727 results for “Broken Windows”.
(Braga, et. al, 1999). However, the problem is that the study did not directly examine the broken windows theory. While the police present in the study did engage in some of the social order restoration that is characteristic of broken windows policing, they also engaged in overt acts to reduce violent crime, such as removing weapons stashed by local drug dealers. (Braga, et. al, 1999). Obviously, reducing the likelihood that violent criminals will be able to access their weapons would probably reduce their ability to engage in violent crime. Therefore, while that study does not dispute the broken windows theory, it also does not support the broken windows theory.
While it may seem that if it is possible that aggressive policing can have a positive impact on violent crime rates, then the policy should be continued, that position ignores that there are risks associated with broken-windows style policing. In both…
Braga, a., Weisburd, D., Waring, E., Mazerolle, L., Spelman, W., & Gajewski, F. (1999).
Problem-oriented policing in violent crime places: a randomized controlled experiment. Criminology, 37(3), 541-580.
Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control: crime and social order in contemporary society.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Broken Windows Perspective
The world is a scary place. Many of us live in urban areas, where crime rates are reaching all time highs. Yet, still our phobias over crime may tend to be exaggerated. Still, it is clear through the broken windows perspective that allowing the physical space of neighborhoods to decay also results in the increase of crimes in the area; therefore, helping initiate cleaner streets helps hinder crimes, but also helps calm public fears about crime as well.
The roots of the broken windows go deep into our history with associating aesthetics to character. Essentially, the common thought is that neighborhoods that are well maintained are also proactive in helping law enforcement keep their areas free of crim. A modern example of this is seen in the case of New York, where there was a correlation made between physical image of neighborhoods and concepts about crime (Stevens 2009). Degraded…
Stevens, Dennis J. (2009). Chapter 3: Broken windows, fear, and community policing. An Introduction to American Policing. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Wilson, James Q. & Kelling, George L. (2011). The police and neighborhood safety: Broken windows. Atlantic Monthly. Web. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/_atlantic_monthly-broken_windows.pdf
Broken Windows, Damaged Gutters, and olice Supervision
One of the primary obstacles that police reformers face when implementing a community policing philosophy is that it requires that officers, supervisors and communities work together in a 'team' oriented manner to accomplish the tasks at hand. As pointed out in the case study, Sergeant Strzykalski was at first very reluctant to participate in the community policing program in part because his work would be evaluated at a team level instead of independently. He was also asked to forgo the philosophy which he had maintained for years, which suggested that good policing is contingent upon quotas and numbers rather than interaction with community members.
Many officers are used to working in an environment that encourages more independence and provides officers with the ability to work very independently rather than collaboratively. In addition few are required to Thus the initial shift in philosophy would be…
Police supervisors can address the fears of patrol officers by helping them realize the positives rather than the negatives of a community policing approach. One of the positives pointed out in the case study was that police officers are more likely to be considered 'experts' in the field and supervisors are more likely to solicit their opinions and advice on community policing matters. This will increase their sense of contribution and worth and also help officers realize how much opportunity they have to contribute to the department.
Criminal Justice Organizations
Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., Klofas, J. (2003). "Broken Windows, Damaged Gutters, and Police Supervision" Wadsworth / Thomson
The essence of broken windows theory is that "if a neighborhood or city doesn't fix its broken windows and graffiti, the environment will continue to descend into crime, chaos and violence," (Thompson, 2012). Environmental variables have an impact on crime rates, which is why it is important to pay attention to the foreclosure phenomenon and the phenomenal rate at which foreclosures are happening in certain neighborhoods. A vicious cycle can be created, whereby the neighborhoods with high rates of foreclosures have higher rates of crime; and those high crime neighborhoods become much less attractive to would-be investors and home buyers. The result is a perpetually depressed and crime-ridden neighborhood. Using broken windows theory, it is important to see why law enforcement and city officials need to pay close attention to which neighborhoods are at risk. eal estate investors should also be paying attention to the problem, ensuring that areas with…
Thompson, M. (2012). Broken-Windows theory. Time. 5 July 2012. Retrieved online: http://nation.time.com/2012/07/05/broken-windows-theory/
Wilson, H.J., Cieplowski, K. & Lee, S. (n.d.). Spatial analysis of property crimes, foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables.
Broken Window Theory
The "broken windows" theory of crime prevention and control is perhaps one of the most widely discussed and least understood law enforcement paradigms, due to the relative simplicity of the theory and the ostensibly dramatic reductions in crime offered by the first studies of cities in which a "broken windows" policy was implemented. The policy was first proposed in the early 1980s, but it was not until the 1990s, when New York adopted a broken windows policy and saw a drop in crime rates, that the theory became widely popularized. However, subsequent analysis of these drops in crime as well as other detrimental effects of a broken windows policy helps to reveal that the gains initially promised by the results in New York and other cities is not indicative of a broken windows policy in general, and in fact, many of these reductions in crime may be attributed…
Distler, M. (2011). Less debate, more analysis: a meta analysis of literature on broken windows policing. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
EDITORIAL: 'broken windows' and crime (2007). . United States, Washington: McClatchy
Tribune Information Services.
Edwards, S. (2009, May 20). Violent crime on rise in manhattan; fewer tickets issued. National Post, pp. A.24.
Windows -- Bernice Morgan
One would think that waiting for death in the bitter cold of late winter is about as grim as a life can be. But when you are depressed and dirt poor, living in a ramshackle old house that leaks cold air, with a daughter-in-law in the house that you dislike intensely -- and who wants you out of the house whenever possible -- things are seriously awful. For Leah, who has vivid memories of how life used to be in Estonia, her misery is compounded by her confused mind. Author Morgan does a splendid job of portraying Leah's misery -- and the reality of Leah's life beyond Leah's twisted approach to what life she has left -- through three main themes and symbols: colors, sounds, and death. Also incorporated into the short story is Leah's total lack of motivation, her cynical view of the people around her,…
Public Order Maintanence Policing
Theory Of Broken Windows
The "Broken Window" theory has enthused police departments in the United States while extending community policing, since its conception in 1982 by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neglecting smaller issues would attract bigger issues. The proponents of the theory consider that "at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence" and that "one unrepaired broken window is a signal that no one cares and so breaking more windows costs nothing" [Wilson, Kelling, 1982]
However, 'Broken Window' is "only a theory." [Miller, 2001] Controlling crime in a society cannot be as simple as fixing broken windows. The reason for crime in a society is not just about the way the community is maintained; it is a very complex issue with many dimensions. In fact, a criminal mind is at times…
Miller D.W. "Poking Holes in the Theory of 'Broken Windows." 2001, Available at http://www.umsl.edu/~nestor/The%20Chronicle%20February%209,%202001%20Poking%20Holes%20in%20the%20Theory%20of%20.htm. Accessed on 8.10.2003
Vigil, James Diego. A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, University of Texas Press, United States, 2002
Wilson, James. Q. and. Kelling George. L. "Broken Windows The police and neighborhood safety," March 1982 Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/crime/windows.htm . Accessed 8.10.2003
Rather, the reader is only exposed to the short, choppy explanations of a first person narrator. Very little explanation is given as to why the events are happening or who the characters really are underneath their outward expressions and appearances. This tends to add to the general confusion the narrator feels during the intensely scary situation. One moment the narrator was thinking about tailgating with friends, and the next he is on the floor after being hit by a bus. The level of description coincides with the overall tone of confusion. The events following the initial accident also tend to carry this sense of confusion, but the atmosphere is much faster paced. The hospital and the ensuing trouble the narrator faces is in a much more rapid and hectic atmosphere than the dull and dreary atmosphere seen in Butler's work.
Overall, it is clear that the two works may share…
Butler, Katy. "What Broke My Father's Heart." New York Times. 2010. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/magazine/20pacemaker-t.html?pagewanted=all
Riederer, Rachel. "Patient." The Missouri Review, 33(1), 2010. Pp 152-166.
Night the Crystals Broke
Write where you got inspiration from?
The inspiration from this poem comes from my grandmother and her family, who lived through the pogroms and just before the Nazis took over Hungary. The title refers to the Kristallnacht, the event in which the Nazis burned synagogues and their religious items, and broke the windows. They also broke the windows of the local businesses. This poem also refers to the journey that was scary and arduous, over the Atlantic in the ship to Ellis Island. The statue at the end of the poem is the Statue of Liberty, which welcomed the "poor" and "hungry" masses, like my grandmother's people.
(2) Which author and poem did you refer to when writing this poem?
There is no one author or poem I referred to here. This is a completely original work. However, it is written in the form of a ballad. The ballad…
Even if it successfully brings back to life a story forgotten by the public and distinguishes itself from today's typical films, Disturbia is no match for Rear indow.
It is not certain if Disturbia is homage or a remake to Rear indow, since the two movies are not exactly the same, but they are not very different either. hile some might consider Disturbia to be a rip-off to Rear indow (ilonsky 66), it is not the case here, since copying an idea as long as one does not copy its expression is not illegal. The reaction of the masses to Disturbia regarding the plagiarism involved in it is most probably owed to the film's success, since it is very probable for this condition to have been inexistent if the film were to make little to no money.
Caruso was right in bringing back the story present in Rear indow, considering that…
1. Fawell, John Hitchcock's Rear Window: The Well-Made Film (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001).
2. Verevis, Constantine Film Remakes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006).
3. Wilonsky, Robert "Peeping Bomb," The Village Voice 11 Apr. 2007: 66.
4. Disturbia. Dir D.J. Caruso. With Shia Leboeuf and David Morse. DreamWorks, 2007.
Jeff becomes an investigator with his camera. He is the one in the shadows at first, not the murderer. The murderer is exposed, out in the open. However, the plot evolves in such a way that Jeff becomes from the follower, the one being followed. He becomes the one exposed, as he is the one trapped in his apartment, the murderer passes now into shadow.
We hold our breath in expectation as Franz Waxman's score contributes to the tension sustaining the action and pin pointing to the most intense moments. The introspective, almost intimate, image of the film, the darkness of the movie theatre and the expressive score appeal to our senses and to our curious nature. It is not fear that the viewer feels, it is something more, like anxiousness, which is played upon so well by Hitchcock that you end up feeling disappointed together with the main characters…
Rear Window, Approaches to Film, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://course1.winona.edu/pjohnson/h140/rear.htm
Rear Window, IMDB, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047396/
Dirks, Tim, Rear Window, Top 100 Greatest Films, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://www.filmsite.org/rear.html
Rear Window, Approaches to Film, Retrieved on the 20th of October, Available online at http://course1.winona.edu/pjohnson/h140/rear.htm
Deployment and Administration - Windows Server 2012
Deployment and Server Additions
The number of servers required the roles to be combined.
Careful evaluation of present and projected activity considerations helps decide the server configuration. The number of servers required will correspond directly to the amount of functional data handling for the next three to five years. If a growth of 33% is projected, then it would be prudent to use a AM of 16 GB in the physical server. Generally, it is good enough practice to start with a 12 GB AM in a virtual operation computer, and monitor for the need to upgrade as the project and operations expand (Serhad MAKBULOGLU, 2012).
Estimate Memory (example)
Base Operating System ecommended AM (Windows Server 2008)
LSASS internal tasks
Database (Global Catalog)
Cushion for backup to run, administrators to log on without impact
Table 1: Calculation Summary Example
If the server is based on the premises, this…
Davide Costantini. (2015, Septemeber 9). How to configure a Distributed File System (DFS) Namespace. Retrieved from The Solving: http://thesolving.com/storage/how-to-configure-distributed-file-system-dfs-namespace/
Adam Brown. (2013, April 15). Active Directory Domain Naming in the Modern Age. Retrieved from AC Brown's IT World: https://acbrownit.com/2013/04/15/active-directory-domain-naming-in-the-modern-age/
Best Practice Active Directory Design for Managing Windows Networks. (n.d.). Retrieved from Microsoft Developer Network: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727085.aspx
Dishan Francis. (2015, March 3). Step-by-Step: Setting Up Active Directory Sites, Subnets & Site-Links. Retrieved from Microsoft Technet Blogs: https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/canitpro/2015/03/03/step-by-step-setting-up-active-directory-sites-subnets-site-links/
The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence…
Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/
Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html
Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/
Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
Broken Windows" discussed the causes of fear and crime among urban neighborhoods. Beginning with a case of police walking the beat in crime-ridden neighborhoods, the authors evolved their article to an understanding of how the presence of a patrolman on the street can make residents feel safer. By studying the effect of patrolmen, the authors began to understand the cause of crime and the effect it can have on neighborhood residents. The authors asserted that crime, and more importantly the community's perception of it, began with general disorder and evolved eventually into complete fear of the neighborhood.
While studying crime and disorder, researchers have made an interesting discovery, the "Broken Window" effect. As the authors described "if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired, all the rest of the windows will soon be broken." (Kelling, 1982) When applied to crime and disorder this theory states that…
Kelling, George, and James Wilson. (1982). "Broken Windows." The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken -windows/304465/
ole of Discretion in Law Enforcement
Human civilization has always been defined by the establishment of ethical codes, laws which individuals must obey for the greater good of society, and for every rule that mankind has devised there have been those willing to transgress. Criminal misconduct has remained a pervasive and prevalent issue across all cultures and historical eras, spanning the spectrum of age, gender and socioeconomic status, and the invariable commission of illicit acts demonstrates one of humanity's most enduring social dilemmas. Public officials, police forces and private citizens alike have routinely attempted to mitigate the consequences of crime through preventative measures, by anticipating offenses before they occur and incarcerating those who are most prone to engage in criminal activity. While the predictive power of personality profiles and prior behaviors is well documented, other attributes like religious affiliation, ethnic identification and racial background are increasingly being used to extrapolate expected…
Wilson, J.Q. & Kelling, G.L. (1982, March 12). Broken windows. The Atlantic, Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken - windows/304465/?single_page=true
Zimbardo, P.G. (1969). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order vs. deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, (17), 237-307.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems. Its foundations…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force
ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.
Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at a rate of…
Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved:
As abortion became more available, "the decline in the birth of unwanted, often poor and fatherless children in the '70s led to a decline in the number of juvenile delinquents in the '80s and hardened criminals in the '90s' (Brooks 2006).
The logic behind broken windows theory is thus: "fighting the seemingly minor indicators of neighborhood decay and disorder-broken windows, graffiti, even litter-helps prevent major crimes" (Brooks 2006). Broken windows theory suggests that visual 'clues' that the neighborhood is 'bad' results in criminals perpetrating actual crimes, and then more serious crimes. "Kelling and ilson conjured a vision of untended neighborhoods quickly reduced to crime-infested wastelands. First local boys rob a passed-out drunk on a lark; then muggers start robbing anyone who looks like he might have a few big bills in his wallet. Residents begin to view their neighborhood as unsafe, and retreat into their homes-or to the suburbs-abandoning the…
Brook, Daniel. "The cracks in broken windows theory." The Boston Globe. February 19, 2006.
[September 14, 2011] http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2006/02/19/the_cracks_in_broken_windows/
Hunter, Andrea. "Marijuana a 'gateway drug?'" CBS News. September 2, 2011.
[September 14, 2011] http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-20015429-10391704.html
In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.
Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.
In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according to…
Leone, M. (2004, Jun. 4). Martha Stewart Arrested. Retrieved from: http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3009528
Moore, M.T. And Reberioux, a. (2010). Corporate Power in the Public Eye: Reassessing the Implications of Berle's Public Consensus Theory. Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu
PBS NewsHour. (2004, Jul 16). Martha Stewart Sentenced. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/stewart_7-16.html
Kansas City Preventive patrol study? 2) Define "evidence-based policing" 3) Describe relationship broken window theory criminality community oriented policing? 4) Saturation patrol displaces crimes.
The Kansas experiment in policing revealed that, despite different levels of routine preventive patrol, crime committing remained constant. This is to say that, in areas where police officers merely responded to calls, the level of crimes did not increase. Neither did it decrease in areas where police patrols were either doubled or tripled. Moreover, the study registered that, where police visibility was maintained at its usual level, there were also no differences in crime committing. The experiment revealed similar results in regards to civilians' feelings of public safety. The study was sought to indicate that officers' work time can be exploited in various other relevant directions, since not having them on patrol missions did not enhance crime action.
Because research alone has, for a long time now,…
The broken windows concept likely did contribute to crime reduction in New York City; the fact that a specific focus on "quality-of-life" and nuisance crimes roughly coincided with the introduction of Compstat makes it even harder to credit each with its specific effects, much less exclusively.
3. The Ethics of Civilian Field Research in Policing:
In principle, there is nothing unethical about observing public servant at work with their knowledge. However, numerous ethical issues can and do arise, including multiple elements of confidentiality, safety, and several different aspects of fairness to officers, members of the public, and arrestees. Most of those ethical issues are directly and effectively addressable through specific guidelines and protocols. Therefore, civilian research observation of police officers in the field can be conducted ethically to…
duty of any state to provide its citizens security and without doubt the police are the face of this security. Time and again efforts have been made to find ways to fulfill this obligation, community policing being one such step. Community policing, often known as 'foot patrol', has become a dominant process and adheres to the idea of collaboration between the police and the community to identify and solve problems. This concept involves the community to ally the police in its efforts to ensure safety in any particular neighborhood. This concept focuses on creating a partnership and a foundation of trust which enables the community to voice their concerns, give their valuable suggestions and assist the police to address the problems. The output in any case is one; to enhance the quality of life for the community.
Community policing should not be regarded as a substitute for all other needed…
Ferreira, R. Bertus. (n.d). The use and effectiveness of community policing in a democracy. Retrieved (August 28, 2012). Website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/use139.htm .
Wilson, J. Q, and Kelling, G. (1982, March). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Retrieved (August 28, 2012). The Atlantic. Website: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken -windows/304465/
Witnesses reported the noticeable odor of decay was present and dried mucous on one of her nostrils. The child was dressed in a light colored long-sleeved turtleneck and light-colored pants (similar to pajama bottoms). Her distraught father placed her on the floor by the front door. A white cord was tightly embedded around her neck similar to the string around her wrist. On her neck at the base of her throat was a red circular mark about the size of a quarter (World Law Direct Forums web site).
Based on her own experience Det. Arndt believed the child was dead and that she had been dead for some time. John amsey told Det. Arndt that he had found JonBenet in the wine cellar under a white blanket, that her wrists were tied above her head, and that a piece of duct tape was over her mouth. He pulled the tape…
Autopsy photos, Crime Shots True Crime Community web site: http://crimeshots.com
Autopsy report JonBenet Ramsey documents web site. http://www.crimemagazine.com/jonbenetdocs.htm.
Bane, V. (1998). Never ending story. People Weekly, 50 (22) 126-132.
Bardsley, M. (2006). JonBenet Ramsey murder case: An investigative analysis.
471). Fagan and Davies suggest that in the case of the NYPD, the department first erred when "Broken Windows theory [was] recast from physical to social disorder," even as neither the original theory nor Fagan and Davies are able to provide a sufficient explanation and justification for the concept of "physical disorder" (471).
Specifically, what counts as physical disorder in Broken Windows theory, including broken windows, graffiti, and other low-level signs of "disorder" are in fact socially, politically, and economically determined themselves, and thus must be sufficiently examined and explained if they are to serve as the basis of a theory. This essay is a prime example of how ight ealism manages to maintain the appearance of critical rigor and high standards of empirical evidence even as it relies on unsupported assumptions and the denial of further intelligibility. Fagan and Davies are able to convincingly use quantitative data to demonstrate…
Cullen, F. et al. (1997) Crime and the Bell Curve: Lessons from Intelligent Criminology. Crime & Delinquency, vol. 43 p.387-411.
Fagan, J. And Davies, G. (2001) Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race, and Disorder in New York City. Fordham University Law Journal, vol. 28 p.457-504.
Gibbs, J.C. 2010, Looking at terrorism through left realist lenses, Crime, Law and Social
Change, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 171-185.
Criminal Justice System; Theorist Perspective
Analysis of the Broken Window Theory
The broken window model is a brainchild of Wilson Kelling as he described it in his article way back in 1982. The article capitalizes on supposed essence of disorder such as a broken window in encouraging serious crime. Although there is no direct correlation between disorder and serious crime, it leads to a heightened level of fear that inspires one to withdraw from society. Consequently, the scenario leads to crime because informal social control is then reduced.
The police can intervene in such a scenario effectively. They can focus on less serious crime and disorder in communities that are not known for serious crime and effectively quash incidences of withdrawal and fear by residents. Encouraging informal social control among these communities can enhance the responsibilities of such communities in taking control of events in their neighborhood and forestalling crime.
It is difficult to…
CEBCP. (2013). Broken Windows Policing. Retrieved from Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy: http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research-evidence-review/broken-windows-policing/
Foster, D. (2015, August 15). 'Guaranteed Conflict Theory' As An Explanation For Why The Police Keep Killing Black People. Retrieved from Politicus USA: http://www.politicususa.com/2014/08/15/guaranteed-conflict-theory-explanation-police-killing-black-people.htmlx
Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1998). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities . Free Press.
Kelling, G. L., & Wilson, J. Q. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.
Order maintenance policing (OMP), community-oriented policing (COP) and reactive policing are three different models of policing that are used within law enforcement agencies in the U.S. This paper will compare these three models of policing. It will also discuss which models would benefit the most from effective crime analysis.
OMP is a model of policing that stems from the theory of “broken windows” defined by Wilson and Kelling (1982). The broken windows theory states that if a community allows itself to be physically neglected, it will attract crime. Graffiti, litter, abandoned buildings and broken windows are all signs that a community is negligent and therefore will not put forward much effort to oppose a criminal element in its midst. First, the crime will be small—acts of vandalism and theft; then it will escalate to drug dealing and violence. In order to prevent communities from falling to this type of environment, the…
dining room. day.
MOTHER, ALICIA, and BOBBY are seated around the table. ALICIA and BOBBY are eating hungrily; MOTHER is staring at the wall vacantly.
What's wrong, Mom?
I asked you what's wrong. You've been taring at the wall for the past five minutes.
It's nothing, honey.
It's the kitchen.
MOTHER looks sharply at BOBBY.
The kitchen. it's weird in there. I don;t really like it. It feels...funny. Like someone is after you.
(in a spooky voice)
And if you aren't a good little boy, the spirit of the kitchen will put you in the oven and make you into Thanksgiving dinner!
ALICIA cackles wickedly. FATHER enters, dressed for work and carrying a briefcase. He kisses MOTHEr on the top of the head.
Isn't it a little early for evil laughter? What's going on?
I'm just telling Bobby hat he's right about the kitchen being haunted...
That's enough, you two. This house is not haunted.
No, that would be too exciting.
ALICIA flounces up…
Free Press, 1998.
Lab, Steven P. Crime Prevention, Seventh Edition: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations.
Anderson; 7th Edition. 2010. Print.
Snell, Clete. Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Fear of Crime: Testing Bursik and Grasmick's
Neighborhood Control Theory. LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2001. Print.
University of Richmond. Thriving Neighborhoods. Solutions for America. 2003. eb. Accessed
on January 10, 2011: http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/crime-prevention.html
Thesis: The "broken windows" theory is the best way to explain neighborhood crime, as it relates to social disorder and a lack of control in the neighborhood; when social disorder arises as a lack of connection between individuals and their neighborhood, crime always follows.
I. Crime isn't associated with individuals, but rather with neighborhoods
Systematic theory of neighborhood control
differences in neighborhood crime, victimization, and fear of crime can best be explained by variations in the abilities of neighborhoods to regulate and control the behavior of their residents
Victimization and a high level of fear of crime happens in any neighborhood where people are…
Elliott, Delbert S., Menard, Scott., Rankin, Bruce., Elliott, Amanda., Wilson, William Julius & Huizinga, David. Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social
Context. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. 2006. Print.
J-Rank.org. "Causes of Crime -- Social and Economic Factors." 2011. Web. Accessed on January
10, 2011: http://law.jrank.org/pages/11999/Causes-Crime-Social-economic-factors.html
Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).
In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.
The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…
(2014). Atlanta Criminal Law Attorney - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Conviction of a Georgia Burglary Carries Severe Penalties - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://atlantacrimelawyer.com/conviction-georgia-burglary-carries-severe-penalties/
Diggs. (n.d.). EHow - How to - Discover the expert in you! - eHow. Factors Influencing the Crime Rate - eHow. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5969328_factors-influencing-crime-rate.html
(n.d.). FBI -- Uniform Crime Reporting. FBI -- Burglary. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012/property-crime/burglary
Miller. (2016). KTXS Homepage - KTXS. Abilene crime stats for 2014: Drastic increases in serious crimes - KTXS. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.ktxs.com/news/abilene/abilene-crime-stats-for-2014-drastic-increases-in-serious-crimes/12504383
The most common modern incarnation of this style has evolved into "community policing" including the establishment of specific units within police agency dedicated to public contact and community relations. Typical examples of the community relations element of service style approaches include making officers available to grade school presentations and the establishment of child safety seat checking facilities, inviting citizens to have their child safety seats inspected by officers to ensure correct use and optimal occupant protection.
According to many crime theorists (Ellison 2006), service style and community-oriented policing styles are not appropriate to all communities. In particular, high-crime communities are better served by more proactive, legalistic styles.
Surprisingly, while middle class communities provide the optimal environment for implementation of service style policing and community. On the other hand, more affluent communities manifested a definite preference for a more watchman-like policing style, preferring little or no direct involvement with police functions outside of…
Black, D.J. (1971) the Social Organization of Arrest;. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1971), pp. 1087-1111.
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Klinger, D.A. (1997) Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance. Criminology, Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 277-306
Criminological Theory and Statistical Data
Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its basis of evidence is qualitative (i.e., content-related, conceptual or thematic) rather than statistical and empirical (i.e., data that can be measured, quantified and verified through testing). Broken Windows Theory is one example of criminological theory that was based on qualitative assessments rather than on statistical data (Jean, 2008). While the theory has been embraced over the years since it was first developed, other researchers…
Some of those are as follows:
1) Affect the environment;
2) Either save or expend energy;
3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.
4) Affect student learning;
5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)
Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:
Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;
Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;
Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;
Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens and other harmful pollutant sources. Incorporating natural gas, biodiesel,…
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/
Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf
Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html
Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
aseball on "My" Life
aseball is considered to be the great American past-time, a part of our nation's culture and heritage. aseball is as much a part of being patriotic as eating apple pie and voting for the president. As an American child, baseball was invariably a part of my childhood experience. From the baseball cap and baseball glove that my father posed me in for my first birthday photo shoot, to the block-baseball team that used my suburban home back-yard as the outfield, to the interrupted regularly-scheduled programming of lengthy televised games in our Not-Fighting living room, to the good and evil dichotomy of coaches that would shape my Middle-School and High-School teams, baseball has been an omnipresent force in my life. It has been there to highlight the great times, as well as emphasize the bad ones, and occasionally, when fate thought kindly of my situation, even brought…
Broydo, Leora. "Baseball's Bad Habit." Mother Jones. July-August, 1996.
Duncan, Margaret Carlissle; Messner, Michael; Williams, Linda; and Jensen, Kerry. "Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports." The Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. August, 1990.
Holian, Holy. "Utilize Only Non-Animal Products in Major League Baseball." Petition to George Bush President of the United States of America Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. 2003. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/739126897?ltl=1114838698
Partenheimer, David. "Environment May Play A Role in Whether Youth Benefit From Sports Participation, According To Two Studies." American Psychological Association 109th Annual Convention. APA Public Affairs Office Press Release. 25 August 2001.
Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).
A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…
O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."
MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm
Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch
Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com
This first collection of poetry relates of these experiences of dislocation, refuge and identity crisis, as Abinader, one of the reviewers of Handal's work, points out: "Nathalie Handal's new collection of poetry, the Lives of Rain, places us in gritty scenes of exile, occupation, dislocation, refuge, and solitude -- scenes that are often associated with poets of Palestinian background."(Abinader, 256) These themes are obviously common with Palestinian poets due to the fact that they generally experience violence and political conflict more closely and therefore more poignantly. As Abinader emphasizes, the people who are depicted in Handal's poems are invariably the victims of history itself and the pressure it puts on the individual: "Handal's heroes are the survivors not only of war but of the mutability of time and the volatility of history."(Abinader, 256) One of the very significant poems in this collection is Gaza City, a text which describes…
Abinader, Elmaz. "The Lives of Rain.(Book review)." MELUS 31.4 (Winter 2006): 256(3)
Dao, Bei. "Bei Dao and Modern Chinese Poetry. http://www.lingshidao.com/hanshi/beidao.htm
Handal, Nathalie. "Gaza City." The Literary Review 46.2 (Wntr 2003): 330(2).
James, a. Bei Dao. "The Answer and Declaration." The Democracy Reader (Edition 1992): 270(2).
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby Venus" based on…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement
Police methods have changed dramatically around the world in recent years due to the advent of geo-positioning and improved computer-aided mapping techniques. As has happened throughout the history of policing, law enforcement officials have always tried to use new scientific research to their benefit. Since the object is the safety and comfort of local citizens, a major aspect of the mission for police departments is to always use the most up-to-date methods for the detection and apprehension of criminals. With the advent of computer-aided geographic information systems (GIS), police now have the ability to approach crime in an entirely new way.
According to ich and Shively (2004) "geographical profiling was "born" in 1980 when a UK police investigator analyzed the locations of crime scenes of the Yorkshire ipper and computed the "center of gravity" of the crime scenes…." This beginning has been debated by…
Alexander, M., Groff, E., & Hibdon, L. (1997). An Automated System for the Identification and Prioritization of Rape Suspects Proceedings of the Environmental Systems Research Institute International User Conference. Retrieved from http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap333/p333.htm
Canter, P. (1990). Using a Geographic Information System for Tactical Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.uml.edu/apattavina/44.594/Tactical%20Crime%20Analysis.pdf
Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Wiles, P. (2000). A comparative evaluation of approaches to urban crime pattern analysis. Urban Studies, 37(4), 711-729.
ESRI. (2008). GIS Solutions for Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/crime-analysis.pdf
By devoting resources towards the prevention of crime, Anacortes authorities therefore help to ensure that the community remains relatively free from crimes in the first place.
Unfortunately, despite these best efforts, no community is totally free from crime. Large urban areas in particular have shown an increase in violent and drug-related crimes. hen these crimes happen, police officers are tasked with ensuring that the perpetrators are apprehended, so that they are prevented from engaging in more criminal activity, and so that justice could be meted out.
This role is seen in the amount of resources that the Los Angeles Police Department devotes towards responding to gang-related criminal activities.
Last month, the Harbor Gateway area of Los Angeles reeled from the killing of 14-year-old Cheryl Green, an African-American resident who wandered into the Latino territory of the area. Two members of the 204th Street Gang were quickly arrested and charged with Green's…
Kimberley Jackson. (2006). "On the beat." Anacortes American January 16: 6.
McGreevey, Patrick and Richard Winton. (2007). "FBI joins L.A. policing effort in war on gang crime." Los Angeles Times January 19: 1.
Radin, Charles a. (2007). "Police boost forces to stop unruly fans." The Boston Globe. January 20: A1.
San Antonio Police Department. (2006). Downtown foot and bike patrol. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from Official Website of the San Antonio Police
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire voting population…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
In the photographs provided, the building's architectural context has quite obviously changed over time.
The oldest-looking photo of the three shows little development in the surrounding area, while the placement of trees on the building's immediate ground looks artful.
The other two photos are more recent, as one shows subsequent development in the area behind the building.
One give a glimpse of a large white building whose twentieth-century style does not sit entirely harmoniously with the Victorian-seeming construction of the building under consideration -- and also shows broken windows visible in the main central tower.
The other photo displays recent blight and disrepair on a smaller building -- advertising posters, missing bricks and roof tiles -- although it's not clear whether this smaller building is part of the larger complex around the building under consideration.
One other noteworthy bit of context can be glimpsed in the oldest of the three pictures: at the far…
In reviewing some of the studies done on the impact of community policing on officers' attitudes, Lurigio and Rosenbaum (1994) isolated many of the specific techniques used in community policing programs. These programs are generally marked by the use of foot patrols to engage with citizens and establish a tangible presence, storefront police stations providing visibility and accessibility to the public, and the use of targeted police units designed to develop roots and tailor themselves to the specific communities they serve.
Like problem-oriented policing, community policing often requires a fundamental change in both the attitude and organization of police departments. As Dennis Nowicki (1997) points out, these changes are often difficult to implement consistently. The empowerment need by individual officers to adapt to individual situations within their community "clearly runs counter to the paramilitary structure of police agencies" (Nowicki, 1997, p. 365). In addition, the establishment of close ties between communities…
How, then, does zero-tolerance policing compare to these other approaches? It depends largely on how zero-tolerance policing is practiced and what end it serves. Some see zero-tolerance as "zero thinking" and diametrically opposed to both the spirit and practice of problem-oriented approaches (Nowicki, 1997, p. 366). Its law-based focus and its rigidity do seem to run counter to the openness and flexibility necessary to problem-oriented and community policing. However, others see zero-tolerance as essentially a problem-oriented approach in that it was designed with a problem-solving end in mind and not just as a theoretical approach (Kelling & Bratton, 1998).
Even if zero-tolerance policing is used in the service of problem-solving, however, its organizational structure prevents it from being a true problem-oriented or community approach. Problem-oriented and community centered policing must be characterized by active and vibrant partnerships between citizens and police. As Judith Greene put it in her argument against zero-tolerance, problem-oriented and community approaches seek to join "community policing and community participation" in a way that zero-tolerance policing cannot allow (Greene, 1999, p. 326).
Each of these methods of policing has its strengths and weaknesses. Zero-tolerance can be very effective, as seen in the case of the NYPD, and its clearly-delineated goals and strategies make it relatively easy to implement consistently. Problem-oriented policing benefits from its broadness of approach and its commitment to creating long-lasting solutions, but its definition as a "state of mind" does not give clear guidelines on how to put this commitment into practice. Community policing has the problem-solving approach but seeks to create specific techniques for implementing these approaches into the communities. Perhaps the ideal type of policing incorporates the best of all three approaches, and is still waiting to be developed.
This is because inorganic evidence is mostly based upon running the data through an a central database like the FBI's CODIS to see if there is a match (Schoester, 2006, 31-42)
The Strengths/eaknesses of Inorganic Evidence
A major strength of this type of evidence is it involves the physical collection of crime scene evidence. Evidences such as broken furniture or windows or are picked that is able to be positively identified in court. Inorganic evidence is also effective in solving a criminal case than organic evidence. This is due to the fact that inorganic evidence is based upon an individual's judgment to make it possible to eliminate possibilities give a crime investigator a chance to be more in touch with the crime scene. Such judgment is vital when dealing with a crime scene in the initial stages of an investigation where possibilities need to be narrowed down (Brown & Davenport, 2011,…
Brown, T., & Davenport, J. (2011). Forensic science: Advanced investigations. Belmont, CA: Cengage.
Maithil, B.P. (2008). Chemical, physical and biological microtraces: Unnoticed vital evidentiary clues in crime investigations. The Indian Police Journal, 15(1), 23-31.
Schoester, M.V. (2006). Forensics in law enforcement. New York, NY: Nova Science Pub Inc.
The Scanning Analysis esponse Assessment (SAA) Model of problem-oriented policing is an effective guide that essentially takes the form of "action research" in the sense that police participate in the problem-identifying/problem-solving method of investigation and testing (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2016). SAA can therefore be applied in a realistic setting with positive impact, thus meeting the need for police officers to take a structured approach to problem solving and delivering solutions.
This paper discusses the components of the SAA model, how the Crime Triangle works (according to outine Activities Theory), and how to focus on an outcome-based approach.
Crime is still a problem in the streets, even if crime rates are falling (Levitt, 2004). In many communities across the country heroin usage has exploded in recent years. One way to crack down on illegal drug use and drug trading is to employ the SAA model.
The SAA model can be employed…
Grafton, L. (2008). Law enforcement expert discusses differences between criminal and racial profiling. Shreveport Times. Retrieved from http://archive.shreveporttimes.com/article/99999999/NEWS01/801200303/Law-enforcement-expert-discusses-differences-between-criminal-racial-profiling
Irwin, A. (2008). Risk, Science and Public Communication. Handbook of Public
Communication of Science and Technology. NY: Routledge.
Levitt, S. (2004) Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s. Journal of Economic
Davila, A. Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and the Neoliberal City. (p. 27-58).
In his chapter, "Dream of Place and Housing Struggles," Davila makes the point that growing numbers of Latinos are recognizing the need for collective action in the face of increasing threats to their communities from gentrification. Further exacerbating the process has been declining levels of federal and state housing assistance that has made it even more difficult for this population group to secure and maintain adequate low-cost housing, especially in communities where property values are being artificially inflated due to the influx of more affluent mainstream Americans. For instance Davila emphasizes that, "Rents are rapidly increasing, and buildings that a decade ago would have been abandoned or sold cheaply are being coveted by nonprofit investors and private speculators alike" (p. 28).
The implications of these trends on the Latino community in these urban communities have included growing numbers of residents seeking…
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
esearch Design and Methodology
Organization of the Study
Chapter 2: eview…
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot
Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot to…
AMR Research (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
AMR Research-1 (2003) - the Aha Moment Arrives Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
CapGemini (2003) - TRANSFORMING the SHOPPING EXPERIENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY, a Study in European Consumer Buying Behaviour. Accessed from the Internet on November 6, 2007 from location: http://www.no.capgemini.com/m/no/tl/pdf_Transforming_The_Shopping_Experience_Through_Technology__A_Study_in_European_Consumer_Buying_Behaviour_.pdf
The author of this report has been asked to respond to a number of scenarios. In each case, there is a question of who is responsible for a negative event happening given a certain set of circumstances. The blame will be assigned based on a percentage basis with the grand total fo the percentage adding up to a hundred percent collectively. There are five scenarios in total and they grow in complexity from one to the next. It was clear straight away the point that was being made and the "gray" areas that exist with some incidents. However, no gray areas exist when it comes to domestic violence. While there is a variety of ways in which situations can escalate and grow in severity, domestic violence is domestic violence and it takes on many forms.
The first scenario speaks of a man who bought a pair of slack at JC…
Kane, G. (1996). 'Stealing' from dealers is a murky legal area. tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2006-06-21/news/0606210210_1_drugs-and-money-taking-drugs-stealing
Norris, S. (2015). Stop blaming drunk rape victims and start teaching people about consent. The Independent. Retrieved 11 October 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/stop-blaming-drunk-rape-victims-and-start-teaching-people-about-consent-10301185.html
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become a…
Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.
Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.
Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early 90s to the modern…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Cracking the Code
The contemporary issue of physical security/IT security
Modern day businesses and organizations face the contemporary issue of physical security/IT security. Whether a business needs to maintain network security for a website or server, or an organization needs to restrict access to a server room, there are several aspects facing the problem of dealing with IT security. Any general computer networking instructor teaches the DOD and/or OSI networking models and from this IT professionals understand that everything start from the bottom, like with the physical level. Therefore, IT professionals tasked to handle IT security, must base their foundation or overall strategy in IT security management on the physical security of software, hardware, and equipment.
Some organizations forget the importance of physical security in an IT security setting may become distracted by the safeguarding features of certain software-based security merchandise and overlook the significance of protecting the network and all its components…
Armknecht, F., Maes, R., Sadeghi, A., Standaert, F., & Wachsmann, C. (2011). A Formalization of the Security Features of Physical Functions. Security and Privacy (SP), 2011 IEEE Symposium, 397. doi:10.1109/SP.2011.10
Chung, K., Boutaba, R., & Hariri, S. (2014). Recent Trends in Digital Convergence Information System. Wireless Pers Commun, 79(4), 2409-2413. Doi: 10.1007/s11277-014-2182-4
Jaferian, P., Hawkey, K., Sotirakopoulos, A., Velez-Rojas, M., & Beznosov, K. (2014). Heuristics for Evaluating IT Security Management Tools. Human -- Computer Interaction, 29(4), 311-350. doi:10.1080/07370024.2013.819198
Li, Z., Cheng, L., Zhang, H., & Tong, W. (2013). Communication and Cyber Security Analysis of Advanced Metering Infrastructure of Smart Grid. AMM, 325-326, 637-642. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.325-326.637
4). Moreover, citizenship should include, as a fundamental right -- in this concept of citizenship -- the right to participation itself. The right to participation affords social rights, as individuals cannot realize social rights without first exercising rights to participation.
Gaventa then goes on to discuss the different meanings and expressions of rights and citizenship. Sometimes, he writes, where citizenship is "universally assured," it's often not realized by the poorest of the poor (p. 6). More generally, ethnic, religious, geographic, and gender identities often frame the meanings and expressions of citizenship. Citizenship is also mediated by a "culture of privilege and patronage," as well as gender and social status. New theories in citizenship must be explored to overcome these problems (p. 6).
Apart from the different forms that citizenship takes across the globe, traditional boundaries between the state, civil society and the private sector are becoming increasingly ambiguous, necessitating a reframing…
Arnstein, Sherry R. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. AIP Journal, July 1969, 216-224.
Cornwall, Andrea & Gaventa, John. (2001). Bridging the Gap: Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. PLA Notes, 40, 32-35.
Gaventa, John. (2002). Exploring Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. IDS Bulletin,
However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail entirely to grasp drug problems as a real medical issue and therefore throw out medical treatment over punitive punishment, (Nadelmann 2007). Not to mention many of these programs go only so far, failing to provide the support and structure many drug addicts need in order to get themselves clean. Much research has shown that more intensive inpatient programs prove more successful than less regulation programs (McKay et al. 1997). herefore, ineffective drug treatment programs within prison walls are failing to truly encapsulate the addict as a means of supporting their efforts to get clean.
One other major solution that is currently being used in many states is the enactment of a drug court to handle specific drug cases. his court can…
This piece shows both favoritism and opposition for mandatory minimum jail sentencing for drug offenders, however does so not from the viewpoint of looking at addiction as a disease, but rather as a limitation on judicial discretion. While many are supportive of minimum sentencing requirements based on the idea that it is the most powerful weapon against the current war on drugs, others believe it to be restricting when looking at individual cases. Overall, many believe that it should be up to the individual judge and the individual case circumstance which determines the nature of punitive punishment in U.S. courts.
Washington Post. (1994). Low-level drug offenders fill one-fifth of prison space. Washington Post. February 5, 1994.
Astounding numbers of drug offenders fill our nation's prisons. This article uses statistics from the 1990s, an era of a crack epidemic, to show exactly how filled the prison system is with low-level and nonviolent addicts who essentially need medical treatment and not prison time.
To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.
Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.
In that regard, directed police patrols and crackdowns…
In addition, research shows that arrests actually dropped in San Diego after implementing COP policies, and even more dramatic, citizen complaints against police officers dropped, as well. Thus, COP activities seem to be more citizen-friendly than zero-tolerance policies, and they seem to bring dramatic drops in crime, as well.
Problem-oriented policing targets specific problem areas of crime, such as drug-trafficking neighborhoods or youth-oriented crimes. This type of policing strives to understand why crimes are occurring, and get to the root of the crime problem in specific areas. In Boston in the 1990s, youth-oriented homicide was a growing problem, and the city developed a POP program to address it. Called the "Boston Gun Project," the project targeted youth aged 24 and under, and it researched why there was a gun problem with youth in Boston, and then developed intervention and evaluating the impact of the intervention. It involved many different law…
Braga, a.A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J. And Piehl, a.M. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston's operation ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 38 No. 3, 195-225.
Eck, J.E. And Spelman, W. (1987). Who ya gonna call? The police as problem-busters. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 33, No. 1, 31-52.
Greene, J.A., Kelling, G.L. And Bratton, W.J. (1998). Should zero-tolerance/broken windows policing be encouraged? Issue 16. 306-328.
Lurigio, a.J. And Rosenbaum, D.P. (?) the impact of community policing on police personnel. Police Organizational Reform. 149-153.
By using these and other examples such as underman's use of the "Gold Box" in the TV commercials for Columbia Record Club, Gladwell drives home the point that the Stickiness Factor can help create and tip an action trend in favor of envisaged goals. As he points out, "e all want to believe that the key to making an impact...lies with the inherent quality of the ideas we present. But in none of these cases did anyone substantially alter the content of what they were saying. Instead, they tipped the message by tinkering...." (p. 131)
Gladwell brings out the importance of small, but significant, detail in addressing the Power of Context as well, which he says is important because epidemics are sensitive to environmental conditions and circumstances (p.139). In fact, he theorizes that the factors, which worked in bringing about a reversal in New York City's horrific crime rate, were…
Gladwell, M. "The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference." New York: Little, brown and Company, 2001.
Sexual jealousy may be the main factor for couples aged 18 to 30, but couples in their 50s have established hitting and getting hit as habits, their way of dealing with stress and problems, their bond itself. People wonder and ask why the victim does not leave the abusive relationship. Experts say that it is never easy to do so because leaving costs a lot of money and the victim, often the woman, has no money of her own and has never worked. She does not feel she has much choice until she reaches the brink (The Daily).
Alksnis, C. And Taylor, J. (2003). Aggressive ehavior by Witnesses and/or Victims in Adulthood. Correctional Service of Canada. http://www.csc-scs.ca/text/pblct/fv/fv04/fv04/fv04e04_e.shtml
Cwik, MS. (1996). Why Does Wife Abuse Occur? MSA Review. http://users.aol.com/agunah/review.htm
Daily, The (2002). Impacts and Consequences of Spousal Violence. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020626/d02060.htm
Focus on the Family. (2004). The Impact of Family Violence on Children. Focus…
Alksnis, C. And Taylor, J. (2003). Aggressive Behavior by Witnesses and/or Victims in Adulthood. Correctional Service of Canada. http://www.csc-scs.ca/text/pblct/fv/fv04/fv04/fv04e04_e.shtml
Cwik, MS. (1996). Why Does Wife Abuse Occur? MSA Review. http://users.aol.com/agunah/review.htm
Daily, The (2002). Impacts and Consequences of Spousal Violence. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020626/d02060.htm
Focus on the Family. (2004). The Impact of Family Violence on Children. Focus Ministries, Inc. http://www.family.org/fmedia/misc/a0034023.cfm
Modern Situational Policing Philosophy and Operational Methodology:
Operational methodology in modern police administration ranges from the no- tolerance approach end of the spectrum to the community policing end of the spectrum.
Instituting the right operational methodology requires the flexibility to adapt to the local environment and the procedural mechanisms to evaluate successes and failures. Both systems have their advantages where conditions are conducive to their methods; neither works particularly well where it is reflects only administrative decisions without careful consideration of the operational environment (Nolan et al. 2005).
Generally, the no tolerance approach is a function of the so-called "broken windows" theory, according to which seemingly minor issues such as the lowest level violations and the cosmetic deterioration of physical property correspond to increased crimes of more serious nature (Ellison 2006). The idea of no tolerance means mandatory enforcement of quality-of-life violations such as loitering, leash law infractions, drinking alcohol in…
Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Hodges, K. Tracking "Bad Guys": Legal Considerations in Using GPS. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 76 No. 7 (Jul/07).
Nagosky, D.P. The Admissibility of Digital Photographs in Criminal Cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.12 (Dec/05).
This alternative essentially redistributes some of the power within the department in order to facilitate more successful service in individual communities. This clearly makes discretion appropriate based on the individual needs of the community. Police Chiefs need to develop "new concepts to better satisfy the demands and needs of the citizens they serve," and as such, may have to use discretion in how the approach and interact with unique communities as they encounter them (Meese, 1993, p 1). Discretion on behalf of a police chief allows for greater success in implementing community policing methods.
Police chiefs also find themselves using various types of administrative discretion as well in regards to how they operate their police department and the officers in the field under them. A police chief's administrative discretion could even influence the discretionary actions of other officers in the field. For example, in 2010, a police chief in the…
Daily Mail Reporter. (2010). Police chief tells officers: Don't follow the rules…use your common sense! Mail Online. Web. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1297074/Police-chief-tells-officers-Dont-follow-rules -- use-common-sense.html
Diamond, Drew & Mead Weiss, Deirdre. (2005). Community Policing: Looking to Tomorrow. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e050920207-CommPolicing_Looking2Tomorrow.pdf
Fridell, Lorie & Wycott, Mary Ann. (2004). Community Policing: The Past, Present, and Future. Police Executive Research Forum.
Kelling, George L. (1999). Broken Windows and Police Discretion: National Institute of Justice Research Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://petermoskos.com/readings/Kelling_1999-Broken_Windows_and_police_discretion.pdf
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Cracking the Code The contemporary issue of physical security/IT security Modern day businesses and organizations face the contemporary issue of physical security/IT security. Whether a business needs to maintain network security…Read Full Paper ❯
4). Moreover, citizenship should include, as a fundamental right -- in this concept of citizenship -- the right to participation itself. The right to participation affords social rights,…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States…Read Full Paper ❯
To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts.…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition, research shows that arrests actually dropped in San Diego after implementing COP policies, and even more dramatic, citizen complaints against police officers dropped, as well. Thus,…Read Full Paper ❯
By using these and other examples such as underman's use of the "Gold Box" in the TV commercials for Columbia Record Club, Gladwell drives home the point that…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Sexual jealousy may be the main factor for couples aged 18 to 30, but couples in their 50s have established hitting and getting hit as habits, their way…Read Full Paper ❯
Police Administrators Modern Situational Policing Philosophy and Operational Methodology: Operational methodology in modern police administration ranges from the no- tolerance approach end of the spectrum to the community policing end…Read Full Paper ❯
This alternative essentially redistributes some of the power within the department in order to facilitate more successful service in individual communities. This clearly makes discretion appropriate based on…Read Full Paper ❯