions…… [Read More]

References

Black, D.J. (1971) the Social Organization of Arrest;. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1971), pp. 1087-1111.

Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).

Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).

Klinger, D.A. (1997) Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance. Criminology, Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 277-306
View Full Essay

Maryland Company Initiative Initiatives Undertaken by a

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79081446

Maryland Company Initiative

Initiatives Undertaken by a Maryland Company

A Wider Circle is an award-winning company that provides support to families that struggle with poverty. The company's subtitle, "A unique, holistic approach to ending poverty," testifies to its altruistic sensibility, as well as the wide range of initiatives associated with A Wider Circle. Particularly in Maryland, poverty is a pervasive issue that is difficult for families to combat. The company assists over 1,000 adults and children on a monthly basis, and all assistance is conducted free of charge. Additionally, A Wider Circle provides relief to schools, recognizing the importance of education for combating poverty. This paper examines a number of the measures undertaken by A Wider Circle, including support for veterans and families living in shelters.

One of the foremost initiatives conducted by A Wider Circle involves assisting veterans. While it is true that veterans are ostensibly revered in American…… [Read More]

References

A Wider Circle: A holistic approach to ending poverty. Retrieved from  http://www.awidercircle.org/whoweare.html 

Collins, R. (2007). Strolling while poor: How broken-windows policing created a new crime in Baltimore. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, XIV (3)

Taylor, R.B. (2001). Breaking away from broken windows: Baltimore neighborhoods and the nationwide fight against crime, grime, fear and decline. Boulder: Westview Press, Inc.
View Full Essay

Criminology and the Use of Statistical Evidence

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90843203

Criminological Theory and Statistical Data

Introduction

Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its basis of evidence is qualitative (i.e., content-related, conceptual or thematic) rather than statistical and empirical (i.e., data that can be measured, quantified and verified through testing). Broken Windows Theory is one example of criminological theory that was based on qualitative assessments rather than on statistical data (Jean, 2008). While the theory has been embraced over the years since it was first developed,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Relationship of School Facilities Conditions

Words: 5393 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46028571

Some of those are as follows:

1) Affect the environment;

2) Either save or expend energy;

3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.

4) Affect student learning;

5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)

Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:

Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;

Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;

Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;

Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/

Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf

Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html

Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
View Full Essay

Influence of Baseball on My Life

Words: 3549 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46790695

aseball on "My" Life

aseball is considered to be the great American past-time, a part of our nation's culture and heritage. aseball is as much a part of being patriotic as eating apple pie and voting for the president. As an American child, baseball was invariably a part of my childhood experience. From the baseball cap and baseball glove that my father posed me in for my first birthday photo shoot, to the block-baseball team that used my suburban home back-yard as the outfield, to the interrupted regularly-scheduled programming of lengthy televised games in our Not-Fighting living room, to the good and evil dichotomy of coaches that would shape my Middle-School and High-School teams, baseball has been an omnipresent force in my life. It has been there to highlight the great times, as well as emphasize the bad ones, and occasionally, when fate thought kindly of my situation, even brought…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broydo, Leora. "Baseball's Bad Habit." Mother Jones. July-August, 1996.

Duncan, Margaret Carlissle; Messner, Michael; Williams, Linda; and Jensen, Kerry. "Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports." The Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. August, 1990.

Holian, Holy. "Utilize Only Non-Animal Products in Major League Baseball." Petition to George Bush President of the United States of America Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. 2003. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/739126897?ltl=1114838698

Partenheimer, David. "Environment May Play A Role in Whether Youth Benefit From Sports Participation, According To Two Studies." American Psychological Association 109th Annual Convention. APA Public Affairs Office Press Release. 25 August 2001.
View Full Essay

Police How Would You Shape

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86655524

Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).

A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…… [Read More]

Works Cited

O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."

MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm

Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch

Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com
View Full Essay

Neruda Nathalie Handal Bei Dao

Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99000449

This first collection of poetry relates of these experiences of dislocation, refuge and identity crisis, as Abinader, one of the reviewers of Handal's work, points out: "Nathalie Handal's new collection of poetry, the Lives of Rain, places us in gritty scenes of exile, occupation, dislocation, refuge, and solitude -- scenes that are often associated with poets of Palestinian background."(Abinader, 256) These themes are obviously common with Palestinian poets due to the fact that they generally experience violence and political conflict more closely and therefore more poignantly. As Abinader emphasizes, the people who are depicted in Handal's poems are invariably the victims of history itself and the pressure it puts on the individual: "Handal's heroes are the survivors not only of war but of the mutability of time and the volatility of history."(Abinader, 256) One of the very significant poems in this collection is Gaza City, a text which describes a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abinader, Elmaz. "The Lives of Rain.(Book review)." MELUS 31.4 (Winter 2006): 256(3)

Dao, Bei. "Bei Dao and Modern Chinese Poetry. http://www.lingshidao.com/hanshi/beidao.htm

Handal, Nathalie. "Gaza City." The Literary Review 46.2 (Wntr 2003): 330(2).

James, a. Bei Dao. "The Answer and Declaration." The Democracy Reader (Edition 1992): 270(2).
View Full Essay

Art and Society an Analysis

Words: 2935 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30330794

(176)

In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).

Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.

Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.

According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.

Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892.

Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
View Full Essay

Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement

Words: 3357 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981907

Law Enforcement

Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement

esources

Police methods have changed dramatically around the world in recent years due to the advent of geo-positioning and improved computer-aided mapping techniques. As has happened throughout the history of policing, law enforcement officials have always tried to use new scientific research to their benefit. Since the object is the safety and comfort of local citizens, a major aspect of the mission for police departments is to always use the most up-to-date methods for the detection and apprehension of criminals. With the advent of computer-aided geographic information systems (GIS), police now have the ability to approach crime in an entirely new way.

According to ich and Shively (2004) "geographical profiling was "born" in 1980 when a UK police investigator analyzed the locations of crime scenes of the Yorkshire ipper and computed the "center of gravity" of the crime scenes…." This beginning…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M., Groff, E., & Hibdon, L. (1997). An Automated System for the Identification and Prioritization of Rape Suspects Proceedings of the Environmental Systems Research Institute International User Conference. Retrieved from http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap333/p333.htm

Canter, P. (1990). Using a Geographic Information System for Tactical Crime Analysis. Retrieved from  http://faculty.uml.edu/apattavina/44.594/Tactical%20Crime%20Analysis.pdf 

Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Wiles, P. (2000). A comparative evaluation of approaches to urban crime pattern analysis. Urban Studies, 37(4), 711-729.

ESRI. (2008). GIS Solutions for Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime Analysis. Retrieved from  http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/crime-analysis.pdf
View Full Essay

Roles & Duties of Police

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20993584

By devoting resources towards the prevention of crime, Anacortes authorities therefore help to ensure that the community remains relatively free from crimes in the first place.

Crime fighter

Unfortunately, despite these best efforts, no community is totally free from crime. Large urban areas in particular have shown an increase in violent and drug-related crimes. hen these crimes happen, police officers are tasked with ensuring that the perpetrators are apprehended, so that they are prevented from engaging in more criminal activity, and so that justice could be meted out.

This role is seen in the amount of resources that the Los Angeles Police Department devotes towards responding to gang-related criminal activities.

Last month, the Harbor Gateway area of Los Angeles reeled from the killing of 14-year-old Cheryl Green, an African-American resident who wandered into the Latino territory of the area. Two members of the 204th Street Gang were quickly arrested and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kimberley Jackson. (2006). "On the beat." Anacortes American January 16: 6.

McGreevey, Patrick and Richard Winton. (2007). "FBI joins L.A. policing effort in war on gang crime." Los Angeles Times January 19: 1.

Radin, Charles a. (2007). "Police boost forces to stop unruly fans." The Boston Globe. January 20: A1.

San Antonio Police Department. (2006). Downtown foot and bike patrol. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from Official Website of the San Antonio Police
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice and Criminology the

Words: 5114 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18724377

Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.

However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…… [Read More]

References

Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.

Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.

Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
View Full Essay

Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
View Full Essay

Architectural Analysis Unidentified Brick Building India

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81490889

Indian Architecture

In the photographs provided, the building's architectural context has quite obviously changed over time.

The oldest-looking photo of the three shows little development in the surrounding area, while the placement of trees on the building's immediate ground looks artful.

The other two photos are more recent, as one shows subsequent development in the area behind the building.

One give a glimpse of a large white building whose twentieth-century style does not sit entirely harmoniously with the Victorian-seeming construction of the building under consideration -- and also shows broken windows visible in the main central tower.

The other photo displays recent blight and disrepair on a smaller building -- advertising posters, missing bricks and roof tiles -- although it's not clear whether this smaller building is part of the larger complex around the building under consideration.

One other noteworthy bit of context can be glimpsed in the oldest of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Zero Tolerance Policing a Comparative

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79318347



In reviewing some of the studies done on the impact of community policing on officers' attitudes, Lurigio and Rosenbaum (1994) isolated many of the specific techniques used in community policing programs. These programs are generally marked by the use of foot patrols to engage with citizens and establish a tangible presence, storefront police stations providing visibility and accessibility to the public, and the use of targeted police units designed to develop roots and tailor themselves to the specific communities they serve.

Like problem-oriented policing, community policing often requires a fundamental change in both the attitude and organization of police departments. As Dennis Nowicki (1997) points out, these changes are often difficult to implement consistently. The empowerment need by individual officers to adapt to individual situations within their community "clearly runs counter to the paramilitary structure of police agencies" (Nowicki, 1997, p. 365). In addition, the establishment of close ties between…… [Read More]

How, then, does zero-tolerance policing compare to these other approaches? It depends largely on how zero-tolerance policing is practiced and what end it serves. Some see zero-tolerance as "zero thinking" and diametrically opposed to both the spirit and practice of problem-oriented approaches (Nowicki, 1997, p. 366). Its law-based focus and its rigidity do seem to run counter to the openness and flexibility necessary to problem-oriented and community policing. However, others see zero-tolerance as essentially a problem-oriented approach in that it was designed with a problem-solving end in mind and not just as a theoretical approach (Kelling & Bratton, 1998).

Even if zero-tolerance policing is used in the service of problem-solving, however, its organizational structure prevents it from being a true problem-oriented or community approach. Problem-oriented and community centered policing must be characterized by active and vibrant partnerships between citizens and police. As Judith Greene put it in her argument against zero-tolerance, problem-oriented and community approaches seek to join "community policing and community participation" in a way that zero-tolerance policing cannot allow (Greene, 1999, p. 326).

Each of these methods of policing has its strengths and weaknesses. Zero-tolerance can be very effective, as seen in the case of the NYPD, and its clearly-delineated goals and strategies make it relatively easy to implement consistently. Problem-oriented policing benefits from its broadness of approach and its commitment to creating long-lasting solutions, but its definition as a "state of mind" does not give clear guidelines on how to put this commitment into practice. Community policing has the problem-solving approach but seeks to create specific techniques for implementing these approaches into the communities. Perhaps the ideal type of policing incorporates the best of all three approaches, and is still waiting to be developed.
View Full Essay

Organic and Inorganic Evidence We

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48736799

This is because inorganic evidence is mostly based upon running the data through an a central database like the FBI's CODIS to see if there is a match (Schoester, 2006, 31-42)

The Strengths/eaknesses of Inorganic Evidence

A major strength of this type of evidence is it involves the physical collection of crime scene evidence. Evidences such as broken furniture or windows or are picked that is able to be positively identified in court. Inorganic evidence is also effective in solving a criminal case than organic evidence. This is due to the fact that inorganic evidence is based upon an individual's judgment to make it possible to eliminate possibilities give a crime investigator a chance to be more in touch with the crime scene. Such judgment is vital when dealing with a crime scene in the initial stages of an investigation where possibilities need to be narrowed down (Brown & Davenport,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, T., & Davenport, J. (2011). Forensic science: Advanced investigations. Belmont, CA: Cengage.

Maithil, B.P. (2008). Chemical, physical and biological microtraces: Unnoticed vital evidentiary clues in crime investigations. The Indian Police Journal, 15(1), 23-31.

Schoester, M.V. (2006). Forensics in law enforcement. New York, NY: Nova Science Pub Inc.
View Full Essay

Louisiana Race Relations During Reconstruction and Race

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23661398

Louisiana: ace elations During econstruction

econstruction and ace elations

Louisiana: A Case Study in ace elations during econstruction

Louisiana: A Case Study in ace elations during econstruction

Southern Louisiana during the Civil War was quickly occupied by Union troops and the slaves began to flee plantations to Union-controlled cities like New Orleans and Natchez (Steedman, 2009). The influx created problems for the Army since they were both wartime refugees and de facto free, despite parts of southern Louisiana being excluded from the Emancipation Proclamation. As the war drew to a close in 1864 President Lincoln used Union-occupied Louisiana as a showcase for econstruction. Elections were held, governor and representatives selected, but Congress refused to recognize Louisiana's representatives. In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was enacted making any form of slavery illegal in the United States (Goluboff, 2001).

When elections were held again in 1865, control of Louisiana shifted to Southern Democrats…… [Read More]

References

Goldstein, Joseph. (2013, Aug. 12). Judge rejects New York's Stop-and-Frisk Policy. New York Times, A1.

Goluboff, Risa L. (2001). The Thirteenth Amendment and the lost origins of civil rights. Duke Law Journal, 50(6), 1609-1685.

Johnson, Kimberley S. (2011). Racial orders, Congress, and the agricultural welfare state, 1865-1940. Studies in American Political Development, 25, 143-161.

Steedman, Marek D. (2009). Resistance, rebirth, and redemption: The rhetoric of White Supremacy in post-Civil War Louisiana. Historical Reflections, 35(1), 97-113.
View Full Essay

British Cannabis Policy Reform

Words: 11793 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41229071

Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?

In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…… [Read More]

References

Abel, EA. (1980) Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years. New York: Springer.

Adda, J, McConnell, B, Rasul, I. (2014). Crime and the depenalisation of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122:5.

Aoyagi, MT. (2006). Beyond punitive prohibition: Liberalizing the dialogue on international drug policy. International Law and Politics 37:3.

Atuesta-Becerra, LH. (2014) Internally displaced populations in Columbia and Mexico. In Quah, D, Collins, J, et al. (2014) Ending the drug wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the economics of drug policy. London: London School of Economics.
View Full Essay

Policing and Using the SARA Model

Words: 2361 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81782497

SAA Model

The Scanning Analysis esponse Assessment (SAA) Model of problem-oriented policing is an effective guide that essentially takes the form of "action research" in the sense that police participate in the problem-identifying/problem-solving method of investigation and testing (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2016). SAA can therefore be applied in a realistic setting with positive impact, thus meeting the need for police officers to take a structured approach to problem solving and delivering solutions.

This paper discusses the components of the SAA model, how the Crime Triangle works (according to outine Activities Theory), and how to focus on an outcome-based approach.

Crime is still a problem in the streets, even if crime rates are falling (Levitt, 2004). In many communities across the country heroin usage has exploded in recent years. One way to crack down on illegal drug use and drug trading is to employ the SAA model.

The SAA model…… [Read More]

References

Grafton, L. (2008). Law enforcement expert discusses differences between criminal and racial profiling. Shreveport Times. Retrieved from http://archive.shreveporttimes.com/article/99999999/NEWS01/801200303/Law-enforcement-expert-discusses-differences-between-criminal-racial-profiling

Irwin, A. (2008). Risk, Science and Public Communication. Handbook of Public

Communication of Science and Technology. NY: Routledge.

Levitt, S. (2004) Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s. Journal of Economic
View Full Essay

The Debate Over Who Owns Public Spaces

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61254544

Davila, A. Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and the Neoliberal City. (p. 27-58).

In his chapter, "Dream of Place and Housing Struggles," Davila makes the point that growing numbers of Latinos are recognizing the need for collective action in the face of increasing threats to their communities from gentrification. Further exacerbating the process has been declining levels of federal and state housing assistance that has made it even more difficult for this population group to secure and maintain adequate low-cost housing, especially in communities where property values are being artificially inflated due to the influx of more affluent mainstream Americans. For instance Davila emphasizes that, "Rents are rapidly increasing, and buildings that a decade ago would have been abandoned or sold cheaply are being coveted by nonprofit investors and private speculators alike" (p. 28).

The implications of these trends on the Latino community in these urban communities have included growing numbers of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Training of the Metropolitan Police

Words: 12930 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50785881

Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.

These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.

esearch Questions

What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?

What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?

Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?

What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?

Significance of the Study

esearch Design…… [Read More]

References

Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.

About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view, a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.

Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.

Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
View Full Essay

Total Set of Thirty Observations

Words: 3259 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3665567



Customer Service Triage at Home Depot

Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot…… [Read More]

References

AMR Research (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA

AMR Research-1 (2003) - the Aha Moment Arrives Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA

CapGemini (2003) - TRANSFORMING the SHOPPING EXPERIENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY, a Study in European Consumer Buying Behaviour. Accessed from the Internet on November 6, 2007 from location: http://www.no.capgemini.com/m/no/tl/pdf_Transforming_The_Shopping_Experience_Through_Technology__A_Study_in_European_Consumer_Buying_Behaviour_.pdf

Appendix a:
View Full Essay

Who Is to Blame for Rape and Domestic Violence

Words: 871 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94942343

Domestic Violence

The author of this report has been asked to respond to a number of scenarios. In each case, there is a question of who is responsible for a negative event happening given a certain set of circumstances. The blame will be assigned based on a percentage basis with the grand total fo the percentage adding up to a hundred percent collectively. There are five scenarios in total and they grow in complexity from one to the next. It was clear straight away the point that was being made and the "gray" areas that exist with some incidents. However, no gray areas exist when it comes to domestic violence. While there is a variety of ways in which situations can escalate and grow in severity, domestic violence is domestic violence and it takes on many forms.

Analysis

The first scenario speaks of a man who bought a pair of…… [Read More]

References

Kane, G. (1996). 'Stealing' from dealers is a murky legal area. tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2006-06-21/news/0606210210_1_drugs-and-money-taking-drugs-stealing

Norris, S. (2015). Stop blaming drunk rape victims and start teaching people about consent. The Independent. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/stop-blaming-drunk-rape-victims-and-start-teaching-people-about-consent-10301185.html
View Full Essay

Justice One of the Most Consistent Problems

Words: 2891 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32264363

Justice

One of the most consistent problems facing the criminal justice system is the influence of institutional culture on the administration of justice, both at the level of the police and the courts. While there are of course written guidelines and laws dictating the actions and decision-making process of both the police and the courts, in practice there is a substantial amount of leeway when it comes to dealing with specific situations. As a result, the particular institutional culture of a department or court can go a long way towards informing an individual's actions in regards to a specific case, for good or ill (Morris, Leung, Ames, & Lickel 1999, p. 781-782). On the one hand, the institutional culture might encourage accountability and transparency, and so police and the judiciary would likely feel compelled to act within the bounds of established legal and ethical frameworks. If, on the other hand,…… [Read More]

References

Part A

Bainbridge, J. 2006, "Lawyers, Justice and the State: The Sliding Signifier of Law in Popular

Culture," Griffith Law Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 153-176.

Caldeira, G.A. & Gibson, J.L. 1995, "The legitimacy of the Court of Justice in the European
View Full Essay

How Can Starwood Expand Their Business Into Russian Market in Specific Kazan

Words: 7031 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61440816

Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?

Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.

As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…… [Read More]

References

Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.

Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.

Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.

Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
View Full Essay

Proactive Policing

Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42132239

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
View Full Essay

Cracking the Code the Contemporary Issue of

Words: 3543 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90595657

Cracking the Code

The contemporary issue of physical security/IT security

Modern day businesses and organizations face the contemporary issue of physical security/IT security. Whether a business needs to maintain network security for a website or server, or an organization needs to restrict access to a server room, there are several aspects facing the problem of dealing with IT security. Any general computer networking instructor teaches the DOD and/or OSI networking models and from this IT professionals understand that everything start from the bottom, like with the physical level. Therefore, IT professionals tasked to handle IT security, must base their foundation or overall strategy in IT security management on the physical security of software, hardware, and equipment.

Some organizations forget the importance of physical security in an IT security setting may become distracted by the safeguarding features of certain software-based security merchandise and overlook the significance of protecting the network and…… [Read More]

References

Armknecht, F., Maes, R., Sadeghi, A., Standaert, F., & Wachsmann, C. (2011). A Formalization of the Security Features of Physical Functions. Security and Privacy (SP), 2011 IEEE Symposium, 397. doi:10.1109/SP.2011.10

Chung, K., Boutaba, R., & Hariri, S. (2014). Recent Trends in Digital Convergence Information System. Wireless Pers Commun, 79(4), 2409-2413. Doi: 10.1007/s11277-014-2182-4

Jaferian, P., Hawkey, K., Sotirakopoulos, A., Velez-Rojas, M., & Beznosov, K. (2014). Heuristics for Evaluating IT Security Management Tools. Human -- Computer Interaction, 29(4), 311-350. doi:10.1080/07370024.2013.819198

Li, Z., Cheng, L., Zhang, H., & Tong, W. (2013). Communication and Cyber Security Analysis of Advanced Metering Infrastructure of Smart Grid. AMM, 325-326, 637-642. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.325-326.637
View Full Essay

Ladder of Citizen Participation by

Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36108376

4). Moreover, citizenship should include, as a fundamental right -- in this concept of citizenship -- the right to participation itself. The right to participation affords social rights, as individuals cannot realize social rights without first exercising rights to participation.

Gaventa then goes on to discuss the different meanings and expressions of rights and citizenship. Sometimes, he writes, where citizenship is "universally assured," it's often not realized by the poorest of the poor (p. 6). More generally, ethnic, religious, geographic, and gender identities often frame the meanings and expressions of citizenship. Citizenship is also mediated by a "culture of privilege and patronage," as well as gender and social status. New theories in citizenship must be explored to overcome these problems (p. 6).

Apart from the different forms that citizenship takes across the globe, traditional boundaries between the state, civil society and the private sector are becoming increasingly ambiguous, necessitating a…… [Read More]

References

Arnstein, Sherry R. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. AIP Journal, July 1969, 216-224.

Cornwall, Andrea & Gaventa, John. (2001). Bridging the Gap: Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. PLA Notes, 40, 32-35.

Gaventa, John. (2002). Exploring Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. IDS Bulletin,

33(2), 1-11.